# Chuyen d@11

:

UNG DVNG
,

eVA
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D~O HAM
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TINH DON DI~U CUA HAM SO Tom tit giao khoa
Dinh nghia: Cho ham sa

y

= f(x)

xac dinh tren khoang (a;b)

[fd5ng bien (tang) tren (a;b)]

~

[VX1'X2 E(a;b):x1 [Vxl'x2 E(a;b):x1
y

<x2 <x2

=> =>

!(X1)<!(X2)] !(x1»!(x2)]

[fnghich bien (giam) tren (a;b)] ~
y
f(x2) f(xl)

----------~~~_~
I I I I I

";
I I I I I

(C)·

.
I I I I I

y-

- f(

x

) f(xl)
-----~

.

I I I I I

f(X2)-----~~~
I I I I I I

I I I

I I I

X

1. Di~u kien e~n ella tinh ddn dieu: Dinh If 1: Gia sii' ham sa f co dao ham tren khoang (a;b)

• •

[fd6ng bien (tangj tren khoang (a;b)] [fnghich bie'n(giiim)trenkhoiing(a;b)]

=> =>

[t'(X»O
[t'(x)<0

'v'xE(a;b)] 'v'xE(a;b)]

2. Di~u kien dll ella tinh ddn dieu: Dinh If 2: Gia sii' ham sa f co dao ham tren khoang (a;b)

• • •

[t'(X»O'v'xE(a;b)]

=> [fd6ngbie'n(tang)tren(a;b)]

[t' (x) < 0 'v'xE (a; b)] => [f nghich bien (giam) tren (a; b)] [f'(X)=O'v'xE(a;b)]
x
f'(x) f(x)

=> ~khongd6itren(a;b)]
b x
f'(x) f(x)

a

+

a

b

69

b)] ~ ~ ~ [r'(x) > 0 Vx E (a.b) dfing thirc chi xay ra tai mot sO' . BAI TAP REN LUYEN Bai 1: Khao sat s1. Phu'dng phap xet ehi@u bie'n thien eua ham so': Mudn xet chieu bien thien ciia ham s6 Y =f .Jx-2 +. (X) (X) ta eo th~ thirc hien nhu sau: Bu'6e 1: TIm mien xac dinh ciia ham s6 : D=? Bu'6e 2: Tinh f . => [f d6ng bien (tang) tren (a. b) Minh hoa dinh IY: x f'(x) f(x) a + ¢ b + x f'(x) f(x) a b Dinh Ii 4: Gia sil' ham s6 f eo dao ham tren khoang (a.b)] [f'(x) = 0 Vx E (a.b) • • • [f d6ng [f khong bien (tang) tren (a.J4-x 9) y = x+~2-x2 70 .b)] (a. b) f (x)<OVxE(a.1'avao dinh ly di~u kien du d~ ke't luan.b) f (x»OVxE(a.b)] htiu han di~m ciia (a. => [f nghich bien (giam) tren (a.Dinh Ii 3: Gia sil' ham s6 f eo dao ham tren khoang (a.=== ~x2 -1 x2 5) y=- 6) y =_!_x2 2 -lnx 7) y=lnx X 8) y = .1' bien thien ciia ham s6: 1) y = x.J4 . b)] hiru han di~m cua (a. (x) va xet da'u f Bu'6e 3: D1.b) dfing thirc chi xay ra tai mot sO' . b)] [f'(X)<OVxE(a.b)] 3.x 2) Y= x+3 ~x2+1 eX X 3) y = ----.b)] [f nghich bien (giam) tren d6i tren (a.

