CHAPTER IV

Division of Labor Portugal ± first country to sail to the East and establish colonies earned her the prestige as the first sea power to chart an alternate passage to India. Pope Alexander VI ± Spaniard, whose family name Borja was Italianized into Borgia, issued a bull (May 3) in 1493 dividing the world into two. All lands south and west of the Azores and Cape Verde Islands were belong to SPAIN. Portugal takes possession of the continent of Africa. (SECOND BULL) (May 3, 1439) Imaginary line (IM line) was drawn from the north to south at 100 degrees west of the Azores. Lands to be discovered east of this IM line would belong to PORTUGAL. West ± SPAIN Sept (Same year) ± nullified this provision by allowing SPAIN to own lands to be discovered in the East. Treaty of Tordesillas (June 7, 1494) 1. An IM line was drawn from the N-S at a distance of 370 leagues west of the Cape Verde Islands. East of this Line belongs to PORTUGAL West ± SPAIN 2. If Spanish ships discovered lands east of the demarcation line, the said lands should be turned over to Portugal, and the lands discovered by Portuguese ships west of the line should be turned over to Spain. 3. No Portuguese ships shall be sent to lands belonging to Spain and Vice versa for the purpose of trading them. Ferdinand Magellan ± Portuguese who went to Spain to offer his service to Spanish King with the helped of his father-in-law and DON JUAN de ANDRADE (a man occupying a very high position in the Spanish India house of Trade. 1518 ± Meeting between F. Magellan and King Charles I of Spain. reached to Mollucas (Spice Islands) by sailing WEST. Expedition of F.M had Five Ships: 1. Trinidad 2. Concepcion 3. Victoria 4. Santiago 5. San Antonio M. and his men heard a mass in the CHURCH of SANTA LUCIA De la VICTORIA, after which the captains and the crew of the ships took an oath of loyalty to M. as their Commander-in-chief. The ships sailed down the QUADALQUIVIR River to San Lucar de Barrameda. 09/20/1519 ± expedition left port and sailed southward across the Atlantic. After 2mos. of hardship, hunger and difficult voyage, M expedition reached PERNAMBUCO in Brazil. Rio de Janeiro Rio de la Plata (Feb 1520) Port St. Julian at the southern tip of South America (March) Southernmost tip of South America he crossed a straight to PACIFIC OCEAN.

000 gold ducats. Rajah HUMABON (cebu Chieftains) welcome the group of M. 800 natives became Christians. reached Samar (March 17.This straight name ³STRAIGHT of MAGELLAN´ he only had 3 ships.) to assure the people of Cebu that they came as friends and not as enemies. M. Loaysa Expedition (1525-1526) held by Father Juan Garcia Jofre de Loaysa. it was on St. ordered his men to land at HOMONHON islet so the sick men could be taken care of. each of us repeated a Pater noster and an Ave maria. Si AGU (brother of rajah KUlambu) first blood compact bet. Sayavedra (1527-1528) commanded by Alvaro de Sayavedra which reached Mindanao but did not succeed in settling in any of the islands. proceeded to the islet of LIMASAWA (ruled by Rajah KULAMBU). Lazarus day that he found the islands. 1529) ± Spain and Portugal signed. And was captured by Portuguese Expedition that failed: 1. Lazarus. 3 ships were burned bec. bec. Rajah Lapu-lapu ± Chieftain of Mactan Rajah SUla ± rival of Lapu-lapu 60 men of M. 1521) (Coming of the first SPANIARDS in the Phil. Another IM. M.) next day: M. 1521 ± mass was celebrated in Cebu. Cabot (1526-1530) commanded by Sebastian Cabot 3. ordered a Mass to be celebrated on the Islet led by FATHER PEDRO de VALDERRAMA. was wounded and died. presented juana an image of INFANT JESUS (now is the Patron of Cebu. line was drawan from the N-S at 297 ½ leagues east of the Moluccas. Victoria ± was sail to Europe by way of Africa commanded by SEBASTIAN del CANO succeeding in reaching SPAIN. 1. EASTER Sunday (March 31) M. sailed Mactan early morning of April 28. His wife given named JUANA ± in honor of King Charles mother. Rajah Humabon ± Christian name was CARLOS in honor of King Charles I of Spain. 2. it became useless. Cebu (April 8. crossed the PACIFIC and reached the LADRONES Islands (now Marianas in March 1521) (He named the islands ³ISLAS de LADRONES (Islands of Thieves). 2 ships remained. 2. . Island (Archipelago of St. Pigafetta said after the cross was erected in position. M. Fil and Spaniards. Treaty of Zaragoza (april 22. 1521) Enrique(a malay slaved of M. April 15. M. Trinidad ± was return to Europe by way of the Pacific. Under which Portugal won possession of the Moluccas after paying Spain the sum of 350.

