Chemical and Biochemical Engineering Department

PFD study of the Production of Isopropyl Alcohol.


Matric no. A130043 A130463 A130473 A129780 A127653

The withdrawn bottoms is the divided into two portions: a first portion is recycled to the absorber. It is withdrawn from the absorbing zone. and the second such portion is mixed with sufficient water to hydrate absorbed olefin values and the resulting mixture is fed to an alcohol generator for formation of isopropyl alcohol as overhead product and dilute Sulphuric acid as bottoms product. . An improved process for indirect hydration of propylene to form Diisopropyl Ether and Isopropyl Alcohol is provided in which propylene is absorbed in Sulphuric acid to form an extract. While the resulting mixture is passed to an ether generating zone to form a vaporous ether product and a bottoms product depleted in Diisopropyl Ether containing Sulphuric acid in a concentration at least equal to the acid concentration in the extract withdrawn from the absorbing zone. water in carefully controlled amounts is mixed with the extract.ABSTRACT The objective of the report is to study the process of production of isopropyl alcohol by using indirect hydration method.

3 Production of IPA 1.1 Physical properties of IPA 1.2 Chemical properties of IPA 1.TABLE OF CONTENT No.4 Uses and application of IPA 1.6 Isopropyl Alcohol nowadays Process Flow Diagram (PFD) 2. 1 Item Introduction 1.3 Description of process flow diagram of production of IPA Conclusions References Page 2 2 3 5 7 7 2 8 9 11 15 17 3 4 .2 Process Flow Diagram of production of IPA 2.1 Block diagram of production of Isopropyl alcohol 2.5 Health and Safety Factor 1.

1. Except for the production of acetone. Zn. Physical Properties of IPA Some of the physical properties of isopropyl alcohol are it is colorless liquid at room temperature. IPA may undergo dehydrogenation process. 1. have strong rubbing alcohol odor.1. or any of several other inorganic salts.7854g/cm3 whereas the 91% vol IPA have a density of 0. 2propanol and rubbing alcohol. Dehydrogenation of isopropyl alcohol to acetone was the most widely practiced production method in industry.8173 g/cm3. This is due to solubility of this alcohol in saline which is less compared to its solubility in salt-free water. potassium chloride.50C. This reaction is endothermic reaction means it absorbs about 66. It is the simplest example of a secondary alcohol which the hydroxyl group (OH-) is attached to a carbon atom that is also attached to two other carbon atoms sometimes shown as (CH3)2CHOH. Besides.5kJ/mol of heat and occurs at temperature range between 300-5000C. The most useful catalyst contains Cu. Some of the chemical property of this alcohol is it can be separated from its aqueous solutions by adding a salt such as sodium chloride. Chemical properties of IPA Chemical properties of isopropyl alcohol are determined by its functional hydroxyl group in the secondary position. it is a structural isomer of propanol and in industry. miscible in water. most isopropyl alcohol chemistry involves the introduction of the isopropyl or isopropoxy group into other organic molecules by the breaking of the C–OH or the O–H bonding the isopropyl alcohol molecule.2. the isopropyl alcohol is well known as IPA.INTRODUCTION The IUPAC name for chemical compound with the molecular formula of C3H8O is propan-2-ol. The melting point of this chemical compound is -890C whereas the boiling point is 82.09 g mol−1. Cr. soluble in some organic solvent but insoluble in salt solution and it is also fairly volatile (evaporates easily). isopropanol. Isopropyl alcohol undergoes reactions typical of an active secondary alcohol. Besides. The balance chemical equation of the dehydrogenation process: . Other common names for this compound are isopropyl alcohol. and Ni as oxides can be used to increase the reaction rate. the molar mass is approximately 60. Anhydrous IPA has density about 0.

