Cornell University Library

B 945 .D53R3 1920

3 1924 024 246 070





1919. Nitobe. J'- ' Any Japan one will who has enjoyed the unique hospitality of if be overwhelmed with confusion he en- deavors to make an acknowledgment in any way comgrateful mensurate to the kindnesses he received. set Yet I must down in the barest of black and white my appreciation of them. September. . D. J. Ono and Dr. I have tried for the most part to set forth the forces which make f intellectual reconlines struction inevitable and to prefigure some of the A - upon which it must proceed. the aim is to exhibit the general contrasts between older and newer types of philosophic problems rather than to make a partisan plea in behalf of any one specific solu- tion of these problems. and in particular record faceable impressions of the courtesy my inef- and help of the members of the department of philosophy of Tokyo University.PREFATORY NOTE Being of invited to lecture at the Imperial University in Japan Tokyo during February and March of the present year. I attempted an interpretation of the reconstruction of ideas and ways of thought now going on in philosophy. and of my dear friends Dr. While the lectures cannot avoid revealing the marks of the particular standpoint of their author.




lived What happened in the past again in memory. hard. a thing into which one A A stone . nourishment and shelter to which man returns from his casual wanderings. perience perishes as it With the animals. an ex- happens. And all which marks the difference between bestiality and 1 . like the beasts of the field. enduring life not merely something which warms or burns. a reminder Hence he lives not. but a symbol of the of the household. But man lives in a world where each occurrence is charged with echoes and reminiscences. is not merely bumps but flame is it is is a monu- ment of a deceased ancestor. About what goes on today hangs a cloud of thoughts concerning similar things undergone in bygone days.CHAPTER I CHANGING CONCEPTIONS OF PHILOSOPHY Man is differs from the lower animals because he pre- serves his past experiences. fork of fire Instead of being a quick it is which may sting and hurt. the hearth at which one worships and for which one this fights. is of what has gone before. of the abiding source of cheer. where each event of other things. and each new doing or suffering stands alone. in a world of merely physical things but in a world of signs and symbols.

The revivals of memory is literal. are. vicissi- tudes and rif troubles. rarely We naturally remember what interests us interests us. The memory has its all the excitement of the combat without danger and anxiety. At the taken up with practical details and with the strain of uncertainty. however. fuse! Only later do the details compose into a story and . a meaning from that which actu- ally belongs either to it or to the past. attention is by the camp ' fire. To revive it and revel in it is to enhance the present moment with a different new meaning. is all Memory is vicarious experience in which there the emotional values of actual experience without its strains. and because it The past it recalled not because of itself but because of what adds to the present. pqignant in victory . The triumph of battle is even more the memorial war dance than at the moment the conscious and truly it is human experience of the chase comes when talked over and re-enacted time.2 RECONSTRUCTION IN PHILOSOPHY because humanity. Savage man recalled yesterday's struggle with an animal not in order to study in a scientific way the qualities of the animal or for the sake of calculating how better to fight tomorrow. preserving and recording is experiences. but to escape thrill of from the^tedium of today by regaining the yesterday. between culture and merely physical nature is man remembers. is Thus the primary lectual life of memory emotional rather than intel- and practical.

CHANGING CONCEPTIONS OF PHILOSOPHY into 3 a whole of meaning. But the is real likeness is of no account. After all. it is the story. Only those incidents are which have tale a present emotional value. Since interest man revives his past experience because of the added to what would otherwise be the emptiness life of present leisure. a As he redrama emerges with a beginning. the drama. At the time of practical experience man the exists from moment to moment. lived in a world of memories which was a world of suggestions. when not actually engaged in the struggle for existence. moments the climax of achievement or defeat. a middle and a movement toward surveys all occupied with the task of the moment. Its correctness A is suggestion differs from a recollection in that nol is attempt made to test its correctness. which selected counts. face. to intensify the present as it is rehearsed in imagination or told to an admiring listener. literal experience of camel and face. The main thing the emotional interest . What does not add to the thrill of combat or dropped. a matter of relative indifference. prein thought. contribute to the goal of success or failure is Incidents are rearranged till they fit into the temper of the tale. Thus early man when left to himself. The cloud suggests a'camel or a man's It could not suggest these things unless some time there had been an actual. the primitive of memory is one of fancy and imagination. rather than of accurate recollection.

if Because of our own! we tend to think of people as busy or occupied. They too had desires.! But then men were busy only when engaged in the hunt or fishing or fighting expedition. habits. animals inevitably became themselves atized. Yet the mind when awake must have some should crowd into the filling. myths ana cults. dram- sumed the They were true dramatis persona and as such astraits of persons. animate). Sometimes a mystery is made out of this histori-i cal fact. not with doing at least with thinking and planning. experiences transformed under vivid the influence of dramatic interest to make more and in coherent the events typical of the chase? As men fancy dramatically re-lived the interesting parts of their actual lives.4 RECONSTRUCTION IN PHILOSOPHY thai camel or following the fortunes of it in tracing the face as forms and dissolves. Until agriculture and the higher industrial arts were developed. humanity. simple. tell ofl Students of the primitive history of mankind the enormous part played by animal tales. And what thoughts human mind except experiences with animals. . But I think. as if it indicated that primitive man was moved! by a different psychology from that which now the explanation is. it is cannot remain literally vacant because the body idle. long periods of empty leisure alternated with toj comparatively short periods of energy put forth secure food or safety from attack.

but also those elaborate rites and cults which made animals divinities. upon such con- We need to recognize that the ordina.y consciousness of the ordinary himself is man left to a creature of desires rather than of intel- lectual study. in the imagination which life 'dramatically revived the past. at even greater length and in more siders t'ons as these. 'tial Moreover. quite literally. the origin of philosophies. yet thev. ThevjfevGted themselves. which from the stand- . detail. For it seems to that the historic source of phi- losophies cannot be understood except as we dwell. since they were essen- to the support of the community.CHANGING CONCEPTIONS OF PHILOSOPHY 'hopes 6 and fears. their activities "and sufferings made them. heroes. only is when he is subjected to a discipline which is. loves and hates. tribal figure-heads and I hope that I do not seem to you to have gone too far afield from my me topic. Although they were hunted. foreign to human nature. Man ceases to be primarily actuated by hopes and fears. to the sustenance and well-being of the community group to which they belonged. a»d""nence they were friends and allies. true sharers in the 1 of the community. loves and hates. produced not merely the multitude of dwelling affectionately tales Thus were and legends and features upon the activities of animals. a life of affections. ancestors. all to permitted themselves after be caueht. inquiry or speculation. triumphs and defeats.

eallyr i and drama* M probably more of the time than is cJ ventionally acknowledged—they are aware of what are doing. logical I and objective habit of mind then predomitffeii nates.6 1 RECONSTRUCTION IN PHILOSO^* llv Natural^ . We to judge others by ourselves. It is overloi largely that both irrelevant rationality and irrationality are m rati and episodical in undisciplined humanjnature.. suggestion. and to organize thej fa» ideas logically rather than emotionally . 7 . by men who have subjected themselves m u degree to intellectual discipline and cul thoughts are habitually reasonable. that men are governed by thought. and do not cwK. and fit into the dramatic taleJ Are they consonant with the prevailing v «-*v. and that actual facts. They to check their fancies ^J"B ^ r 8j by facts. They label these excursions.. dramaticl fancy. and because scientificfandl jM) mi' philosophic books are composed by men in whom reasonable. m0 od> and can . a similar rationality has been attributed by to the average and ordinary man. our Hf>Al 13» they b< our scientific a re wrBB'Ol"* I and philosophical books. ng _which When is they do indulge m reverie and day-dreanT % tend! the To tfiit Wild be gu fuse their results with objective experiences. The standard used to measure the value of the| suggestions that spring up in the mind is not congruit y with fact but emotional congeniality. Do tli*y straralate and reinforce feeling. but is memory is memory rather than by not a rememb^Hg 0l at Oi association. point of natural man. artificial.

rather is than of facts. rather than scientific and is apart from truth and falsity. save in his occasional times of actual work and struggle. At first the emotionalized records of experiences are largely Events that excite the emotions of an individual are seized upon and lived over in tale . significant of It figurative.CHANGING CONCEPTIONS OF PHILOSOPHY of the community? If 7 they be rendered into the traditional hopes and fears we are willing to take the word dreams with a certain libejrality. The is material out of which philosophy finally emerges is irrelevant to science and to explanation. thus to be guilty of a great mistake. lives in a world of dreams. To as if treat the early beliefs and traditions of mankind explanation of the is they were attempts at scientific world. however. This original material has. rationality or absurdity of fact in the same way in which poetry is independent of these things. casual and transitory. poetry and drama. science. to pass through at least two stages before it becomes philosophy proper. not a world of It is objective fact intellectually confronted. One is the stage in which stories and legends and their accompanying dramatizations are consolidated. and a world of dreams that organized its about desires whose success and frustration form stuff. it is hardly too much to say that man. symbolic of fears and hopes. only erroneous and absurd attempts. made of imaginations and suggestions.

A certain texture of tradition is built up. The is story becomes a social norm. of imagination is An abiding framewoflp constructed. the story becomes a social heritage and possession. there is a definite motive for systematMng . Sug- gestions previously free are hardened into doctrines.8 RECONSTRUCTION IN PHILOSOPHY But some experiences are so frequeni and pantomime. and recurrent that they concern the group as a whole. Tradition thus formed becomes a kind of norm to which individual fancy and suggestion conform. — The systematic and obligatory nature is of such doc- trines hastened and confirmed through conquests and political consolidation. body of beliefs fixated! Poetry becomes and systematized. the pantomime develops into the stated rite. As the area of a government is extended. Certain incidents affect the weal aid woe of the group in its entirety and thereby get an exceptional emphasis and elevation. A communal way of conceiving life grows up into which individuals are inducted by education. is The piecemeal adventure till it of the single individual built out becomes repre- and typical of the emotional life of the tribe. re-enacts an emotionally im- The original drama which portant experience institutionalized into a cult. definite Both unconsciously and by individual social requirement memories are indi- assimilated to group memory or tradition. and vidual fancies are accommodated to the characteristic of a community. They are sentative socially generalized.

There is still lacking the motive for logical system and intellectual proof. Rome. Greece. other countries Judea. It enough for our purposes that under social influences there took place a fixing and organizing of doctrines and tion cults which gave general traits to the imagination rules to conduct. Whether this is literally so or not. and I presume having a long history.CHANGING CONCEPTIONS OF PHILOSOPHY and unifying beliefs 9 once free and floating. it is less not is necessary to inquire. Aside from natural accommodation and assimilation springing from the fact of intercourse stliaading. present records of a continual working over of earlier local interests of rites and doctrines in the a wider social unity and a more extensive political power. and the needs of common underbeliefs in there is often political necessity which leads the ruler to centralize traditions and to extend order and strengthen his prestige all and authority. not the sole and and generalization of ideas and principles of sufficient generator of philosophy. much to demonstrate. Although a necessary antecedent. and general and that such a consolida- was a necessary antecedent to the formation of this organization belief is any philosophy as we understand that term. This we may suppose to be furnished the by the need of reconciling moral rules and ideals em- . I shall ask you to assume with me that in this way the larger cosmogonies and cosmologies of the race as well as the larger ethical traditions have arisen.

arts and crafts where observation of materials and processes . that sharp points penetrate fall heavy things unless supported. Gradu- grows up a body of homely generalizations preserving and transmitting the wisdom of the race about the observed facts and sequences of nature. This knowledge is especially connected with industries. fire burns. yet the environment does enforce a certain of extinction. minimum of correctness under penalty That certain things are foods. wet and dry: —such propaic facts force themselves upon even primitive attention.10 RECONSTRUCTION IN PHILOSOPHY knowledge which gradually grows up. that they and cut. that water drowns. that there certain regularity in the changes of is a day and night and the alternation of hot and cold. of the world. bodied in the traditional code with the matter of fact pdsitijrastic For man can make never be wholly the creature of suggestion and fancy. The requirements Although it is of continued existence indispensable some attention to the actual facts surprising how little check of the environment actually puts ideas. that are to be found in certain places. Some of them are so obvious and so important Auguste Comte says somewhere that he knows of no savage people who had a God of weight although every other that they have next to no fanciful context. since upon the formation no notions are too absurd not to have been accepted by some people. natural quality or force ally there may have been deified.

CHANGING CONCEPTIONS OF PHILOSOPHY is 11 is required for successful action. but everyday familiar use will expel these conceptions for the greater part of the time. controllable by practical relations of cause and effect. because activity is more at the mercy of sudden change and unforeseen occurrence. Still and passage from wood to ash. notions are eliminated because they are brought into juxtaposition with what actually happens. sails and oar to the wind. fire will when be to him of uniform and prosaic behavior. The sailor is more likely to be given to what we now his term superstitions than say the weaver. Fire may be conceived as a supernatural dragon because some time or other a swift. But even the sailor while he may regard the wind as the uncontrollable expression of the caprice of a great spirit. will still have to become acquainted with some purely mechanical principles of adjustment of boat. and where action so continuous and regular that spasmodic magic Extravagantly fantastic will not suffice. But the housewife who tends still the fire and the pots wherein food cooks will be compelled to observe certain mechanical facts of draft and replenishment. more will the worker in metals accumulate verifiable details about the conditions and consequences of the operation of heat. He may retain for special and ceremonial occasions traditional beliefs. bright and devouring "flame called before the mind's eye the quick-moving and dangerous serpent. .