4. 1565. with 6 ships. 21. Miguel Lopez de Legazpi ± head of the exped. from all enemies. Bernardo de la Torre went to Samar (Tandaya) to get some foods. Chieftain was Makandala Samar and Leyte named Felipinas in honor of Price Philip of Spain. reached in Cebu in Feb. Camiguin Island (March) 5. 1. which the Manila galleons. 1 1542 crossed the vast Pacific and reached Mindanao in Feb 1543. Villalobos left Mexico on Nov. Father Andres de Urdaneta (member of Loaysa Exped. Butuan in Mindanao 6. promised to be loyal to the king of Spain and to the Spaniards 2. 5. Cebu due to scarcity of food in Bohol San Pedro (ship) returned to Mexico it was piloted by Father Urdaneta and accompanied by Legazpi¶s grandson. . Samar ± he concluded blood compact with some of the chieftains. Cebu (April 27) TUpas (chieftain) Agreement with the helped of Tupas¶ brothers.Oct 1 ± arriving in the NAvidad port ± Acapulco. the fil promised to help the Spaniards in any battle against an enemy and in return the Spaniards promised to protect the fil. Felipe de Salcedo. Cibabao (leyte) 3. armed fil. would not be allowed to enter the Spanish settlement. Father Urdaneta discovered a new route. 3. (June 1. 4. Captain Enriquez de Guzman sailed for southern Luzon and reached Albay. Viceroy of Mexico chose his brother in law RUY LOPEZ de VILLALOBOS to command the expedition.) as pilot of the new mission. 1. 7. Fort named Fort San Pedro Spanish settlement ± named San Miguel but latter named ³CITY of the MOST HOLY Name of Jesus´. 1565) Pacific ± Santa Catalina (California) . Bohol where he entered a blood compact with DATU SI KATUNA and SI GALA. SI MAKAYO and SI KATAPAN. Panay river ± founded second Spanish settlement. 2.west ± SPAIN East ± Portugal 1531-1541 king Charles agreed with viceroys in Mexico and Guatemala that expeditions should be sent to the East particularly in Spice Islands. 1564. Villalobos died in Amboina 1546. a fil who had committed a crime against a Spaniard should be turned over to the Spanish authorities vice versa. one of whom was BANKAW. Legazpi sailed from the Mexican port of Navidad on Nov. datu of LIMASAWA. with 4 ships and about 380 men. the fil. goods to be sold to either the s moderately priced.

Salcedo sailed to Talim Island and claimed it for Spain he reached Lubang island near Mindoro Manila was a prosperous Muslim kingdom May 8. June 24. King Philip II called Manila as ³Distinguisehed and Ever Loyal City´. in the phil. Manila ± chieftain Rajah Sulayman (Soliman) May 24 Goiti fired a cannon shot the natives answered with shot ± The native cannons called ± LANTAKA Legazpi ± first gov. ayuntamiento ± city government 2 alcaldes ± magistrates alguacil mayor ± chief constable 12 regidores ± legislative council members 1 escribano ± court clerk. 1571 ± Legazpi made Manila the capital of the Phil. headed by: MARTIN de GOITI who succeeded Mateo del Saz as Master of Camp 2. commanded by Salcedo when they reached Batangas . . Salcedo explored the Bonbon River (now TAal) Goiti explored Balayan. gen. Legazpi leave for Luzon.Juan de Salcedo ± Legazpi¶s younger grandson led a small expedition to the north with a few Spanish soldier and about 500 visayans. 1570 left Panay for Mindoro and stayed there for 5days The Spanish forces were now divided into two: 1. Father Diego de Herrera (an Augustinian friar) suggested that they settle in Luzon April 20. battle of Bangkusay in Tondo Legazpi defeated Rajah Sulayman and he took over Manila in 1571.