-2x Cho ham so y = f(x) = 2 K Bili5: m Bili6: +(m+2)x-3m+l (1) x-I TIm a d~ ham sa (1) nghich bien tren m6i khoang xac dinh ciia n6 Bili 7: Bili8: K Ch o h'am so: y = -2x2+(I-m)x+m+l x=m Kd~ .+00). ~ ) Bili 9: E (0. 13 2 2 Cho ham so y = f(x) = -x + (m -1)x + (2m-3)x -(1) 3 3 a) Vdi gia tri nao cua m.2) x-I TIm m d~ ham sa dang bien tren khoang (-00 . . TIm a d~ ham sa nghich bien tren R TIm m d~ ham sa y = _!x3 + (m -1)x2 + (m + 3)x .+00) Cho ham so y=f(x)=x+2+-(1) x-I TIm a d~ ham sa (1) dang bien tren m6i khoang xac dinh cua n6 ."41 13 2 Bili 11: Cho ham sa y =-x -ax +(2a-l)x-a+2 3 TIm a d~ ham sa nghich bien trong khoang (-2. +00 ) e len oang IY Chung minh rang: 2 sin x + tgx > 3x vdi moi x 3 Chung minh r~ng: tgx > x + x3 vdi moi x E E (0. [0 .+ 00) x B'al"13 : Ch 0 ha amso K y=---. 2 x B'al"14 : Ch 0 ha amso K y=---.4 dang bien tren khoang (0.+mx-l 2 71 .+00). 2 x +(2m-3)x+m-l am K B'al"16 : Ch 0 ha so y = ----'----'------x-(m-l) TIm m d~ ham sa dang bien tren khoang (0. B'al"10 : Chii nun h rang: tgx ~ 1f X VOlmQI x ung . . ham sa (1) dang bien tren R b) Vdi gia tri nao ciia m. u!n h m d~h' am so ong b·K trong khoa (1 .1) va (1. ham sa (1) dang bien tren khoang (1.Bili2: Bili3: Bili4: Cho ham sa y = f(x) = _~x3 + 2x2 + (2a + l)x . ~ ) 1f ~ 4.-2x+m x-2 Xac dinh m d~ ham sa nghich bien tren [-1 .3) 3 .0) Bilil2: Cho ham sa y=x3-mx2+x+l (1) TIm cac gia tri cua m d~ ham sa (1) nghich bien trong khoang (1. 2 K x +5x+m2 +6 B'" 15 : Ch 0 ha al amso y=-----x+3 TIm m d~ ham sa dang bien tren khoang (1.3a + 2 (1).0].

v E <=> u > v (a. Dinh nghia : Cho ham s6 y = f(x) xac dinh trong khoang a) f tang (hay dang bien ) tren khoang (a. h~ phuong trmh ..b) ta eo : (vdi u. v E I I 2) Tinh chit 2: Gia sil' ham s6 y feu) < fey) tang tren khoang (a..b)) Gid sil' ham s6 y feu) < fey) = f(x) giam tren khoang (a. .b) <=> b) f giam (hay nghich bien ) tren khoang (a.. CAC KIEN THUC CO BAN I. A? '" . .UNG Dl)NG TINH DON DI~U eUA HAM SO DE CHUNG MINH BAT DANG THUC GIAI PHUONG TRINH . V XI.b)) 4) Tinh chit 4: Ne"u y = f(x) tang tren (a.b) <=> II. X2 E (a.b) sao eho f(xo) = g(xo) thl phuong trinh f(x) = g(x) eo nghiem duy nha't tren (a.b) BAI TAP AP DUNG Bili 1 : Giai cac phuong trlnh sau: 1) ~+~4x2-1=1 2) (~2-J3)X +(~2+J3)X X =2x 3) log2(l+~)=log7 1) 2x-1_2x 2 Bili 2 : Giai cac phuong trinh sau: -x =(x-l)2 72 .b) *Du'a vao tinh eha't tren ta suy ra : Neu eo Xo E (a.b)) .b) : xj < X2 ~ f(XI) > f(X2) giam) tren khoang (a. Cae tinh chit: 1) Tinh chit 1: Gia sil' ham s6 y = f(x) tang (ho~e (a.b) ta eo : (vdi u.BAT PHUONG TRINH .b) ta eo : (a. ba't phuong trmh.Ht BAT PHUONG TRINH ******** Co sCJd€ giai quyet va'n d€ nay la dung dao ham d€ xet tinh don dieu ciia ham s6 va dua vao chieu bien thien ciia ham s6 d€ ke"t luan v€ nghiem ciia phuong trtnh . v E <=> u < v (a. ~ I feu) = fey) I 3) Tinh chit 3: <=> u =v = f(x) (vdi u.b) thl phucng trmh f(x) = g(x) eo nhieu nhdt mQt nghiern thuoc khoang (a. ~ 2 .b) : Xl < X2 ~ f(XI) < f(X2) V XI.b). X2 E (a.b) va y = g(x) la ham hang hoac la mot ham s6 giam tren (a.

