l57

|CO - O ßlJku
C|Vu
8.ló,l7
O2u1Ak
2009.
u¬borto |co (roĄoo l932.} µroIosor |o so¬lotl|o oo 8vocĀlllstc c ßoloo|l. Osl¬
sto |o sv|ots|l µozootl ro¬oooµlsoc, ob|ovlo |o zooĀo|oo u|olo lz µourcĀ|o toorl|o
zoo|ovo, toorl|o lotorµrotocl|o, |o¬col|ocl|s|o toorl|o, ñlozoñ|o |ozl|o, ostotl|o
l ¬ooqlo urcqlo toorl|s|lo µourcĀ|o oc¬oolstlĀ|lo l urcstvoolo zoooostl. No|o
ou o|lo sc 2WYRUHQRGMHOR (l9ó2.}, 'LDULRPLQLPR (l9ó3.}, .XOWXUDLQIRUPDFLMD
NRPXQLNDFLMD (l9ó8.}, 7UDWWDWRGLVHPLRWLFDJHQHUDOH (l975.}, /HFWRULQIDEXOD
(l979.}, *UDQLFHWXPDÿHQMD (l990.}, äHVWåHWQMLSULSRYMHGQLPåXPDPD (l99=.},
.DQWHO·RUQLWRULQFR (l997.}, 3RYLMHVWOMHSRWH (200ó.} l ,VWRULMDUXçQRýH (2007.}.
l58
C|Vu
8.ló,l7
O2u1Ak
2009.
|CO - O ßlJku
8 toll|oos|oq µrovoo 2ol||o kozlc
6(0,27,.$,1(ä72
2osto bl so so¬lotl|o troboll bovltl ovl¬ oosto° 2oto sto |o |ouoo ou o|ozlolo
µroblo¬o (to|oĄor l slqcroo} |orlstl¬o ll l |o|o |orlstl¬o zoo|ovo uo bl so
roIorlroll oo oosto, o o to¬o |o ooµlsooo ¬ooqo. All oo ¬lsll¬ uo so¬lotl|o
¬ozo lzb|ocl |ouoo urcql µroblo¬. sto |o ooo| oosto sto oos oovoul uo
µrolzvoul¬o zoo|ovo°
8vo|o ñlozoñ|o |ozl|o scoĀovo so oo so¬o s WHUPLQXVDGTXHP ooqo to|oĄor l
s WHUPLQXVDTXRNo ¬oro so so¬o µltotl ªoo sto so roIorlro¬o |ouo qovorl¬o
l s |o|o¬ v|orouosto|ooscc°¨ (µroblo¬ svo|o|o vrl|ouoo roz¬otroo|o}, ooqo
to|oĄor. ª8to oo¬ o¬oqccc|o uo qovorl¬o°¨.
Jo |o, qlouooo ñloqooots|l, blo oo|zou µroblo¬ ÷ |o|l |o ¬ouoroltot zobroolo
÷ µorl|o|lo |ozl|o, boro¬ ou |µl|cro oouol|o. All o|o qo so ¬ozo lzb|ocl
c ñloqooots|o| (oovouocl oouostoto| orooolos|lo oolozo}, oo ¬ozo qo so
lqoorlrotl c ootoqooots|o| µorsµo|tlvl. Noso vlostlto svo|luoso|o ls|cstvo ¬ozo
oo¬ oslqcrotl olo¬ooto, ¬ozuo ooµroclzoo, oll c ouroĄooo¬ s¬lslc oµlµl|lvo,
µo¬occ |o|lo co¬o ouqovorltl oo µltoo|o. ªAll zosto so¬ l|ouo blo oovouoo
uo |ozo¬ oosto°¨
8trc|tcroloo lloqvlstl|o ol|ouo ol|o uoto|lo to| µroblo¬ (s lzol¬|o¬ u|ol¬slovo,
|oo sto co¬o vlu|otl}. rozllĀltl |ozlcl µro¬otrool sc |oo voc cstro|ool slsto¬l (l
|o|l so ¬oqc slo|rool|s|l ooollzlrotl} c trooct|c c |o|o¬ so qovorolcl lzrozovo|c,
c |o|o¬ tvruo, µo|ozc|c, µlto|c, zoµovl|ouo|c. Ostoto| µrlµouo µrolzvouo|l
ULMHÿL oll rozlozl zboq |o|lo so qovorl sc µsloolos|l, o oo lloqvlstlĀ|l. AoolltlĀ|o
so ñlozoñ|o zouovol|llo vlostltl¬ |oocoµto¬ lstloo (|o|l so oo ouoosl oo stvorl
|o|o clstloc |osc, ooqo oo to sto so trobo zo|l|cĀltl o|o |o µroµozlcl|o sovocooo
|oo lstlolto}, oll ol|o µroblo¬otlzlrolo oos µroulloqvlstlĀ|l ouoos µro¬o
stvorl¬o. Drcql¬ rl|oĀl¬o, oñr¬ocl|o VQLMHJ MH ELMHO |ost lstlolto o|o |o sol|oq
bl|ol, oll |o|o sovoco¬o (l slqcrol s¬o} uo |o sol|oq bl|ol, µov|orooo |o toorl|l
1
*
ªO blt|c¨ |o µrvo µoqlovl|o |covo |o|lqo .DQWHO·RUQLWRULQFR, ßo¬µlool, Vllooo, l997. u ovo¬ µrl|ovouc uooosl¬o µotµoqlovl|o
l.l. Lo so¬lotlco o ll Ocolcoso, l.=. Co¬o sl µorlo uoll'ossoro, l.ó. Lo ucµllcozlooo uoll'ossoro l l.9. Dl co µosslbllo ulloqco¬ooto
uoll'ossoro. (ooµ. cr.}
l59
|CO - O ßlJku
C|Vu
8.ló,l7
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2009.
µorcoµcl|o lll oµtlcl.
1oulol |o|l |o ou ovoq µroblo¬o cĀlolo so¬c osoovc svo|o toorl|o, so¬lotlĀ|o,
|oqoltlvoo l ¬otoñzlĀ|o, svo c lsto vrl|o¬o, boz sc¬o|o blo |o lolrco. Dloo¬lĀol
Ob|o|t oos µoto|oo uo µrolzvouo¬o UHSUH]HQWDPHQ to c tobozo|o¬ ucoc
(gcosl-¬ooto} µrolzvouo Noµosrouol Ob|o|t, |o|l |o ooµosl|ot|c µrovoulv c
µotoocl|oloo bos|oooĀoc sorl|c lotorµrotoooto l µooo|ou so, µro|o oovl|o
stoĀooo tl|o|o¬ lotorµrototlvooq µrocoso, vrotl¬o oozou Dloo¬lĀoo¬
Ob|o|tc l ooµrovl¬o oosto ou toqo. Norovoo, ou trooct|o c |o|o¬ trobo¬o
µooovo qovorltl o Dloo¬lĀoo¬ Ob|o|tc, |o|o¬ s¬o so vrotlll, µooovoo s¬o c
µoĀotoo¬ sltcocl|l to qo trobo¬o µooovoo l¬ooovotl µro|o |ouooq urcqoq
UHSUH]HQWDPHQD µo c |ouoo¬ ouroĄooo¬ s¬lslc Dloo¬lĀol Ob|o|t osto|o
cvl|o| |oo 8tvor µo 8obl, cvl|o| µrlsctoo, oll oocovotl|lv, o|o oo cµrovo µro|o
so¬lozo.
lo lµo| Dloo¬lĀol ob|o|t |o ooo sto oos oovoul uo µrolzvoul¬o so¬lozc.
lrolzvoul¬o zoo|ovo zoto sto µosto|l oosto sto zoot|ovo uo bcuo roĀooo.
koĀooo oo bos ñlozoIs|l¬, oll csµ|oll¬ lzrozo¬, Dloo¬lĀol Ob|o|t |o Nosto-
sto-oos-oocqouoo-cuoro
2
l |ozo oo¬ ªqovorll¨ ÷ lll ªqovorl o ¬ooll¨ lll |os
ªroz¬otro| ¬ol¨.
lz¬oĄc ooĀloo µrolzvouo|o zoo|ovo µozoo|o¬o louo|soo zoo|ovo, RYR lll RQR
c cs¬ooo¬ |ozl|c, cµorool |ozlµrst, strl|olc c |ozl|c qosto lll sll|o (csµ. |co
l975, 3.ó}, oll l¬o |ouoo Iooo¬oo |o|l ¬oro¬o sovotltl |oo µrouso¬lotlĀ|l,
lll µrotoso¬lotlĀ|l (c s¬lslc uo tvorl slqool |o|l µo|roco, cto¬ol|c|ccl qo,
µrocos so¬lozo} l |o|oq co¬o zvotl SULPDUQDLQGHNVLÿQRVW LOLSR]RUQRVW (lolrco
|o qovorlo o SR]RUQRVWL |oo sµosoboostl cs¬|orovoo|o c¬o µro¬o ob|o|tc,
zourzovoo|c µozoroostl oo |ouoo¬ olo¬ootc lqoorlro|ccl urcql}.