y .Spain and France ± entered into a treaty of alliance against England¶snambition for supremacy. During the Seven Year¶s War in Europe between France and England. BRITISH INVASION AND OCCUPATION y y y 1761 --. The campaign for secularization 8. The incompetence of Spanish officials. y y y y 2. BASCO¶S ECONOMIC PLANS the economy developed slowly for several reasons: 1. British Invasion and Occupation The Silang and Palaris revolts 2. Ermita. with 6. Basco¶s Economic Plans 3.led a widespread revolt in Pangasinan. The reform Movement 11. Malate. The constant quarrels between the civil and ecclesiastical authorities assigned in the colony. who was appointed governor-general of the Philippines. turned over the leadership and carried on the fight courageously but she was later captured and hanged. The Cry of Pugadlawin 14. Rizal¶s Execution 1.Juan de la Cruz Palaris --. Archbishop Manuel Rojo ± acting governor-general when British. Graft and greed of the merchants and religious corporations engaged in the galleon trade 3. y To resist forced labor that separated the men for long periods from their families. Spain was naturally drawn into the conflict. along with 100 followers.Jose Basco y Vargas.wife of Diego Silang. 1762. The cavity mutiny 9. an Ilocano from Ilocos province rose in revolt. surveyed the economic condition of the colony and found it to be far from satisfactory. --.000 men including Sepoys from Bombay. 1762 --. bombarded Intramuros. Restrictive economic policies which closed some parts of the country to other foreign countries 4. and Bagumbayan (Luneta) on September 22. y to get rid of the oppressive tribute y To return to their ancient religion. The opening of the suez canal 6. The beginnings of Filipino Nationalism (mid 1700¶s-1900) 1. The execution of GomBurZa 10. 1762 --. demanding for the end to the payment of tributes and countless abuses by the Spanish officials. the worship of Bathala and the anitos. 1778 --. The Founding of the Katipunan 13. Liberalism in the Philippines 7. The rise of the ³Filipino´ middle class 5. La Liga Filipina 12.Diego Silang.King of the Ilocos Gabriela Silang --. 2. Laissez-faire and the opening of Ports 4.THE BEGINNINGS OF FILIPINO NATIONALISM (MID 1700¶S-1900) Purposes of revolt: y To retake one¶s lost kingdom or chiefdom.

and cotton.University of Santo Tomas These educated Filipinos later asked for reforms in the Spanish administration of the Philippines. --. some 10000 rebels in Ilocos revolted against the government monopoly of a locally-produced wine from sugarcane called BASI. and Sual (Pangasinan) were opened to foreign trade. Two events foreshadowed the developing consciousness of the masses as a different race and class in society. Laguna.Sugar cane Nicholas Loney --. 1855 --. inefficiency. 1842 --. coffee. Camarines Sur. 3. Basi revolt --. THE RISE OF THE ³FILIPINO´ MIDDLE CLASS inquilinos --. 4. 1807 ---. sugar. incompetence. one Danish.Gov.Indigo and tobacco Negros. working or residing in the country. one French. Albay --. LAISSEZ-FAIRE AND THE OPENING OF PORTS Laissez-faire or ³let alone policy´ --.was among the BLOODIEST uprising ever recorded during this time. spices.Spaniards born in the Philippines Peninsulares --.British vice consul --. .Tacloban and Legazpi Batangas --.(Espanoles) --.this policy gave full freedom to private individuals and firms to engage in economic activities without much interference from the government. There was reference for the first time to the country as oppressed and in need of freedom as expressed in the following lines: Sa loob at labas ng bayan kong sawi Kaliluha¶y siyang nangyayaring hari Kagalinga¶t bait ay nalulugami innas sa hukay ng dusa¶t pighati. and eight British commercial firms. Batangas --. hemp. mulberry trees. He founded the Economic Society of Friends of the Country in 1781 and established the Royal Company in 1785. Zamboanga. it was the ilustrados who would later ask embarrassing questions about Spanish misdeeds. cocoa.the number of foreign firms increased to fifteen.Manila could boast of two American. The Education Of Some Filipinos Colleges and Universities were exclusively for the Spaniards and Mestizos y San Juan de Letran y San Jose y San Felipe Schools for women: y College of Santa Potenciana y Santa Isabel College y Santa Rosa College mid 19th century --. Revolt by Apolinario de la Cruz or Hermano Pule in Tayabas (quezon) in 1841. Sorsogon. tin and copper. 1. as Spaniards feared. Tagalog publication of Florante at Laura in 1838 by Francisco Baltazar or Balagtas. 2. 1859 --.hemp Ilocos and Cagayan Valley --.Spanish born in Spain. 1860 --.The ports of Iloilo. whose aim to revive the ancient Catalonan teachings within the Catholic church.King of the Tagalogs The Spanish authorities were alarmed by its pure Indio membership under the guise of a Confradia.allowed for entry of foreign firms into the country. Pampanga.tenants Ilustrado --.Cebu 1873 --.the development of mines that produced gold. Basco encouraged cultivation of crops for export like indigo. Iloilo. Hermano Pule --.wealthy and highly-educated Filipino. composed the middle class Insulares --.coffee Camarines Norte.introduced first modern machinery that converted sugar cane into refined sugar. .

