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CHAPTER IV

Division of Labor Portugal ± first country to sail to the East and establish colonies earned her the prestige as the first sea power to chart an alternate passage to India. Pope Alexander VI ± Spaniard, whose family name Borja was Italianized into Borgia, issued a bull (May 3) in 1493 dividing the world into two. All lands south and west of the Azores and Cape Verde Islands were belong to SPAIN. Portugal takes possession of the continent of Africa. (SECOND BULL) (May 3, 1439) Imaginary line (IM line) was drawn from the north to south at 100 degrees west of the Azores. Lands to be discovered east of this IM line would belong to PORTUGAL. West ± SPAIN Sept (Same year) ± nullified this provision by allowing SPAIN to own lands to be discovered in the East. Treaty of Tordesillas (June 7, 1494) 1. An IM line was drawn from the N-S at a distance of 370 leagues west of the Cape Verde Islands. East of this Line belongs to PORTUGAL West ± SPAIN 2. If Spanish ships discovered lands east of the demarcation line, the said lands should be turned over to Portugal, and the lands discovered by Portuguese ships west of the line should be turned over to Spain. 3. No Portuguese ships shall be sent to lands belonging to Spain and Vice versa for the purpose of trading them. Ferdinand Magellan ± Portuguese who went to Spain to offer his service to Spanish King with the helped of his father-in-law and DON JUAN de ANDRADE (a man occupying a very high position in the Spanish India house of Trade. 1518 ± Meeting between F. Magellan and King Charles I of Spain. reached to Mollucas (Spice Islands) by sailing WEST. Expedition of F.M had Five Ships: 1. Trinidad 2. Concepcion 3. Victoria 4. Santiago 5. San Antonio M. and his men heard a mass in the CHURCH of SANTA LUCIA De la VICTORIA, after which the captains and the crew of the ships took an oath of loyalty to M. as their Commander-in-chief. The ships sailed down the QUADALQUIVIR River to San Lucar de Barrameda. 09/20/1519 ± expedition left port and sailed southward across the Atlantic. After 2mos. of hardship, hunger and difficult voyage, M expedition reached PERNAMBUCO in Brazil. Rio de Janeiro Rio de la Plata (Feb 1520) Port St. Julian at the southern tip of South America (March) Southernmost tip of South America he crossed a straight to PACIFIC OCEAN.

Si AGU (brother of rajah KUlambu) first blood compact bet. Under which Portugal won possession of the Moluccas after paying Spain the sum of 350. crossed the PACIFIC and reached the LADRONES Islands (now Marianas in March 1521) (He named the islands ³ISLAS de LADRONES (Islands of Thieves). was wounded and died. sailed Mactan early morning of April 28. Pigafetta said after the cross was erected in position. Lazarus day that he found the islands. M. M. . 800 natives became Christians. 1521) (Coming of the first SPANIARDS in the Phil. 1529) ± Spain and Portugal signed. And was captured by Portuguese Expedition that failed: 1. Fil and Spaniards. Island (Archipelago of St. Rajah Humabon ± Christian name was CARLOS in honor of King Charles I of Spain. 2. M. it was on St.) next day: M. 1521) Enrique(a malay slaved of M. EASTER Sunday (March 31) M. Victoria ± was sail to Europe by way of Africa commanded by SEBASTIAN del CANO succeeding in reaching SPAIN. 2 ships remained. April 15. Another IM. presented juana an image of INFANT JESUS (now is the Patron of Cebu. His wife given named JUANA ± in honor of King Charles mother. Loaysa Expedition (1525-1526) held by Father Juan Garcia Jofre de Loaysa. Treaty of Zaragoza (april 22. Rajah Lapu-lapu ± Chieftain of Mactan Rajah SUla ± rival of Lapu-lapu 60 men of M. M. Cebu (April 8. it became useless. bec. ordered his men to land at HOMONHON islet so the sick men could be taken care of. proceeded to the islet of LIMASAWA (ruled by Rajah KULAMBU). Lazarus. Rajah HUMABON (cebu Chieftains) welcome the group of M. 000 gold ducats. ordered a Mass to be celebrated on the Islet led by FATHER PEDRO de VALDERRAMA. Trinidad ± was return to Europe by way of the Pacific.) to assure the people of Cebu that they came as friends and not as enemies. each of us repeated a Pater noster and an Ave maria. 2. reached Samar (March 17. 1521 ± mass was celebrated in Cebu. 1. Cabot (1526-1530) commanded by Sebastian Cabot 3. 3 ships were burned bec.This straight name ³STRAIGHT of MAGELLAN´ he only had 3 ships. line was drawan from the N-S at 297 ½ leagues east of the Moluccas. Sayavedra (1527-1528) commanded by Alvaro de Sayavedra which reached Mindanao but did not succeed in settling in any of the islands.