3
lrl¬oroc
louo|slĀoost l¬o¬o |ouo c ¬otorl|l qcsto| soozocl|o¬o |o|o oos bo¬borulro|c
lzoooouo solo|cloolro¬o oosto sto lzuvo|o¬o ooscµrot to| oµco| µozoulol,
oulcĀlvsl uo zoll¬o o to¬o µrlĀotl (|ouo, urcql¬ rl|oĀl¬o, uo| zlvl¬o o|rczool
bll|ostocl¬, tor¬lĀ|l¬, to|tllol¬, µrosrotoĀ|l¬ soozocl|o¬o, ou |o|lo so¬o
|ouoo µrlvloĀl oosc µozoroost, l VDPR SRVOLMH WRJD co¬o rocl uo |o olouoo,
lll uo oos boll stoµolo}, l¬o¬o µrl¬oroc louo|slĀoost |ouo µrlvloĀl¬o ooĀl|c
µozoroost, oo oczoo uo bls¬o rozqovoroll s o|l¬, ooqo to|oĄor so¬o uo bls¬o
¬c µo|ozoll oosto sto co trobotl µostotl zoo|o¬, µrl¬|oro¬, l vcĀo¬o qo zo
|o|oc, o|roco¬o-¬c-qlovc-µro¬o.
u oo|olo¬ootorol|o¬ ou ouooso so¬lozo, roul|oloo¬ µrovoĄoo|c |o|l |o
2 Nouo¬ so uo co |ouooqo uooo to| lzroz bltl µrovouoo oo o|o¬oĀ|l, to|o co, boro¬ c ltoll|l, bltl µrlovocoo |oo ñlozoIs|l
ozbll|oo.
3 ªOo o oow llst oI cotoqorlos¨, l8ó7 (Wk 2}.
160
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8.ló,l7
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rosvl|otllo Ocloo (l9ó0. 2}, µrl|o ooqo sto sozoo¬o |o|l oozlv uo¬orouoc
µrluo|o zocc |o|l µrolozl (lll bllo |o|o| stvorl |o|c oo vlul to¬o qu|o |o vlul¬ l
rozoblro¬ zoco |o|l µrolozl}, µrl|o ooqo qo |o cµlto¬ ªsto |o ooo°¨ ÷ s |ouoo¬
zoĀcĄooo¬ l cµltoo¬ qosto¬ uo|, oo ooĀlo ¬oqcco o|o¬c oorozc¬l|lv, cµlro¬
µrst µro¬o µrostoroo-vro¬oos|o¬ uoqoĄo|c |o|l ¬o zool¬o ÷ |o|o blo
oslqcroo uo ¬l oo ouqovorl s µroslovl|ool¬ l oolq¬otlĀol¬ JDYDJDL l¬o |ouoo
troocto| c |o|o¬ |o µrlvloĀl¬ o|oqovc µozoroost oo to| µrostoroo-vro¬oos|l
uoqoĄo|. lsµcstlt cc crll|, zqroblt cc qo zo ro¬ooo, c slcĀo|c uo |o oo o|rooct
oo urcqc strooc, cĀlolt cc oosto |o|o bl oo µrl¬l|otlo ooo sto so¬ |o oulcĀlo
µrl¬l|otltl. Jo ñ|slroo|o ¬o|o l µozoroostl urcqlo oo oosto |ost stoo|o svo|o
so¬lozo |o|o co uocl, µrotooul Āo| ooo¬ Āloc µozoroostl (voc so¬lozoo¬, voc
rozcltotc ¬lsl|oo|o} zboq |o|oq cc oulcĀltl uo |o oosto µortloootoo, zool¬l|lvo,
lotrlqootoo l uo ¬oro bltl ob|oso|ooo µro|o olµotozo. Dolozl to|oĄor µrl|o
zootlzol|o, to|oĄor µrl|o µorcoµcl|o ob|o|to |oo ob|o|to. 1os |o sll|oµo oulc|o
|o|o¬, c ¬oq¬l ls|cstvo, lzuvo|o¬ oosto s Āl¬o so trobo¬ scoĀltl.
l µosll|o, |ouooµct oloborlrooo toorl|o sµozoo|o, ovo oosto µosto|o Dloo¬lĀol
Ob|o|t, ooc¬oooo, |os oolzqloĀooo ¬otorl|o |ouoo lotclcl|o |os oorosvl|otl|ooo
|otoqorl|olol¬ oµoroto¬, svo to uolozl µosll|o. No µoĀot|c µosto|l oosto,
Āo| l o|o |o to so¬o ¬o|o oooovo µrobcĄooo µozoroost, oll oltl |o to ¬o|o
µozoroost uo| sµovo, vrobo, uo| |o c µolcsoc. Nl|o µrl¬orol Ālo µozoroostl ooo|
|o|l uoñolro oosto, oosto |o ooo sto bcul µozoroost, stovlso so¬o vrobo|cco
µozoroost Ālol voc ulo (l sv|ouoĀoostvo} toq oosto.
|vo rozloqo zboq |o|lo so¬lotl|o oo ¬ozo oo roño|tlrotl o to¬ oosto sto (|o|o
bl so µovozoll s ool¬o |o|l sc so stol|ocl¬o ¬cĀlll s o|l¬} oulcĀc|o¬o l¬ooovotl
ßlto|.
.$.26(*2925,2%,7.8
ßlto| |o l µrl|o ooqo sto so o o|o¬c qovorl. All ¬ozo¬o qo µrotvorltl lz
oocqcslvo ¬oolIostoostl c µroblo¬ (|o|l oĀo|c|o ouqovor} so¬o c|oll|o o
o|o¬c qovorl¬o. lrvo otvoroo|o µro¬o blt|c |ost |ouoo vrsto o|stotlĀooq
ls|cstvo, Āo| l c oo|¬otorl|ollstlĀ|l|o¬ s¬lslc µo|¬o, oll svo uo| osto|o¬o µrl
to| µrl¬oroo| ¬oolIostoostl, |o|o |o ol|o¬o, blto| ol|o ñlozoIs|l µroblo¬, |oo
sto rlbl ñlozoIs|l µroblo¬ ol|o vouo |o|o |o sourzl. All c trooct|c |ouo o blt|c
qovorl¬o, oo qovorl¬o |os o o|o¬c c o|oqovo| svoobcovotoo| Ior¬l, zoto sto
|o, to s¬o voc ro|ll, µroblo¬ blt|o (oo|µrlrouol|o l oo|ooµosrouol|o ls|cstvo}
161
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8.ló,l7
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2009.
oo|¬oo|o µrlrouoo ou svlo µroblo¬o, ooo| |o|l sl sooscs co¬cols ol|ou oo
µostovl|o. ¬l zoµoĀlo|o¬o oµlµovotl oos µct c blt|c lzuvo|o|ccl blco l qrouocl
¬olo µo ¬olo 8vl|ot.
Do|lo, bcuccl uo |o sooscs co¬cols oosµosoboo ¬lslltl blto| µrl|o ooqo ll qo |o
orqoolzlroo c slsto¬, lll c oocroĄool olz blco, ooo sc ooĀlo oo |o|l oo¬ blto|
uolozl cscsrot l ou to¬o trobo µoĀotl.
l uolozl¬o touo uo cootrolooq µltoo|o Arlstotolovo 0HWDÀ]LNH Jo µltoo|o so
µostovl|o c Ior¬l |oostotocl|o ou |o|o Arlstotol oo µoĀlo|o, oll qotovo uolozl
uo o|o c luccl¬ |orocl¬o ÷ sµoto|ocvsl so o o|c, to|o rocl, uo| µostoµooo
µrolozl ou µrvo uo Āotvrto |o|lqo qu|o, oo|oo sto |o ro|oo uo µosto|l |ouoo
zoooost |o|o so bovl blco¬ |oo blco¬, to¬o qu|o bl so oĀo|lvolo µrvo µroboo
uoñolcl|o ob|o|to to zoooostl, Arlstotol µooovl|o |oo |ouloc ¬oqccc uoñolcl|c
ooo sto so c µrvo| |o|lzl (992b l9} µo|ovl|c|o so¬o |oo oo|oouoo oµsorvocl|o.
blco so µo|ovl|c|o (OHJKHWDLPHQSROODFKŮV} ÷ µo ¬ooql¬ zooĀoo|l¬o (l002o
33}.
Ooo sto zo Jo¬c A|vlos|oq lotolo|t SHUFLSLWTXDVLQRWLVVLPXP oorlzoot oosoq
¬lsl|oo|o l qovoroo|o, zo Arlstotolo |o (oll Jo¬o |o ouobrovoo} µo µrlroul
(|ouo bl l¬olo µrlrouc, oll ¬l zoo¬o uo ol|o ol rou ol vrsto} uvos¬lslooo,
µollso¬lĀoo.
2o oo|o octoro ovo tvruo|o lzrcĀc|o µroblo¬ blco |ouoo| Icouo¬ootoloo|
oµorl|l, |o|c |o µostorlstotolovs|o troulcl|o so¬o µo|csolo roucclrotl, o uo |o|
ol|o colstllo uro¬ots|l µotoocl|ol. lro|tlĀ|l |o Arlstotol µrvl |o|l |o µo|csovo
roucclrotl oo µrlovotl|lvo ul¬oozl|o, l to Ālol lqro|ccl so µrlu|ovo¬ ªµo ¬ooql¬
ooĀlol¬o¨.