12 RECONSTRUCTION IN PHILOSOPHY the arts and crafts develop and become As more elabo- and tested knowledge enlarges. Technologies of this kind give that common-sense knowledge of nature out of which science takes its origin. The workers and crafts- men who possess the prosaic matter of fact knowledge . their inconsistencies forbid their interif weaving. but they give expertness in dealing with materials and and promote the development of the experimental habit of mind. They provide not merely a tools. For a long time and with its the imaginative body of beliefs closely connected with the moral habits of a community group emotional indulgences and consolations perside with the sists side by growing body of matter of fact knowledge. Wherever possible they are interlaced. collection of positive facts. the two kinds of mental products are kept apart because they become the possession of separate social classes. and there is no need of reconciliation. At other points. in Since one is merely superis imposed upon the other their incompatibility not felt. but the two things are kept apart as different compartments. as soon as an art can be taken away from the rule of sheer custom. the body of positive greater scope. In most cases. and the sequences observed become more complex and of rate. The religious and poetic beliefs having acquired a defi- nite social and political value and function are in the keeping of a higher class directly associated with the ruling elements in the society.

Nevertheless. question of this is just how and why. within which originated philosophy proper in the sense in which the western world understands that term. his type of it was only just above the slave knowledge and the method upon which lacked prestige and authority. Without going into the there is vexed. post- poned the general and systematic employment of the experimental method. is name they have never been evidence that with the sophists the between the two types of belief was the emphatic Ining. the time came depended when matter of fact it knowledge increased to such bulk and scope that came into spirit conflict with not merely the detail but with the traditional and temper of and imaginative beliefs. a to shake strife off. Since the industrial craftsman in social rank. fact that the sophists had a bad name given The them by able Plato and Aristotle. was this fact in Greece which in spite of the keenness of observation. the extraordinary power of logical reasoning and the great freedom of speculation attained by the Athenian.CHANGING CONCEPTIONS OF PHILOSOPHY of knowledge is affected 18 are likely to occupy a low social status. in no doubt that what happened what we term the sophistic movement in Greece. and their kind by the social dislssteem enterin activities tained for the manual worker who engages It doubtless useful to the body. and that the conflict had a disco disconcerting religioufe beliefs ious effect upon the traditional system of and the .

Plato himself. the old beliefs in the old way. its Because of limited and concrete character it was dry. could no longer be content to accept. hard. community which men realized their own In contrast. along with the conservative citizen of the time. the positivistic knowledge was conutilities.16 EECONSTRUCTION IN PHILOSOPHY by becoming saturated with in short its ideals the country. men lived and the" moral rules by which they Hence it was as basic and as comprehensive as and palpijfcated life in life itself. and customs . it was deeply rooted in social habits was surcharged with the moral aims for which lived. cerned with merely physical and lacked the ardent associations of belief hallowed by sacrifices of ancestors and worship of contemporaries. Yet the more acute and active minds. To attempt to derive abstract rules from a comparison of native ways of over fighting with the enemies' ways is to begin to go to the enemies' traditions false to one's and gods: it is to begin to be own country. The growth of positive knowledge and of the critical. with the warm glowing colors of the being. inquiring spirit under- . like that of cold. it came into conflict with the tradir The latter and loyalties. by becoming a practical adept in the Greek tradition as to fighting. by the positivistic Such a point of view vividly realized enables us to appreciate the antagonism aroused point of view when tional.

as a substitute for custom the source and gujtcantor of higher moral and is social values —that of the leading theme of the classic philosophy Aristotle Europe. renewed and restated by the Christian philosophy of Medieval Europe. The advantages were all definiteness. resting the past. is Tradition was noble in in foundation. as let evolved by Plato and —a philosophy. but uncertain questioned life. nay. us always recall. The unto be lived is was not one fit by man. if I mistake not. in verifiability on the side of the new knowledge. the entire tradition regarding the function and office of . it in To put a word. Out of this situation emerged. said Socrates. of things.CHANGING CONCEPTIONS OF PHILOSOPHY mined these in 17 in their old form. that which had rested upon custom was to be restored. add to their power and authority. What was to be done? Develop a method of rational investigation and proof which should place the essential elements of traditional belief upon an unshak- able basis . a questioning being because he a Hence he must search out the reason and not accept them from custom and political authority. by purifying them. in accuracy. develop a method of thought and knowledge which while purifying tradition should presejevCits moral and social values unimpaired. but no longer upon the habits of upon the very metaphysics of Being and Metaphysics is the Universe. aim and scope. who rational being.

The resulting philosophy seemed radical enough and . of accepted beliefs and traditional customs. far so good.18 RECONSTRUCTION IN PHILOSOPHY till philosophy which the very recently has controlled western| systematic and constructive philosophies of the world. then the key is in our hands as to the main traits of subsequent philosophy so far as that was not of a negative kind. philosophy did not develop an unbiased way from . It became the work of philosophy to justify on rationaTgrounds~tKe spiritT^though not the form. a spirit conbenial to the spirit of past be- The association with imagination and with social It authority was too intimate to be deeply disturbed. was not possible to conceive of the content of social institutions in any form radically different from that in which they had existed in the past. But it was also precommitted to extracting this moral essence in liefs. and heterodox in In the first place. it was sworn in advance to that essential It had to extract the moral kerneM So- out of the threatened traditional beliefs of the past. and mission. If I am right in my main thesis that the origin «f philosophy lay in an attempt to reconcile the two different types of mental product. It had a mission to perform. It had its task cut out for it from the start. the work was critical and in the interests of the only true conservatism —that which will conserve and not waste the values wrought out by open and unprejudiced origin.

so that their writings remain. the best introduction of a stu- dent into the innermost ideals and aspirations of distinctively art. while the effect of that science upon which the philosophers most prided themselves turns out to have been superficial and spirit of negligible. to justify itself to reason. This apologetic philosophy is even more apparent when Medie- val Christianity about the twelfth century sought for a systematic rational presentation of itself and made use of classic philosophy.CHANGING CONCEPTIONS OF PHILOSOPHY difference of 19 even dangerous to the average Athenian because of the form and method. Greek life. The . Without Greek religion. it was radical. now easy to see how profoundly. A not unsimilar occurrence characterizes the chief philosophic systems of in the early nineteenth century. especially that of Aristotle. Germany when Hegel assumed the of rational idealism the task of justifying in the name doctrines and institutions which were menaced by the new spirit of science and popular government. after all. Greek Greek civic life. their philosophy would have been impossible. Plato and Aristotle reflected the meaning of Greek tradition and habit. In the sense of pruning away excrescences and average citizen were eliminating factors which to the all one with the basic beliefs. with the writings of the great dramatists. But looked at in the perspective of history and in contrast with different types of thought which it is developed later in different social environments.

simpler and rougher ways of demonstration may be resorted to. in parade of logical form. processed complete intellectual independence and rationality. second trait of philosophy its origin. springing from Since it aimed at a rational justification of things that had been previously accepted because of their emotional congeniality and social prestige. but which also are not capable of empirical verification. it and proof. In dealing with matters of fact. so to it say. there is no recourse save to magnify the signs of rigorous thought and rigid demonstration. It is enough. it had to make much of the apparatus of reason Because of the lack of intrinsic rationality which it dealt. in the matters with leaned over back- ward.20 result RECONSTRUCTION IN PHILOSOPHY has been that the great systems have not been spirit free from party exercised in behalf of pre-^ Since they have at the same time conceived beliefs. But when comes to convincing men of the truth of doctrines which are no longer to be accepted upon the say-so of custom and social authority. to produce the fact in question and point to the fundamental form of it all demonstration. stract definition Thus and arises that appearance of abargumentation ultra-scientific . all phy an element the more infeiaious_be- cause wholly unconscious on the part of those who sustained philosophy. the result has been too often to impart to philosoof insincerity. And this brings us to a. so to speak.

. Very early history philosophy made pretension this to a similar conclusiveness. but few philosophers have been courageous enough to ajvow that philosophy can be satisfied with anything that is merely probable. But in the main philosophy has set up much more ambitious pretensions. own sake. was necessary because after in all the fail attaining final and complete truth. that " philosophy' vision function is to free men's minds from and prejudice and to enlarge their perceptions of the world about them. as did is dissenters who have venWilliam James. There have been a few " and that bias its chief tured to assert. The customs dictated by finality tradition and desire had claimed in and immutability. They had claimed to give certain its and unvarying laws of conduct. this has reduced philosophy to a show of elaborate terminology. and something of temper has clung insisted to classic philosophies ever since. and an over-pretentious Bishop Butler declared t hat prob a- bUity_2sJthejruideofJife . best. fictitious and a devotion to the mere external forms of com- prehensive and minute demonstration. a hair-splitting logic . philosophy special sciences — that. They have that they were more scientific than the sciences indeed. it Even at the has tended to produce an overdeveloped attachits ment to system for claim to certainty.CHANGING CONCEPTIONS OF PHILOSOPHY which rebels so been one of 21 many from philosophy but which has // its chief attractions to its devotees. At the worst.

22 RECONSTRUCTION IN PHILOSOPHY say frankly that philosophy can proffer nothing but these To hypotheses. and that hypotheses are of value life only as they render men's minds more sensitive to about them. so tradition. was pervasive and comprehensive. All philosophies of the classic type have fixed made the a and fundamental One of distinction between two realms re- of existence. In the third place. the details of the group its Its pressure It was unr vtting and influence universal. would be tradi- as inclusive and far-reaching metaphysically as tion had been socially. all to speak. was then probably inevitable that the rival principle. Now there was just one way in which this pretension could be accomplished in con- junction with a claim of complete logical system and certainty. would seem like a negation of philosophy itself. should aim at a It simi- lar universality and comprehensiveness. ligious these corresponds to and supernatural world its of popular tradition. and sanction of duct in all community life important truths and rules of conhad been found in superior and . which in metaphysical rendering became the world Since the final source of highest and ultimate reality. omnipresent in life. reflective thought. the body of beliefs dictated by in- desire and imagination and developed under the fluence of communal authority into an authoritative It was.

has affected most deeply the philosophy. positivistic science referred. and the sole rational guide to proper social institutions and indi- vidual behavior. of course. and the special This claim has. 23 so the absolute and supreme reality of philosophy afforded the only sure guaranty of truth about empirical matters. This is the trait which.CHANGING CONCEPTIONS OF PHILOSOPHY unquestioned religious beliefs. office notion about the nature of itself Philosophy has (arrogated to the of demonstrating the existence of a transcendent* absolute or inner reality and of revealing to man the nature and features of this ultimate and higher reality. in classic my opinion. Qy-er. against this absolute and noume-' nal reality which could be apprehended only by the systematic discipline of philosophy itself stoo d the ordi- nary empirical. and that it is marked by a superior dignity and importance — a claim which is undeniable if philoso- phy leads man to proof and intuition of a Reality belife yond that open to day-by-day sciences. It was with world that the connected. It has therefore claimed that it was is in possession of a higher organ of knowledge than employed by posi- tive science and ordinary practical experience. practical affairs and utilities of It was to this imperfect men were and perishing world that mat- ter of fact. relatively real. phenomenal world of this everyday experience. been denied by various .

Common frankness requires that be stated that this account of the origin of philoso- phies claiming to deal with absolute Being in a sys- tematic way has been given with malice prepense. philosophers from time to time. these denials have been agnostic They have contented themselves with asserting tb/at absolute and ultimate reality is beyond hu man kern But they be have not ventured to deny that such Reality would were within the reach the appropriate sphere for the exercise of philosophic knowledge provided only it of human arisen. a tradition originally dictated by man's imagination working under the influence of love and hate and in the interest of emotional excitement and it satisfaction. Only comparatively recently office has another conception of the proper of philosophy be devoted to in This course of lectures will setting forth this different conception of philosophy some of its main contrasts to what this lecture has termed the classic conception. referred to only It is At this point. intelligence. . It me that this genetic method of approach is a more effective way of undermining this type of philoseems to sophic theorizing than any attempt at logical refutation could be.24 RECONSTRUCTION IN PHILOSOPHY But and for the most part sceptical. implied in the account which has been given of the of philosophy origin out of the background of an authoritative tradition. it can be by anticipation and in cursory fashion.

the history of philosophy will take on a new significance. it will also succeed in leaving with you a changed attitude toward traditional philosophies. Instead of impossible attempts to tran- scend experience. if one will connect the story of philoso- phy with a study of anthropology. we have the significant record of the efforts of men to formulate the things of experience to which they are most deeply and passionately attached. in They will be viewed from a new angle and placed a new light. the history of religion. New questions about them will be will aroused and new standards for judging them suggested. . primitive life.CHANGING CONCEPTIONS OF PHILOSOPHY If this lecture succeeds in leaving in 25 your minds as a reasonable hypothesis the idea that philosophy origi- nated not out of intellectual material. What is lost from the standpoint of would-be science is regained from the standpoint of humanity. but out of social and emotional material. literature and social institutions. it confidently asserted that he will reach his own indeill pendent judgment as to the worth of the account which has been presented today. Considered in this way. we have the scene of human clash of social purpose and aspirations. Instead of the disputes of rivals about the nature of reality. If be any one will commence without mental reservations to study the history of philosophy not as an isolated thing but as a chapter in the development of civilization and culture .

philosophy has been occupied with the precious values embedded in social traditions. and.^ without knowing or intending cover. that it has sprung from a clash of social ends and from a with incompatible cons een conflict of inherited institutions temporary tendencies. must henceforth be openly and When it is acknowledged that under disguise of dealing with ultimate reality. Its aim is to become so far as is humanly possible an organ for deal- ing with these conflicts. Any definite one of you will who arrives at such a view of past philosophy of necessity be led to entertain a quite conception of the scope and aim of future philosophizing. and to what ends they would have men shape their intelligent activities. tiously unreal That which may be pretenformulated in metaphysical when it is distinctions becomes intensely significant when connect* d its with the drama of the struggle of social beliefs and ideals. life to be. Philosophy which surrenders somewhat . futurejghilosophy is it wil l be that the_taskj»f to clarify men's ideas as ±o_Jthe -social andjmoral strifes of their own day. it it.26 RECONSTRUCTION IN PHILOSOPHY Instead of impersonal and purely speculative endeavors to contemplate as remote beholders the nature of abso- we have a living picture of the choice of thoughtful men about what they would have lute things-in-themselves. He will inevitably be committed to the notion that what philosophy has been unconsciously. under deliberately. so to speak.