one of whom was BANKAW.) as pilot of the new mission. Camiguin Island (March) 5. Cebu (April 27) TUpas (chieftain) Agreement with the helped of Tupas¶ brothers. Bernardo de la Torre went to Samar (Tandaya) to get some foods. 5. 1. 7. 2. Cibabao (leyte) 3. from all enemies. goods to be sold to either the s moderately priced. 4. Chieftain was Makandala Samar and Leyte named Felipinas in honor of Price Philip of Spain. Viceroy of Mexico chose his brother in law RUY LOPEZ de VILLALOBOS to command the expedition. with 6 ships. the fil promised to help the Spaniards in any battle against an enemy and in return the Spaniards promised to protect the fil. Panay river ± founded second Spanish settlement. datu of LIMASAWA. Captain Enriquez de Guzman sailed for southern Luzon and reached Albay. armed fil. 3. 21. Butuan in Mindanao 6. the fil. . 4. Felipe de Salcedo. promised to be loyal to the king of Spain and to the Spaniards 2.west ± SPAIN East ± Portugal 1531-1541 king Charles agreed with viceroys in Mexico and Guatemala that expeditions should be sent to the East particularly in Spice Islands. Villalobos died in Amboina 1546.Oct 1 ± arriving in the NAvidad port ± Acapulco. Cebu due to scarcity of food in Bohol San Pedro (ship) returned to Mexico it was piloted by Father Urdaneta and accompanied by Legazpi¶s grandson. Miguel Lopez de Legazpi ± head of the exped. Samar ± he concluded blood compact with some of the chieftains. 1565. Father Andres de Urdaneta (member of Loaysa Exped. Legazpi sailed from the Mexican port of Navidad on Nov. 1564. SI MAKAYO and SI KATAPAN. Bohol where he entered a blood compact with DATU SI KATUNA and SI GALA. Villalobos left Mexico on Nov. 1 1542 crossed the vast Pacific and reached Mindanao in Feb 1543. would not be allowed to enter the Spanish settlement. 1565) Pacific ± Santa Catalina (California) . reached in Cebu in Feb. 1. which the Manila galleons. a fil who had committed a crime against a Spaniard should be turned over to the Spanish authorities vice versa. Fort named Fort San Pedro Spanish settlement ± named San Miguel but latter named ³CITY of the MOST HOLY Name of Jesus´. (June 1. with 4 ships and about 380 men. Father Urdaneta discovered a new route.

headed by: MARTIN de GOITI who succeeded Mateo del Saz as Master of Camp 2. in the phil. Father Diego de Herrera (an Augustinian friar) suggested that they settle in Luzon April 20. Salcedo sailed to Talim Island and claimed it for Spain he reached Lubang island near Mindoro Manila was a prosperous Muslim kingdom May 8. Salcedo explored the Bonbon River (now TAal) Goiti explored Balayan. Legazpi leave for Luzon. June 24. Manila ± chieftain Rajah Sulayman (Soliman) May 24 Goiti fired a cannon shot the natives answered with shot ± The native cannons called ± LANTAKA Legazpi ± first gov. commanded by Salcedo when they reached Batangas . gen. ayuntamiento ± city government 2 alcaldes ± magistrates alguacil mayor ± chief constable 12 regidores ± legislative council members 1 escribano ± court clerk. 1570 left Panay for Mindoro and stayed there for 5days The Spanish forces were now divided into two: 1. battle of Bangkusay in Tondo Legazpi defeated Rajah Sulayman and he took over Manila in 1571.Juan de Salcedo ± Legazpi¶s younger grandson led a small expedition to the north with a few Spanish soldier and about 500 visayans. . King Philip II called Manila as ³Distinguisehed and Ever Loyal City´. 1571 ± Legazpi made Manila the capital of the Phil.