Vooql ooĀlol ¬oqc bltl roucclrool oo Āotlrl l ¬oqcco lo |o |ootrollrotl. ßlco
so µo|ovl|c|o (l} |oo o|cluootoloo blco (to |o blco lzroĀooo |oµclo¬, zboq
Āoqo so |ozo uo |o Āov|o| bl|ol lll oo ooqo¬o}, (ll} |oo lstlolto, zboq Āoqo
¬ozo bltl lstlolto lll oolstlolto uo |o ooo| Āov|o| bl|ol lll uo |o Āov|o| zlvotlo|o,
(lll} |oo µotoocl|o l o|tcoloost, µo o|o ol|o lstlolto uo |o ovo| zurovl Āov|o|
trooctoĀoo bolostoo, zooĀl uo bl so ¬oqoo rozbol|otl, l uooos co¬o rocl uo
so ¬ozo ¬lslltl oo |ouoo ¬oqccl svl|ot c |o|o¬ |o lstloo uo |o ovo| Āov|o|
bolostoo, (lv} ooµosl|ot|c, blco so µo|ovl|c|o |oo HQVSHUVH t|. |oo VXSVWDQFLMD
2o Arlstotolo µollso¬l|o blco oµouo c ooo| ¬|orl c |o|o|, |o|o qou so µrlĀolo
o blcc, ¬l to |ozo¬o ªouoosocl so oo |ouoo |oulol µrloclµ¨ (l0003b 5-ó},
t|. oo scµstoocl|o. 8cµstoocl|o sc loulvlucoloo l oqzlstlro|cco blco l o o|l¬o
l¬o¬o µorcoµtlvoo sv|ouoĀoostvo. Arlstotol ol|o ol|ouo sc¬o|oo uo µosto|o
loulvlucoloo scµstoocl|o (Arlstotol ol|o ol|ou sc¬o|oo c rooloost svl|oto |o|l
162
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oo¬ so µo|ovl|c|o c svo|luoso|o¬ ls|cstvc}, scµstoocl|o c |o|l¬o l so¬o c
|o|l¬o so o|tcollzlro|c so¬o µlotoolĀ|o Ior¬o, o uo oo ¬oqc µosto|otl µrl|o
lll µosll|o c |o|vo¬ oo|osoo¬ svl|otc oo|ro| ooboso, l to slqcroost ¬c uoµcsto
uo qosµouorl ¬ooqoµo|ovooscc blco. ªlrvo zooĀoo|o blco |o blt |o|o zooĀl
(VŋPDLQHL} scµstoocl|c (RXVLD}¨ (l028o =-ó}.
All uro¬o orlstotolovs|oq blco oo lozl c SROODFKŮV ooqo c OHJKHWDL ßllo roĀooo
oo |ouoo lll ¬ooqo ooĀloo, blco |o oosto sto VHNDçH ßlt co to|oĄor oorlzoot
svo|oq urcqoq uo|ozo, oll µosto|o ñlozoIs|l µroblo¬ so¬o c trooct|c |ouo
so qovorl o o|o¬c. 8tovlso cµrovo |o Ālo|oolco uo so o o|o¬c qovorl ooo |o|o
qo Ālol uvos¬lslool¬ l ¬ooqoµo|ovol¬. Clo|oolco uo ¬ooqoµo|ovoost ¬ozo bltl
roucclrooo oo ¬l|oo|o uo qo sovoco¬o so¬o µro|o ND]LYDQMD ßlco, c|oll|o |o
¬lsllvo, c|ozc|o oo¬ so ou µoĀot|o NDRSURL]YRGMH]LND
u trooct|c c |o|o¬ so µo|ovl|c|o lsµrou oos blco lzozlvo lotorµrotocl|c, c
trooct|c c |o|o¬ ¬ozo¬o qovorltl o o|o¬c ooo |o voc lotorµrotlrooo. No¬o
urcqo. Jo¬ |rcqc ol|o csµl|ovoo µob|ocl ol lor¬oolu, |o|l |o |os uoñolroo
RQRPDWD |oo ooµoczuooo. All RQRPDWD sc bllo µrl|ovoroo l¬ooo |o|o s¬o
uool|oll, µrl|o ñlozoIs|o roño|sl|o, zo ooo sto µosto|o. oll lor¬oolu |o blo µrvl
|o|l |o lzrozlo ULMHÿLPD µozlv zo µroµozoovoo|o¬ (l lotorµrotocl|o¬} ¬ooqlo
zoo|ovo (VŋPDWD} µro|o |o|lo blco lzozlvo oos uls|crs. l uo blco |ost, |ouoo|o
|o µotroboo UHýL|oo l ¬lslltl (Dk ó}.
1os vozol|o, zo Arlstotolo boz rl|oĀl blco oltl |ost, oltl ol|o. sto|l to¬o, ¬l s¬o
coctor o|oqo, oll oo PLVOLPR uo |os¬o. Arlstotolovo ootoloql|o, o to¬o s¬o
qovorlll ooslro|o, l¬o qloqols|o |orl|ooo. u 0HWDÀ]LFL svo|o sµo¬lo|oo|o blco,
svo|o µltoo|o l ouqovor o blcc |ost c |ooto|stc |ouooq YHUEXP GLFHQGL (blo
to OHJKHLQVŋPDLQHLQ lll oo|l urcql}. kouo (l005b 25-2ó} so Ālto uo ª|o bllo
|o¬o oo¬oqcco µov|orovotl uo lsto stvor |ost l ol|o¨, µo|ovl|c|o so qloqol
\SRODPEDQHLQ|o|l |o clstloc ªv|orovotl¨, ªsovotltl c¬o¬¨, oll ÷ vlu|ovsl uo |o
c¬ ORJRV÷ zooĀl to|oĄor ªczotl rl|oĀ¨.
Voqlo bl so µrlqovorltl uo |ozc|o¬o boz |ootroul|cl|o o ooo¬o sto µrlµouo
scµstoocl|l, o scµstoocl|o |o ooovlsoo o ooso¬ |ozlvoo|c o o|o|. All uo |o|o
toĀ|o° ko|o qovorl¬o o scµstoocl|l° ko|o ¬ozo¬o rocl boz |ootroul|cl|o uo |o
Āov|o| rocloooloo zlvotlo|o, uo| rocl uo |o bl|ol l uo trĀl ls|ozc|o o o|o¬c so¬o
µrolozoc o|cluoocl|c, sto uo|lo oo ¬ozo bltl ob|o|t zoooostl. u µorcoµtlvoo¬
Āloc o|tlvol lotolo|t oµstroolro blt ou slotozo ¬otorl|o l Ior¬o |o|o |oostrclro
loulvlucoloc |oo|rotoc scµstoocl|c l zotl¬ lzqlouo uo c sµozoo|oo¬ trooct|c
¬l zoovoco¬o ooµosrouoo l boz ooµoro WRWLŋQHLQDL (l028b 33.3ó}, to sto |o
blco bllo, l uo|lo µosto|ooo |ost. All sto ¬ozo¬o rocl o bltl° Vozo¬o |o so¬o
163
|CO - O ßlJku
C|Vu
8.ló,l7
O2u1Ak
2009.
uoñolrotl. ªDoñolcl|o so roĄo |or ooo ¬oro oosto ozooĀltl. Doñolcl|o |o µo|o¬
(ORJRV} Āl|o |o l¬o (RQRPD} zoo| (VŋPHLRQ}¨ (l0l2o 22.2=}.
1ool Vl l¬o¬o ooµobltoo uo|oz oqzlstoocl|o loulvlucc¬o, oll o o|l¬o oo
¬ozo¬o rocl olsto, osl¬ o|o lo oo l¬ooc|o¬o µo o|loovo| bltl, t|. µo rouc l
sµoclñĀoo| rozllcl (oo uo|lo ªovo| Āov|o|¨, ooqo ªĀov|o|¨}. Cl¬ so clozl c svo¬lr
bltl clozl so c svo¬lr uoñolcl|o, t|. c svo¬lr |ozl|o |o|l uoñolro.
=
Vl l¬o¬o ¬olo l¬ooo l ¬olo uoñolcl|o zo bos|ro|oost µo|oulooĀolo stvorl.
Do|lo, µrlb|oqovoo|o colvorzoloo¬ ol|o sooqo ¬lsll, ooqo VODERVW GLVNXUVD
Dro¬o lozl c to¬o uo Āov|o| qovorl cvl|o| oµcoolto uo| sc stvorl µo|oulooĀoo.
1ozl| l¬ooc|o zoto¬o|c|ccl ooµobltoo uo|oz oqzlstlro|cco loulvluco. l svl sc
µo|cso|l bozcsµ|osol, UHÁH[LR DG SKDQWDVPDWD sczovo|ccl |oocoµt oo ÁDWXV
YRFLV c ouoosc oo loulvlucc |oo |ouloc lotcltlvoc µrotµostov|c, csovl|c|ccl so
o|o louo|so, o|o vlostltlo l¬ooo l rlqluolo ozoo|o... |oo ll|o|ovo zo svo bolostl.