CHANGING CONCEPTIONS OF PHILOSOPHY 27 barren monopoly of dealings with Ultimate and Absolute Reality will find a compensation in enlightening the moral forces which move mankind and in contributing to the aspirations of men to attain to a more ordered and intelligent happiness. .

as a prophet of new tendencies he an outstanding figure of the world's intellectual life. What most page signifi- cant in him has been rendered more or the later course of events.SOME HISTORICAL FACTORS IN PHILOSOPHICAL RECONSTRUCTION Fkancis Baco n of the Elizabethan age forerunner of the spirit of modern in is is the great slight life. Like many another prophet he suffers from confused is intermingling of old and new. ceives his Caught between these re- two sources of easy disparagement. Though accomplishment. less familiar by But page after is filled with matter which belongs to the past from which Bacon thought he had escaped. . such as an alleged authorship of the specific methods of induction pursued by science. Bacon hardly while he due as the real~Tbunder of modern thought. is praised for merits which scarcely belong to him. He never himself discovered the land of promise. What makes Bacon memorable world caught and is that breezes blowing from a new filled his sails and stirred him to ad- venture in new seas. but he proclaimed the new goal and by faith he descried its features from afar.

For it did not give power. etc. It was otiose. In his most extensive discussion he classified the learning of his day under three heads. Under delicate learning. he condemned the great body of learning then extant as mof-knowledge. Bacon's condemnation is the more effective because he himself was a master of the classics and of all the graces and refinements which this literary study was intended to convey. astrology. as pseudo. It contributed not to It power but to ornament and decoration. Judged by this pragmatic criterion. not operative.SOME HISTORICAL FACTORS The main traits of his 29 thought put before our mind the larger features of a new spirit which was at work in They may suggest the social and historical forces out of which the new spirit was born. Upon he poured his greatest vials . he included the literary learning which through the influence of the revival of ancient languages and literatures occupied so important a place in the intellec- tual life of the Renaissance. luxurious. was ostentatious and over Europe in the of By fantastic learning he meant the quasirife all magical science that was so sixteenth century —wild this developments alchemy."^ delicate. In sub- stance he anticipated most of the attacks which educational reformers since his time have made upon one- sided literary culture. fantastic and contentious. is that Knowledge is Power . The best known aphorism of Bacon causing intellectual reconstruction.and pretentious- knowledge.



00 of wrath because the corruption of the g
vain, but Delicate learning was idle and knowledge. fantastic learning aped the form of true knowledgeIt laid hold of the true principle and aim of

worst of

control of natural forces.



neglected the condi-

and methods by which alone such knowledge could be obtained, and thus deliberately led men astray. For our purposes, however, what he says about conis

tentious learning

the most important.

For by

this, he

means the traditional science which had come down, in scanty and distorted measure to be sure, from antiquity
through scholasticism.

called contentious both

because of the logical method used and the end to which

was put.

In a certain sense


aimed at power, but

power over other men in the
sect or person, not

interest of


class or
in the

power over natural forces


interest of


Bacon's conviction of the quarscholarship

self-displaying character of the

which had come down from antiquity was of course not

much due

to Greek science itself as to the degenerate

heritage of scholasticism in the fourteenth century,

when philosophy had

fallen into the

hands of disputa-

tious theologians, full of hair-splitting argumentative-

and quirks and tricks by which to win victory over


But Bacon




charge against the
rigorous forms




aimed at demonstration, and in


milder forms at

But both demonstration and persuasion aim at conquest of mind rather than of nature. Moreover they both assume that some one
session of

already in pos-

a truth or a


and that the only problem
or to teach.

to convince some one

In contrast,


new method had an exceedingly

slight opinion of the

amount of truth already
the extent
It would be

and a

lively sense


and importance of truths

to be attained.

logic of discovery, not a logic of argu-

mentation, proof and persuasion.
logic even at its best


Bacon, the old

was a logic for teaching the already

known, and teaching meant indoctrination,

was an axiom of Aristotle that only that which was

already known could be learned, that growth in knowl-

edge consisted simply in bringing together a universal
truth of reason and a particular truth of sense which

had previously been noted separately.

In any case,

learning meant growth, of knowledge, and growth belongs in the region of becoming, change, and hence
inferior to possession of

knowledge in the


self-revolving manipulation of

what was already known

In contrast with this point of view, Bacon eloquently
proclaimed the superiority of discovery of new facts

and truths to demonstration of the





only one road to discovery, and that

penetrating in-


Scientific principle*

quiry into the secrets of nature.

on the surface of nature. They are hidden, and must be wrested from nature by an active and elaborate technique of inquiry. Neither logical

and laws do not

reasoning nor the passive accumulation of any number
of observations

—which the ancients



to lay hold of them.

Active experimentation

must force the apparent facts of nature into forms different to those in which they familiarly present themselves;

and thus make them tell the truth about themas torture may compel an unwilling witness to re-


what he has been concealing.

Pure reasoning

as a

means of arriving at truth
a web out of himself.
it is


is like the spider who spins The web is orderly and elaborate, a trap. The passive accumulation of

the ant


traditional empirical


is like


busily runs about

heaps of raw materials.

and collects and piles up True method, that which Bacon

would usher

in, is

comparable to the operations of the

bee who, like the ant, collects material

from the external

world, but unlike that industrious creature attacks and
modifies the collected stuff in order to



yield its

hidden treasure.

Along with

this contrast

between subjugation of na-

ture and subjection of other minds and the elevation
of a method of discovery above a method of demonstration,

went Bacon's sense of progress as the aim and

test of genuine knowledge.


According to

his criticisms,

the classic logic, even in its Aristotelian form, inevitably

played into the hands of inert conservatism.



accustoming the mind to think of truth as already



habituated men to


back on the


attainments of the past, and to accept them without


Not merely

the medieval but the

renaissance mind tended to look back to antiquity as a

Golden Age of Knowledge, the former relying upon
sacred scriptures, the latter upon secular literatures.


while this attitude could not fairly be charged


against the classic logic, yet Bacon
justice, that

and with


logic which identified the technique

of knowing with demonstration of truths already possessed

confines the

by the mind, blunts the spirit of investigation and mind within the circle of traditional learn-

Such a logic could not avoid having for its salient features definition of what is already known (or thought
to be known),



systematization according to

recognized canons of orthodoxy.


logic of discovery

on the other hand looks to the future.

Received truthj

regards critically as something to be tested by new"

experiences rather than as something to be dogmatically

taught and obediently received.

Its chief interest in

even the most carefully tested ready-made knowledge

the use which



made of


in further inquiries

tion of the nature of induction Bacon's own apprecia- was highly defective. accidental. to improve conditions? Where are the inventions that justify of truth? its claim to be in possession in Beyond the victory of man over man law courts. and Old truth has its chief value in assist- ing the detection of new truth. rather than repetition in logical form of But his already known. they are nil. And progress in the arts was as yet intermittent. the logic? of the older evils of life. agricultural and medi- . or from imperceptible decay into superstition and old wives' tales. consequences of value to human kind through power over natural forces. —such is the true spirit is of Continued progress in knowledge the only sure into way of protecting old knowledge from degeneration dogmatic doctrines received on authority. the the acute sense that science means invasion of unknown. diplomacy and political administration. Bacon constantly fruits. where are the works. A true logic or technique of inquiry would make advance in the industrial. demands. fitful. fruits. Ever-renewed progress is to Bacon the test as well as the aim of genuine logic. makes him nevertheless the father of induction. What has it done to ameliorate the to rectify defects.34 RECONSTRUCTION IN PHILOSOPHY discoveries. Endless and persistent uncovering of facts and principles not known induction. Where. One had to turn from admired " sciences " to despised arts to find works.

If we take into account the supposed body of ready- made knowledge upon which learned men rested in supine acquiescence and which they recited in parrotlike chorus. uniformity and unity among phenomena than It follows superficial analogies and actually exists. by a conscious and The mind of man spontaneously assumes greater sim- plicity. Men looked at the work of their own minds and thought . Many of them origi- many in class interest and bias. per- petuated by authority for this very reason —a consid- eration which later actuated Locke's attack upon the doctrine of innate ideas. made up of the errors of our ancesinto pseudo- musty with antiquity and organized through the use of the classic logic. One of these parts is tors.SOME HISTORICAL FACTORS cal arts continuous. we find it consists of two parts. nated in accident . What had been termed science in the past con- sisted of this humanly constructed and imposed web. cumulative 85 sys- and deliberately tematic. jumps to conclusions tails . it overlooks the variety of de- and the existence of exceptions. Thus it weaves a web of purely internal origin which it imposes upon nature. Such " truths " are in fact only the systematized mistakes science and prejudices of our ancestors. beliefs The other portion of accepted comes from instinctive tendencies of the human it mind that give a dangerous bias until counteracted critical logic.

. the indiis or nothing. it had. The counterpart of a political animal. social in- and truth must be discovered by little social agencies organized for that purpose. To by Bacon. cal. vidual can do Left to himself. he self-spun likely to become involved in his own web of misconceptions. error had been produced and perpetuated fluences. celebrated saying that Intelligence. is neither animal. under the name of science. logic The office of the new itself: to would be to protect the mind against it teach to undergo a patient and prolonged apprenand particularity ticeship to fact in its infinite variety to obey nature intellectually in order to practically. Aristotle thought of reason as capable of solitary com- munion with rational truth. And the worst thing that could be said about traditional logic was that instead of saving man from this natural source of error. so named express opposition to the organon of Aristotle. thlough attributing to nature a false rationality of unity. other important oppositions are implied. sisted of these So-called science and philosophy con- "anticipations" of nature. human nor politi- It is divinely unique and self-enclosed. is his man is that Nous.86 RECONSTRUCTION IN PHILOSOPHY They were wor- they were seeing realities in nature. the idols of their own making. simplicity and generality. sanc- tioned these sources of delusion. shipping. command it Such was the significance of the new tool or logic in —the new Certain organon of learning.

we readily forgive him lective. as he says. to the benefit and use of men. if . In view of the picture he draws in his New Atlantis of a State organized for collective inquiry. but as they sought in knowledge a couch whereon to rest a searching and wandering spirit or a terrace for a wandering and variable mind to walk up and down with a fair prospect. of substituted for the individual but col- Man over Nature. Empire of Man over Man. and not a rich storehouse for the glory . and absurd notion of a method so perfected that differences in natural human ability all be put on the same level in production of new facts and new truths. from generaBacon even aspired to the rather might be discounted. or a tower for a proud mind to raise itself upon or a fort or commanding ground for strife and contention. Let us employ Bacon's own words with their variety of picturesque metaphor " Men have entered into the desire : of learning and knowledge. the Power over nature was not to be Empire. . seldom sincerely to give a true account of their gift of reason. tive side of his Yet this absurdity was only the nega- great positive prophecy of a combined and co-operative pursuit of science such as characterizes our own day. his exaggerations. profit and sale . whereby is 37 the organization of co-operative recollectively men attack nature is and the work of inquiry carried on continuously tion to generation. . or a shop for .SOME HISTORICAL FACTORS The great need search.

and to intro- . This somewhat over-long resume of Bacon's ideas has not been gone into as a matter of historic retrospect. and then reacted . political and you of the direction of that religious change upon which Europe was entering. . Bacon may be taken as the prophet of a pragmatic misconceptions of its conception of knowledge. I do not know that he was ing expressly of Francis Bacon. but it may be of some assistance even barely to remind industrial. spirit would be avoided Many if his emphasis upon the social factor in both the pursuit and the end of knowledge were carefully obsej-ved." When for an think- William James called Pragmatism a New Name Old Way of Thinking. commerce. to exaggerate the influence of travel. the industrial side. produced new methods of manufacbanking and finance. I think. The summary is rather meant to put before our minds an authentic document of the new philosophy which may bring into relief the social causes of intellectual revolution. exploration and new commerce which fostered a romantic sense of adventure into novelty beliefs . it is Upon impossible. everywhere to stimulate invention. but so far as concerns the spirit and atmosphere of the pursuit of knowledge.38 RECONSTRUCTION IN PHILOSOPHY relief of of the creator and the man's estate. loosened the hold of traditional created a lively sense of new worlds to be investi- gated and subdued ture. Only a sketchy account can be here attempted.

peoples and races previously isolated influential for change when psychorein- and industrial changes coincide with and force each other. an adoption of foreign tools and devices. times. characteristic of the new contacts of the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries. especially in religious matters. so to speak. what might almost be called a metaphysical change.SOME HISTORICAL FACTORS into science. the revival of the profane learning of antiquity and even more perhaps. through intercourse. The inner set of the mind. an imitation of alien habits of clothing. altered. something significant happens. the introduction of the lens. is — these are Contrast between always. This coincidence of two kinds of change was. I take it. the contact with the advanced learning of the the increase of Mohammedans. One of these changes is. the finding and opening up of North and South America most significantly called The some of the obvious external most fruitful and logical New World facts. too internal and the other too external to bring about a profound intellectual development. I think. there is is At other a lively exchange of goods. commerce with Asia and Africa. compass and gunpowder. habitation and production of commodities. Sometimes people undergo emotional change. But when the creation of a new mental attitude falls together with extensive material and economic changes. Clash of customs and traditional . 39 duce positive observation and active experimentation The Crusades.