Many Spanirads with progressive ideas migrated to the Philippines. And most dangerously. the Cavity Mutiny. The mutineers included: y Indios y Mestizos y Criollos (Spaniards born in Mexico and exiled in Cavite) They were led by military sergeant La Madrid.being an autocrat. Toribiodel Pilar. --. THE CAVITY MUTINY Jan.1873 Telephone. Carlos Maria de la Torre --.they administered the parishes. Manila-Dagupan railway ----1890 6. in 1871 to replace de la Torre. Pedro Dandan.height of the secularization controversy.the leader of the Filipino campaign to secularize the parishes. have a mission to fulfill.were not members of any religious order y Friar curates --.´ 7. Mail ---1854 Telegraph --. y Regular priests. THE OPENING OF THE SUEZ CANAL --. y Secular priest --. or simply regulars. y The government even went as far as giving the parishes.gen. he boasted that he would rule the Philippines ³with a cross in one hand and a sword in the other. THE CAMPAIGN FOR SECULARIZATION y regular priest --. y Father Jose A. they pushed the idea of the Indios as ³Filipinos´ with equal rights as the Spaniards in the country. a Spanish mestizo --. LIBERALISM IN THE PHILIPPINES Gov. Recollects. The government believing it to be a rebellion. to Spanish regulars. gen de Izquierdo. gen.he put into practice the liberal principles of the revolutionsits in Spain. --. Mariano Sevilla. 1872 --. Mariano Gomez.was caused by the revocation of the privilege of shipyard workers to be exempted from forced labor and from paying tribute by gov. by dismissing the halberdiers of his palace and by walking the streets of Manila in civilian clothes.greed and corruption. i.was appointed gov.1869 This resulted in the shorter route and travel time between Spain and the Philippines. gen.those who belonged to the religious orders like Dominicans.e to convert non-Christian people to Christianity. He showed his democratic ways by living simply and avoiding luxury. Jose Guevarra 8. y Father Pedro Pablo Palaez (1812-1863). Among them were exiled creoles from Mexico like Varela and Novales whose subversive ideas and activities advocated freedom and liberties. Augustinians and Franciscans. 20. 5. run by Filipino seculars. y he abolished the censorship of the press y he abolished flogging as a punishment y he solved the agrarian unrest in Cavite The return of autocracy Rafael de Izquierdo --. De la Torre¶s Administration: was the best gov. ordered the arrested were: . This led to the campaign called secularization y The movement would later called ³Filipinization´ because of its racial overtone. Burgos --.Spanish mestizo y Father Jacinto Zamora.1869 (Manila) --.

granting of Spanish citizenship to Filipinos. Zamora 2.the Phil would be represented in the Spanish lawmaking body Assimilation --.he founded the fortnightly newspaper La Solidaridad (Solidarity) and became its first editor. Panganiban y Antonio Luna y Mariano Ponce y Eduardo de Lete GRACIANO LOPEZ JAENA y born: Jaro (part of Iloilo) y December 18. 9. They were sentenced death by garrotte.were jailed in Fort Santiago before they were tried for rebellion. --. 17. y He wrote ³Fray Botod´. 1856 y Parents: Placido Lopez and Maria Jacobo Jaena y He studies at the Seminary of Jaro to become a priest. Burgos The witnesses of the event took off their hats and knelt to pray for the souls of the innocent priests. The campaign for reforms (1882-1892) 10. y 1889 --.great orator y Jose Rizal --. THE EXECUTION OF GOMBURZA Gomez. Gomez 3. Filipino reformists: great triumvirate y Graciano Lopez Jaena --.It is said that Zamora lost his mind and silently accepted to be garrotted.y Father Jose Burgos y Father Mariano Gomez y Father Jacinto Zamora y Father Pedro Dandan y Father Toribio del Pilar y Father Mariano Sevilla y Father Agustin Mendoza y Father Jose Guevarra Among the civilian arrested were: y Pedro Carillo y Antonio Regidor y Joaquin Pardo de Tavera They were sentenced to be banished to Guam. a backward country 3. who was greedy. y Aims of the newspaper: 1.the three priests marched from Fort Santiago to Bagumbayan Field (now Luneta). Burgos and Zamora --.great political analyst and journalist. immoral. while Gomez. 1872 --. Feb. To the phil would allow the Indios to be finally called ³Filipinos´. Other reformists: y Jose Ma. to fight reaction 2. del Pilar --.great thinker y Marcelo H. The seeds of the Filipino nationalism had been planted on fertile ground. and cruel. but later on he changed his mind to become physician instead. 1. THE REFORM MOVEMENT (PROPAGANDA MOVEMENT 1882) Cortes --. Burgos and Zamora were sentenced to death. to defend progress . to extol liberal ideas 4. to stop all efforts to keep the Phil.