+3x+2 2x +4x+5 Bili 3 : Giai cac h~ : eotgx -eotgy = x .(xy + 2) { x2 +y2 =2 Bili 4: Giai cac ba't phucng trmh sau..1t) 2) 2X .t: 0 ------lI€ft------- 73 .Y 1) { vdi x.+B )=x 2 E (0. 1) 5x + 12x > 13x 2) X (x8 + x2 + 16) > 6 ( 4 _ x2) Bili 5 : Chung minh cac ba't 1) e >l+x 2) In (1 + x ) < x 3) sinx < x 12 4) 1 .x).2Y = (y . y Sx +Sy = 21t 2 2) Iog3( x2 +x.x < eosx 2 X d~ng thirc sau : vdi x o O vdi x > 0 vdi x > 0 vdi x :.

b) :::::) [ f'(xO)=O] Y nghia hlnh hoc ella dinh Neu ham sa y = f (x) co dao ham tai di~m Xova da t cue tri tai di~m do thl tie"p tuyen cua du'ong cong Ii: (e): = f(x) y tai di~m M(xo.-.cue TRJ eUA HAM SO Tom tAt ghio khoa I.. Dinh nghia: Cho ham sa yef(x) xac dinh tren khoang (a. f (xo )+-------::::.00.. Di~u kien dll d@ham co cue tri: 1) Dinh Ii 1: Gia sii' ham sa y=f'(x) co dao ham tren mot Ian can ciia di~m Xo( co th~ till tai di~m xo) x di qua khi • Xo rna • ~ dat cue DAr tai x 0 ] f (x) d6i da'u tit + sang - sa [~tu f (x) • [~tu x f'(x) f(x) [f khi x di qua Xo rna d6i da'u tu a ....f(xo)) phai cung phircng vdi Ox III.b) ? '" .b) va xoE(a.sang b :::::) + [f dat elje x f'(x) f(x) TIED A? tai x 0 ] Bang tom tiit: + 9 a Xo ~/ CT 9 b + 74 . f(x) y y x b x b f(x) f(xo) • • [xo Ia di€m eVe DAI eua ham ? s6 fJ ¢::> dn [ f(x) < f(x 0) '\Ix E V \{xo}] [ x 0 la di€m cue TIEU A? eua ham ? so f] K ¢::> dn [ f(x) > f(x 0) '\Ix E V \{xO}] II.b) va dao ham tai x [ f dat cue tri tai x 0 °1 Xo E (a.Di~u kien c~n ella cue tri: Dinh Ii Fermat: f co Gia sii' yef(x) lien tuc tren khoang (a.

.t:0 thl f(x ) = ... ta diroc: Bili 6: Cho ham s6 f (X) = ax3 + bx2 + ex + d . d'. Xac dinh m de ham 86 co eire dai. 2 x+m + mx + 1 d at cue dai tai X = 2 ar B ____1!!_: '·5 G" sir ha so f() X = u(x) dat eire tn. o 75 .. .1 x2 = 1( 2 xl + X2 ) Hai 3: Cho ham 86 y = x m~t 2 vdi hoanh dQ thea mxman Xl + x = 4x1x 2 2 + 2 ...x2 m d€ y dat Bili 2: Cho ham s6 y = x3 + 2(m-1)x2 + (m2 -4m+ l)x. . vex) ling .. 0 O V U (X ) (x ) O A'p d ung: ~ . h ai.1 rem oa en +.ng: f(x ) = ax + p O gia tri eire tri ciia ham s6: y = x3 .• ham sd i im gia tn eire tn eua am so: y = 2 x x+ 2 + 5 + 3x f(x) eho f'(x)../ ~ cue d ai..2 + -J4 .3x + 2 . . X2 the man dileu ki~ . cue tieu tai.2) Dinh If 2: Gia sii' ham s6 y=f(x) e6 dao ham lien tuc tdi effp hai tai Xo va f'(xo)=O.tar Xo.t:O • • [Ne"u [NEu f"(xO)<O] => [fdC./ xi. {(xo):. TIm xl . ~ .(Ax+B)+ax+p eire tri tai Xo Chung minh r5. ./ ha so y = x r e am .X 9) Y = X + ~ 2 ..3x2 . 4 i ~ im m d. V (xO):.lt ~ cue cue DAI TIEU tai xO] tai x 0 ] r' (x 0 ) > 0] [f dat BAI TAp REN LUYEN Bali 1: TIm eire tri ciia cac ham s6: 1) Y = x-J4-x 2) y= x+3 ~x2+1 5) Y = eX x 6) y = !x2 -lnx 2 7) y=- X lnx 8) Y = -JX . ra • am . eire tieu -- B'at. Chi a f(x)=f Giii sii' f(x) dat Ap dung: TIm (x).2(m2 + 1). Chii mm h rang neu . ..