But life positive changes in the habits and purposes of gave objective conformation and sup- port to the mental change. Conservative adherence to old beliefs and methods promoted the desire for still underwent a steady attrition with every new voyage new parts and every new report of foreign ways. This psychological change was essential to the birth of the new point of view it in science and philosophy. the mind was opened up. new spirit found New- found wealth. tended to wean men . New contacts . channels in which the They also determined the exercise. and unknown: as new geographically and commercially speaking were opened up. more contacts the appetite for novelty and discovery grew by what it fed upon. it aroused a lively curiosity as to different The actual adventure of travel and exploration purged the mind of fear of the strange territories and new ideas. It into found a delight and interest in the revelations of novel the and the unusual which it no longer took in what of was old and customary. Moreover. yielded a peculiar joy and thrill. The mind became used to exploration and discovery.40 beliefs RECONSTRUCTION IN PHILOSOPHY dispelled mental inertia and sluggishness. the process of enterprising adventure into the remote. of expedition. Yet alone could hardly have produced the new method of knowing. the gold from the Americas and new articles of consumption and enjoyment. the very act exploration.

instead of against goods and for consumption. would have effected the economic transformation of the last few centuries and generations. of the appliances and equipscienti- ment of production. This cursory and superficial reminder of vast and complicated events may suggest the mutual interde- pendence of the revolution. and generated quantitative. 41 from preoccupation with the metaphysical and theologi- and to turn their minds with newly awakened and this life. chemical Business and science were prerequisites. The modern all mine. No amount of desire to make money. modern industry so much applied science. have insights gained laid hold of the by scientific men into the hidden energies of nature. and transportation. physical. rapid and production for exchange against money and for profit. men through new engineers of different sorts. no amount of mere practical energy and enterprise. large scale production by means of steam for foreign and expanding markets. and have turned them to account. factory.SOME HISTORICAL FACTORS cal. railway. telegraph. in- terest to the joys of nature New material resources and new markets in America and India under- mined the old dependence upon household and manual production for a local and limited market. Improvements biological in mathematical. Capitalism. steamship. express . transit. or to enjoy new commodities. followed. scientific revolution and the industrial is Upon the one hand.

42 fie EECONSTRUCTION IN PHILOSOPHY knowledge. through the intermediary of invention. and progress have been inextricably bound up together. that human aims have so far been affected in an accidental rather than . The demands of progressive production and transportation have set new problems to inquiry. better put. the wealth rolled up in business has to some ex- tent been diverted to endowment of research. Bacon's watchword that knowledge is power and his dream of continuous empire over natural forces by means of natural science have been actualized. They would continue unimpaired even if the ordinary pecuniary accompaniments of economic activity were radically altered. In short. and has brought home to the contemporary mind the fact that the gist of scientific science knowledge facts. The undis- interrupted and pervasive interaction of scientific covery and industrial application has fructified both and industry. it is equally true that the needs of modern industry have been tremendous stimuli to scientific investigation. On the other hand. "That up to the present the application of the newer methods and results has influenced the means of life rather than its ends . is control of natural energies. experimentation. The industrial revolution by steam and electricity is the reply to Bacon's prophecy. or. These four control natural science. the processes used in industry have suggested new experimental appliances and operations in science.

from the farm to factory. Such of nature applications occur and in great numbers. sporadic and external. Put in the language of Bacon. Wherever business in the modern sense has gone. and projection of aims It is and methods. hardly necessary to remind you however that political marked changes have already followed upon the its new science and industrial applications. emphasizes the larger social deficiencies that require intelligent diagnosis. to those based on . but they are incidental. this means that in obtaining while\ we have been reasonably successful com- mand by means of science. from social titles based on personal allegiance. from the country to the city.SOME HISTORICAL FACTORS in 43 an intelligently directed way. service and protection. it that has been economic rather than adequately social. and that in so far some directions of social development have at least been marked out. And For it this limitare- tion defines the specific problem of philosophical construction at the present time. in which the social pattern was formed in agricultural occupations and military pursuits. signifies that so far the change has been technical rather than human and moral. our science is not yet such that this command is systematically and preeminently applied to the relief of human estate. The growth of the new technique of industry has everywhere been followed by the fall of feudal institutions. the tendency has been to transfer power from land to financial capital.

and more as human works than they less used to be. is The contract theory of the theory whose falsity philosophically origin of the state a may easily be demonstrated both and historically. existence. Nevertheless this theory has had great currency and influence. is worth as a symptom of the direction It testified to a growing belief that of human the state existed to satisfy human needs and could be shaped by human intention and volition. and more as trivances of men and women to realize their own desires. less Modern states.44 EECONSTRUCTION IN PHILOSOPHY and exchange of goods. men voluntarily got made a compact with one another to observe certain laws and to submit to certain authority and in that way brought the state and the relation of stated that some time in the past together and ruler and subject into of great desire. though worthless as a record of fact. it In form. control of labor The change in the political centre of gravity has resulted in emanci- pating the individual from bonds of class and custom and in producing a political organization which depends less upon superior authority and more upon voluntary as choice. in other words. are regarded divine. Like many things in philosophy. the theory. Aristotle's theory that the state exists by nature failed to satisfy the thought of the seventeenth century because seemed by making the state a product of nature to it re- . as necessary manifestations of some con- supreme and over-ruling principles.

guild or social grade. The metaphysical doctrine of the superiority of the species to the individual. and fixed limit The northern bar- barians classic had never completely come under the sway of ideas and customs. just as the feudal hier- archical organization was the basis. and ecclesiastical The universal church beliefs was the ground.SOME HISTORICAL FACTORS move its 45 constitution beyond human choice. It proved that men had been so liberated from absorption in larger groups that they were conscious of themselves having rights and claims on their own as individuals account. Equally significant was the assumption of the contract theory that individuals by their personal decisions expressing their personal wishes bring the state into existence. That which was indigenous was primarily derived from Latin sources less externally where life was borrowed and more or imposed in Germanic Europe. Side by side with this political individualism went a religious and moral individualism. of the ticular. end and limit of the individual's and acts in spiritual matters. permanent universal to the changing parpolitical was the philosophic support of institutionalism. law of his behavior in secular affairs. The rapidity with which the theory gained a hold all over western Europe showed the extent to which the bonds of customary institutions had relaxed their grip. not simply as members of a class. Protestantism marked the formal .

however. or denying the notion of some supreme authority to which individual intelligence first was absolutely in bonds. The greatest influence of Protestantism was. and re- independence of thought in ligious even when movements officially were opposed to such free- dom when carried beyond a limited point. Nor at did it go far in furthering tolerance or respect for divergency of moral and religious convictions. belief and worship. in developing . of In time. it But did tend to disintegration of established By multiplying sects and churches it en- couraged at least a negative toleration of the right individuals to judge ultimate matters for themselves. there developed a formulated belief in the sacred- ness of individual conscience and in the right to freedom of opinion. practically institutions. served to supply a Religious individualism initiative much needed sanction to all spheres.46 RECONSTRUCTION IN PHILOSOPHY Roman ideas. breaking away from the domination of It effected liberation of individual conscience and worinstitution claiming ship from control by an organized to be permanent and universal. or how accelerated the willingness of ideas in science men to question received to think and observe and philosophy — and experiment for themselves. It is unnecessary to point out how the spread of this it conviction increased p olitical jndiyjdualism. that at the outset the in It cannot truly be said new religious movement went far in promoting freedom of thought and criticism.

so to say. redemption and salvation was some- thing enacted within the innermost soul of individuals rather than in the species of which the individual was a subordinate part. and the drama of sin. it was difficult to keep the idea from spilling over. without the intermediary of any organization like the Church. First. there the transfer of interest from the eternal and universal to what is changing and specific. a fatal blow was struck at trines all doc- which taught the subordination of personality a blow which had many political reverberations in promoting democracy. concrete —a this. movement from the thai showed itself pracTicaTIy~in carrying over of atten- tion and thought from another world to supernaturalism characteristic of the Middle Ages . But I shall count upon your forbearance to recall that these matters are alluded to only in order to suggest some of the forces that operated to mark out is the channels in which new ideas ran.SOME HISTORICAL FACTORS the idea of the personality of every endjnjhimjielf. into secular relationships. For when in religion the idea of the intrinsic worth of every soul as such was proclaimed. 47 as an human being WhenTiuman beings were regarded as capable of direct relationship with God. politics graphs to summarize movements and whose influence is still far from exhausted and about which hundreds and thousands of volumes have been written. The absurdity religion is obvious of trying in a few parain industry.

Secondly. The future rather than the past dominates the imagination. noble. In the third place. present and potential. The great . by is criteria of sublime origin of from beyond everyday experience and independent fruits in experience. ple to be elevated. The Golden Age lies Everywhere new possibilities beckon and arouse courage and effort. must show under it just what conditions of erated. experiment and reflection. there is the gradual class decay of the authority of fixed institutions and distinctions and relations.48 RECONSTRUCTION IN PHILOSOPHY activity to delight in natural science. it human experience was gen- must justify itself by its works. needed for the guidance of The operations and results of natural inquiry gained in prestige and power at the expense of principles dictated from high truths authority. and Such is the inner meaning of the modern appeal to experience as an ultimate criterion of value . validity. and a growing belief m the power of individual minds. It no longer enough for a princitime. natural and natural intercourse. guided by methods of observation. universal It and hallowed by it must present and its birth certificate. ahead of us not behind us. to attain the truths life. Consequently principles and alleged are judged more and more by criteria of their in experience in origin and and their consequences of weal less and woe experience. great store is set upon the idea of progress.

Knowl- edge is power and knowledge achieved by sending the mind to school to nature to learn her processes of change. of shaping his own fate. mankind on Man is capable. In the fourth place.SOME HISTORICAL FACTORS 49 French thinkers of the later eighteenth century borrowed this idea from Bacon and developed it into the doctrine of the indefinite perfectibility of earth. for the Idealism based classic antiquity. Physical conditions offer no insurmountable barriers. it was in a On the one hand. the greatest effect of these changes to date has been to substitute an Idealism based on epistemology. the patient and experi- mental study of nature. bearing fruit in inventions which control nature and subdue her forces to social uses. in its capacities. or the theory of knowledge. Upon up the whole. had no intention . In this lecture as in the previous one. intelligence and effort. I can hardly close better than by reference to the new responsibilities imposed upon philosophy and the new opportunities opened to it. stuff and end of the universe with the new vidual interest in indiIt mind and the new confidence dilemma. on the metaphysics of (even Earlier modern philosophy though uncon- sciously to itself) had the problem of reconciling the traditional theory of the rational and ideal basis. if he will but exercise the re- quired courage. is the method by which progress is is made.

individual or colleccommon note of idealism sounded by the philosophies of the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries. In breaking away from antique and medieval thought. On it the other hand. Berkeley and Descartes. all This is the human mind.fiO RECONSTRUCTION IN PHILOSOPHY man mind of losing itself in a materialism which subordinated to physical existence and mind to matter just at the — especially moment when in actual affairs man and were beginning to achieve genuine rule over nature. but combined with the notion that this Reason operates through the tive. early modern thought continued the older tradition of a Reason that creates and constitutes it the world. concern was with the deficiencies of the world and with The effect of the objective theological idealism that had developed out of classic metaphysical idealism was to make the mind submissive and acquiescent. whether belonging to the British school of Locke. strains Hume or the Continental school of In Kant as everybody knows the two came together. and the theme of the formation of the knowable world by means of a thought that . accordingly. The new individualism chafed under it the restrictions imposed upon by the notion all of a uni- versal reason which had once and for shaped nature and destiny. the conception that the world as stood was an embodiment of a fixed and comprehensive to those whose main Mind or Reason was uncongenial an attempt to remedy them.

inventiveness and directed labor for re-creating the world. and life that obstruct social \ It esteems the individual not as an exag^j self-sufficient geratedly Ego which by some magic is creates the world. The ancient tradition was still strong enough to project itself unconsciously into men's ways of thinking. but as the purposeful energetic re-shaper of those phases of nature well-being. that this development represents merely It tried. put the new wine in the old bottles. Es- sential philosophic reconstruction represents an attempt to state these causes and results in a way freed from incompatible inherited factors. after all. It will regard intellifinal gence not as the original shaper and cause of things. experimental action acting to reshape beliefs and institutions. transforming it into an instrument and possession of intelligence. 51 human knower became Idealism ceased to be metaphysical and cosmic in order to become epistemological and personal. The train is of ideas represented by the Baconian Knowledge Power thus failed in getting an emanci- . It did not achieve a free and unbiased formulation of the meaning of the power to direct nature's forces through knowledge —that is. purposeful. and to hamper and compromise the expression of the really modern forces and aims. but as the agent who responsible intelligently through initiative.SOME HISTORICAL FACTORS operated exclusively through the explicit. to It is evident a transitional stage.

to come to a free and unshall In succeeding lectures we it consider the needed reconstruction as affects certain classic philosophic antitheses. scurity.52 EECONSTEUCTION IN PHILOSOPHY These become hope- pated and independent expression. political and which they were completely incompatible. . the real and the ideal. which we owe to the progress of science. ani- mate and inanimate. like those of experience and reason. But first we shall have to consider the modifying effect exercised upon philosophy by that changed conception of nature. Philosophic reconstruction for the present is thus the endeavor to undo the entanglement and to permit the Baconian aspirations hindered expression. lessly entangled in standpoints and prepossessions that scientific tradition with embodied a social. the The is ob- confusion of modern philosophy the product of this attempt to combine two things which cannot possibly be combined either logically or morally.