JOSE RIZA Born in Calamba Laguna on June 18. He studied at the College of San Jose and later at the UST. 1896 The Pro-Filipino Societies 1882. 1896. Diariong Tagalog. Reforms in the jails of the country 8.Pearl of the Orient --. Bulacan on Aug. 30. representation in the Spanish Cortes 2. The abolition of the diezmons prediales or the tithe consisting of one-tenth of the produce of the land. He was executed on Bagumbayan Field (Luneta/Rizal Park) on Dec. Freedom of commerce 5.Asociacion Hispano-Filipina --. Zamboanga. He was first banished to Dapitan.Anti-Filipino. Where he finished law studies in 1880. 1861 He studied at the Ateneo Municipal and later at the UST. 1896 he died in Barcelona Spain. a patriotic society which was suspected of uniting and preparing the people for revolution. the removal of the friars from the Philippines because they were an obstacle to progress 6. The education of the people 7. Noli Me Tangere (Touch Me not) El Filibusterismo (The Rebel) La Liga Filipina. of assembly.a piece of palpitating heart of Spain He expressed the demands of the Filipino reformists: 1. Del Pilar.he founded the Tagalog-Spanish newspaper. 1850. The right to vote 3. Wenceslao Retana Pablo Feced Philippines --. He became an editor of La Solidaridad y La Soberania Monacal en Filipinas (Monastic Sovereignty in the Philippines) y La Frailocracia Filipina (Fraillocracy in the Philippines) Del Pilar wrote in the language of the masses y Caiingat Cayo y Dasalan at Toksohan y Kadakilaaan ng Dios y SAgot ng Espana sa Hibik ng Filipinas Del Pilar had Tuberculosis He died on July 4. they organized the Circulo Hispano-Filipino (The Spanish-Filipino Circle) The society published newspaper Revista del Circulo Hispano-Filipino (Journal of the Spanish-Filipino Circle) The purposed of this was to bring to the attention of the Spanish authorities in Spain the conditions in the Philippines and to work for the introduction of reforms which would benefit the Filipinos. 20. Aims: y The abolition of the diezmos prediales and the sanctorum y The compulsory teaching of Spanish in all schools in the Philippines y Radical reforms in UST y Abolition of flogging as a form of punishment y Establishment of agricultural banks y tax and other reforms . Freedom of Speech. and of the press 4. 1882 --. whom even his Spanish enemies called the ³greatest journalist produced by the purely Filipino race´ Born in barrio of Cupang Bulacan. 1889 --.to work for the material and moral improvement of the Philippines. 30. Marcelo H. Lopez Jaena suffered from hunger and illness and on Jan.

12. To introduce machines in order to promote industries Night of July 6 Rizal was arrested and he was detained in Fort Santiago pending deportation to DApitan Zamboanga. from Spain.Fiscal Bonifacio Arevalo --.Kataastaasan Kagalanggalangang na Katipunan ng mga Anak ng Bayan (Supreme and Venerable Association of the Sons of the People) Performed Blood Compact ± to show patriotism and love of things that were Filipino. Support the poor against the rich and the powerful.damayan among its members. To defend memners against any kind of violence and injustice 5. . Cuerpo de Compromisarios (Body of Compromisers) Why did reform movement failed: 1. Deodato Arrelano KKK --. to study and apply reforms The members of the society were to pay a monthly due of ten centavos.it is an ancient Filipino custom of sealing friendship or brotherhood (kapatiran) Primary objectives: y Civic --.11. LA LIGA FILIPINA July 3.president Agustin de la Rosa --. commerce and education 4. y Moral --. Urged to help sick comrades and their families Katipunan Government: Three governing bodies: y Kataastaasang Sanggunian (Supreme Council) y Sangguniang Bayan (Provincial Council) y Sangguniang Balangay (Popular Council) Judicial Council (Sangguniang Hukuman) which passed judgment on members who violated the rules of the Society. Support a member or his son without financial means but with enough ability and industry: 2. 3. 2. To give financial help to any member who suffered losses 4. 3. (Claro M.was based on the principle of self-help and the defense of the weak and the psor.a small group of patriotic Filipinos met at a house on Azcarraga St. The money of the society was to be used for the following purposes: 1. THE FOUNDING OF THE KATIPUNAN July 7 1892 --.focused on teaching of good manners. Valentin Diaz 4. Andres Bonifacio 2. y Political --. Katipuneros (Katipunan member) --. to unite the whole archipelago into one strong body 2.treasurer Deodato Arellano --.separation of the Phil. had influential friends and supporters in Spain. that is to secure the independence of the colony. 1892 La Liga Filipina Ambrosio Salvador --. Teodoro Plata 3. The reformists themselves were not united.secretary Aims the Liga : 1. 1. Ladislao Diwa 5. 4. --. Recto) and decided to create a secret society. Spanish high officials in Spain were too busy with their own problems to listen to the collective voice of the reformists. did not have the necessary financial means with which make their campaign effective. Friars in the Phil. To open stores and shops which wiuld sell goods to members at low prices 5. to encourage agriculture. to give mutual protection of all members in case of necessity 3. The reformists in the Spain and in the Phil. hygiene and good moral character.