La Liga Filipina 12. During the Seven Year¶s War in Europe between France and England. Restrictive economic policies which closed some parts of the country to other foreign countries 4.Diego Silang. The Cry of Pugadlawin 14. The rise of the ³Filipino´ middle class 5. Rizal¶s Execution 1. y To resist forced labor that separated the men for long periods from their families. 1762 --. Archbishop Manuel Rojo ± acting governor-general when British. BRITISH INVASION AND OCCUPATION y y y 1761 --. 1762. 2. BASCO¶S ECONOMIC PLANS the economy developed slowly for several reasons: 1. along with 100 followers. British Invasion and Occupation The Silang and Palaris revolts 2.THE BEGINNINGS OF FILIPINO NATIONALISM (MID 1700¶S-1900) Purposes of revolt: y To retake one¶s lost kingdom or chiefdom. who was appointed governor-general of the Philippines. The constant quarrels between the civil and ecclesiastical authorities assigned in the colony. and Bagumbayan (Luneta) on September 22. demanding for the end to the payment of tributes and countless abuses by the Spanish officials. Graft and greed of the merchants and religious corporations engaged in the galleon trade 3. The incompetence of Spanish officials. The Founding of the Katipunan 13. an Ilocano from Ilocos province rose in revolt. the worship of Bathala and the anitos. Malate.led a widespread revolt in Pangasinan.000 men including Sepoys from Bombay. with 6.King of the Ilocos Gabriela Silang --. The campaign for secularization 8. Basco¶s Economic Plans 3. --. y . surveyed the economic condition of the colony and found it to be far from satisfactory. The execution of GomBurZa 10. The cavity mutiny 9.Spain and France ± entered into a treaty of alliance against England¶snambition for supremacy. The opening of the suez canal 6. bombarded Intramuros. The reform Movement 11. 1778 --.wife of Diego Silang.Juan de la Cruz Palaris --. Laissez-faire and the opening of Ports 4. turned over the leadership and carried on the fight courageously but she was later captured and hanged. Spain was naturally drawn into the conflict.Jose Basco y Vargas. Liberalism in the Philippines 7. y to get rid of the oppressive tribute y To return to their ancient religion. Ermita. The beginnings of Filipino Nationalism (mid 1700¶s-1900) 1. y y y y 2. 1762 --.

hemp. . Pampanga. one French. 1. Albay --. Revolt by Apolinario de la Cruz or Hermano Pule in Tayabas (quezon) in 1841.University of Santo Tomas These educated Filipinos later asked for reforms in the Spanish administration of the Philippines. There was reference for the first time to the country as oppressed and in need of freedom as expressed in the following lines: Sa loob at labas ng bayan kong sawi Kaliluha¶y siyang nangyayaring hari Kagalinga¶t bait ay nalulugami innas sa hukay ng dusa¶t pighati.Manila could boast of two American.British vice consul --.the number of foreign firms increased to fifteen. composed the middle class Insulares --.tenants Ilustrado --.King of the Tagalogs The Spanish authorities were alarmed by its pure Indio membership under the guise of a Confradia. some 10000 rebels in Ilocos revolted against the government monopoly of a locally-produced wine from sugarcane called BASI.was among the BLOODIEST uprising ever recorded during this time.hemp Ilocos and Cagayan Valley --. 1807 ---. and Sual (Pangasinan) were opened to foreign trade.wealthy and highly-educated Filipino. as Spaniards feared. and eight British commercial firms. one Danish.this policy gave full freedom to private individuals and firms to engage in economic activities without much interference from the government.Spaniards born in the Philippines Peninsulares --. 3. The Education Of Some Filipinos Colleges and Universities were exclusively for the Spaniards and Mestizos y San Juan de Letran y San Jose y San Felipe Schools for women: y College of Santa Potenciana y Santa Isabel College y Santa Rosa College mid 19th century --.Sugar cane Nicholas Loney --. THE RISE OF THE ³FILIPINO´ MIDDLE CLASS inquilinos --. coffee. Basco encouraged cultivation of crops for export like indigo. Laguna. He founded the Economic Society of Friends of the Country in 1781 and established the Royal Company in 1785. and cotton. 1842 --.Cebu 1873 --.(Espanoles) --. spices.introduced first modern machinery that converted sugar cane into refined sugar. working or residing in the country.The ports of Iloilo. --. Hermano Pule --.Tacloban and Legazpi Batangas --. Basi revolt --. whose aim to revive the ancient Catalonan teachings within the Catholic church.the development of mines that produced gold. cocoa. mulberry trees. Batangas --. sugar. LAISSEZ-FAIRE AND THE OPENING OF PORTS Laissez-faire or ³let alone policy´ --. Sorsogon.Gov.coffee Camarines Norte. Camarines Sur. inefficiency. it was the ilustrados who would later ask embarrassing questions about Spanish misdeeds. 1855 --.allowed for entry of foreign firms into the country. Iloilo. 4. Zamboanga. 1859 --. incompetence. 1860 --. tin and copper. Tagalog publication of Florante at Laura in 1838 by Francisco Baltazar or Balagtas. Two events foreshadowed the developing consciousness of the masses as a different race and class in society. . 2.Spanish born in Spain.Indigo and tobacco Negros.