a scientific revolution and ecclesiastical changes which were alluded to in an earlier lecture. was enormous in scope and leaving unbelief changed almost no detail of about nature. and made it articulate. communicate and propagate the new disposhall deal with those Today. In part this scientific produced by just the change in practical attitude it and But as it progressed. furnished that change its an appropriate vocabulary. accordingly. is grows only when material at hand for making political this practical response conscious. physical transformation was and human. Ac- companying the economic.CHAPTER III THE SCIENTIFIC FACTOR Philosophy starts IN RECONSTRUCTION OF PHILOSOPHY from some deep and wide way of but it responding to the difficulties life presents. precipitate. congenial to needs. sition. temper. we contrasting conceptions of the structure and constitution of Nature. articulate and communicable. The advance of science in its larger generalizations and in its specific detail of fact supplied precisely that intellectual equipment of ideas crete and con- fact that was needed in order to formulate. which when they are accepted on the 53 .

a world stretching externally. a realm where changes went on only within immutable limits of rest and permanence. For I see no way the truly philosophic import of the picture of the world painted by modern science can be appreciated except to exhibit it in contrast with that earlier picture its which gave classic metaphysics tion intellectual foundain and confirmation. The world which philoso- phers once put their trust was a closed world. kindsj forms. distinct distinct) in quality (as kinds and species must be and . And in men once saw with portrayed in their imaginations and repeated in their plans of conduct. as we have already noted. beyond any in assignable bounds Again. the world which their eyes. and having of definite is boundaries externally. conceptions of Contrasting ancient and modern in which science have been selected. and a world where the fixed and unmoving was. form the lectual framework of philosophy. was a world of a limited number of classes. the third place. a world varying definitely its without the possibility of assignable limit in internal make-up. The world in- modern science an open number of fixed forms. a world consisting internally of a . higher in quality and authority than the moving and altering.54 RECONSTRUCTION IN PHILO^HY intel- authority of science (alleged or real). the world which even the most intelligent men of olden times thought they lived was a fixed world.

In spite dialecti- dramatic rendering (as in Dante). It the least rational. the coarsest. faded and remote. gross- most material. in spite of the fact that three it held men's minds captive until the last its hundred years. provoke . The est. with the plans and back again. Thomas. though at the centre. and that overthrow involved a religious upheaval. offers the least to reward contemplation. as best we can.THE SCIENTIFIC FACTOR arranged inferiority. of the cal elaborations of Aristotle and St. it is impossible to call it Yet. least significant and good (or perIt is is fect) of the parts of this closed world. it and therefore the least notable. rules of behavior.. it is Even as a separate and abstract thing of theory 1 not easy to recover. interwoven with all the de- of reflection and observation. As something tails pervasive. or knowable. in 55 a graded order of superiority and It is not easy to recall the image of the universe which in the was taken for granted of its world tradition. something which can be literal called a universe in a its and visible sense. having the earth at fixed and unchanging centre and at a heavenly arch of fixed stars fixed circumference the moving all in an eternal round of divine ether. the scene of maximum fluctuation and vicissitude. them forever at one and is in order. we need to put before our minds a definitely enclosed universe. hemming in things and keeping earth. it is already dim.

But they are only of a small number fixed limits. changes take place of course. being con- stituted. value. move downward. all these principles. where it then takes its back and forth motion is which naturally belongs to it. fire in its own dominant degree. rationality and true being as the heavens. daily return of the fixed stars is The the closest possible approximation to eternity. sun.56 RECONSTRUCTION IN PHILOSOPHY Between this grossly admiration and govern conduct. Ether being the highest of physical things has a purely circular movement. material centre and the immaterial. until we reach the heavenly firmament which transcends energy called ether. move upward air rises only to the plane of the planets.. inalterable Within this tight and pent in universe. since they are gross. each of which gains in rank. planets. water. the earth in virtue of its earthly nature — Upon its or rather . air. the nature of earthly things to be heavy. of that immaterial. and to the self-involved revolution of mind upon its own ideal axis of reason. as was just said. etc. It and they operate only within Each kind is of stuff has its own appropriate motion. spiritual and eternal heavens lie a definite series of regions of moon. as evident in the winds all and in respiration. and hence to Fire and to superior things are light and hence their proper place . it is farther from earth is and nearer its Each of these regions composed of own appropriate stuff of earth. of fixed kinds .

oysters only only man The in. amounts to nothing. They are accident. The growth of plants and animals kind of change which is illustrates the highest possible in the sublunary or definite fixed mundane oysters. Mere changes of quantity. They are like the shiftings of the sands by the They may be sensed. words poten- tiality and development abound in Aristotelian thought. They go from one man. and to bring about the meaningless variations which diversify various oaks or oysters from one another. They are casual. Oaks generate only oaks. sea. . are of this kind. sports. or understood they lack fixed limits which govern them. or in extreme cases to produce freaks. form to another. three-handed or four-toed men. each individual like has a fixed career to pursue. material factor of mechanical production enters but enters in as acci- dent to prevent the full consummation of the type of the species. contemptible. sphere. accidental Aside from and undesirable variations. all purely mechanical changes. and meaningless. Terms which sound modern. Mere flux. a fixed path in which to travel. starts at no definite point and arrives at nothing.THE SCIENTIFIC FACTOR lack of virtue aimless 57 — is a scene of mere change. monsters. the sport of Only changes which lead to some defined or account fixed out- come of form are of any account and can have any —any logos or reason —made of them. but they cannot be " noted " .

modern never means. It is name for the predeIt termined movement from the acorn to the oak tree. Development. the in- seed the full-grown wheat and so on. Potentiality stead of implying the emergence of anything novel means merely the facility with which a particular thing peats the recurrent processes of its re- kind. it is the capacity for movement . between- Only the cold can become hot . never means. opposites. Technically. takes place not in things generally but only in some one of the numerically insignificant members of the oak species. as in modern of invention. the possibility of novelty. . in classic their context. and thus becomes a specific all case of the eternal forms in and through which things are constituted. only the dry can become wet only the babe can become a man . evolution. but only that principle in virtue of which the acorn becomes the oak. but only the monotonous traversing of a So potentiality previously plotted cycle of change. there are only a limited number of species. of radical deviation. as science. life. a mutation from an old species.58 EECONSTRUCTION IN PHILOSOPHY into his and have misled some into reading thought modern meanings. origin of in new forms. infinite In spite of the almost numerical diversity of individuals. But the significance of these words is and medieval thought rigidly determined by Development holds merely of the course only a of changes which takes place within a particular member of the species.

classes do not mix or overlap — except in cases of acciOtherwise. everything dent. it is pre-arranged into distinct classes. Moreover. castes in nature.THE SCIENTIFIC FACTOR kinds or sorts. Hence what are known cally as final and formal causes efficient are supreme. belongs in advance to a certain class. and the class has its own fixed place in the hierarchy of Being. 59 And the world is essentially a world which falls into sorts. so with things in the universe. is The universe indeed a tidy spot whose purity is interfered with only by those irregular changes in individuals which are due to the presence of an obdurate matter that refuses to yield itself wholly to rule and form. aristocratic. and keeps it. and causes are relegated to an inferior place. so that they tend toward it and goal. just as we naturally arrange plants series. from the all lower to the highest. one can truly say a feudal. plan. the region fulfilment is of their true nature. There are The universe is constituted on an Species. is The so-called final cause just a name for the fact that class or sort there is some fixed form characteristic of a as their end of things which governs the changes going on. and to the result of chaos. and animals into ranks and grades. The supralunar the end . Otherwise it is a universe with a fixed place for everyits place. its thing and where everything knows station techni- and class. The distinct classes to which things belong by their very nature form a hierarchical order.

moving toward final its per- The cause is the per- fected form regarded as the explanation or reason of prior changes. may truly be called a It has substituted a conception of the world differing at every point. it is so far as it truly is. having no limits here or there. the oak form in general of the germi- The " it efficient cause. Logically and practically of the traits which have been enumerated cohere. fire the earth of the motions of crass. science now presents us with one infinite in space and time. namely. you find yourself carried into all other points." that which produces is and in- stigates a movement only some external change as accidentally gives a kind of push to an immature. what it is so far all it does not change. This is the reason the intellectual modifica- tion of the last few centuries revolution. heavy things of the acorn . When any why one is undermined. the mature nal. at this end. it imperfect being and starts fected or fulfilled form. Instead of a closed universe. Attack one and you attack all all. When it is not taken in reference to the changes completed and brought to rest in it. and as . but in itself it is the " formal cause " The inherent nature or character which " makes " or constitutes a thing : what as .60 or RECONSTRUCTION IN PHILOSOPHY final cause of the proper movements of air and . go. It makes little matter at what point you commence to trace the difference. so to speak. or at that.

physical or metaphysical. classic thought arranged order of classes a feudally or kinds. a an ability to detect one change occurring in correspondence with another. One is a form of independent being. He speaks of law where the ancients is spoke of kind and essence. the other is a formula of description and calculation of interdependent changes. the meaning of the word is not the tries to describe He same. In one case. In short. a constant order of change. omnipresent. each " holding accepted from a superior and and service to an in turn giving the rule of conduct inferior. of generation and consequence. a world which in the old sense can hardly be called a universe at far-reaching that in it all. He does not try to define and delimit something remaining constant in change. Hence it is also an open world. because what he wants correlation of changes. This trait reflects and . an infinitely variegated one. so multiplex and cannot be summed up and grasped any one formula. is And change rather than fixity is now a measure of " is reality " or energy of being . change The laws in which the modern man of science interested are laws of motion.THE SCIENTIFIC FACTOR infinitely 61 it is infinite complex in internal structure as in extent. in the other case. And while the word "constant" appears in both statements. we are dealing with something con- stant in existence. with something constant in function and operation.

each having its qualitatively distinct nature in contrast with other individuals to- species.62 EECONSTRUCTION IN PHILOSOPHY parallels most closely the social situation we were conWe have a fairly definite sidering at the last hour. especially this true as we ascend in the social At the lower the mass. and preventing their diversities from exceeding . But among the privileged and ruling class the case quite different. The family and scale. is a sign of a common nature. kind. kinship at once marks a group it distinction. principle. Because such and such persons are kin they are and not merely conventionally. For kinship individuals. class. marked having something unique about it. the principle of kinship is notion of society as organized upon the feudal basis. is end. binding numerically distinct gether. of something universal and permanent running through all particular and giving them a real and objective unity. there nothing especial to distinguish their birth. really. starting from social and concrete facts and going to the technical and abstract. genus are synonymous terms. off into a class All contemporary in- members are bound into an objective unity which cludes ancestors and descendants and excludes all who belong to another kin or kind. Assuredly this parcel- ling out of the world into separate kinds. off externally The tie of and gives and internally holds all its members together. less in is strong. Kinship. individuals may be lost more or Since all are parts of the common is herd.

in Action and reaction are far from being equal and opposite directions. power. may without exaggeration be called a pro- jection of the family principle into the world at large. quite what is above. is The relationship of causation. I am what has already been said about the paralcosmology with social organization may if lelism of ancient seem a fanciful analogy. the activities of the inferior are literally. and a comparison is also . of the nature of lordship. so Influence. enabling to enforce certain claims tailing upon those lower certain services in the scale and en- upon it and homage to be ren- dered to superiors. and proceeds from the higher to the lower. All action is of one sort. classic The theory of the constitution of the world corre- sponds point by point to this ordering of classes in a scale of dignity and power. In a feudally organized society. to performed with respect. A third trait assigned by historians to feudalism is that the ordering of ranks centres about armed service and the relationship of afraid that armed defense and protection. from above to below. This position conit upon it certain privileges.THE SCIENTIFIC FACTOR fixed 68 bounds. Reaction is of the nature of subjection and deference and proceeds from lower to higher. to speak. each kinship group or species occupies a definite place. moreover. specific It is marked by the possession of a fers rank higher or lower with respect to other grades. proceeds up and down.

events. if command proceeding from a superior fulfilment of and hence to thought of the operations of nature as they were a a task set by one who had authority direct action. Such we take the comparison too literally. to a is Law is assimilated command or order. there will be is drawn no doubt in is your minds that a metaphor truly the case if being forced. Attention has already been called to the meaning that is now given "the term law —a constant relationship among changes. Nevertheless. If the factor of personal will eliminated (as it was in the best Greek thought) the idea of law or universal is still impregnated with the sense of a guiding and ruling influence exerted from it. sovereign and subject.64 EECONSTRUCTION IN PHILOSOPHY in this last regard. but the relation of ruler and ruled. The Middle Ages added to this Greek idea of control the idea of a will. if we and command implied in both. This way of thinking is a survival neces- of reading social relationships into nature —not sarily a feudal relationship. above on what is naturally inferior to The universal governs as the end and model which the artisan has in mind " governs " his movements. The traits of the picture of nature drawn by modern . " we often hear about laws which " govern and it often seems to be thought that phenomena would be utterly disorderly were there not laws to keep them in order. confine our attention to the notion But not of rule so.