Third grade --. Second Grade --. and signed their membership papers with their own blood. Jose Turiano Santiago Treasurer: VAlentin Diaz..aside from helping the male members in their work of propagating the ideas and ideal of the Society. was to make the police authorities believe that no Katipunan meeting was being held in a house. Deodato Arellano and a few others decided to form an association called: KATAASTAASAN.) ü Andres Bonifacio. First Grade --. Bonifacio Secretary: Teodoro Plata. Recto Ave. The woman engage in dancing and singing in full view of the people on the st. Tondo (now Claro M. Ladislao Diwa. .kawal (Gom-Bur-Za) 3.Katipunan Assembly --. Katipunan Objectives ü Three Fundamental Objectives of Katipunan:  POLITICAL Objective: Consisted of working for the SEPARATION of Philippines from Spain. Women members: President: Josefa Rizal V-Pres: Gregoria de Jesus.katipon (Anak ng Bayan) 2. 1892: Azcarraga Street.Composed of the members of the Supreme Council and the presidents of the Provincial and Popular Councils. Teodoro Plata. 1. KAGALANGGALANG NA KATIPUNAN NG MGA ANAK NG BAYAN ü The men gathered around a flickering table lamp.bayani (Rizal) Katipunan Flags by Benita Rodriguez Gregoria de Jesus A red rectangle piece of cloth with a white sun with an indefinite number of white rays in the center. The Founding of the Katipunan ü July 7. Secret Chamber y Bonifacio y Emilio Jacinto y Pio Valenzuela First Supreme Council Officers: President/Supremo: Deodato Arellano. performed the ancient blood compact. Sec: marina Dizon Fiscal: Angelica Lopez Rizal ³Riza¶s niece´ 1. Vicente Molina Elected Councilors: y Briccio Brigido Pantas y REstituto Javier y Teodoro Plata y Teodoro Gonzales y Ladislao Diwa Katipunan Membership: 1. Katipunera¶s Duty --. Valentin Diaz. Roman Basa Comptroller: Andres Bonifacio Fiscal: LAdislao Diwa.

The hood had a triangle of white ribbon inside of which were the letters Z.Password: RIZAL ü The Katipon could graduate to the Kawal class if he had brought in several members into the society. the number of members increased.Password: GOMBURZA  Grade Three: Bayani . 1892 because the method was slow and clumsy. so that precautions had to be taken to keep the society secret. Bonifacio thought it convenient to divide the members into THREE GRADES. 1. made a flag. Katipunan Codes ü The Katipuneros faced many dangers. ± the Katipunan letters for A ng B (Anak ng Bayan) . 1. with the ancient Tagalog letter K in the middle of the medal.Ll. CIVIC Objective: revolved around the principle of self-help and the defense of the poor and the oppressed. good morals and attacking obscurantism. It was agreed upon that any member of the society could take in as many as members he could get. 1. . 1. religious fanaticism and weakness of character. .Wore a GREEN HOOD with a triangle consisting of white lines.Suspended from the neck of the Kawal was a green ribbon with a medal at the end.Password: ANAK NG BAYAN  Grade Two: Kawal . Membership ü ü ü ü It was agreed to win members to the society by means of the TRIANGLE METHOD. OFFICIAL FLAG of the KATIPUNAN .Wore a BLACK HOOD during meetings of the society. ü A member meeting another member places the palm of his right hand on his chest. This system was eventually changed on Oct. symbolizing courage and hope. Benita Rodriguez.  Grade One: Katipon . Under this new method. .Ll. ü For the members to recognize each other in the street. Kinds of Membership ü When the Katipunan had sufficiently expanded to include more than a hundred new members in the ranks. with the help of Gregoria de Jesus.Wore a RED MASK and a sash with green borders.At the latter¶s base were the letters Z.Ll. ü The Kawal can become a Bayani upon election to become an officer of the society. As he pass the other member. .B. bringing the index finger and thumb together. Bonifacio made a system of writing that would make it difficult for the Spanish authorities to decode. ü To maintain the secrets of their communication.The front of the mask had white borders that formed a triangle with 3K¶s arranged as if occupying the angles of a triangle. he close his hand. the society adopted countersigns. hygiene. .B.  MORAL Objective: revolved around the teaching of good manners. The Flags of the Katipunan ü With the Katipunan now well organized. At the angles of the triangle were the letters Z. ü Upon his request. Beneath the K was a crossed sword and a flag.B. . Bonifacio turned his attention to the symbol of its authority.