1872 --. run by Filipino seculars. Mail ---1854 Telegraph --. gen de Izquierdo.greed and corruption. He showed his democratic ways by living simply and avoiding luxury. he boasted that he would rule the Philippines ³with a cross in one hand and a sword in the other. gen.e to convert non-Christian people to Christianity. y he abolished the censorship of the press y he abolished flogging as a punishment y he solved the agrarian unrest in Cavite The return of autocracy Rafael de Izquierdo --. THE CAVITY MUTINY Jan. Toribiodel Pilar. Mariano Sevilla. Recollects. Manila-Dagupan railway ----1890 6. y Regular priests.´ 7. ordered the arrested were: . LIBERALISM IN THE PHILIPPINES Gov. THE OPENING OF THE SUEZ CANAL --. y Secular priest --. Carlos Maria de la Torre --. Pedro Dandan. in 1871 to replace de la Torre. y The government even went as far as giving the parishes.the leader of the Filipino campaign to secularize the parishes.those who belonged to the religious orders like Dominicans.1869 This resulted in the shorter route and travel time between Spain and the Philippines. 5. --. y Father Jose A.he put into practice the liberal principles of the revolutionsits in Spain. Augustinians and Franciscans. or simply regulars. gen. Burgos --. The government believing it to be a rebellion.they administered the parishes.1869 (Manila) --.was caused by the revocation of the privilege of shipyard workers to be exempted from forced labor and from paying tribute by gov.were not members of any religious order y Friar curates --.being an autocrat. --. Many Spanirads with progressive ideas migrated to the Philippines. Jose Guevarra 8. This led to the campaign called secularization y The movement would later called ³Filipinization´ because of its racial overtone. Among them were exiled creoles from Mexico like Varela and Novales whose subversive ideas and activities advocated freedom and liberties.1873 Telephone. y Father Pedro Pablo Palaez (1812-1863).height of the secularization controversy.gen. Mariano Gomez.was appointed gov. THE CAMPAIGN FOR SECULARIZATION y regular priest --.Spanish mestizo y Father Jacinto Zamora. And most dangerously. by dismissing the halberdiers of his palace and by walking the streets of Manila in civilian clothes. a Spanish mestizo --. the Cavity Mutiny. 20. they pushed the idea of the Indios as ³Filipinos´ with equal rights as the Spaniards in the country. to Spanish regulars. The mutineers included: y Indios y Mestizos y Criollos (Spaniards born in Mexico and exiled in Cavite) They were led by military sergeant La Madrid. have a mission to fulfill. De la Torre¶s Administration: was the best gov. i.

The seeds of the Filipino nationalism had been planted on fertile ground.the Phil would be represented in the Spanish lawmaking body Assimilation --. Zamora 2. del Pilar --. a backward country 3. 9. Burgos The witnesses of the event took off their hats and knelt to pray for the souls of the innocent priests. to stop all efforts to keep the Phil. To the phil would allow the Indios to be finally called ³Filipinos´. immoral. Panganiban y Antonio Luna y Mariano Ponce y Eduardo de Lete GRACIANO LOPEZ JAENA y born: Jaro (part of Iloilo) y December 18. but later on he changed his mind to become physician instead. y Aims of the newspaper: 1.great political analyst and journalist. THE REFORM MOVEMENT (PROPAGANDA MOVEMENT 1882) Cortes --.great orator y Jose Rizal --. Gomez 3. to fight reaction 2. Filipino reformists: great triumvirate y Graciano Lopez Jaena --. 1872 --. The campaign for reforms (1882-1892) 10. 17. THE EXECUTION OF GOMBURZA Gomez. 1856 y Parents: Placido Lopez and Maria Jacobo Jaena y He studies at the Seminary of Jaro to become a priest.were jailed in Fort Santiago before they were tried for rebellion. Burgos and Zamora were sentenced to death. Feb. to defend progress . Burgos and Zamora --. They were sentenced death by garrotte.It is said that Zamora lost his mind and silently accepted to be garrotted. Other reformists: y Jose Ma. who was greedy.he founded the fortnightly newspaper La Solidaridad (Solidarity) and became its first editor. 1. to extol liberal ideas 4.y Father Jose Burgos y Father Mariano Gomez y Father Jacinto Zamora y Father Pedro Dandan y Father Toribio del Pilar y Father Mariano Sevilla y Father Agustin Mendoza y Father Jose Guevarra Among the civilian arrested were: y Pedro Carillo y Antonio Regidor y Joaquin Pardo de Tavera They were sentenced to be banished to Guam. y He wrote ³Fray Botod´. while Gomez.the three priests marched from Fort Santiago to Bagumbayan Field (now Luneta).great thinker y Marcelo H.granting of Spanish citizenship to Filipinos. and cruel. y 1889 --. --.