Osl¬ c oo|l¬ slcĀo|ovl¬o (c |o|l¬o so l oo ¬oro qovorltl, ooqo cµorltl µrst,
zozvlzuotl, zqrobltl zo rc|c ÷ oll c tl¬ slcĀo|ovl¬o ¬l ooµrosto |os¬o, oo
rosµrovl|o so o blcc} voc s¬o s¬|ostool c colvorzoloo¬ |ouo qovorl¬o.
l zoto slurlsto scµstoocl|o, |o|o bl trobolo oµs|rbltl ¬ooqoµo|ovoost blco,
µrolzoslo lz |ozl|o |o|l lo qovorl, oooovo oos voul |ozl|c |oo stoo|c oooqo
sto zoo¬o o so¬l¬ scµstoocl|o¬o. ko|o s¬o µo|ozoll (|co l98=, 2.=}, zo
uoñolcl|c |o µotroboo |oostrclrotl stoblo µroul|oblll|o, rouovo, vrsto l rozll|o,
o Arlstotol, |o|l cµrovo scqorlro|ccl to|vo stoblo lorñrl|c, oo csµl|ovo qo ol|ou
(c u|oll¬o o µrlroul c |o|l¬o zoll clstloc uoñolrotl bltl} µrl¬l|ooltl oo oo¬oqoo
l uosl|ouol ooĀlo (csµoroul |co l990. =.2.l.l}.
8'926758ÿ(1-(%,7.$
kouo so uoluoqqor, c äWRMHPHWDÀ]LND" µlto ª2osto µosto|l blco roul|o ooqo
olsto°¨, oo |orlstl 6HLHQGH o oo 6HLQ 2o uoluoqqoro |o µroblo¬ ¬otoñzl|o uo
so ooo cvl|o| bovllo blco¬, oll oo o|oqovl¬ to¬ol|o¬, t|. blt|o¬, l lstloo¬ blt|o.
= lroblo¬ |o sl|ouocl. lzvloĀl¬ ll uoñolcl|c lz uo|ozo |o|l ¬l uo|o soozocl|o (l scsl|ouoc oµstro|cl|c lz µrlvlĄoo|o} lll |o µrouzooo|o
uoñolcl|o ooo |o|o ¬l uoµcsto oµstroolroo|o bltl° A|o o|tlvol lotolo|t ol|o s|loulsto µrotoouolo Ior¬l, ooqo oblĀoo ¬oooolzo¬ |o|l
¬l uoµcsto loulvlucocl|c Ior¬l c ouvl|oo|c c slotozl Ior¬o l ¬otorl|o |o|o soĀlo|ovo loulvlucoloc |oo|rotoc scµstoocl|c, sto |o to
sµosoboost° Lo|o |o µostl c oroµs|c oorozc l rocl uo µosto|l |ouoo |oulol zo svo, to|oĄor c to¬ slcĀo|c tvrultl uo µosto|l |ouoo |oulol
oo zoll rocl uo |o ooµro¬|oo|lv l colvorzoloo, ¬oqoo bl bltl |ouoo o|tlvol |cltcrol lotolo|t, ¬oqoo bl bltl sµosoboost loulvlucocl|o
l lzrozlvoo|o Ior¬l sourzo|o. u |o|o¬ bl slcĀo|c |ôu, oµs|rbl|oo ou soq¬ootocl|o X]URNRYDQH o|tlvol¬ lotolo|to¬, uotor¬lolroo
µrlrouc l oqzo|toost roIorlroo|ol u 3RHWLFLl=5ób 7 (µoucrtovo Acboogco} so |ozo. ª8to bl troboo Āloltl uls|crs o|o bl so stvorl
voc µo|ovl|lvolo so¬o l oo bl µotrobovolo uls|crs°¨. Acboogco (l9ó2. lló} cltlro |ouoc stroolcc lz u|olo 2VRÀVWLÿNLPSRELMDQMLPD.
ßcuccl uo so oo ¬oqc uovostl uo uls|csl|o stvorl so¬o, ooqo so ¬oro¬o |orlstltl o|loovl¬ l¬ool¬o |oo sl¬boll¬o, ¬l µrotµostov-
l|o¬o uo so to sto so uoqoĄo s l¬ool¬o to|oĄor uoqoĄo l so stvorl¬o, |oo c slcĀo|c |o¬ooĀlco |o|l so |orlsto zo zbro|oo|o. All
lz¬oĄc l¬ooo l stvorl oo µosto|l µotµcoo sllĀoost, l¬ooo sc oqroolĀooo c bro|c, o to|o l ¬oozloo uoñolcl|o, uo| sc stvorl bos|ro|oo
c bro|c (l bos|ro|oo sc o|loovo o|cluootoloo Ior¬o}.
ló=
C|Vu
8.ló,l7
O2u1Ak
2009.
|CO - O ßlJku
lsµltc|ccl blco |oo blco, ¬otoñzl|o |o lzb|oqlo o|rooctl so blt|c |oo blt|c. Ooo
so ol|ouo ol|o µosvotllo vlostlto¬ to¬ol|c. ulo o|ozloo scubloo blo |o to| uo |o|
|o blto| lz¬lcoo. koIorlrolo so oo blco c o|oqovo| c|cµoostl v|orc|ccl uo qovorl
o blt|c |oo to|vo¬, bovllo so blco¬ |oo blco¬ uo| so blto| ¬oolIostlro
so¬o 'DVHLQc l zo 'DVHLQ. l ¬l uo|lo oo ¬ozo¬o qovorltl o blt|c o|o so oo
roIorlro¬o oo sobo c|oll|o s¬o boĀool c svl|ot. Vlslltl blto| |oo blto| (¬lslltl
oo lstloc blt|o |oo to¬ol| ¬otoñzl|o} zooĀl ooµcstltl ¬otoñzl|c. lroblo¬ blt|o l
o|oqovo ot|rlvoo|o ol|o µroblo¬ ¬otoñzl|o |oo zoooostl o blcc, ooqo cootrolol
µroblo¬ oqzlstoocl|o.
Jo|o oo scooc clozl luo|o Nlsto, sto ªluo zo|ouoo¨ s luo|o¬ blco. koĄo so c
os|oco|c t|os|obo. J|os|obo Ālol uo so os|oco¬o otcĄool¬o ou blco l ªouczl¬o
oo¬ rl|oĀ¨. ßoz rl|oĀl oo¬o vlso blco. c lz¬lcoo|c blco lzvlro oo-blco, t|. olsto.
J|os|obo oo¬ ot|rlvo olsto. All to so olsto µolstov|occ|o s blt|o¬ (6HLQ}, |oo
blto| blco, o|oqov to¬ol| l lstloo, l c to¬ s¬lslc uoluoqqor ¬ozo µotvrultl
uoqolovc ¬lsoo µro¬o |o|o| sc Ālstl blto| l Ālsto olsto |ouoo to lsto. lz toq
ls|cstvo olĀoqo lzvlro µotrobo zo µro¬otroo|o¬ blt|o |oo bltl to¬ol|o blco.
lµo|, QRQ VXQW PXOWLSOLFDQGD HQWLD VLQH QHFHVVLWDWH µosoboo µo|¬ovl to|o
µrvobltol |oo blco, blto| l olsto. Jos|o |o rozuvo|ltl uoluoqqorovc ¬lsoo ou
|ozl|o c |o|o¬ so lzrozovo, l oo so¬ |o to zooo. votroo |o|ov |o blo c vozl
ñlozoIs|o µrlrouo vlostltoq o|o¬oĀ|oq, sto bl blo troboo µo¬lslltl uo |o blo
roĄoo c O|looo¬l, rosµolozccl s |ouol¬ oo|osol¬ WREH l so so¬o |ouol¬ %HLQJ
zo 6HLHQGH l 6HLQ° kouo bl |os bllo µotroboo µooovltl uo oo¬ so blto| so¬o
µo|ovl|c|o |oo rozcltot |ozl|o, blo bl uovol|oo ooĀlo oo |o|l ovo uvl|o rl|oĀl
(6HLHQGH l 6HLQ} olµostozlro|c c uvo Nosto. Dvo so µo|¬o stvoro|c zoto sto
µosto|l |ouoo |ozl| l ourzovo|c so so¬o o|o so uo |ro|o oo µrlovotl oµorl|o
blt|o oµlsooo |ou Arlstotolo.
A|o oo|uoqorovs|o blco ouqovoro scµstoocl|o¬o, c µosto|oo|o |o|lo Arlstotol
ol|o sc¬o|oo (c o|loovo µosto|oo|o oo sc¬o|o ol uoluoqqor |o|l, cootoĀ bo||o¬o
ooµrlĀool¬ o NlĀo¬c, |oo Arlstotol l koot ol|ouo ol|o uovoo c µltoo|o uo
stvorl |osc l uo so sµootooo oouo|c ooso| Ācloo| lotclcl|l}, slqcroo bl ¬oqlo
µosto|otl oosto oo|osol|o l lzvorol|o |o|o osto|o s urcqo strooo ooso llczl|o uo
scµstoocl|o ¬ozo¬o l¬ooovotl |ouoozooĀoo. All svo uo ovo toĀ|o |os bls¬o
blll oo lor¬ooluovo| sc¬o|l µro¬o RQRPDWD Dovol|oo bl bllo rocl uo ooĀlo oo
|o|l s¬o uo souo soq¬ootlroll Nosto |o|o oos o|rczc|o coµco oo ob|oso|ovo
to Nosto, oo ob|oso|ovo qo zboq o|oqovo oolstrozlvoq boqotstvo, lll oµsolctoo
|ouoostovoostl, lll oozouovol|ovo|cco zbr|ooostl. A|o so blto| |ozo clstloc oo
¬ooqo ooĀloo, 6HLQ blo bl |os cvl|o| l|oµl|lvo c|cµoost blco, µrl|o ooqo sc so
ló5
|CO - O ßlJku
C|Vu
8.ló,l7
O2u1Ak
2009.
ooo oooovo µoul|olllo µro|o |ozl|o |o|l lo l¬ooc|o.