Andres Bonifacio ü The Father of the Katipunan ü ³Supremo´ of the Katipunan ü Founder and Organizer of the Katipunan ü the eldest among six children. ü Without him. while her mother (Catalina) is a mestiza with a Filipino-Chinese-Spanish descent ü Supported his siblings when his parents died of tuberculosis ü Jobs:    He had a beautiful penmanship and talent to make attractive posters for clothing companies.four boys and two girls. but he succeeded where they failed. some generals of the revolution adopted their own design. He helped his siblings continue to make rattan walking canes and paper fans in the evening. He also wove hats. it is extremely doubtful whether the Phil. ü During his time. and religion. ü He also wrote the heart-stirring poem. ü Great Dresser: He always wore an open coat and matched it with a necktie and black hat. But he was far from being uneducated. ü He wasn¶t a barbaric individual who put up an arms struggle because of his violent nature as what some textbooks perceive. Revolution could have been a reality.A version of the Katipunan Flag ü Owing to the lack of uniformity in the design and the use of the flag. ü had a scanty education ü highly intelligent ü He completed only what we call grade four. . Aka Ka Oriang Married Andres after a few months of courtship. He read hundreds of foreign novels. politics. everybody seemed in despair and were not doing anything about it. Pag-Ibig sa Tinubuang Lupa. BONIFACIO¶s FLAG Mariano Llanera¶s Flag (Llanera¶s Skull) Gen. He accepted odd jobs from different companies. ü Humble: he knew his limitations and recognized the worth of others ü Ruthless: When the society¶s existence was at stake. ü came from a poor family in Tondo ü his father (Santiago)is a pure Filipino. She also came from a poor family. Pio del Pilar¶s Flag 1. ü He was a voracious reader. ü He may have been ignorant from the point of view of the middle class. ü He was fluent enough in Spanish to translate Jose Rizal¶s Mi Ultimo Adios in Tagalog. books about the French revolution. ü Had Two Wives  MONICA Andres¶ first wife Died of Leprosy  GREGORIA DE JESUS Andres¶ second wife From Caloocan LAKAMBINI of the Katipunan. law. he never hesitated to take drastic action against anybody whom he thought would defeat the purposes for which the Katipunan was founded.

male or female. ü He became Bonifacio¶s trusted friend and adviser. She became a member of the women¶s chapter of the group. inspired by Rizal's Mi Ultimo Adios. ü As an editor of Kalayaan.- She had to stop studying just to be able to help her parents take care of her younger siblings. The ³Cry´ of Pugadlawin 2. 1. Katipunan Faction . Revolution: First Phase 2. Emilio Jacinto ü BRAINS of the KATIPUNAN ü Joined the society at age of 18. daughters and sisters of the male members ü This is to ensure that no women of dubious character could penetrate the deep secrets of the society ü Duties:    To take in new members. Laguna. she was also tough. ü This led to his death on April 16. he used Marcelo H. a tasked she heroically accomplished. Pio Valenzuela Narcisa Rizal 1. Preparations for the Struggle Tito Miguel and Roman Ramos 1. ü It was signed "Dimas-Ilaw". 1899 at the young age of 24. She wove and sewed textiles in their house to gain additional income. his other pen name. Women¶s Chapter of the Katipunan ü Membership was limited only to the wives. Reign of Terror 3. 1. ü He gave up his Law studies and joined the Katipunan ü His intelligence was of great use to the Katipunan. Like her husband. ü He wrote the Kartilla: the primer of the Katipunan where rules and regulations are contained. del Pilar as his pen name. She was entrusted with the crucial role of custodian of documents. ü Emilio Jacinto was wounded critically during one of the battles in Majayjay. See to it that the meetings of the male members were not disturbed by surprise raids of the authorities. Rizal and the Revolution Dr. Discovery of the Katipunan Diario de Manila Apolonio dela Cruz and Roman Ramos Honoria Sor Teresa Fr. ü Emilio's greatest poem was A La Patria. ü He edited Ang Kalayaan: Katipunan's newspaper where eople are informed about the aims and activities of the association. Knowledge of succeeding Filipino generations about Katipunan is credited to her She risked her life even at a time when she was pregnant. Pass and keep important documents of the association 1. becoming the youngest member of the Katipunan. Mariano Gil 1.