The remote and esthetically sublime is to be scientifically described and explained in terms of homely familiar events and forces. Until we can convert the grosser and observations of far-away things in more superficial the heavens into elements identical with those of things directly at hand. sublime and ideal forces operating in the heavens from lower and material events. They are not means of enlightenment but The earth is not superior in rank to sun. combined at net result will in old and new forms. but it equal in dignity. It was asserted that the same is laws hold everywhere. forces actuating terrestrial The supposed heterogeneity of substances and forces between heaven and earth was denied. they remain blind and not understood. and its occur- rences give the key to the understanding of celestial Being at hand. without any great . The may be termed. they can be manipulated. Instead of presenting superior worth. better known. broken up. challenges. that there homogeneity of material and process everywhere throughout nature. they are also capable of which can be being brought under our hand. they present only problems. stars. resolved into elements managed. Modern science took its first step when daring astrono- mers abolishedJbhe distinction of high. is moon and existences.THE SCIENTIFIC FACTOR science 65 fairly spring by contrast into high relief. The material of direct handling and observation is that of which we are surest it is the . I think.

One important incident of the new science was the destruction of the idea that the earth the universe. would be incomprehensible were it not that interest has shifted from the esthetic to the practical . world. say Giordano Bruno. It was unformed and chaotic. there went with the idea of a closed universe and a circumscribing heavenly boundary. Our present sociates infinity with boundless power. the deviations source of incalculable feeling that as- and accidents. and what a . theory of knowing was dominated by the finite considerations. with the delight in a progress that has no external limit. from interest in beholding a harmonious and complete scene to interest in trans- forming an inharmonious one. just because esthetic its To the Greek sense. it was in-finite. the completed. Being every- was nothing. to realize what a pent-in. The infinite it or limitless was lacking in character just because thing.gradation of general classes of unequal rank. is the centre of When it the idea of a fixed centre went. the finite was the finished. suffocating sensation finite they associated with a closed. the ended. with capacity for expansion that knows no end. Literally. the authors of the One has only to read transition period. was the perfect. that with no ragged edges and unaccountable operations.66 RECONSTRUCTION IN PHILOSOPHY democracy of individual rank for the feudal system of an ordered 'forcing. uncontrolled and unruly. the substitution of a facts equal in .

THE SCIENTIFICH^ACTOR feeling of exhilaration. were devices em- ployed by artisans. and hence something forever unknown ing. expansion sibility 67 and boundless posthought of a world time. it The seeming in paradox impels us to ask why remained a separate science. That which the Greeks withdrew from with repulsion they welcomed with an intoxicated sense of adventure. The infinite meant. The science of mechanics had to do with the kind of things employed by human mechanThey were at the ics. to ever-renewed inquiry. of history knows well that the Greeks made great progress in the science of first sight. tools. Socially speaking. and mechanics were base fellows. something forever un- traversed even-by thought. it teas true. social The answer is found in the parallelism already mentioned. description the was that mechanics it why was not used and explanation of natural phenomena after manner of Galileo and Newton. matter how great attainment in learnBut this " forever unknown " instead of being —no chilling and repelling was now an inspiring challenge and an assurance of inexhaustprogress. machines. ible possibilities of The student as of geometry. it mechanics as well At appears strange that little with this advance in mechanics so advance was made in the direction of modern science. and was aroused in themfiby the infinite in stretch of space~ and composed internally of infinitesimal infinitely numerous elements. .

ing strings limited . best. Nature was kept in leadof a it was cramped down to production of stereotyped results. and experimental control for scientific and prac- . and on the appli- heavens. not intellectual.68 RECONSTRUCTION IN PHILOSOPHY how could light lower end of the social scale. When the rigid clamp of fixed ends was taken off fjromja&ture. use. the highest. Why? Because this doctrine taught that the processes of nature are held in bondage to certain fixed ends which they must tend to realize. The scope and understanding was limited to the narrow round of processes eventuating in the fixed ends which the observed world offered to view. number of things could be brought and these few must be similar to the ends of inquiry which similar cycles of change had effected in the past. be derived from them? cation of The to considerations of mechanics natural phenomena would moreover have implied an interest in the practical control and utilization of phenomena which was totally incompatible with the importance attached to final causes as fixed determiners of nature. All the scientific reformers of the sixteenth and seven- teenth centuries strikingly agree in regarding the doctrine of final causes as the cause of the failure of science. observation and imagination were emanci- pated. invention At of of and production of new and results by use machines and tools must be restricted to articles transient dignity bodily. number Only a com- paratively small into being.

ley The mechanics of the lever. religion and divine things. it has seemed to many philosophers that one of their . The whole of nature became a scene of pushes and pulls. As a consequence. Its glory departed. The banishing of ends and forms from the universe has seemed to many an ideal and spiritual impoverishment. to be a separate science and became an organ for at- tacking nature. wheel. it apparently lost all pose. When nature was regarded as a set of mechanical interactions. pul- and inclined plane told accurately what happens in space are when things used to move one another during definite periods of time. all Denial to nature of and aspiring tendencies toward ideal ends removed nature and natural science from contact with poetry. It was only a question of what elements Immediately. mechanics ceased could be brought into juxtaposition so that they would work upon one another.THE SCIENTIFIC FACTOR tical 69 purposes enormously stimulated. meaning and pur- Elimination of differences of quality deprived it of beauty. of motions of parts or elements to which the formulae of movements produced by well-known machines were directly applicable. of cogs and levers. There inherent longings seemed to be left only a harsh. Because natural processes were no longer restricted to a fixed number of immovable ends or results. brutal despiritualized exhibition of mechanical forces. anything might conceiv- ably happen.

Fixed forms and ends. is systematic invention and . But when it is recognized that the mechanical view is determined by the requirements of an experimental control of natural energies. Hence they make futile all human efforts to produce and regulate change except within narrow and unimportant limits. us recall.70 RECONSTRUCTION IN PHILOSOPHY was to reconcile the existence of this chief problems purely mechanical world with belief in objective rationality and purpose terialism. mark fixed limits to change. Only when nature regarded as mechanical. was not till ends were banished from nature that pur- poses became important as factors in human minds capable of reshaping existence. is the application of mechanical formulae condition of turning it to human account. it may is be used for this end or that. Human activity. or epistemology. That nature can be known through the prime Tools. They paralyze constructive human in inventions by a theory which con- demns them advance to failure. that belief in the superiority of Ideal Being which had anciently been maintained on the basis of cosmology. It can conform only to ends already set by nature. machines are means to be utilized. A natural world that does not subsist for the sake of realizing a fixed set of ends is relatively malleable and plastic . from a degrading maHence many sought to re-attain by way of to save life — an analysis of the process of knowing. this problem of reconciliation let no longer vexes us.

color. but nature was construed in mechanical terms. when improved grain and cattle can be purposefully bred from inferior animals . exten- numerable velocity of movement and so on were just the qualities which lent themselves to the substitution of one thing for another. to the effecting of trans- When chemical fertilizers can be used in place of animal manures. He is distinguished as the tool-making animal.THE SCIENTIFIC FACTOR Nature is 71 construction of machines relevant to nature's activities. sion. Bergson has pointed out that man might well be called Home till Faber. When qualities were subordinated to quantitative and dis- mathematical relationships. to the conversion of one form of energy into another formations. subdued to human purpose because it is no longer the slave of metaphysical and theological purpose. This has held good since man was man. . the mak- ing of tools with which to attack and transform nature was sporadic and accidental. that man's tool-making capacity was so important and fundamental that very things that it The make the nature of the mechanical- physical scientist esthetically blank and dull are the things which render nature amenable to human control. stances it Under such circum- would not have occurred even to a Bergson could be used to define him. music and form appeared from the object of the such. scientist's inquiry as But the remaining properties of weight.

man gains power to manipulate nature.72 RECONSTRUCTION IN PHILOSOPHY and electricity into and grasses. Most of all he gains power to frame new ends and aims and to proceed in regular system to their actualization. Only as men have learned tively to pay sincere and persistent regard endeavor. Only indefinite substitution and convertibility regardless of quality of render nature is manageable. it as absurd practically as was impotent intellectually. To profess to have an aim and then neglect . to respect the conditions To respect matter means . matter means conditions. of achievement conditions which hinder and obstruct and which have to be changed. old dread and dislike of matter as something opposed to mind and threaten- ing it. The mechanization nature the condition of a practical and progressive idealism in action. something to be denied so far as possible lest it encroach upon ideal purposes and finally exclude is them from the real world. have to matter. standpoint. conditions which help and further and which can be used to modify obstructions and attain ends. what it Judged from the only scientific does and how it functions. to be kept within the narrowest bounds of recognition. It thus turns out that the old. when mechanical energy can be converted into heat mechanical energy. to the conditions upon which depends negaall and positively the success of they shown sincere and fruitful respect for ends and purposes.

But when we into fall bacls take ends without regard to means sentimentalism. attitude generated new by economic and political changes. else upon a fanaticism that preconceived ends at will the realization of any I have touched in this lecture a cursory way. what mankind so long despised as material and mechanical. In the first lecture it was noted that in Greek life prosaic matter of fact or empirical knowledge was at a great disadvantage as beliefs compared with the imaginative that were bound up with special institutions . find themselves Education and morals will begin to say- on the same road of advance that chemical industry and medicine have found for themselves when they too learn to fully the lesson of whole- hearted and unremitting attention to means and conditions —that is. or force cost.THE SCIENTIFIC FACTOR the means of its 73 execution is self-delusion of the most dangerous sort. we degenerate In the name of the ideal we upon mere luck and chance and magic or exhortation and preaching. It has supplied this attitude with definite intellectual material with which to formulate and justify *** itself. upon many things Yet there has been but one point it in in mind. in The revolution in our c onceptions of nature and our methods of "knowing has bred a new temper of It has confirmed the imagination and aspiration. When we take means for ends we indeed fall into moral materialism.

to man's more spontaneous be- the throes that attended at. equal opportunity irrespective of fixed It has reshaped social institutions. rather than already converted. It is It has achieved ideal values. and in so far de- veloped a new morale. so undermining. When we look back upon almost all of the thinkers of the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries. cer- not surprising that complete and consistent formulation in philosophy has been long delayed. The main efforts of thinkers were inevitably directed to minimizing the shock of change. its birth are not to be wondered We should rather wonder that a view so upsetting. upon all excepting those who were avowedly sceptical and revolutionary. tainly is martyrdoms and disturbances. mediating and reconciling. free movement. has grown till it empirical knowledge has broken low and limited sphere of application and esteem. easing the strains of transition. made its its way without more It persecutions.74 RECONSTRUCTION IN PHILOSOPHY Now this its and moral habitudes. indefinite progress. When we consider how deeply embedded it is in customs of thought and action the classic philosophy came to be and how congenial liefs. what strikes us is the amount of traditional subject-matter and . however. It has itself become an organ of inspiring imagination through introducing ideas of boundless possibility. limits. convertible into creative and constructive philoso- phyConvertible.

the eighteenth century in physics and chemistry. all and never can throw to use of them at once. teaching and ceiving new ideas we are compelled some of the old ones as tools of understanding and communication. It ficult was said that it has now become extremely dif- to recover the view of the world which univer- Yet after Europe till the seventeenth century. could the the import of new science be grasped. full Only piecemeal. of subordination of the was im- transitory individual to the universal or kind had been shaken in its hold upon the science of life. possible that the new ideas and method should be made atjjpme in social and moral life. of arrangement in classes of Tiigher and lower. fixed full Until the dogma of unchangeable types and species. the its seventeenth century witnessed application in astronomy and general cosmology. it . Men cannot easily throw off re- off their old habits of thinking.THE SCIENTIFIC FACTOR method that is 75 to be found even among those who were regarded as most advanced. Roughly speaking. the nineteenth century undertook an application in geology and the biological sciences. we need only recur to the science of plants and animals as it was before Darwin and to the ideas sally obtained in all which even now are dominant in moral and political matters to find the older order of conceptions in possession of the popular mind. In developing. Does it not seem to be . step-by-step.

is the intellectual task of the twentieth century to take this last step? scientific taken the circle of re- development will be rounded out and the construction of philosophy be made an accomplished fact. .76 RECONSTRUCTION IN PHILOSOPHY When this step.

must he wander sceptical and disillusioned? Or is human 77 experience itself worth . betrays. the criteria he is employ in forming is his beliefs the principles by which is he to direct his life it.CHAPTER IV CHANGED CONCEPTIONS OF EXPERIENCE AND REASON What What is is experience and what is Reason. misleads. these questions suggest tech. safe paths to fertile fields. nical problems of abstruse philosophy in another sense. and engulfs ? il Is a Reason outside experience and above needed to supply assured principles to science and conduct? In one sense. Mind? its limits ? the scope of experience and what are is it How far a sure ground of belief and a safe guide of conduct? Can we is trust it in science and in be- havior? Or it a quagmire as soon as we pass Is it so shaky. they contain the deepest possible questionings regarding the career of man. and shallow that instead of affording sure it footing. to They concern . and the ends to which he to direct Must man transcend experience by some organ of unique character that carries him into the super-empirical? Failing this. beyond a few low material interests? shifting.

not and could not make for . It is the function of this lecture to show how and why it is now possible to make claims for experience as a guide in science cists did and moral life which the older empiriit.78 RECONSTRUCTION IN PHILOSOPHY its while in purposes and its it organize itself into stable courses or methods of guidance? Can must it be sus- tained from without? We know the answers of traditional philosophy. the contingent. neces- The emno faculty admitted the correctness of these is assertions. Only all a power transcending in origin and content any and sary and certain authority and direction. They affirmed that the alleged au- thoritative guidance by a higher faculty had practically hampered men. seize the meaning and good of the passing moment or needed guide like Locke. piricists themselves conceivable experience can attain to universal. They contented themselves with upon the transcendentalist. we must put up with what we have. but they agree that experience never rises above the level of the particular. experience. They do not thoroughly agree among themselves. and make the most possible out of sceptical attacks it. with indi- cations of the ways in which we might best . and the probable. it asserted that in spite of the limitation of experience. They only said that since there of Pure Reason in the possession of mankind. affords the in light to men's footsteps modestly conduct.