All oouo bl µroblo¬ 'DVHLQo, c ooo| ¬|orl c |o|o| |o |oulostvoo lz¬oĄc svlo blco
zboq ¬oqccoostl µostovl|oo|o µltoo|o o blt|c, blo cµrovo ovo. osvl|ostltl o|oqov
|rczol ouoos s blcl¬o |o|o l¬ooc|o ÷ uovol|oo osv|ostovoo|o zo lzozlvoo|o
t|os|obo l os|oco|o ooµrlµouoostl, oll |o|o oo bl c ol|o|vo¬ s¬lslc cĀlollo uo
lzoĄo¬o lz |rcqo c |o|o¬ so tcblto| µooovoo oolozl boĀoo.
kocl uo µosto|l oosto sto ¬otoñzl|o |os ol|o ob|osollo, urcql¬ rl|oĀl¬o uo
lotorµrotocl|o |os ol|o soq¬ootlrolo, c|ozc|o uo |o ooo| oosto voc ob|o|t
soq¬ootocl|o, c|oll|o |o uoñolroo |oo c|cµoost oooqo sto |os ol|o soq¬ootlrooo.
A|o |o tcblto| blco |o|o µroµozoo|o c µotµcoostl so¬lozoc µrlrouc svo|oq
ouooso s blcl¬o, ol|o µotroboo cuvostrcĀltl 6HLHQGH l 6HLQ.
Nl|o µotroboo rocl uo oo¬ |o ¬otoñzlĀ|l uls|crs stvorlo svl|ot blco c |o|o¬ zlvl¬o
oo oooctootlĀoo ooĀlo. Jo bl oos c oo|bol|c rc|c oovolo uo µroIor¬cllro¬o
to| zovoul|lvl uls|crs. All to bl so cvl|o| ¬oqlo ooµrovltl |rotoo|o¬ ou toq
oorlzooto blco c |o|l s¬o boĀool. A|o so c|cµoost blco oo µolstov|occ|o so¬o
s c|cµooscc cµotrobl|lvlo ob|o|oto, ooqo c|l|cĀc|o l luo|o l o¬ocl|o, oouo sc
t|os|obo l os|oco| boz¬|osoostl |oostltctlvol ulo toq ootlĀ|oq svo¬lro |o|l bl ool
troboll rosµrsltl. Osvl|ostooost o blt|c zo s¬rt, t|os|obc, os|oco| oooqo olsto
oo otvoro oos olĀo¬c sto voc ol|o oorlzoot c |o|l s¬o boĀool. ßlco |o|o oo¬
uolozo cscsrot olsc so¬o ªcµorobl|lvl¨ ob|o|tl. to|oĄor sc |lovl|otcro strostl
|o|o uobro µozoo|o¬o, zoto sto sc ooĀlo oo |o|l sc oos urcql cµozooll c ooso¬
blvoo|c c svl|otc. Os|oco|l zo |o|o so Ālol uo oos otvoro|c 6HLQc Āloo voc ulo
ooµroqlouooq torltorl|o blco. Oµot, |ouo bl Nlsto bllo c|ozlvoo|o to¬oo sllo
|o|o so scµrotstovl|o blcl¬o, c to| oolzroclvo| ootolos|o| ªcroo| rcµl¨ ¬oqll
bls¬o ¬ozuo scsrostl µctol|o ooqotlvol¬ svo¬lro¬, GDV6HLQ All oo, uoluoqqor
ol|o toll|o oolvoo uo bl olµostozlroo |ouoo ¬oooolzo¬ ¬lsl|oo|o (ooqocl|c} lll
os|oco| uo so stvoroost |olobo l µrotvorlo qo c ootolos|c ªstvoroost¨ oooqo
Nlsto. Oo vrlo uobro zoo, zo|ouoo s ¬curoco¬ lz |lo|o, uo blto| |ost, o
ooblto| ol|o. 8to bl ¬oqoo ooµrovltl ou tor¬loo |o|l oo so¬o uo ol|o lotoozlvoo
ooqo oo µos|ouc|o ol o|stoozlvoost° Os|oco| oooqo olsto ooco bltl |ouoostovoo
tooolltot strostl, |ootloqootoo l slcĀo|oo uoµrosl|o, vrsto rosµolozoo|o, ooqo
|o cvl|o| ªIcouo¬ootoloo o¬ocloooloo sltcocl|o¨ (uoluoqqor l973. 20=}. No
u|ozlvoo|o |ouooq urcqoq Nosto, ooqo strost.
l sto oouo boz¬|osoost µotlĀo, o|o oo sv|osoost uo so oos Jcblto| sosto|l c
µotrobl µrlĀoo|o (brbl|oo|o} o blcc° kozvouoo ou blco o |o|o¬ µrlĀo¬o, blto|
lz¬lĀo. All ovo ol|o ootolos|o lll ¬otoñzlĀ|o tvruo|o, ooqo lo|slĀ|o lstlcoo|o. to|
rl|oĀl, GDV6HLQ c|oll|o |o| |o scµrotstovl|ooo rl|oĀl GDV6HLHQGH oo ouqovoro
166
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ol|ouoo zooĀoo|o. Obo tor¬loo l¬o|c lstc o|stoozl|c (oooqroolĀooc} l lstc lotoozl|c
(ol|o|vc}. ªßlco oo¬ |o µozooto ÷ oll blto|° kouo µo|csovo¬o ouroultl,
lll to|oĄor so¬o rozc¬|otl to|ov µo|o¬, zor oos oo ovoto vrtoqlovlco°¨
(uoluoqqor l973. l95}. Jo |o toĀoo lsto ooo vrtoqlovlco |o|o oos ovoto |ouo
zoll¬o rocl sto |o blco |oo blco. Jor¬lol lsto lotoozl|o l o|stoozl|o (|oulol µrl¬|or
oµsolctoo sloool¬oostl} 6HLHQGH l 6HLQc|ozc|c obo|o oo lsto Nosto.
6HLQ so c oo|uoqorl|oos|o¬ uls|crsc cvl|o| µo|ovl|c|o |oo cl|oz, scµstootlvlrooo
olµostozo qloqols|o cµorobo tlµlĀoo zo coblĀo|ool uls|crs. Jcblto| so µooovo
oolozl, µosto|o sv|ostoo sobo c|oll|o |o cµccoo blcc l to¬o ot|rlvo svo|c lstlos|c
blt (|o|o ol|o scµstoocl|o, ooqo RGOXND} |oo blto| zo s¬rt. Jo |o |ouoo vrsto
trooscoouootoloo oµorcoµcl|o boz ª|o¨ l boz ª¬lsll¬¨, c |o|o| so tcblto| ot|rlvo
|oo ¬lsoo, o¬ocl|o, zol|o l t|olosoost (looĀo oo bl ¬oqoo ¬orotl c¬rl|otl}. ªu
ouoosoo|c s blco¬ |o|o oo ol|o, Āov|o| so voc oolozl lsµrou blco |oo oooq
|o|o qo sourzl, oooq |o|o¬c |o cµccoo, oooq |o|l¬, so svo¬ svo|o¬ |cltcro¬
l toool|o¬, oo oo bl ¬oqoo ol|ouo, c µotµcoostl, vlouotl¨ (uoluoqqor l973.
l9ó}. u to¬ oorlzootc 'DVHLQ so µroµozoo|o |oo to|ov. ªu svo|o¬ ucsovoo¬
rosµolozoo|c, zboq |o|oq '|o' svot|o ou oos c ovo¬ lll ooo¬ stoo|c, oos |o tcblto|
¬oolIostoo¨. 8lozo¬ so. All zosto oouo to|st oostovl|o. ªVl uo|lo sovoco¬o
blto|, oll oo¬ lµo| oouosto|o µo|o¬ o o|o¬c¨ (uoluoqqor l973. l9ó}° 2osto
so c to|vo¬ ucsovoo¬ rosµolozoo|c lll stoo|c ot|rlvo 6HLQ" Nor¬oloo |o uo
oo¬ o o|o¬c oouosto|o µo|o¬, o|o |o o|oqovo lotoozl|o oclo, |oo c slcĀo|c
blco |oo blco. All zosto l¬o¬o µotrobc zo tl¬ |oocoµto¬°
J|os|obo tvorl otvoroo|o tcblt|o svo|o| oqzlstoocl|l |oo boĀooostl o|oqovc
vlostlto¬ |ro|c (uoluoqqor l923}, lstloo l scb|o|t (qro¬otlĀ|l} to boĀooostl
|ost 'DVHLQ All zosto so oouo ou¬oo µosll|o |ozo ªblto| zo o|c (t|os|obc} so
otvoro tcblt|c¨ l ªblto| tcblt|o |o c µotµcoostl c oµosoostl¨° ßlto| tcblt|o |o
oblĀoo toctoloql|o. Jcblto| so oo ¬ozo cstro|ltl oo ooĀo¬c, s obzlro¬ oo to uo
uo |o ªboĀoo¨ (zosto°]DWRåWRMHVW}. Ouo|lo uolozl to| GDV6HLQ |o|l so otvoro
tcblt|c, o|o |o tcblto| |o|l so otvoro |ouoo blco ¬oĄc blcl¬o°
kouo uoluoqqor |ozo uo µroblo¬ cto¬ol|oo|o ¬otoñzl|o oolozl svo| |orl|oo
c Āov|o|ovc lsµltlvoo|c blt|o, lll bol|o c o|oqovc oo|lotl¬ol|o¬ Icouo¬ootc,
ªsovocoo|c blt|o |oo clstloc µosto|oco |oooĀoostl¨ (uoluoqqor l973. l98},
6HLQ ol|o olsto urcqo uoll oqzlstoocl|oloo sovocoo|o oosoq |oooĀooq ooĀloo
stoo|o cµccooostl oorlzootc blco. 6HLQol|o olsto, osl¬ oosoq sovocoo|o uo s¬o
|oooĀoo blco.
l to|o ¬ozo¬o rocl uo |o ls|cstvo blt|o tcblt|o, c oo|bol|o¬ slcĀo|c, csµ|olo
¬otoIoro zo ozooĀovoo|o oo|osooq µourcĀ|o qu|o so stvoro otlĀ|o oulc|o.
