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Video Standards
There are five major Video Standards in the world. !   NTSC !   NTSC – J !   PAL !   PAL-M !   SECAM

NTSC (National Television Standard Committee) 525 Scan lines. 30 FPS (29.97) America, Philippines, South Korea & Taiwan. Poorer resolution & less flicker because of 30 FPS. NTSC – J Used in Japan. Same as NTSC except black setting goes to 0 and has darker black than NTSC. PAL (Phase Alternative Line) 625 Scan lines. 25 FPS. Europe, India & South Africa. Sharper image, more flicker because of 25 FPS

PAL – M Used in Brazil. NTSC size of Scan lines & PAL colour palette. 30 FPS. It’s like NTSC video with PAL colours.   SECAM – Used in France, Russia & North America. 625 Scan lines. 25 FPS. PAL colour palette.

Note: These formats are incompatible with each other.

Videos are made up of horizontal lines and they are called Scan lines.   Progressive Scan When all those scan lines displayed from top to bottom sequentially 1st line to the top then 2,3 & so on, to the bottom of the image is called Progressive. All computer monitors uses it. It creates Entire image and has better image quality.   Interlaced Scan – When video & TV being developed for technical reasons they couldn’t display all of scan lines from top to bottom. Instead they created two separate fields, one field held just odd numbered lines like 1,3,5,7,9, 11,etc & other held all the even numbered lines like 2,4,6,8,10,12,etc. 1st they displayed odd numbered field & then even numbered field by weaving fields together they created a single frame of video. It has broadcast compatibility.

NTSC & PAL both are interlaced.   Film is progressive.   If you are shooting for TV Broadcast you should know that the 1st field is shot is even numbered field that is upper field & 2nd is odd numbered field that is lower field.    A Field is all the even & odd numbered lines in a frame. Note: Fields = Scan lines.

Frame Rates
There are traditionally 3 Frame rates !   Film !   PAL !   NTSC

Film In theatre - 24 FPS Digitized – 23.98 FPS (Tele-cine)   PAL 25 FPS   NTSC Theoretically - 30 FPS Actually – 29.97 FPS   Note: A Frame is a complete image composed of two fields.

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