The account is of experience which we find in Plato and Aristotle an account of what Greek experience actually was. leather —an individual of a certain kind. experience is If another conception of precisely because the now possible. particu- — its counterpart is transient appetite and transient sensation.EXPERIENCE AND REASON Curiously enough. and combined. the key to the matter 79 be found itself may in the fact that the old notion of experience was a product of experience —the only kind of is experience which was then open to men. they underwent certain sufferings and affections. variations get cancelled. Gradually a habit of action this habit there and corresponding to forms a certain generalized picture of an object or situation. is reinforced built up. stone. irregular common features are selected. marked by a certain . tree. of these in the time of its occurrence lar is Each isolated. it it quality of experience as may now be lived has under- gone a profound social and intellectual change from that of earlier times. But memory preserves and accumulates these separate incidents. It agrees very closely with what the modern psychologist knows as the method of learning by trial and error as distinct from the ideas. We come to know or note not merely this particular all which as a particular cannot strictly be known at (for not being classed it cannot be characterized and identified) but to recognize it as man. method of learning by Men tried certain acts. As they pile up.

certain diet. The shoe- develops which shown by the artisan. [which therefore demands a kind of action. From the multitude of particular illnesses encountered. but as one of a kind. I of course. the physician in learning to class some of them as indigestion learns also to treat the cases of the class in a common All this illus- or general way. cases are bound to vary unaccountis such in their very nature. as the tration shows. the maker. as Aris- zation are restricted and fallible. They was fond of pointing out. it and a "way of act- ing which skill general. call experience. But totle needless to insist. the generality and the organihold. but not universally. The is physician because individual ably arise : bound to make mistakes. The particular is incidents fuse. or as a principle. the gymnast. The difficulty does is not a defective experience which capable of . that the particular case is not treated as an isolated particular. usually. in a certain general insight and a certain organized ability in action. This regularity signifies. as far as is goes. there grows up a certain regularity of conduct. forms what we It results. the physician. as a rule. builds up. the carpenter.80 RECONSTRUCTION IN PHILOSOPHY a whole species of thing. of necessity. Along with the development of this common-sense universal form characteristic of knowledge. in most cases. He forms the rule of recommending a and prescribing a certain remedy. who have regular ways of handling cases.

Experience is as defective. The only universality and certainty in a region above experience. But the still leave experience behind. a disparaging accusation. Locke. But the difference be- tween the classic and the modern notion of experience is revealed in the fact that such a statement is now a charge. Aris- and the Scholastic. that of the rational and conceptual. it was a charge against the It was callings. procedures. since they were modes of experience. untouched. The modern philosopher who has professed an empiricist has usually had a critical himself purpose in mind. so the latter stone to conceptions may become a steppinglatter and principles. His problem was the problem of attack upon so much dead weight carried uselessly by humanity. in some better experience. and hence default inevitable and is irremediable. Like Bacon. they do not react to rectify it. brought against a particular architect or physician. Such is the notion which lingers in the contrast of " empirical " and " rational " as when is we say that a certain architect or physician not scientific in his empirical. As the particular was a stepping-stone to image and habit. totle With Plato.EXPERIENCE AND REASON remedy such. crushing and distorting . Condillac and Helvetius. he stood face to face with tions in a body of beliefs and a set of institu- which he profoundly disbelieved. is 81 itself. all an indictment of practical action in contrast with conceptual contemplation.

active reformers were " empiricists " in the philosophical sense. The best way to liberate men from the burden was through a natural history origin and growth in the of the mind of the ideas connected Santayana with objectionable beliefs and customs. They made it their business to show that some current belief or institution that claimed the sanction of innate ideas or necessary conceptions. But Mr.82 it. justly calls the psychology of this school a malicious psychology. and accidental associations was re- moved. It optimistically took for granted that when the burden of blind custom. class interest The philosophic empiricism initiated by Locke was it thus disintegrative in intent. progress in science and social organization would spontaneously take place. Its part was to help in re- moving the burden. notice the social zeal fails to and aim He point out that this . had in fact proceeded from a lowly origin and had been confirmed by accident. It tended to identify the history of the formation of certain ideas with an account of the things to which the ideas refer rally —an identification which natu- had an unfavorable effect on the things. RECONSTRUCTION IN PHILOSOPHY His readiest way of undermining and disintegrating was by appealing to experience as a final test and criterion. in experience. or an origin in an authoritative revelation of reason. im- posed authority. by or by biased authority. Santayana neglects to latent in the malice. In every case.

EXPERIENCE AND REASON " malice " was 83 aimed at institutions and traditions . as lived. if any binding and connecting idealism The new successors rationalistic of Kant and by the his seemed to be of necessitated totally destructive results the new empirical philosophy. after But Hume with debonair clarity pointed out that the analysis of beliefs into sensations left and associations " natural " ideas and institutions in the same posi- tion in which the reformers ones. of reason in experience. giving only a show that heap of chaotic and isolated par- ticulars. which had lost their usefulness that to a large extent it he fails to point out was true of them that an account of their psychological origin was equivalent to a destructive account of the things themselves. the situation changed. had placed " artificial The rationalists employed ex- the logic of sensationalistic-empiricism to perience. is as fatal to science and to moral laws and . its contents and methods. actually The other is the development of a psychology . or. Two things have rendered possible a new conception the relation of of experience and a new conception of reason to experience. of the place The primary factor is the change that has taken place in the actual it nature of is experience. obligations as to obnoxious institutions and concluded experience was princi- that " Reason " must be resorted to to be furnished with ples. more accurately.

84 RECONSTRUCTION JN PHILOSOPHY nature of experience. preciate —the change in We are only just now commencing is to ap- how completely exploded the psychology that dominated philosophy throughout the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries. acts tent. The senses were regarded as gateways or avenues of knowledge. . comes first The intellectual or cognitive factor and emo- tional and volitional life is only a consequent conjunc- tion of ideas with sensations of pleasure and pain. This adaptive adjustment. is be- In order that may persist. and conceptions. the mind was wholly passive and acquiescent in knowing. Even a clam it upon the environment and modifies to some* exshell that It selects materials for food and for the . of retention and which are formed. this activity has to be both continuous and adapted to the is environment. perceptions. through laws and association. activity. moreover. emotion. into a mosaic of images. there The effect of the development of biology has been to reverse the picture. Wherever there life is life. based upon biology which makes possible a new scientific formulation of the Let us begin with the technical side psychology. mental originated in sensations which are separately and passively received. action. not wholly passive is not a mere matter of the mould- ing of the organism by the environment. havior. and desire follow in the wake of sensations and images. Except in com- bining atomic sensations. life According to this theory. Volition.

The civilized man goes to distant mountains and dams streams. By such means he may succeed in making the wilderness blossom like the rose. This increased may be illustrated by the contrast of savage with civilized man. and animals that selection He takes native plants and by and cross-fertilization improves them. Note what a change . 85 It does somethi ng to the environment as is well as has som ething done to itself. The higher control the form of life. Such transformation scenes are so familiar that we overlook their meaning.EXPERIENCE AND REASON protects it. wilderness. He builds reservoirs. He introduces ma- chinery to till the soil and care for the harvest. digs channels." and by using caves and roots and occasional pools leads a meagre and precarious existence. the minimum of what we may call hitting back. the more important is the active reconstruction of the medium. We forget that the inherent power of life is illustrated in them. and con- ducts the waters to what had been a desert. though parasitic forms may approach this life limit. There no such thing in a living creature as mere conformity to conditions. He will searches the world to find plants thrive. In the interests of the maintenance of there is trans- formation of some elements in the surrounding medium. The savage takes things " as they are. Suppose the two are is living in a With the savage there the maximum of accommodation to given conditions.

like. aimless. Suppose fire encroaches upon a man when he is asleep. these consequences are not connected with prior doing. if they have. MicawberIt does not wait this point of view entails in the traditional notions of experience. The organism acts in accordance with its own structure. There is no experience. This close connection between call doing and suffering or undergoing forms what we experience. upon its surround- As a consequence the changes produced in the ings. no learning. his finger in the fire the doing is random. Or again there a series of mere activities. simple or complex. noth- ing. he suffers pain. But suppose a busy infant puts . they have no consequences for Or. instructive is There nothing which any way can be named experience. . Part of his body result in is burned away. the consequences of its own behavior. sequence. The movements amount to life. suffers. Disconnected doing and disconnected suf- fering are neither of them experiences. without in con- intention or reflection. The living creature undergoes. passive and inert for something to impress itself upon it from without. doing. waiting for something to turn up. like twitchings of muscles in a spasm. But something happens The child undergoes heat.86 RECONSTRUCTION IN PHILOSOPHY Experience becomes an affair primarily of The organism does not stand about. The burn does not perceptibly is from what he has done. no cumu- lative process. environment react upon the organism and its activities.

vironment. is overshadowing. Knowledge is relegated to a derived posiif its secondary in origin. One comes to suggest and mean the are connected. In the first place. not under the head of knowledge. Then there is experience in a vital and significant sense. a clue in behavior.EXPERIENCE AND REASON 87 The doing and undergoing. is rendered strangely The discussion of sensations belongs under the head of immediate stimulus and response. Knowledge but is is not something separate and volved in the process evolved. its a directive factor in adaptation of life in ings. self-sufficing. The whole controversy between empiricism and rationalism as to the intellectual worth of sensations obsolete. even it is importance. other. a sensation marks an inter- . and inducesurround- ment to act in a needed way. Certain important implications for philosophy follow. knowing to take their rightful place as stimuli to To an animal an affection of the eye or ear It is an invitation It is is not an idle piece of information about something indifferently going on in the world. the interaction of organism and en/. the reaching and the burn. life is in- by which sustained and The senses lose their place as gateways of action. tion. resulting in some adaptation which secures utilization of the latter. is the primary fact. when once established. the basic category. It is urgent not cognitive in quality. As a conscious element.

but only in the sense that the experienced shock of change to the investigating is the necessary stimulus and comparing which eventually aligned with the life-process and produce knowledge. because all. the atomism of sensations totally disappears.90 RECONSTRUCTION IN PHILOSOPHY and inference. the be- ginning of knowledge. is With disappearance of abolished the need for a synthetic faculty super-empirical reason is to connect them. the necessity ceases for the elaborate Kantian and Post-Kantian ma- . isolated and simple existences of When Locke and Hume the are seen not to be truly empirical at all but to answer to certain demands of their theory of mind. When alleged this experience is sensations are seen to be points of readjustment. the ways that require thought they are not ways of knowing at to reflection They are stimuli and inference. Philosophy less not any longer confronted with the hopein problem of finding a way which separate grains of sand may be woven into a strong and coherent rope —or into the illusion and pretence of one. As interruptions. as the sensationalist claimed. they raise What does this shock mean? What is happening? What is the matter? How is my relation What should be done to the environment disturbed? about it? How shall I alter my course of action to the questions: meet the change that has taken place in the surroundings? How is shall I readjust my behavior in response? Sensation thus.

Nor is it entirely aside from the subject to point out the extent in which social as well as biological organization enters into the formation of perience. atomic. reference to its surroundings and to Its activity has what goes before intrinsic to and what comes life after. even Some degree of organization is indispensable to the lowest grade of life.v cause they are vital and practical rather than epistemological. But the observation points in quite another direction. . Experi-^ ence carries principles of connection and organization within itself. sensori-motor co-ordinations. and material for a positive evolution of intelligence as an organizing factor within experience. and self-enclosed sensations. human ex- Probably one thing that strengthened the idea is that the mind passive and receptive in knowing was the observation of the helplessness of the human infant. habits. These principles are none the worse be. Even an amoeba must its activity have some continuity in time in adaptation to experience its and some and environment in space. possibly consist in Its life cannot momentary. active functions.EXPERIENCE AND REASON size the alleged stuff of experience. 91 chinery of a priori concepts and categories to synthe- The " true " stuff of experience is recognized to be adaptive courses of action. connections of doing and undergoing . This organization renders unnecessary a super-natural and super-emIt affords the basis pirical synthesis.

From self these elementary. children. father and older determine what experiences the child shall have . When we come we discover a curious re- . liefs These be- coming to him as so many facts form his mind they . to custom. not in physical nakedness. the contacts of the with nature are mediated by other persons. we turn to the change which experience has undergone in the passage from ancient and life. socially current The conceptions that are and important become the child's prin- ciples of interpretation and estimation long before he attains to personal and deliberate control of conduct. furnish the centres about which his ditions own personal expeHere we have and perceptions are ordered. but empirical not mythological. Mother and nurse. Things come to him clothed in language. medieval to modern To Plato. Only reason can lift us above subjection to the accidents of the past. experience meant enslavement to the past. " categories " of connection and unification as important as those of Kant.92 RECONSTRUCTION IN PHILOSOPHY little child Because of his physical dependence and impotency. if somewhat technical conit- siderations. to Bacon and his successors. they constantly instruct him as to the meaning of what he does and undergoes. and this garb of communication makes him a sharer in the beliefs of those about him. Experience was almost equivalent to established customs formed not by reason or under intelligent control but by repetition and blind rule of thumb.