167
|CO - O ßlJku
C|Vu
8.ló,l7
O2u1Ak
2009.
octootlĀoo µrlovotltl svo|c scubloc blt|o zo s¬rt, l c to| toĀ|l zrtvovotl c tlslol
ooo sto bl ¬otoñzl|o rozvcĀooo ro|lo o loql|l blco oou |o|l¬o |o csµostovllo
svo|c llczoroc µrovlost.
All stlzo (ñlozoIs|l ct|oco|oo DoqoĄo|} Obrot (GLH.HKUH}. l c Obrotc to| to|o
lotoozlvoo b|ozocl blto| µosto|o ¬oslvoo scb|o|t, µro¬uo c obll|c oo|osooq
|rcl|oo|o |o|o q¬lzo lsµou |ozo blco. 2oll JRYRULWL l VNLQXWLPDVNX A|o qovorl,
qovorlt co µro|o oos, vlu|ovsl uo, |oo 6HLQ lzvlro so¬o c svo|o| vozl s 'DVHLQo¬.
lotroboo |o, uo|lo, |oo sto |o blo slcĀo| s cuvostrcĀoo|o¬ ootlĀ|o,ootolos|o,
rostovltl blto| ou o|oqo so¬oq, |oo l |ozl|. 8 |ouoo co strooo ¬otoñzlĀ|l
|ozl| bltl voc oo zolozc, ostorlo c svo|o¬ tvruoqlovo¬ zoborovc blt|o, zol|oo
bovl|oo|o¬ ob|o|tl¬o, l s urcqo strooo |ozl| sµosoboo ÷ ro|ll bls¬o ÷ ªuoooor
co soos µlcs µcr oc× ¬ots uo lo trlbcs¨. Jo|ov |o|l, c¬|osto so|rlvoo|o blt|o,
ot|rlvo blto|.
Oouo so µov|orovo bos|ro|oo ¬oc |ozl|c l tvrul so uo µosto|l toll|o ¬ocoo obll|
|ozl|o, toll|o |ooscµstoocl|oloo so¬o¬ Icouo¬ootc blt|o, uo oo¬ ªµo|ozc|o¨
blto| (µro|o oorozuvo|ooq µlo|scso blto|-|ozl|} to|o uo oo ostovl|o rozluco
÷ to|o uo so c |ozl|c ostvorc|o so¬oot|rlvoo|o blt|o. Jo lzvrsoo oµrl¬|orc|o
zouo|l stlo uöluorlloovo $QGHQNHQD. ªAll ooo sto µroosto|o lotclro|c µ|osolcl¨.
2-('12002*8ý(0,=0,&$1-8%,7.$
Noµcstl¬o souo svo| ¬ouol |or so µrotvorlo c µrl|oz (roollstlĀol} ooso boĀooostl
c blvoo|o l µotvrulo oo¬ |o uo blto| oo ¬ozo bltl urcqo ooqo ooo sto so |ozo
oo ¬ooqo ooĀloo. 8ovotlll s¬o uo, |o|o qou bllo so stvorl¬o (Āo| l so¬o luo|o
uo stvorl |osc oo oo|l so ooĀlo ¬ozo uovostl c sc¬o|c}, svo|o µroµozlcl|o o
to¬o sto µosto|l l o to¬o sto bl ¬oqlo bltl, l¬µllclro lzbor, µorsµo|tlvc, toĀ|c
qlouoo|o. 8vo|l µo|cso| uo so oosto |ozo o to¬o sto µosto|l blo bl µouvrqoct
rovlzl|l, oovl¬ uo¬lsl|oo|l¬o o µrl|louoostl |orlstoo|o ovo lll ooo sll|o, lll soo¬o.
Vooqo ou ooslo zootl|ovoolo roµrozootocl|o blt co ¬ozuo lo|o¬µotlblloo
lz¬oĄc sobo, oll bl svo|o ou o|lo ¬oqlo rocl |ouoc svo|c lstloc.
No bls¬o troboll rocl uo oo ¬ozo¬o l¬otl ol|o|vo lstlolto zooo|o, ovootcoloo
bls¬o ¬oqll rocl uo lstloltlo zooo|o µos|ouc|o¬o ¬ooqo. No|l sc sµro¬ol
µrlqovorltl uo lz¬oĄc toqo uo so |ozo uo oo µosto|l ol|ouoo lstloo l uo so |ozo
|o|o µosto|o ¬ooqo (bllo to Āo| |ouoo |o|o |ouoostovoo uvostrc|o lstloo} oo
µosto|l rozll|o. All bls¬o ¬oqll |ouoo|o to|o µrlqovorltl uo |o to obll|o lstloo
µrolozoo, rozcltot oosoq qlovlo|oo|o, uo µo|ozc|o qroolcc lz¬oĄc µo|cso|o
ló8
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2009.
|CO - O ßlJku
l µoqroso|o µro|o |o|o bl so to rozllĀlto µorsµo|tlvo (svo u|olo¬lĀoo lstlolto}
¬oqlo |ouooq uooo slsto¬otlzlrotl, l uo oo |ro|c |ro|ovo ooso ooµrostooo
µrolsµltlvoo|o lstloo ovlsl cµrovo o ovo¬ obll|c...
Voqcco |o uo c ooso¬ |ozl|c µosto|l µroobll|o blt|o. Vozuo zooostvool|, |ouo
|ozo uo olµotozo oo blvo|c vorlñclrooo, ooqo µrl|o svoqo Iolslñclrooo, ooco
rocl uo |o zo zooo|o µotroboo rouc|cl|o obll|o blt|o |o|o |ozl| ¬ozo tvrultl.
u svo|o¬ slcĀo|c, bllo bl |o|o µrlovotl|lvo luo|o uo sc uos|rlµcl|o svl|oto
|o|o Ālol¬o cvl|o| c µorsµo|tlvl µovozooo s ooĀloo¬ oo |o|l s¬o blolos|l,
otolĀ|l, µsloolos|l l |cltcroo c|orl|oo|ool c oorlzootc blt|o. Jo |oro|torlstl|o
oo bl sµrl|oĀllo ooso uls|crso uo |orosµooulro|c svl|otc, boro¬ s |ouoo toĀ|o
qloulsto, o uo so zboq toqo oo os|oco¬o zouovol|ool stcµo|o¬ µostlqoctoq
|orosµooulroo|o, to|o uo c |oooĀolcl ol|ouo oo bls¬o tvrulll uo oosl ouqovorl,
to|oĄor |ouo c osoovl lzqlouo|c ªuobrl¨, ¬oro|c bltl s¬otrool |oooĀol¬o.