under appropriate conditions. this reaction temperature is about 650C. ZnO. sulfuric acid. many methods can be carried out to produce isopropyl alcohol. NaOH). the most beneficial way usually being performed to produce isopropyl alcohol in large amount is by hydration process.5O2 → CH3COCH3 + H2O acetone Furthermore IPA reacts with active metal such as potassium to form alkoxides. or in the vapor phase over acidic aluminas to give diisopropyl ether. 2-halopropane derivatives are prepared from isopropyl alcohol most economically by reaction with the corresponding acid halide. Other technique is by the addition of Grignard Reagent to carbonyl compound. This reaction is known as etherification. The hydrolysis of haloalkanes is one of the examples. 3(CH3)2CHOH + PBr3 → (CH3)2CHBr + H3PO3 2-halopropane 1. But chemically. The product of this reaction is secondary alcohol and halide ion in this case the isopropyl alcohol and bromide ion. IPA also undergoes halogenation chemical reaction with halogen compound. other reagents. eg.Production of IPA In industry. secondary alcohol can be catalytically oxidized using air or oxygen at high temperature (400−600◦C) to form respectively ketone and water. Next. The preferred catalyst for this reaction is zinc chloride.3. Normally. The oxidation process is highly exothermic which means this reaction releases large amount of energy usually in the form of heat (CH3)2CHOH + 0. In general.100-200kPa (CH3)2CHOH → CH3COCH3 + H2 Chemically. Normally. However. phosphorus halides and elemental halogen also react by replacement of the hydroxyl group to give the halide. Here. isopropyl alcohol can be dehydrated in either the liquid phase over acidic catalysts. hydration reaction is a chemical reaction in which a hydroxyl group (OH-) and a hydrogen cation are added to the . when isopropyl alcohol undergoes oxidation process. the product is acetone. This haloalkane is than being reacted with an aqueous solution of base or alkali (e. a secondary haloalkane is used for instance 2-bromopropane. Here.g: sodium hydroxide. eg.

solid hydration catalyst. Since the addition of sulphuric acid or water to propene follow Markovnikov’s rule which state that when a molecule HX is added across a carbon-carbon double bond. this process give propan-2-ol as the main product rather than 1-propanol that will be the side product. The chemical reactions occur is represented by balanced chemical equation: CH3CH=CH2 + H2SO4 → (CH3)2CHOSO3H Isopropyl hydrogen sulphate (CH3)2CHOSO3 + CH3CH=CH2 → ((CH3)2CH)2SO2 diisopropyl sulfate And the final stage is the hydrolysis of these esters to produces isopropyl alcohol. In order to obtain isopropyl alcohol as the major product. First stage is the process of reacting propene with sulphuric acid to form a mixture of sulphate esters named isopropyl hydrogen sulphate and diisopropyl sulfate. preferably a cation exchange resin catalyst. an alkene called propene is used.two carbon atoms bonded together in the carbon-carbon double bond which makes up an alkene functional group. The hydrolysis process occurs in which a certain molecule is split into two parts by the addition of . usually below 70°C. It can be said that the sulphuric acid will be functioning as catalyst. This is the most common route to produce IPA. There are two processes to produce isopropyl alcohol by combining water and propene. The esterification of propene with sulphuric acid is conducted in apparatus called absorber and takes place at low temperature. The catalyst is used to increase the rate of reaction but the catalyst itself do not consumed in the reaction. the hydrogen ion from HX will joins to the carbon atom which is already has the more hydrogen atoms attached to it. This process requires high-quality propene than is represented by simple chemical equation follow: CH3CH=CH2 + H2O ↔ CH3CH(OH)CH3 Second method is indirect hydration with sulfuric acid. This process is corrosive and is energy demanding for acid re-concentration and aqueous waste treatment. The alkene is hydrated to alcohols by a two stage process. One is direct hydration by reacting propene-containing hydrocarbon stream with water either in gas or liquid phases at high pressures with the presence of a strongly heterogeneous polymeric acid.