Freedom of Speech. 1889 --. Noli Me Tangere (Touch Me not) El Filibusterismo (The Rebel) La Liga Filipina. 1861 He studied at the Ateneo Municipal and later at the UST. 1896 The Pro-Filipino Societies 1882. He was first banished to Dapitan. 30. of assembly. 1896.Anti-Filipino.a piece of palpitating heart of Spain He expressed the demands of the Filipino reformists: 1. The abolition of the diezmons prediales or the tithe consisting of one-tenth of the produce of the land. The right to vote 3. Aims: y The abolition of the diezmos prediales and the sanctorum y The compulsory teaching of Spanish in all schools in the Philippines y Radical reforms in UST y Abolition of flogging as a form of punishment y Establishment of agricultural banks y tax and other reforms . Zamboanga. and of the press 4.Pearl of the Orient --. Del Pilar. Wenceslao Retana Pablo Feced Philippines --. He was executed on Bagumbayan Field (Luneta/Rizal Park) on Dec. they organized the Circulo Hispano-Filipino (The Spanish-Filipino Circle) The society published newspaper Revista del Circulo Hispano-Filipino (Journal of the Spanish-Filipino Circle) The purposed of this was to bring to the attention of the Spanish authorities in Spain the conditions in the Philippines and to work for the introduction of reforms which would benefit the Filipinos.to work for the material and moral improvement of the Philippines. 20. the removal of the friars from the Philippines because they were an obstacle to progress 6. Bulacan on Aug. representation in the Spanish Cortes 2. He became an editor of La Solidaridad y La Soberania Monacal en Filipinas (Monastic Sovereignty in the Philippines) y La Frailocracia Filipina (Fraillocracy in the Philippines) Del Pilar wrote in the language of the masses y Caiingat Cayo y Dasalan at Toksohan y Kadakilaaan ng Dios y SAgot ng Espana sa Hibik ng Filipinas Del Pilar had Tuberculosis He died on July 4. 1896 he died in Barcelona Spain.he founded the Tagalog-Spanish newspaper. 30. Where he finished law studies in 1880. Diariong Tagalog.Asociacion Hispano-Filipina --. JOSE RIZA Born in Calamba Laguna on June 18. 1882 --. 1850. Lopez Jaena suffered from hunger and illness and on Jan. a patriotic society which was suspected of uniting and preparing the people for revolution. Reforms in the jails of the country 8. whom even his Spanish enemies called the ³greatest journalist produced by the purely Filipino race´ Born in barrio of Cupang Bulacan. The education of the people 7. Freedom of commerce 5. Marcelo H. He studied at the College of San Jose and later at the UST.

(Claro M. to study and apply reforms The members of the society were to pay a monthly due of ten centavos.secretary Aims the Liga : 1.it is an ancient Filipino custom of sealing friendship or brotherhood (kapatiran) Primary objectives: y Civic --. THE FOUNDING OF THE KATIPUNAN July 7 1892 --. Support the poor against the rich and the powerful. hygiene and good moral character. Deodato Arrelano KKK --.treasurer Deodato Arellano --. 3. Valentin Diaz 4. to give mutual protection of all members in case of necessity 3. did not have the necessary financial means with which make their campaign effective. 3. 1. Cuerpo de Compromisarios (Body of Compromisers) Why did reform movement failed: 1. To defend memners against any kind of violence and injustice 5. had influential friends and supporters in Spain.focused on teaching of good manners.a small group of patriotic Filipinos met at a house on Azcarraga St. Teodoro Plata 3. The reformists in the Spain and in the Phil. Andres Bonifacio 2.Kataastaasan Kagalanggalangang na Katipunan ng mga Anak ng Bayan (Supreme and Venerable Association of the Sons of the People) Performed Blood Compact ± to show patriotism and love of things that were Filipino.was based on the principle of self-help and the defense of the weak and the psor. 4. To introduce machines in order to promote industries Night of July 6 Rizal was arrested and he was detained in Fort Santiago pending deportation to DApitan Zamboanga.separation of the Phil. y Political --. --. The reformists themselves were not united. Friars in the Phil.11. Urged to help sick comrades and their families Katipunan Government: Three governing bodies: y Kataastaasang Sanggunian (Supreme Council) y Sangguniang Bayan (Provincial Council) y Sangguniang Balangay (Popular Council) Judicial Council (Sangguniang Hukuman) which passed judgment on members who violated the rules of the Society. Spanish high officials in Spain were too busy with their own problems to listen to the collective voice of the reformists. To give financial help to any member who suffered losses 4. 1892 La Liga Filipina Ambrosio Salvador --. from Spain. 2. The money of the society was to be used for the following purposes: 1. 12. y Moral --. that is to secure the independence of the colony. . LA LIGA FILIPINA July 3.damayan among its members. Recto) and decided to create a secret society. Support a member or his son without financial means but with enough ability and industry: 2. Katipuneros (Katipunan member) --. to unite the whole archipelago into one strong body 2.Fiscal Bonifacio Arevalo --. Ladislao Diwa 5. to encourage agriculture. commerce and education 4. To open stores and shops which wiuld sell goods to members at low prices 5.president Agustin de la Rosa --.

