#  Explain

briefly, how carbon is detected qualitatively
¾ Carbon compounds can be detected by

heating. The evolution of combustible Gases or charring or both indicate the presence of carbon.
 What

safety precautions should be observed in this experiment
¾ Don·t touch freshly cut sodium with your

bare hands ¾ Use a very low flame when heating sodium

 Calculate

the percentage of nitrogen in acetamide (C2H5ON). Draw it·s structural formula
Molecular wt. of C2H5ON = 59.07 g/mol Molar mass of N = 14.01 g/mol %N = 14.01 g/mol x 100 59.07 g/mol

= 23.72%

When

2.5g of a substance was dissolved in 125 g of water, the freezing point was lowered by .310. Calculate the molecular weight of the compound. (The molecular freezingpoint ²lowering constant for water is 1.86)

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Since most organic compounds do not form ions when dissolved in water due to their non-polar nature, another way is needed to identify the components of an unknown substance  This experiment shows a way of detecting the presence of Nitrogen, Sulfur and Halogens wherein
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SODIUM SALTS are formed
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These salts are ionic compounds that are detected qualitatively by the tests

Sodium Fusion
Clamp the 3-ince test tube Place the sodium metal Heat with a very low flame Add 5 mg of the substance Heat for 30 seconds Cool to room temperature Add 1 mL ethanol Transfer contents to a beaker Label filtrate ´TEST SOLUTIONµ

After the ethanol was added, bubbles started to form  Ethanol destroys the excess sodium that did not participate in the fusion with the organic compound  This was also an exothermic reaction
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Organic compounds present are decomposed - Soluble sodium salts of the above elements form - Resulting ionic compounds are detected qualitatively by common tests.
Fusion

(C), (H), (O), (N), (S), (X) + Na

NaCN,NaOH,NaS,NaX

 Due

to the non-polar nature of organic compounds, N,X and S detection is difficult.  Organic compounds don·t ionize in solution into organic ions before making the qualitative tests.

Get 1 mL of the test substance Add DILUTE ACETIC ACID to make it acidic Add 1-2 drops of LEAD ACETATE
WHAT HAPPENED NEXT?

Nothing happened

After the lead acetate was added, nothing happened (black precipitate did not form)  Sulfur was not present in the sample
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Sodium sulfide is treated with Lead acetate, in the presence of acetic acid, and produces a brownish black precipitate (Lead sulfide)  Acetic acid prevents formation of other insoluble lead salts
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NaS + (CH3COO)2Pb

PbS + 2 CH3COONa

Get 2 mL of the test solution Add 4 drops of ferrous sulfate solution

YES

Is the solution basic?

NO

Heat to boiling and filter Acidify ² add sulfuric acid Add 2 drops of ferric chloride Leave for 10 minutes A precipitate of Prussion blue formed

Nothing happened

After the procedure was followed, nothing happened. Prussian blue precipitate did not form  Nitrogen was not present in the sample
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2 NaCN + FeSO4 Fe(CN)2 + Na2SO4 Fe(CN)2 + 4NaCN Na4Fe(CN)6 3 NaFe(CN)6 + 4FeCl3 Fe4[Fe(CN)6]3 + 12NaCl Sodium cyanide is converted to sodium ferrocyanide Na4Fe(CN)6 - When combined with ferric chloride in acid solution, it produces Prussian blue ferric ferrocyanide Fe4[Fe(CN)6]3
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Get 2 mL of the test solution Acidify with dilute nitric acid Is nitrogen or Sulfur is present?

NO

YES

Add 1 drop of 0.1 M silver nitrate solution Did precipitate form?

Boil until the volume is about 1 mL

YES

NO

What color was the precipitate?

No halogen present

WHITE
Chlorine is present

PALE YELLOW
Bromine is present

BRIGHT YELLOW
Iodine is present

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Heavy white precipitate formed indicating the presence of CHLORINE (silver chloride)

Dilute HNO3

NaX + AgNO3
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AgX + NaNO3

This test is done in order to detect presence of halides  Sodium halide (NaCl, NaBr, NaI) will form an insoluble silver halide upon treatment with silver nitrate solution in the presence of dilute nitric acid.

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Boiling the original test solution with dilute nitric acid is done in order to remove the cyanide and sulfide ions. These ions form precipitates that can interfere with the detection of the halogens. Silver halide gives a white to yellow color

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Silver chloride is color white  Bromide is pale yellow  Iodine is bright yellow
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Results show that only a heavy, white precipitate formed.  From this, it can be inferred that AgCl is present in the test solution
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Get 1 mL of the original test solution

Is nitrogen/sulfur present Use 2 mL and follow procedure for removing N/S

Add 1 mL of 3M sulfuric acid

Add 1 mL of methylene chloride Add one drop of stabilized NaOCl solution COLOR OF PRECIPITATE

PURPLE

REDDISH-BROWN

IODINE IS PRESENT

BROMINE IS PRESENT

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No precipitate formed

Heat copper wire until flame is no longer colored  While hot, dip in some copper oxide powder and reheat until CuO adheres to the loop  Place small amount of the original sample  Heat in a non-luminous flame  Blue green flame indicates the presence of Halogen
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(C),(H),(O),(N),(X),(S) + CuO

Cu2X2 + H2O + CO2 +N2

-This test detects the presence of halogens in the test sample - The copper oxide formed from the copper wire reacts with the halogen in the compound to form cuprous halide, which burns with a green flame.

Results show that a characteristic green flame was observed  From this, it can be inferred that a cuprous halide is present in the solution.
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Sodium should be heated with a low flame because it is a highly reactive substance. Therefore, heating it with an intense flame would increase reactivity and would burn or cause combustion easily. Also, it has a lower melting point and would cause charring of the substance.

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While testing the Lassaigne·s extract for the presence of halogens, it is first boiled with dilute nitric acid. This is done to decompose NaCN to HCN and Na2S to H2S and to expel these gases. That is, if any nitrogen and sulphur are present in the form of NaCN and Na2S, then they are removed. The chemical equations involved in the reaction are represented as

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Nitric acid is added before the silver nitrate and the solution is boiled so as to remove interfering ions such as sulfide, cyanide and carbonate ions. Otherwise, these will form precipitates (such as silver sulfide, silver cyanide and silver carbonate) that may be confused with the silver halides.

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Sodium Fusion
(C), (H), (O), (N), (S), (X) + Na NaCN,NaOH,NaS,NaX

Nitrogen

2 NaCN + FeSO4 Fe(CN)2 + Na2SO4 Fe(CN)2 + 4NaCN Na4Fe(CN)6 3 NaFe(CN)6 + 4FeCl3 Fe4[Fe(CN)6]3 + 12NaCl

Dilute HNO3

NaX + AgNO3

AgX + NaNO3

(C),(H),(O),(N),(X),(S) + CuO

Cu2X2 + H2O + CO2 +N2

NaS + (CH3COO)2Pb

PbS +2CH3COONa

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What is the purpose of adding acetic acid in the lead acetate?
¾ Acetic acid is added because through it,

formation of other insoluble lead salts can be prevented. ¾ Formation of these other insoluble lead salts can cause confusion when identifying the brownish black lead sulfide precipitate