a molecule of water. Isopropyl alcohol is consumed as a direct solvent for half of its production in the world. isopropylamine.4. Both direct and indirect hydration reaction processes require that the isopropyl alcohol be separated from water and other side products by distillation. The use of diisopropyl ether as a fuel ether may become significant outlet for isopropyl alcohol. It has many applications in our daily lives. IPA is widely use as an antiseptic medication due to the quickly-evaporate properties of this compound. 1. CH3CH(OSO3H)CH3 + (CH3)2CH(OSO3)CH(CH3)2 + 2H2O → 2H2SO4 This complex process is known as ‘strong-acid processes’ and to obtain the product. Isopropyl alcohol is also consumed in the production of other chemicals such as methyl ketone. lower-boiling azeotrope that is heterogeneous.Uses and application of IPA Light branched alcohols are produced by the addition of alkene or olefin and water under an acid catalyst. lowquality propene can be used. This alcohol 3CH3CH(OH)CH3 + . Azeotropic distillation refers to the specific technique of adding another component to generate a new. Here. and isopropyl acetate. the addition of water to the mixture of isopropyl sulphate and diisopropyl sulfate yield IPA and sulphuric acids respectively. The machine in which the hydrolysis process is conducted is known as hydrolyzers.1% by weight water. Additional valuable application is in pharmaceutical industry. As with the direct hydration method. The use of isopropyl alcohol as a feedstock for the production of acetone is expected to remain stable. Isopropyl alcohol and water form an azeotrope and simple distillation gives a material which is 87. Azeotrope is a mixture of two or more liquids in such a ratio that its composition cannot be changed by simple distillation. This alcohol is mainly use as antifreeze or a solvent. Pure isopropyl alcohol is made by azeotropic distillation of the "wet" isopropyl alcohol using either diisopropyl ether or cyclohexane as azeotroping agents. as the dominant process for acetone is cumene oxidation. some byproducts are either being recycle or set aside.9% by weight isopropyl alcohol and 12.

shellac solvent and drying inks. once the isopropyl alcohol evaporates. In building construction field as well as in agriculture. makeup removers. isopropyl alcohol also has its own uses. The acetone formed from isopropyl is commonly used to remove nail polish and other paints. floor detergents. the isopropyl alcohol is widely used as pesticides. remove stain as a result from permanent marker and can be use to wipe CDs or DVDs to remove stains and smudges without harming data. In cosmetics applications. Isoproyl alcohol forms many important compounds used to create wood finish. The adjuvant mixes with pesticide without changing any chemical properties. shoe polishes. . In plantation industry. nail polishes. paints. window cleaners. such as acetone. Agricultural business uses IPA as a great compound to kill unwanted insects and parasites by using it as an adjuvant. Shellacs give wood a smoother and darker look. automotive products and fabric-wrinkle remover are commonly used every day. the acetone-like odor of IPA is masked by the addition of fragrance. waxes and polishes. the wounded area is again open to infection and disease. The actual shellac comes in flakes that need to dissolve in a denatured alcohol such as isopropyl. Isopropyl alcohol is also employed widely as a solvent for cosmetics for examples lotions.temporarily sterilizing wounds and the areas around it. perfumes. Aerosol that contain isopropyl alcohol solvent formulation include hair sprays. often more desirable than lighter colors. skin cleaners. deodorants and body oils. An adjuvant in agricultural pesticides and herbicides is a solution added to help the pesticide spread evenly across the plant or slow the uptake of the chemical this is because some plants may not be able to absorb enough pure pesticide before it evaporates. In construction field. shampoos. from mirrors or glass. such as hair spray. Other daily uses of isopropyl alcohol is it works great at removing any sticky residue.

Price targets for remaining November IPA shipments remained at $1. Therefore. one of the companies that manufacture and distribute isopropyl alcohol in Malaysia is Geo Chem Trading located in Penang Port. lab coats and aprons. Since IPA is highly flammable with a wide range of combustibility. There is some safety procedures should be take into consideration while working with IPA. Other products available are recycled solvent. The alcohol produces anesthetic in high vapor concentration. anesthesia.050/tonne Council of Foreign Relation Asia although trade was limited particularly in China as sellers and buyers kept to the sidelines. Isopropyl alcohol can explode if it is mixed with excessive air or other oxidizer through deflagration since these agent support combustion. ignition sources and incompatibles. Use of alcohol in industrial application does not present a health hazard. Deffating is a skin condition similar to inflammation of the skin resulting from the chronic exposure of human skin to alcohols. while handling the pure IPA in the laboratory. the Asian Market review shows that the price of IPA has rose by 5% compared to its price in mid-April. Butterworth Penang. IPA is about twice as toxic as ethyl alcohol but less toxic than methyl alcohol. Toxic doses of ingested IPA usually as rubbing alcohol may produce narcosis. acetone.Isopropyl Alcohol nowadays Asian isopropanol (IPA) spot prices rose $10-20/tonne across the region. xylene and many more. It is from $1200/tonne to $1240/tonne. when the isopropyl alcohol is in contact with human skin for a long period. coma and death. . 1.6. Operating with the brand name ‘Recycled IPA’. open flame. it should be kept away from heat.020-1. toluene. chemical solvent and motor oil. Like many other organic solvents.1. In early May 2010. appropriate protective clothing should be wear such as gloves.Health and Safety Factor Alcohols as a class have low toxicity. defatting can occur.5. detergents. supported by the rebound in upstream crude values and firm feedstock propylene values during the week.