First Grade --.Katipunan Assembly --. Deodato Arellano and a few others decided to form an association called: KATAASTAASAN. Tondo (now Claro M. Recto Ave. Roman Basa Comptroller: Andres Bonifacio Fiscal: LAdislao Diwa. Ladislao Diwa. Third grade --. Teodoro Plata. and signed their membership papers with their own blood. Katipunan Objectives ü Three Fundamental Objectives of Katipunan:  POLITICAL Objective: Consisted of working for the SEPARATION of Philippines from Spain. Jose Turiano Santiago Treasurer: VAlentin Diaz.katipon (Anak ng Bayan) 2.kawal (Gom-Bur-Za) 3. The Founding of the Katipunan ü July 7. 1. Second Grade --. Women members: President: Josefa Rizal V-Pres: Gregoria de Jesus. .aside from helping the male members in their work of propagating the ideas and ideal of the Society. was to make the police authorities believe that no Katipunan meeting was being held in a house. Vicente Molina Elected Councilors: y Briccio Brigido Pantas y REstituto Javier y Teodoro Plata y Teodoro Gonzales y Ladislao Diwa Katipunan Membership: 1. Bonifacio Secretary: Teodoro Plata. performed the ancient blood compact.Composed of the members of the Supreme Council and the presidents of the Provincial and Popular Councils. Secret Chamber y Bonifacio y Emilio Jacinto y Pio Valenzuela First Supreme Council Officers: President/Supremo: Deodato Arellano. Sec: marina Dizon Fiscal: Angelica Lopez Rizal ³Riza¶s niece´ 1. 1892: Azcarraga Street.. KAGALANGGALANG NA KATIPUNAN NG MGA ANAK NG BAYAN ü The men gathered around a flickering table lamp. The woman engage in dancing and singing in full view of the people on the st.bayani (Rizal) Katipunan Flags by Benita Rodriguez Gregoria de Jesus A red rectangle piece of cloth with a white sun with an indefinite number of white rays in the center. Valentin Diaz.) ü Andres Bonifacio. Katipunera¶s Duty --.

. Bonifacio turned his attention to the symbol of its authority. Benita Rodriguez.Wore a RED MASK and a sash with green borders. At the angles of the triangle were the letters Z. with the ancient Tagalog letter K in the middle of the medal. 1892 because the method was slow and clumsy.The hood had a triangle of white ribbon inside of which were the letters Z.  Grade One: Katipon .The front of the mask had white borders that formed a triangle with 3K¶s arranged as if occupying the angles of a triangle. Bonifacio thought it convenient to divide the members into THREE GRADES.B. . ü To maintain the secrets of their communication. . Katipunan Codes ü The Katipuneros faced many dangers. symbolizing courage and hope. The Flags of the Katipunan ü With the Katipunan now well organized. the number of members increased. ü The Kawal can become a Bayani upon election to become an officer of the society. he close his hand.Suspended from the neck of the Kawal was a green ribbon with a medal at the end. hygiene. Bonifacio made a system of writing that would make it difficult for the Spanish authorities to decode.Password: GOMBURZA  Grade Three: Bayani .Ll. made a flag. the society adopted countersigns. . OFFICIAL FLAG of the KATIPUNAN . Membership ü ü ü ü It was agreed to win members to the society by means of the TRIANGLE METHOD. As he pass the other member. 1.  MORAL Objective: revolved around the teaching of good manners.Wore a GREEN HOOD with a triangle consisting of white lines. 1. CIVIC Objective: revolved around the principle of self-help and the defense of the poor and the oppressed. ± the Katipunan letters for A ng B (Anak ng Bayan) . It was agreed upon that any member of the society could take in as many as members he could get.Wore a BLACK HOOD during meetings of the society.B. religious fanaticism and weakness of character.At the latter¶s base were the letters Z.B. bringing the index finger and thumb together. Under this new method.Password: RIZAL ü The Katipon could graduate to the Kawal class if he had brought in several members into the society.Password: ANAK NG BAYAN  Grade Two: Kawal . Beneath the K was a crossed sword and a flag. so that precautions had to be taken to keep the society secret. . This system was eventually changed on Oct. 1.Ll. with the help of Gregoria de Jesus. good morals and attacking obscurantism. ü For the members to recognize each other in the street. ü Upon his request. . 1. Kinds of Membership ü When the Katipunan had sufficiently expanded to include more than a hundred new members in the ranks.Ll. ü A member meeting another member places the palm of his right hand on his chest.