Tala 1. and legal equality for all persons Truce of Biak-na-Bato Pedro A. Tejeros Convention Daniel Tirona vs.000: when the arms surrendered by the revolutionists exceeded 700 P200. American Designs on the Philippines 1. Miguel Primo de Rivera 1. representation in the Spanish Cortes. 2.000 to the rebels in three installments: P400. ³To the Brave Sons of the Philippines´ expulsion of the friars and the return to the Filipinos of the lands they appropriated for themselves.000: when the Te Deum was sung and General Amnesty was proclaimed by the governor That Primo de Rivera pay an additional P900. equal treatment and pay for Peninsular and Insular civil servants. 6. Biak-Na-Bato Republic 1. Failure of the Truce Gen. Paterno Gov. Lazaro Makapagal May 10. Andres Bonifacio 1.- Magdalo: Baldomero Aguinaldo Magdiwang: Mariano Alvarez 1. 1897: Mt. Revolution: Second Phase 2. Gen. Expansion of the American Navy .000: Aguinaldo upon his departure from Biak-na-Bato P200. 7. Francisco Makabulos of Tarlac 1. Trial and Execution of Bonifacio Andres. 4. abolition of the power of the government to banish citizens. freedom of the press and tolerance of all religious sects. 3. Mariano Noriel and Gen. Procopio and Ciriaco Placido Martinez and Teodoro Gonzales Guilty of treason and sedition Gen.000 to the families of the non-combatant Filipinos who suffered during the armed conflict Celestino Tejeiro and Ricardo Monet Col. Pio del Pilar Maj. 2nd Tejeros Convention Naik Military Agreement 1. 5. Primo de Rivera Provisions:       That Aguinaldo and his companions go into voluntary exile abroad That Primo de Rivera would pay P800.

ü Jaudenes. Augustin honorable surrender but he refused for in Spanish code of honor. 1. Spencer Pratt Pratt persuaded Aguinaldo to take his lot to the Americans: ³You need not have any worry about America. Aguinaldo. This made the people in the city. the Americans have to gauge war against the Spaniards. regarding the surrender of Manila. believed that the Spanish position was hopeless and to save face. The Siege of Manila ü Intramuros (Walled City) ± The place where thousands of Spaniards have sought refuge.000 miles away! 1. for ISABELO ARTACHO wanted the P400. Thus. Battle of Manila Bay ± The naval battle was one-sided because while it is true that the Spanish ships outnumbered those of the Americans. through the Belgian consul.000 to be divided among them and sued Aguinaldo in the Hong Kong Supreme Court. ± They surrounded the city and cut off the city¶s food and water supply. he insisted that to satisfy the Spanish code of honor. they were poorly armed. ü It was stipulated that Filipino rebels should be excluded and should not be allowed to enter the city . The American Congress and President have just made a solemn declaration disclaiming any desire to possess Cuba and promising to leave the country to the Cubans after having driven away the Spaniards and pacified the county. the word surrender was non-existent. To avoid appearing in court. ü He started negotiations with Augustin.000 given to him in 2 Hong Kong Banks. while the Philippines is 10. His return was demoralizing for the Spaniards. But there was a division in the ranks of the exiles. Spain lost the battle. the Spanish forces would surrender. The Spanish-American Secret Agreement ü George Dewey. 1. Aguinaldo Returns Aguinaldo arrived in Cavite with the war materials he had brought from Hong Kong. ± Aguinaldo offered Gov. accompanied by Gregorio del Pilar and J. he felt that there was an opportunity to oust the Spaniards from the Philippines. Aguinaldo and E. suffer from hunger and thirst. 1. ± It was only a matter of weeks before the Spanish authorities would surrender to Aguinaldo. Aguinaldo and his men continued the siege. Cuba is at our door. Only the interest was withdrawn and used for the expenses of the exiles. Spaniards. he deposited the P400. After the Battle of Manila Bay.± To expand the navy. he was relieved as governor and was replaced by General FERMIN JAUDENES. thought that the surrender of Manila could be affected without the use of arms. Filipinos and aliens. ± With this refusal. like Augustin. The Renewal of the Struggle began after he issued a proclamation urging the people to rally once more to the Filipino flag in the struggle against the Spaniards. ± Aguinaldo and his men besiege the city in an attempt to starve out the enemy within its walls. Gen. 1. Leyba. Andre. 1. ü But when the Peninsular Government heard of Augustin¶s plan for surrender. a MOCK BATTLE should happen after which. secretly left for Singapore. Aguinaldo While in Hong Kong.

000 from the US as payment for the improvement made in the colony. 1898: Declaration of Independence Malolos Congress Malolos Constitution 1. The Mock Battle of Manila ü There was a short display of fireworks on the side of the enemies. 1. Treaty of Paris ü ü ü ü ü December 10. It provided that Spain would cede the Philippines to United States. ü This signaled the ³fall´ of Manila and the end of the Spanish Colonial Period. ü The Spaniards hoisted the white flag of surrender. In return. Malolos Republic ü ü ü ü ü First Philippine Republic The First Republic in Asia June 12.1. .000. US also agreed to give Spaniards the right to ship commodities to the Philippines for a period of 10 years. This signaled the start of American Colonization in the Philippines. 1898 the Treaty of Paris was signed. Spain would receive $20.

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