m)3 .m + 2 3 TIm m sao eho ham s6 eo hai eve tri eo hoanh dQ dirong x +x+m am K Bili 11: Ch o ha so y=---(1) x+1 Xac dinh m sao eho ham s6 (1) eo hai gia tri eve tri trai dffu nhau. 2 x +mx-2 B'al017 : Ch 0 ha amso K y=---- 2 mx-1 Xac dinh m d~ ham s6 eo eve dai ..3)x + 4 (1) TIm m d~ d5 thi ham s6 (1) eo di~m eve dai va eve ti~u (j v~ hai phia ella true tung Bili 13: Cho ham s6 : y = (x .x2 76 .) bang ~ .m2 Vie't phuong trinh du'C1ng th~ng di qua hai di~m eve tri ella d5 thi ham s6 . eve ti~u vdi hoang dQ thoa man xl + x2 = 4xI.. ~ im m sao eh 0 ha so d at eve dai tar x i am K C. +10 TIm m d~ ham s6 eo ba di~m eve trio Bili 15: Cho ham s6 : y = _x3 + 3mx2 + 3(1.mx" + (2m -l)x . Bili 12: Cho ham s6 y = x3 . di~m eve ti~u va khoang each giii'a hai di~m do bang Bili 9: K Ch o h'am so y 50 =x 2 + mx + 1 . ) I'd» Bili 8: G 91 (C mao hi ha K x2 am so y = trn + (m+ + 1 m+ 1 l)x+ X (1) Chung minh rang vdi m bfft ky.TIm m d~ ham s6 (1) eo eve tri va khoang each til di~m eve ti~u ella (Cm) Mn tiem can xien ciia (C. d5 thi (Cm) luon luon eo di~m eve dai.!. Vdi gia tri nao ella m thl khoang each giii'a hai di~m eve tri ella d5 thi ham s6 bang 10.m2)x + m3 .3mx2 + (m2 + 2m .l1 tai x+m = -1 Bili 10: Cho ham s6 y = .3x Xac dinh m d~ ham s6 da t eve ti~u tai di~m eo hoanh dQ x Bili 14: Cho ham s6 : y = mx +(m -9)x 4 2 2 2 = o.x3 .cuc ti~u . x + mx B'al016 : Ch 0 h'amso K y=--I-x TIm m d~ ham s6 eo eve dai .

Dinb ngbia: • sa M diroc goi la GTLN M=Max f(x»m Cho ham sa GTLNVA GTNN eUA HAM SO Tom tAt ghio khoa y = f (x) xac dinh tren D ella ham .J X ..2 +. 13p BBT cua ham s6 f tren D r6i suy ra ke't qua Vi du 1: TIm GTLN ella ham Vi du 2: TIm GTNN sa: ella ham sa: y = 4x3 .1..X x>0 b) Pbu'dng pbap 2: S11dung dH~uki~n eo nghiem cua pt hoije h~ phlidng trmh Vi du: TIm GTLN va GTNN cua ham s6: . Cae pbu'dng pbap tim GTLN & GTNN eua bam s6 a) Pbu'dng pbap 1: S11dung Vi du 1: Vi du 2: y = f(x) tren D bit ding thtic TIm GTLN va nho nha"t ella ham TIm GTNN ella ham sa: y = x+- sa : y = . At sa neu: f(X)<M { Tan tai Kybieu: Vx e D Xo ED y sao cho f(x ) O =M • sa m diroc goi la GTNN XED ella ham sa neu: sao cho f(x ) O y \fx ED { Tan tai Ky hleu: XED Xo ED =m m=mln y Minh hoa: x (C):y=/(x) D 2.2 + 3 +x+2 b) Pbu'dng pbap 2: S11dung dao ham.J y= X 2 vdi x 4.3x4 y = x2 +2 x vdi x > 0 77 . ?.