everybody seemed in despair and were not doing anything about it. but he succeeded where they failed. But he was far from being uneducated. he never hesitated to take drastic action against anybody whom he thought would defeat the purposes for which the Katipunan was founded. ü had a scanty education ü highly intelligent ü He completed only what we call grade four. He helped his siblings continue to make rattan walking canes and paper fans in the evening. ü He wasn¶t a barbaric individual who put up an arms struggle because of his violent nature as what some textbooks perceive. ü came from a poor family in Tondo ü his father (Santiago)is a pure Filipino. some generals of the revolution adopted their own design.four boys and two girls. law.A version of the Katipunan Flag ü Owing to the lack of uniformity in the design and the use of the flag. ü Had Two Wives  MONICA Andres¶ first wife Died of Leprosy  GREGORIA DE JESUS Andres¶ second wife From Caloocan LAKAMBINI of the Katipunan. He also wove hats. Andres Bonifacio ü The Father of the Katipunan ü ³Supremo´ of the Katipunan ü Founder and Organizer of the Katipunan ü the eldest among six children. ü He was fluent enough in Spanish to translate Jose Rizal¶s Mi Ultimo Adios in Tagalog. and religion. politics. Pag-Ibig sa Tinubuang Lupa. He read hundreds of foreign novels. Aka Ka Oriang Married Andres after a few months of courtship. books about the French revolution. . ü Humble: he knew his limitations and recognized the worth of others ü Ruthless: When the society¶s existence was at stake. Pio del Pilar¶s Flag 1. ü He also wrote the heart-stirring poem. BONIFACIO¶s FLAG Mariano Llanera¶s Flag (Llanera¶s Skull) Gen. ü He was a voracious reader. while her mother (Catalina) is a mestiza with a Filipino-Chinese-Spanish descent ü Supported his siblings when his parents died of tuberculosis ü Jobs:    He had a beautiful penmanship and talent to make attractive posters for clothing companies. ü He may have been ignorant from the point of view of the middle class. He accepted odd jobs from different companies. it is extremely doubtful whether the Phil. ü Without him. ü Great Dresser: He always wore an open coat and matched it with a necktie and black hat. She also came from a poor family. ü During his time. Revolution could have been a reality.

Laguna. a tasked she heroically accomplished. he used Marcelo H. Mariano Gil 1. she was also tough. 1. 1. 1899 at the young age of 24. ü Emilio Jacinto was wounded critically during one of the battles in Majayjay.- She had to stop studying just to be able to help her parents take care of her younger siblings. She was entrusted with the crucial role of custodian of documents. Preparations for the Struggle Tito Miguel and Roman Ramos 1. becoming the youngest member of the Katipunan. ü He edited Ang Kalayaan: Katipunan's newspaper where eople are informed about the aims and activities of the association. ü He gave up his Law studies and joined the Katipunan ü His intelligence was of great use to the Katipunan. Pass and keep important documents of the association 1. inspired by Rizal's Mi Ultimo Adios. his other pen name. Emilio Jacinto ü BRAINS of the KATIPUNAN ü Joined the society at age of 18. See to it that the meetings of the male members were not disturbed by surprise raids of the authorities. ü It was signed "Dimas-Ilaw". ü He became Bonifacio¶s trusted friend and adviser. Women¶s Chapter of the Katipunan ü Membership was limited only to the wives. male or female. del Pilar as his pen name. daughters and sisters of the male members ü This is to ensure that no women of dubious character could penetrate the deep secrets of the society ü Duties:    To take in new members. She wove and sewed textiles in their house to gain additional income. Knowledge of succeeding Filipino generations about Katipunan is credited to her She risked her life even at a time when she was pregnant. ü He wrote the Kartilla: the primer of the Katipunan where rules and regulations are contained. Rizal and the Revolution Dr. Pio Valenzuela Narcisa Rizal 1. ü This led to his death on April 16. Discovery of the Katipunan Diario de Manila Apolonio dela Cruz and Roman Ramos Honoria Sor Teresa Fr. Katipunan Faction . Reign of Terror 3. Revolution: First Phase 2. She became a member of the women¶s chapter of the group. ü As an editor of Kalayaan. ü Emilio's greatest poem was A La Patria. Like her husband. The ³Cry´ of Pugadlawin 2.