In chemical or biochemical industries.Block diagram of the production of Isopropyl Alcohol The block diagram is the simplest form to show the production of some material.1. INPUT (RAW MATERIAL) -SULPHURIC ACIDS .PROCESS FLOW DIAGRAM 2. the block diagram shows the first impression of the production of some agent or products. The figure 1 below shows the block diagram of production of Isopropyl Alcohol or IPA by indirect hydrolysis process.PROPYLENE GAS REACTION OF SULPHURIC ACID WITH PROPYLENE UNABSORBED PROPELYNE GASRECYCLED MIXER CHAMBERWATER FEED FLASH ZONE SEPARATION MIXING CHAMBERWATER FEED ACID RECONCENTRATION -RECYCLED IPA GENERATION DISTILLATION COLUMN -ETHER COLUMN -DRIYING COLUMN OUTPUT -DIISOPROPYL ETHER -ISOPROPYL ALCOHOL IN CDM AND ANHYDROUS Figure 1-block diagram of isopropyl alcohol .

it will face to hydrolysis process with water to produce certain amount of IPA with the by-product of Diiisopropyl Ether. Noted that the process flow diagram is the indirect hydrolysis of Isopropyl Alcohol production. it will react and producing and extract mixture called Isopropyl Sulphuric Ester in certain condition. The detail of the production of IPA will be explain in the Process Flow Diagram. The product of IPA and Diisopropyl Ether will be undergo a distillation process.Based on the figure1 above. The acids that is separate will be reconcentrated and recycled as raw materials. the IPA generation will separate the mixture of liquid from the second mixing chamber. Next.2.Process flow diagram of production of Isopropyl Alcohol The Process Flow Diagram (PFD) of the production of Isopropyl alcohol is shown in figure 2. The flash zone is called as the separator that will separate the product in gases and liquids. . After that. 2. the crude IPA will be distillate and produces the anhydrous IPA as the final product of process. After that. The gas contains some concentration of IPA and Diisopropyl Ether while the depleted liquid is consisting of some mixture of Propelyene and also Sulphuric Acids. it shows that the raw materials that will be used are the Sulphuric acids and the propyelene gas. In the distillation process. Then. it will undergo the second hydrolysis in the second mixing chamber with water to produce some ratio of IPA and the by-product of Ether.


PP may be obtained from various sources such as destructive distillation of carbonaceous materials. Water is added in an amount from about 1. 4. . it shows the summary of the production of Isopropyl Alcohol that be used in some of other company nowadays. 2. 1.2. Unabsorbed gases. Concentrated sulphuric acid from about 60 to 70 wt% feed stream 1 mixes with stream 2 in the absorber C100. isopropyl alcohol from about 10 to 45 wt%. Absorbed propylene values refer to all molecules in the liquid which contain propyl (C3H7). and propylene (C3H6) moieties such as propyl ester.3. and diisopropyl ether from about 3 to 6 wt%. The extract liquid is withdrawn from the bottom portion of absorber via Stream 3 to the mixer M100. Next. from about 10 to 40 wt% of absorbed propylene values and the balance water. While at the lower portion of column. stream 3 mixes stream 7 which feed with water. propylene are withdrawn and being compressed by C100 from the upper portion of the absorber to the propylene column C104 via stream 4. 3. based on the weight of absorbed propylene values in the extract liquid to provide the moles of water stoichiometrically required to form the amount of diisopropyl ether and isopropyl alcohol withdrawn as vapor in the flash vessel C101. In the propylene column C104. An extract liquid is formed in the absorber C100 comprising from about 40 to 65 wt% of sulphuric acid. Below are the briefly explanation and description regarding the production of IPA by indirect hydrolysis based on the process flow diagram. In the mixer M100. in figure2 it shows the Process flow diagram of production of IPA in the chemical or biochemical plant in the industries.Description of Process flow diagram of Isopropyl Alcohol In figure 1. propylene is refined to get recovered propylene and send back via stream 5 into stream 2 to be recirculated into the absorber. propane is withdrawn through stream 6. Stream 2 feed with 45 wt% of propylene gases (PP). but particularly from the cracking of petroleum hydrocarbon. Absorber C100 is operated at a pressure from about 150 to 300 psig and a temperature within the range 85 to 1150C.5 to 6 wt% water.