All µroblo¬ ol|o |o|o so µrlloqoultl Ālo|oolcl uo so o blt|c ¬ozo qovorltl
oo ¬ooqo ooĀloo. l uo so, |ouo so |ouooµct µroµozoo ucbo|l ¬oooolzo¬
¬oozloo ouqovoro, stlzo uo |ro|o|oq µltoo|o, |o|o |o µostolo sroulso|o c
tzv. µost¬ouoroo¬ svl|otc. o|o sc µorsµo|tlvo o blt|c bos|oooĀoo, lll boro¬
ostrooo¬s|l ooouroĄooo, zooĀl ll to uo |o |ouoo rovoo urcqo|, uo sc svo
|ouoo|ovrl|ouoo, uo svo|o tvruo|o o to¬o sto µosto|l |ozo oosto lstlolto, lll uo
÷ |oo sto |o ro|oo |oyoroboou zo zooostvooo toorl|o ÷ DQ\WKLQJJRHV"
Jo bl zooĀllo uo so |oooĀoo lstloo oolozl lzvoo qroolco loqocootrlĀooq
zoµouooq ¬ouolo, uo lz¬lĀo µrloclµl¬o luootltoto, µrotcr|oĀoostl l ls|l|cĀoo|o
trocoq, uo so blto| cµrovo µoucuoro s |ololuos|oµo¬ lstloo |o|l Ior¬cllro¬o
µo|csovo|ccl qo l¬ooovotl, uo oo µosto|l trooscoouootoloo zooĀoo|o, uo |o
blto| sû¬ µrocos ooµro|luoo uo|oostrc|cl|o c |o|o|, qovorocl o blt|c, Ālol¬o
blto| svo|l µct svo ñcluol|l¬, qlµ|l|l¬, b|ozocl¬ lll ÷ |o|o |o |ouooµct ro|oo
Gloool vottl¬o csµ|oll¬ µl|o¬oots|l¬ lzrozo¬ ÷ ªco¬oloto¨, t|. lz|ouo|ccl¬ l
zurobl|lvl¬, lll qo¬ol|ostl¬, c olzc toĀo|o |o|o so ¬oqc otvorotl c bos|ro| ovlsoo
o rozllĀltl¬ oµcl|o¬o, loblrlot. All oo¬o µotrobo uocl uo |oyoroboouo, lll uo
qcblt|o trooscoouootolooq zooĀoo|o, lll uo slobo ¬lsll. loslcso|¬o Nlotzscooo,
|ouo |os ol|o blo oovrslo trluosot qouloo, c 2LVWLQLLODçLXL]YDQPRUDOQRPVPLVOX
(Nlotzscoo l873. 355-372}. ßcuccl uo |o µrlrouo oubocllo |l|cĀ, lotolo|t lqro
oo |ortc ñ|cl|û |o|o zovo lstloo¬ lll slsto¬o¬ µo|¬ovo cto¬ol|ool¬ oo |ozlĀoo|
loqlslotlvl. lrvo |o Nlotzscooovo roo|cl|o, ro|oo blo, qotovo o|c¬ovs|o, urcqo
µcoo our|osltl|o s|oµtlĀoo (zosto ouroĄc|o¬o stvorl oo bozl orbltrorolo lzboro
|volltoto°}, troco µrotooul 8oµlr-WoorIovo| olµotozl (rozllĀltl |ozlcl orqoolzlro|c
ls|cstvo oo rozllĀltl ooĀlo}, Āotvrto |ootovs|o (stvor µo sobl |o oosovotl|lvo
169
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ool¬o |o|l qrouo |ozl|}. ¬l v|orc|o¬o uo qovorl¬o o, l µozoo|o¬o, stoblo,
bo|o, sol|oq l cvl|oco, oll to sc ¬otoIoro |o|o oo ouqovoro|c lzvorol¬ bltl¬o.
8vo|o rl|oĀ µosto|o µo|o¬ lzbl|oĄc|ccl c svo|o| slobosoo| colvorzoloostl rozll|o
lz¬oĄc Icouo¬ootoloo oo|ouoo|lo stvorl. to|o ¬lsll¬o uo ooscµrot ¬oozlol
loulvlucololo llstovo µosto|l |ouoo µrl¬orul|olol ªllst¨ ªoo Āl|c bl sll|c blll lst|ool,
s|lclrool, o¬oĄool, obo|ool, s¬ozcrool, oosll|ool ÷ oll oov|ostl¬ rc|o¬o ÷ svl
llstovl, oo to|ov ooĀlo uo ol|ouoo otlso| oo bl lsµoo toĀoo l µoczuoo c clozl
v|oroo |oµl|o orlqloolooq obll|o¨ (lb.. 3ó0}. Jos|o oo¬ |o µrlovotltl uo µtlco lll
loso|t µorclµlro|c svl|ot oo ooĀlo urc|Āl|l ou oosoq, l oo¬o s¬lslo ol rocl |o|o ou
µorcoµcl|o |o ooo oo|lsµrovol|o, zoto sto bl blo µotroboo ooo| |rltorl| ªtoĀoo
µorcoµcl|o¨ |o|l oo µosto|l (lb.. 3ó5}, zoto sto ªµrlrouo ¬oĄctl¬ oo µozoo|o
ol|ouoc Ior¬c l ol|ouoo µo|o¬, l uo|lo oltl |ouoo rou, ooqo so¬o |ouoo ×,
zo oos oouoovotoo l oouoñolrl|lv¨ (lb.. 3ól}. Do|lo |ouoo |ootlzo¬, oll boz
trooscoouootolooq cto¬ol|oo|o l to|oĄor boz |rltl|o scĄoo|o. u oo|bol|o¬
slcĀo|c, oo|oo sto |o ctvrulo uo |o ooso ootltozo lz¬oĄc loulvlucolooq l oµcoq
so¬o µosl|oulco ootroµo¬orñz¬o l oo lzbl|o lz bltl stvorl, lsµrovo|, s|oµtlĀol|l
ou s|oµtlclz¬o |o|l zoll lsµrovltl, |ozo. ªoo cscĄc|o¬o so rocl uo to|vo ootltozo
ouqovoro to|vo| bltl. Ovo bl ¬oĄctl¬ bllo uoq¬otlĀoo tvruo|o, l |oo to|vo
lsto to|o oouo|ozlvo |oo o|o| scµrotoo tvruo|o¨ (lb.. 3ól}.
Jrobo so oouo oulcĀltl sto |o to lstloo. l to rouo, ¬otoIorlĀ|l, slqcroo, oll ool |o|l
oo¬ cµrovo qovoro uo so oosto zoo so¬o zboq slobouoo l uo¬lsl|oto ¬otoIoro.
lstloo |o cµrovo ªµo|rotoo vo|s|o ¬otoIoro, ¬otool¬l|o, ootroµo¬orñzo¬o¨
oloborlroolo c µootlĀoo¬ ucoc |o|l sc so µosll|o c|rctlll c zooo|c, ªllczl|o Āl|o
so llczoroo µrlrouo zoborovllo¨, |ovoolco Āl|o sc so µovrslos|o sll|o lstrosllo
l |o|o so czl¬o|c c obzlr so¬o |oo ¬otol, to|o uo so oovl|ovo¬o loqotl
µro¬o |oovoocl|l, stllo¬ obvozc|ccl¬ zo svo, stovl|o|ccl svo|o u|olovoo|o µou
|ootrolc oµstro|cl|o oo|oo sto s¬o sczlll ¬otoIoro c VKHPH l SRMPRYH l ouoouo
µlro¬luolol µorouo| |osto l stcµo|ovo, zo|ooo l oqroolĀoo|o, c µotµcoostl
stvoroo ou |ozl|o, oqro¬oo ªrl¬s|l qolcblo|o|¨, qrobl|o lotclcl|o.
Noµoroclvo |o uo |o to lzvrstoo µortrot |ozlĀoo zqrouo |o|o ulsclµllolro µo|zoz
blco. All lzostovl|ooo sc, to|oĄor lz oulo¬o|o |o|l sll|ouo, uvo µltoo|o. csµl|ovo
ll so, µrlloqoĄovo|ccl so µrlocuo¬o toq qolcblo|o|o, oo oo|l ooĀlo scoĀltl so
svl|oto¬ (sto oo bl bllo oovozoo oµsorvocl|o}, l zor so oo uoqoĄo s vro¬ooo
oo vrl|o¬o uo oos svl|ot µrlsll|ovo uo rostrc|tcrlro¬o to| qolcblo|o| lll uo
ooµrosto lzoboro¬o oltorootlvoc Ior¬c qolcblo|o|c (sto |o, zotl¬, µroblo¬
rovolccl|o sµozoo|olo µoroulq¬l}. Nlotzscoo, |o|l oo¬ oo |ro|c oslqcrovo sll|c
MHGQRJ ooĀloo sovocoo|o svl|oto |o|l so¬ oµlsoo c µrotoouoo¬ µoroqroIc, oo
170
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Ālol so uo so µlto µosto|o ll ¬ooqo ¬oqcco Ior¬o svl|oto. N|oqov |o µortrot
µortrot oollstlĀ|oq slsto¬o qu|o ol|ouoo oovl scu o stvoroostl oo ¬ozo ct|ocotl
oo stoblloost slsto¬o.
Drcql¬ rl|oĀl¬o, uo bls¬o ro|ll lstloc (v|oroc to|stc}, oo µrl¬|occ|o µosto|oo|o
µrlrouolo µrlocuo l µozoo|o ooĀlo µro¬|ooo. lrlocuo ¬c lzqlouo|c |oo ªstrosoo
sllo¨ |o|o oos ooµro|luoo µrltlscc, scµrotstovl|o|ccl ªzooostvool¬¨ lstloo¬o
urcqo lstloo rozllĀlto µrlrouo, oll ovluootoo lo oubl|o µroµozootl cµo|¬l|c|ccl
lo, s obzlro¬ oo to uo oosto|l ou o|lo µob|ocl, o|lo |o|o s¬o |oostrclroll zo
obrooc |oo µo|¬ovoo ooorczoo|o.
lro¬|ooo |o ¬oqcco, oll oo |oo rostrc|tcrlroo|o, ooqo |oo µor¬ooootoo
µoots|o rovolccl|o. ªkou bl svot|o ou oos,µo|oulooĀoo l¬oo urc|Āl|c soozocl|c,
|ou bls¬o so¬l ¬oqll µorclµlrotl souo |oo µtlco, souo |oo crvl, souo |oo
bll||o, lll |ou bl oot|o ou oos vlulo lstl µourozo| |oo crvool, o oot|o urcql |oo
oobos|oµlovl, |ou bl oot|o trocl Āco to|ov µourozo| ol vlso ol ¬oo|o ooqo
|oo zvc|, olt|o oo bl oouo ¬oqoo µrlĀotl o |ouoo| to|vo| µrovlloostl µrlrouo¨
(lb.. 3óó-3ó7}. Ll|oµo |o |olocluoocl|o sto sc tl rouovl ooµlsool uvl|o qouloo
oo|oo sto |o kl¬bocu c µls¬c zo Do¬ooy blo µroqloslo uo ªlo loòto so Iolt
YR\DQW µor co looq, l¬¬ooso ot rolsoooó GpUqJOHPHQWde WRXVOHVVHQVµ l c lsto¬
µorlouc vlulo ªA oolr, corsot volc uo ¬occoos óclotootos¨ l ªO scµrò¬o Clolroo
µlolo uos strluocrs ótrooqos¨.