2] _ 2cos2 x+lcosxl+l s6: y [cosx] + 1 Bili 10: TIm gia tri ldn nha't va gia tri nho nhft ciia ham s6 y = 2sinx- j sin3 x tren doc.tn [0. ~ ] Vi du 5: TIm GTLN va GTNN ciia ham s6 : y = Vi du 6: TIm GTLN va GTNN ciia ham Vi du 7: TIm GTLN va GTNN ciia ham smx tren lo.x y = sin 2x .~ .2] Bili 4: TIm GTLN va GTNN ciia ham s6 : Bili 5: TIm GTLN va GTNN cua ham s6: Bili 6: TIm GTLN va GTNN cua ham s6: Bili 7: TIm GTLN va GTNN ciia ham s6: Bili 8: TIm GTLN va GTNN ciia ham s6: y=5cosx-cos5x x2+3 y=-----:::---x2+x+2 y=x+~12-3x2 y=(x+2)~4-x2 XE tren [-~.2] y = sin2x-x Bili 3: TIm GTLN va GTNN ciia ham s6 : tren [.x3 tren doan [ . 1l J 2+cosx s6 : y=x+~r-2-x-2 .~ .~] y = (3 .x)~r-x-2-+-1 vdi Bili 9: TIm gia tri ldn nha't va gia tri nho nha't ciia ham [0.~. 2 1 s6 : y =stn x+cos x+2 Vi du 8: TIm GTLN va GTNN ciia ham s6 : y = 2(1+sin2x.1l ] y = ~ 2x2 Bili 11: TIm GTNN ella ham s6: .3] 78 .Vi du 3: TIm GTLN va GTNN ciia ham s6: Vi du 4: TIm GTLN va GTNN ciia ham s6: Y = -J x .cos4x)-_!_(cos4x-cos8x) 2 BAI TAP REN LUYEN Bili 1: TIm GTLN va GTNN ciia ham s6: y = x4 -3x3 -2x2 +9x Bili 2: TIm GTLN va GTNN ciia ham s6 : vdi x E [-2.2 + -J 4 . ~] y = x2.ex tren [-3.X tren [ .

TIm a d~ nghiern Ion ella phucng trmh dat gia tri Ion nhflt.Bili 12: Cho phuong trtnh x2 + (2a .cosx ~ < (1.6)x + a -13 = 0 vdi a ~ 1.J3 sinx + 7sin2 x 'GTNN B'·16 : T'im GTLN va al eua ha so : am K ? Y= sin x + sin x + 1 2sinx+ 1 Bili 17: TIm GTLN va GTNN ella ham s6: Y =2(1 +sin2xcos4x)Bili 18: TIm GTLN va GTNN ella ham s6: Bili 19: Chung minh cac ba't d~ng thirc sau: i (cos4x-cos8x) \j x E Y = 2(sin3 x+cos3 x)+8sinx.sin x) 4 + sin 4 x < 17 R --------------------------------lIert---------------------------------- 79 . TIm m d~ tich cac gia tri eve dai va eve ti~u dat gia tri nho nha't Bili 14: TIm GTLN va GTNN ella ham s6 : f(x) = cos2 2x+2(sinx+cosx)2 -3sin2x Bili 15: TIm gia tri Ion nha't va be nhdt ella ham s6 sau : y = 4cos2 x +3. Bilil3:Chohams6 2 2 =x -(m+l)x-m +4m-2 Y x-I (1) Xac dinh cac gia tri ella m d~ ham s6 eo eve tri.