compressed via stream 17 into scrubber C103. 6. and propylene from about 10 to 20 wt%. the depleted extract mixes stream 13 which feed with water. 8. the overhead vapor is withdrawn and being compressed by C101 via stream 10 comprising diisipropyl ether from about 30 to 50 wt%. From flash vessel. . Flash vessel C101 is operated at a temperature range between 80 to 1600C and a pressure from about 5 to 10 psig. mixer M101. as by means of direct injection of steam via stream 15. In the mixer M101. Alcohol generator C102 generally operated at a bottoms temperature of from about 70 to 1300C and a bottoms pressure from about 1 to 50 psig. alcohol vapors are formed as overhead product and withdrawn. In this generator. A control valve V100 is used to increase or decrease the liquid split ratio of mass flow rate of liquid in stream 11 and mass flow rate of liquid in stream 12. Liquid which is withdrawn from the flash vessel via stream 9 comprises the depleted extract contains absorbed propylene values from about 5 to 35 wt%. sulphuric acid from about 45 to 65 wt% and balance water. 7. The resulting aqueous mixture in mixer is send through stream 14 to alcohol generator C102 to be heated. This portion comprises from about 40 to 60 wt% of the total depleted extract. This valve is used to control diisopropyl ether and isopropyl alcohol production. isopropyl alcohol from about 30 to 40 wt%. The liquid residence time in water mixing zone ranges from about 1 to 30 minutes. The resulting mixture in the M100 is piped to flash vessel C101 via stream 8. A first portion is send via stream 11 and 1 and through pump P100 to the absorber C100 as recycle. Depleted extract is divided into two portions. The amount of water feed is from about 35 to 100 parts by weight of water per part by weight of absorbed propylene values in the depleted extract.5. The second portion which is from the remaining depleted extract is send via stream 12 to the second water mixing zone.

NaOH is used to neutralized the mixture of alcohol vapor and sulphuric acid and feed via stream 18. it enter decanter F101 via stream 27 to separate the layers into a virtually water-free upper layer and lower layer containing the residual water. diisopropyl ether is withdrawn via stream 21 to the diisopropyl column C109. ternary azeotrope is formed. Azeotroping agent is fed near the top of column C106 via stream 23 which is produce in drying column C107.The vapors in stream 17 comprise isopropyl alcohol.8 wt% is removed from the lower part of column C107 via stream 29. 9. The upper layers in this tank which is mainly azeotroping agent and alcohol. In drying column C107. The crude alcohol product at 55% IPA is withdrawn from the lower part of scrubber C103 via stream 19 to crude isopropyl alcohol tank F100. Scrubber is operated at a temperature of 373 K and a pressure of 14. Sulphuric acid from about 45 to 55 wt% is withdrawn from the lower portion of alcohol generator through stream 16 to the acid concentrator.7 psi. diisopropyl ether and minor amount of propylene and water. In this column distillation process will take place to separate diisopropyl ether and hexene. The latter concentrates at the head of column in a concentration of about 60%. which is operated at a pressure of 14. the mixture is send to the ether column C105 via stream 20 which is operated at a temperature of 362 K and a pressure of 14. is return to the top of the column C107 as reflux via stream 28. is piped via stream 26 into condenser. so that after liquefaction of the vapots in condenser. CBM or azeotropic isopropyl alcohol at 87 wt% is withdrawn from upper part of alcohol column via stream 24 as a product while water is withdrawn from bottom of column via stream 25. . The overhead product.%. The product in the stream 17 and 10 mixes in scrubber C103 to be neutralized using sodium hydroxide. 10. it is washed to produce washed diisopropyl ether at 95 wt. From this tank.% NaOH.7 psi.7 psi and a temperature of 347 K. While anhydrous isopropyl alcohol at 99. NaOH at concentration 10 wt. 11. Wet isopropyl alcohol from lower part of ether column C105 is extract via stream 22 and feed into alcohol column C106 which is operated at a pressure from about 3 to 7 atmospheres. Then.