³To the Brave Sons of the Philippines´ expulsion of the friars and the return to the Filipinos of the lands they appropriated for themselves. 3. abolition of the power of the government to banish citizens. Trial and Execution of Bonifacio Andres. Primo de Rivera Provisions:       That Aguinaldo and his companions go into voluntary exile abroad That Primo de Rivera would pay P800. Failure of the Truce Gen. 7. Biak-Na-Bato Republic 1. Miguel Primo de Rivera 1. equal treatment and pay for Peninsular and Insular civil servants. 1897: Mt. freedom of the press and tolerance of all religious sects. Francisco Makabulos of Tarlac 1. Gen.000: when the arms surrendered by the revolutionists exceeded 700 P200. 6. Tala 1. Mariano Noriel and Gen. Pio del Pilar Maj. 4. representation in the Spanish Cortes.- Magdalo: Baldomero Aguinaldo Magdiwang: Mariano Alvarez 1. American Designs on the Philippines 1.000 to the rebels in three installments: P400. Paterno Gov. 2. Expansion of the American Navy . Procopio and Ciriaco Placido Martinez and Teodoro Gonzales Guilty of treason and sedition Gen. and legal equality for all persons Truce of Biak-na-Bato Pedro A.000: when the Te Deum was sung and General Amnesty was proclaimed by the governor That Primo de Rivera pay an additional P900. 5. Tejeros Convention Daniel Tirona vs. Revolution: Second Phase 2.000: Aguinaldo upon his departure from Biak-na-Bato P200.000 to the families of the non-combatant Filipinos who suffered during the armed conflict Celestino Tejeiro and Ricardo Monet Col. Andres Bonifacio 1. 2nd Tejeros Convention Naik Military Agreement 1. Lazaro Makapagal May 10.

he deposited the P400. secretly left for Singapore. This made the people in the city. ü It was stipulated that Filipino rebels should be excluded and should not be allowed to enter the city . ü Jaudenes. they were poorly armed. ü But when the Peninsular Government heard of Augustin¶s plan for surrender. Only the interest was withdrawn and used for the expenses of the exiles. a MOCK BATTLE should happen after which. Cuba is at our door. the Spanish forces would surrender. ± Aguinaldo offered Gov. The Siege of Manila ü Intramuros (Walled City) ± The place where thousands of Spaniards have sought refuge. believed that the Spanish position was hopeless and to save face. But there was a division in the ranks of the exiles. ü He started negotiations with Augustin. Spain lost the battle. Filipinos and aliens.000 given to him in 2 Hong Kong Banks. The Spanish-American Secret Agreement ü George Dewey. the Americans have to gauge war against the Spaniards. 1. Aguinaldo Returns Aguinaldo arrived in Cavite with the war materials he had brought from Hong Kong. ± With this refusal. The Renewal of the Struggle began after he issued a proclamation urging the people to rally once more to the Filipino flag in the struggle against the Spaniards.000 to be divided among them and sued Aguinaldo in the Hong Kong Supreme Court. To avoid appearing in court. he felt that there was an opportunity to oust the Spaniards from the Philippines. he insisted that to satisfy the Spanish code of honor. Augustin honorable surrender but he refused for in Spanish code of honor. The American Congress and President have just made a solemn declaration disclaiming any desire to possess Cuba and promising to leave the country to the Cubans after having driven away the Spaniards and pacified the county. thought that the surrender of Manila could be affected without the use of arms. Battle of Manila Bay ± The naval battle was one-sided because while it is true that the Spanish ships outnumbered those of the Americans. for ISABELO ARTACHO wanted the P400. regarding the surrender of Manila. After the Battle of Manila Bay.± To expand the navy. 1. 1. Andre. Aguinaldo. Spaniards. 1. Gen.000 miles away! 1. Thus. Aguinaldo and his men continued the siege. Spencer Pratt Pratt persuaded Aguinaldo to take his lot to the Americans: ³You need not have any worry about America. accompanied by Gregorio del Pilar and J. 1. ± They surrounded the city and cut off the city¶s food and water supply. suffer from hunger and thirst. ± Aguinaldo and his men besiege the city in an attempt to starve out the enemy within its walls. while the Philippines is 10. Aguinaldo While in Hong Kong. through the Belgian consul. His return was demoralizing for the Spaniards. ± It was only a matter of weeks before the Spanish authorities would surrender to Aguinaldo. Leyba. Aguinaldo and E. like Augustin. he was relieved as governor and was replaced by General FERMIN JAUDENES. the word surrender was non-existent.

1898: Declaration of Independence Malolos Congress Malolos Constitution 1. This signaled the start of American Colonization in the Philippines. Malolos Republic ü ü ü ü ü First Philippine Republic The First Republic in Asia June 12. US also agreed to give Spaniards the right to ship commodities to the Philippines for a period of 10 years. . Treaty of Paris ü ü ü ü ü December 10.000 from the US as payment for the improvement made in the colony. ü This signaled the ³fall´ of Manila and the end of the Spanish Colonial Period. The Mock Battle of Manila ü There was a short display of fireworks on the side of the enemies. 1.1.000. ü The Spaniards hoisted the white flag of surrender. In return. 1898 the Treaty of Paris was signed. It provided that Spain would cede the Philippines to United States. Spain would receive $20.