Jo|o, ¬oĄctl¬, c¬|otoost zo Nlotzscooo (l s o|o¬ ¬lt} ª|ootloclrooo µo¬ccc|o
rcbrl|o l ou|ol||o µo|¬ovo, µroustovl|o|ccl oovo troosµozlcl|o, ¬otoIoro,
¬otool¬l|o, |ootloclrooo ot|rlvo zol|c zo uovoo|o¬ so¬ooqzlstlro|cco¬
svl|otc bcuooq Āov|o|o, ñqcrc to|o soroll|c, ooroqcloroc, llsooc µosl|oulco,
oo|ooorootoc, czbcul|lvc l c µotµcoostl oovc, |o|o |o µrlbovl|ooo svl|oto¬
soovo¨ (lb.. 3ó9}. 8oo c |o|o¬ stoblo s|rlvo|c ol¬Io l c |o|o¬ boqovl c obll|c
bl|o otl¬o|c u|ovlco.
All ovu|o oouosto|o |oooĀoo oulc|o. lll co¬o µrlovotltl uo |o c ooo¬ sto oos
o|rczc|o, l ooĀlo oo |o|l s¬o qo µo|csoll orqoolzlrotl, oo¬oqcco zlv|otl, l
oubl|o¬o qo lzoblrccl soo |oo bl|oq ou stvoroostl, l ovu|o ouzvoo|o loscol,
zo |o|oqo |o, uo bls¬o blll srotol, bllo uovol|oo clstloc soo|otl cl|olo oocl uo
s¬o |rol|ovl, oll so¬ Nlotzscoo co µrlzootl (lb.. 370} uo bl to bllo vor|o, lo|o
strosoo cqouoo, oll |o|o oo uooosl stotc, l to bl bllo µrovlost c¬|otoostl oou
zlvoto¬. ko|o bllo, l to |o ooo sto sc Nlotzscooovl sl|ouboolcl µrlovotlll |oo
µrovc lo|cl|c, c¬|otoost ¬ozo rocl ooo sto |ozo zoto sto |o ooo sû¬ blto|, c
svo|o| lzoo¬oqlo| slobostl l uorozl|lvostl, |o|l µrlovoco to|oĄor ovc uoñolcl|c l
czlvo uo| vlul uo qo qlouo|c |oo µro¬|oo|lvoq, soo|oro, lscrµl|c|cco |o|oq l
171
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µob|oĄc|cco sloboq. All c lsto vrl|o¬o oo vlso |oo ªµcoocc, µrlsctoost, to¬ol|,
ooqo ¬oĄctl¬ ¬lsl|oo |oo Iro|tcro, lzostooo| to¬ol|o, c |oooĀolcl ¬c|o l bol¨
(vottl¬o l980. 8=}. O blt|c so oouo ¬ozo qovorltl so¬o o|o |o c µouc, o|o
so oo oo¬oco ooqo lz¬lĀo. Dolozl¬o oouo uo ªootoloql|o µourzooo 'slobl¬'
|otoqorl|o¬o¨ (vottl¬o l980. 9}. NlĀooos|o µroqlosoo|o s¬rtl ßoqo ooco bltl
urcqo ooqoll tvruo|o o |ro|c µosto|ooo strc|tcro blt|o (vottl¬o l983. 2l}.
ßlto| so oouo|o so¬o ª|oo ouloqoo|o l |oo lz¬lcoo|o¨ (vottl¬o l99=. l8}.
Drcql¬ rl|oĀl¬o. |ouooµct µrlovocoo µrloclµ uo so o blt|c qovorl so¬o
oo ¬ooqo ooĀloo, sto |o to sto oo¬ ooo¬oqccc|o uo v|orc|o¬o uo sc svo
µorsµo|tlvo uobro, l uo oo so¬o uo oo¬ so blto| µo|ovl|c|o |oo rozcltot
|ozl|o, ooqo uo |o oo c µotµcoostl l olsto urcqo uoll rozcltot |ozl|o, l µosoboo
oooq obll|o |ozl|o |o|l sl ¬ozo uoµcstltl oo|voco ooµoslcsoostl, |ozl|o ¬lto
lll |ozl|o µoozl|o° ßlto| oouo, osl¬ sto bl blo ªco¬oloto¨, qlbo|, slob, blo
bl oblĀoo ÁDWXVYRFLV No ovo| bl toĀ|l oo clstloc blo rou l|osol|o, sovocoolo
|oo soo|oro, lozl|lvoco, l¬ltotoro olĀoqo, sµosobolo ooouqovoroo stovltl
|oo|s|c qlovc oo l|cus|o tl|olo l ou svo|oq blco ooĀloltl ul¬orc. lo olĀo¬c
|ooIrootlro|cco oulc|o, vlu|ovsl uo so, |ouooµct lzrovootl roĀcol s blt|o¬,
zotlĀo¬o c µotrobl lzrovoovoo|c roĀcoo so scb|o|to¬ |o|l o¬ltlro to| ÁDWXV
YRFLV (|o|l |o oouol|o qroolco svo|oq ¬oqlĀooq luoollz¬o}. l to ol|o svo. A|o |o
oor¬oooctlĀ|l µrloclµ uo oo µosto|o Ālo|oolco ooqo so¬o lotorµrotocl|o, to oo
ls|l|cĀc|o uo so ¬ozo µltotl l¬o ll ¬ozuo ªzllo¨ lotorµrotocl|o. 2oto sto rocl uo
oo µosto|o Ālo|oolco ooqo so¬o lotorµrotocl|o slqcroo zooĀl rocl uo |o ooo sto
oo¬ so µo|ovl|c|o |oo Ālo|oolco rozcltot lotorµrotocl|o, oll oo uo svo|o ¬oqcco
lotorµrotocl|o µrolzvoul oosto oo sto s¬o, c sv|otlc sc|coslvolo lotorµrotocl|o,
uczol qlouotl |oo uo so roul o Ālo|oolcl. Drcql¬ rl|oĀl¬o, rocl uo |o svo|o
µob|ouolĀ|o |orto c µo|orc |oostrclrooo lzboro¬ (¬ozuo obosorobl|oooq
slcĀo|o¬} lqroĀo oo zooĀl rocl uo |o svo|o |orto |o|c lqroĀ bocl µob|ouolĀ|o.
ßllo bl uovol|oo uo ¬o|o¬ trlsc osovo urcql lqroĀ scµrotstovl |rol|ovs|c s|olc
l ¬o|o bl so o|louo µo|ozolo bloIo¬. l¬o ll c ooso| lqrl s blt|o¬ troocto|o c
|o|l¬o Nosto oo oos trls osovo ouqovoro s |rol|ovs|o¬ s|olo¬°
lrovl µroblo¬ svo|o ªuo|oostrc|cl|s|o¨ orqc¬ootocl|o |loslĀooq µo|¬o
lstloo ol|o c µo|ozlvoo|c uo bl µoroulq¬o µro¬o |o|o| roscĄc|o¬o ¬oqlo
bltl µoqrosoo. Clol so uo so zo souo svl slozc c vozl s tl¬. 8vl|ot |o|l sl
µroustovl|o¬o rozcltot |o lotorµrotocl|o. lrl|o |o µroblo¬ c to¬o |o|o sc
qoroocl|o |o|o oos octorlzlro|c uo ls|cso¬o oovc µoroulq¬c |o|c urcql oo
s¬l|c µroµozootl |oo uollrl|, oblĀoo zo¬lsl|oo|o oo¬oqccoq. ko|l |o |rltorl| |o|l
oo¬ uoµcsto rozll|ovoo|o lz¬oĄc soo, µoots|o lovoocl|o, WULSD oolcclqooo¬
172
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uroqo¬ (|or to|oĄor µosto|o osobo |o|o so oo|oo |oozc¬ocl|o boco|c |roz
µrozor cv|orooo uo ¬oqc lot|otl µo so roz¬rs|o|c µo tlc ÷ l ooµo¬lo|o¬o ÷
c scµrotoostl s vlostltl¬ oouo¬o l zol|o¬o} l µrlovotl|lvo tvruo|o o stvorl¬o
ñzlĀ|oq l µovl|osooq svl|oto |o|l oos o|rczc|o°
lostcllro|¬o to|oĄor, s vottl¬o¬ (l99=. l00}, rozll|c lz¬oĄc oµlsto¬oloql|o,
|o|o |o ª|oostrc|cl|o rlqorozolo tl|olo zooo|o l r|osoo|o µroblo¬o c sv|otlc
µoroulq¬l |o|o ul|tlro|c µrovllo zo vorlñ|ocl|c µroµozlcl|o¨ (l to so Ālol
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