The lower layer in the decanter is mostly water. It is fed into stripping column C108 which is operated at a temperature 466K and a pressure 155 psi via stream 30 for recovery of isopropyl alcohol and azeotroping agent.12. . This product is send back into column C107 via stream 31 and waste the water at stream 32.

a de-icing agent and a preservative. inks. A solvent for many oils. alkaloids. reagents and as a processing solvent in the production of resins. glycerol and isopropyl acetate. Subsequent hydrolysis of these esters produces isopropyl alcohol. 2-propanol and sec-propyl alcohol. a preservative.CONCLUSION Isopropyl alcohol is a flammable. rubbing alcohol. Use of IPA in direct solvent applications accounted for 62% of total IPA demand in 2008. gums and resins. it also serves as a deicing agent for liquid fuels. The indirect process reacts propene with sulfuric acid to form a mixture of sulfate esters. The chemical compound is used in extraction processes. Other applications include its use as a cleaning and drying agent in the manufacture of electronic parts and metals. Common names for it include IPA. It can also be used as a coolant in beer manufacture. pesticide formulations.5% during 2008–2013. Direct hydration reacts propene and water. the acetone market has been tight as a result of its co product phenol’s decreased demand (and hence production). colorless liquid with a slightly pleasant odor. as a dehydrating agent. either in gas or liquid phases. in lotions and as a laboratory reagent. at high pressures in the presence of solid or supported acidic catalysts. It is used in manufacturing acetone. global supply/demand was relatively balanced as demand decreased because of the weakened global economy. Global IPA-based acetone production is expected to decrease with the increase of phenol capacity (acetone is a coproduct of phenol by the cumene peroxidation process). a polymerization modifier. dimethyl carbinol. Worldwide IPA consumption is forecast to grow at an average annual rate of 1. and as an aerosol solvent in medical and veterinary products. IPA is used in the extraction and purification of natural products such as vegetable and animal oil and fats. In 2008. It is estimated that IPA-based acetone will no longer be produced in Western Europe after 2010. .0–1. IPA is also used in surface coatings. a coupling agent. electronic applications. isopropanol. As of late 2008/early 2009.

.This could lead to increased IPA consumption for competing applications. Its main usage as a chemical intermediate is growing. The future demand of IPA is expected to remain flat or to grow slightly. particularly chemical intermediates. Supply/demand and feedstock (propylene) costs have had and will continue to have the greatest effect on IPA pricing. and this should offset the pressure on use as a solvent from tighter volatile organic chemicals (VOC) regulations.

United States Patent Number 4471142. 3. Robert H.gov/SLTC/healthguidelines/isopropylalcohol/recognition. Burton. http://kinetronics. Occupational Safety and Health Guideline for Isopropyl Alcohol http://www.com/what-is-isopropyl-alcohol. McGraw Hill. Isopropyl alcohol from Wikipedia. (1984). 2. Perry’s Chemical Engineer’s Handbook. the free encyclopedia. Fakulti Kejuruteraan. Anis Bt. http://en. 7 th Edition 5.osha. Isopropanol general information.org/wiki/Isopropyl_alcohol 6.htm 7. (1992). Perry. Process for Producing Isopropyl Alcohol and Di-isopropyl Ether. http://chemicalland21. Kirk-Othmer Encyclopedia of Chemical Technology. Material Safety Data of Isopropyl Alcohol. Paul E. What is Isopropyl Alcohol? http://www. (1997).wikipedia. Jaafar. Inc.com/PLCMSDSData. John Wiley & Sons.com/petrochemical/isopropanol. Loji Penghasilan Isopropil Alkohol. 4.html .pdf 9.REFERENCES 1.htm 8. Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia.wisegeek.