EXPERIENCE AND REASON versal. Exto the perience the liberating power. there was no conscious in- vention or purposeful improvement. Experience means the new. that which reveals novel facts in experience Faith produces not devotion to custom but en- deavor for progress. apart and super-imposed. did not reach the It remained an art. For. In practical arts. past. while departure usually from established in standards models resulted degenerate productions. When veloped react mathematics and other rational sciences de- among the Greeks. but dignity of science. was so unconsciously taken vital Some concrete and change must have is occurred in actual experience as that after is all. and un- acknowledged accumulation of changes or else some sudden inspiration. Workers and fol- lowed patterns that were handed down to them. which at once set a new stand- . art in which perhaps the greatest tive amount of it posi- knowledge was obtained. lived. gradual. Imfrom provements came either from a slow. scientific truths did not daily experience. back into They remained Medicine was the isolated. that which calls us away from adherence and truths. moreover. mind-enslaving factor. the thought of experience follows after and modelled upon the experience actually undergone. This difference in temper it is the more significant because for granted. is 93 Reason and its bodyguard of general notions now the is conservative.

it was fittingly attributed to the gods. they were to be consecrated by religion. old experience is used to suggest aims ex- and methods for developing a new and improved perience. something of radical importance occurred. we must point out that when experience ceased to be empirical and became experimental. The ethical pur- port of philosophy was to furnish them." becomes true of experience. Aforetime man employed the results of his prior experience only to form customs that henceforth had to be blindly followed or blindly broken. What pregnantly said of nature. it is Shakespeare so " made better by no mean. adorned by art. We do not merely have to repeat the past. But enabling effect a deliberate control of his en- since the impact of is this control upon the traditional notion of experience often overlooked.94 ard. felt such a radical reformer as Plato that existing evils were due to the absence of such fixed patterns as controlled the productions of artisans. but nature makes that mean. It is unnecessary to repeat what has been so often in dwelt upon as to the effect of experimental science man to vironment. and when once they were instituted. inculcated by education and enforced by magistrates so that alteration of them woufd be impossible. . In the social arts. RECONSTRUCTION IN PHILOSOPHY Being the result of no conscious method. Now. Consequently experience becomes in so far constructively self-regulative.

yet what has been achieved contains the guaranty of the possibility of an intelligent administering of experience. this self-creation and self-regulation of experience logical rather is still largely techno- than truly artistic or human. is not therefore something laid from above upon experience. 95 We use our past experiences to construct new and better ones in the future. Reason. as has been so often repeated.EXPERIENCE AND REASON or wait for accidents to force change upon us. Concrete suggestions arising from past experiences. as a Kantian faculty that introduces generality and regularity into experience. introducing us to a superior region of universal truths begins now to strike us as remote. Science. experience. as a faculty separate " Reason " from experience. developed and matured in the light of the needs and deficiencies of the present. employed as aims . They are not inherent meta- physically in the very nature of experience. The our limits are moral and intellectual. Al- though. it is Suggested and tested in in also employed through inventions a thousand ways to expand and enrich experience. The very it fact of experience thus includes directs itself in its the process by which " reason " own better- ment. strikes us more and more as superfluous — the unnecessary creation of men- addicted to traditional formalism and to elaborate terminology. uninteresting and unimportant. due to defects in good will and knowledge.

It projects a better future and assists man in its realization. corrected and expanded as they call fail or succeed in giving our it present experience the guidance requires. They are hypotheses to be worked out in practice. and to be rejected. But the alteration is of much more than technical significance. accomplishing this task of re- adjustment. sense and reason. perceptual and conceptual. conceived science. are projects as guides of reconstruc- not dogmas.96 RECONSTRUCTION IN PHILOSOPHY specific reconstruction. the test in experience. The plans which principles which tive action. the pattern of . man from the bondage of the past. This recognition of the place of active and planning thought within the very processes of experience radically alters the traditional status of the technical prob- lems of particular and universal. And man its operation is always subject to are formed. For reason after is experi- mental intelligence. Intelligence is not something possessed once for all. To such empirical suggestions used in constructive fashion for new ends the name intelli- gence is given. more directed. but since they are to be used in making our future acts less blind. they are flexible. due to ignorance and accident hardened into custom. and methods of success or and tested by failure in suffice. and used in the creation of social arts It liberates it has something to do. It is in constant process of form- . We may them programmes of action.

In contrast with this experimental and re-adjusting intelligence. uniformity and universality. conceit. and rigidity — in short absolutism. it must be said that Reason as employed by historic rationalism has tended to carelessness. A certain school of contemporary psychology uses the term " rationalization " to denote those mental mechan- isms by which we unconsciously put a better face on our conduct or experience than facts justify. Bacon. because this same assumption makes men careself-sufficient .EXPERIENCE AND REASON ing. as was noted by that things appear evil merely because of the partial. ourselves to ourselves We excuse order into that of which by introducing a purpose and we are secretly ashamed. " reason " assumes a false simplicity. an open-minded will to learn and courage in re-adjustment. and opens for science a path of This course results in intellectual irre- fictitious ease. sponsibility and neglect: — irresponsibility because ra- tionalism assumes that the concepts of reason are so and so far above experience that they need and can secure no confirmation in experience. incomplete nature of experience. Neglect. 97 and its retention requires constant alertness in observing consequences. In has often tended toi like fashion. historic rationalism use Reason as ics. an agency of justification and apologetevils It has taught that the defects and of actual experience disappear in the " rational whole " of things Or. irresponsibility.

Reason and law were held reason came into experience from without and above. called his philosophy critical." laws. The . More causes were at work German regard for drill. regular relationships of qualities). He But because he taught and that the understanding employs fixed. And from some external and superior authority. " order " and docility. a priori. so law had to come into as life to be synonyms. " principles. producing the discipline. regularity for their practical peculiarly own in sakes. sorrow and war. The dogmatic rigidity of Rationalism is best seen in the consequences of Kant's attempt to buttress an otherwise chaotic experience with pure concepts. it has cultivated disregard for fact and this disregard has been paid for in failure. But Kant's philosophy served to provide an intellectual justification or " rationalization " of subordination of individuals to fixed and ready-made universal. concepts.98' less RECONSTRUCTION IN PHILOSOPHY about concrete observations and experiments. Con- tempt for experience has had a tragic revenge in experience. in order to introduce connection into experience thereby make known objects possible (stable. He set out with a laudable attempt at restricting the extrava- gant pretensions of Reason apart from experience. order. he developed in German thought a curious contempt for the living variety of experience and a curious overestimate of the value of system.

When Kant taught that some conceptions. of disposition. and these the important ones. stiffness. The modern world has suffered because in so many matters philosophy has offered it only an arbitrary choice be- . and so they taught absolutism systematically. By common apologetic . are a priori. tific That the Germans with all their scien- competency and technological proficiency should " have fallen into their tragically rigid and " superior style of thought and action (tragic because involving understand the world in which they them lived) in inability to is a sufficient lesson of what may be involved in a systematical denial of the experimental character of intelligence and its conceptions. the effect of English empiricism was sceptical where that of German rationalism was it undermined where the latter justified.EXPERIENCE AND REASON practical correlate to absolutism inflexibility is 99 rigidity. It detected accidental associations formed into customs under the influence of self- or class-interest where German rational-idealism discovered profound meanings due to the necessary evolution of absolute reason. consent. that they do not arise in experience and cannot be verified or tested in experience. he fostered the spirit of absolutism. that without such ready-made injections into experience the latter anarchic is and chaotic. even though technically he denied the possiHis successors were true to his spirit bility of absolutes. rather than his letter.

Experience and and has fallen Reason. back on intuition or the exigencies of practical com- But common sense too often has been confused and hampered instead of enlightened and directed by the philosophies proffered it by professional inpromise. faith. Its . the force of some personality. a resolution of experience into atomic elements that afford no support to stable organization or a clamping fixed down of all experience by categories alternatives and necessary concepts that conflicting — these are pre- the schools have sented. They are the opposition of logical consequences of the traditional Sense and Thought. Common sense has refused to follow both theories to their ultimate logic. tellectuals. It would be difficult to estimate the harm that has resulted because the liberal and progressive movement of the eighteenth and earlier nineteenth centuries had no method of intellectual articulation commensurate with its practical aspirations. or complete conservatism idealizing institutions as embodi- ments of eternal reason . attacking the historic past as trivial and harmful.100 RECONSTRUCTION IN PHILOSOPHY : tween hard and fast opposities Disintegrating analysis or rigid synthesis complete radicalism neglecting and . strong leadership or on the pressure of momentary circumstances. Men who are thrown back upon " common sense " when they appeal to philosophy for some general fall guidance are likely to back on routine.

the strong point of reliance upon a priori canons of truth and standards of morals in opposition to dependence upon fruits and consephilosophic quences in experience. Its head was sadly its deficient. The strong point of the appeal to fixed principles transcending experience. of those It would permit the co-operation who respect the past and the institutionally established with those who are interested in establishing a freer and happier future. For it would determine the conditions under which the funded experitece of the past and the contriving intelligence which looUs to the . in intention. anti-human in devotion to brute sensation. to dogmas incapable of experimental verification. ficiency This de- played into the hands of the reactionary and obscurantist. an impoverished and trunartificial A philosophic reconstruction which should relieve men of having to choose between cated experience on one hand and an and imeffort potent reason on the other would relieve human from the heaviest intellectual burden It it has to carry. has been the unimaginative conception of experience which professed empiricists have entertained and taught. will into would destroy the division of men of good two hostile camps.EXPERIENCE AND REASON heart was in the right place. ties 101 social It was humane and But it had no theoretical instrumentali- of constructive power. Too often the logical import of professed doctrines was almost anti-social in their atomistic individualism.

102 RECONSTRUCTION IN PHILOSOPHY It to glorify the claims of reason without future can effectually interact with each other. would enable men at the same time falling into a paralyzing worship of super-empirical authority or into an offensive " rationalization " of things as they are. .

is in which the tedium of vacant filled with images that excite and satisfy. religion antedated science. It in this sense that poetry preceded prose in human experi- ence. that there is Some call psychologists claim what they ' a natural tendency to obliviscence of the disagreeable —that men turn from the unpleasant in thought and recollection as they do 103 . light. the existence of associations and recol- which are strained through the mesh of imagi- nation so as to suit the demands of the emotions. and ornamental and decorative art while it could not take the place of utility early reached a development out of proportion to the practical arts. life A that is humanly interesting a life is. short of the results leisure is of discipline.CHAPTER V CHANGED CONCEPTIONS OF THE IDEAL AND THE REAL It has been noted that human experience is made human through lections. in In order to give contentment and de- order to feed present emotion and give the life stream of conscious intensity and color. the sug- gestions which spring from past experiences are worked over so as to smooth out their unpleasantnesses and en- hance their enjoyableness.

In short. Every serious-minded person knows that a large part of the effort required in moral discipline consists in the courage needed to acknowledge the unpleasant consequences of one's past and present acts. In the degree is in which life is uneasy and troubled. find excuses and palliations— anything to render the mental scene t less uncongenial.. the idealizing tendency takes fur- by the rein of the prosaic The things most emphasized in imagination as reshapes experience are things which are absent in reality. drawn by fancy what . imagination sluggish and bovine. What is difficulty and disappointment in real life becomes conspicuous . disguise. the to idealize exit consciousness qualities which does not have in actuality. to give it in . evade. cover up. dodge.. fancy stirred to frame pictures of a contrary state of things. achievement and triumph in revery fact will be positive in the image what is negative in .104 RECONSTRUCTION IN PHILOSOPHY in from the obnoxious action. it freer and less controlled by concrete actualities. We squirm. is tendency of spontaneous suggestion perience. By reading the characteristic features of any man's castles in the air you can make a shrewd guess as to his underlying desires which are frustrated. Time and memory are true they remould reality nearer to the heart's As imagination becomes ther flights unrestrained world. artists.. desire. In the degree in which is life is placid and easy.

Plato. their imperfections eliminated. is it And save for matters of merely technical not possible to say of Aristotle's Forms just what he said of Plato's Ideas? these What are they. The gods. but mortals living only the lives which live. by saying that the Ideas were after ized. whatever their origin idealized projections of the and original selected traits. men would wish to perfected. Forms and Essences which so profoundly influ- enced for centuries the course of science and theology. When Aristotle criti- cized the theory of Ideas of his master. They are decisive for one of the most marked traits of classic philosophy: — is its conception of an ultimate supreme Reality which in nature. save the objects of ordinary experience with their blemishes removed. and art to which been made.THE IDEAL AND THE REAL is 105 vexation in conduct will be compensated for in high imagination. beauty and wisdom ripened. admired among their mortal like The gods were mortals. became and matured achievements which the Greeks selves. relief in idealizing These considerations apply beyond mere personal psychology. essentially ideal Historians have more than once drawn an instructive parallel between the developed Olympian Pantheon of Greek religion and the Ideal Realm of Platonic philosophy. all only things of sense eternalthe parallelism of philosoallusion has just he pointed out religion in effect phy with import. their lacks . with power intensified.

the values and satisfactions of experience? exist. V"This as to the i i . What the chief source of the complaint of poet and moralist with the goods. at worst they come only to annoy and tease with their hurried and dis- appearing taste of what might be. and Aristotle in somewhat different and Plotinus and Marcus Aurelius and Saint all Thomas Aquinas. Plato. fleeting. They need no ex- But it is worth pointing out that these oppos ite of those things „great systematic philosophies defined perfect Ideality in conceptions that express the which make is life unsatisfactory and troublesome. suggestions and hints fulfilled? life What are they in short but the objects of familiar divinized because reshaped by the idealizing imagina- tion to meet the in demands of desire is in just those respects^ which actual experience disappointing? That fashion. are facts well known to the student of philosophy.106 RECONSTRUCTION IN PHILOSOPHY their rounded out. Rarely it is is the complaint that such things do not that although existing they are momentary. transient. at best they come only to inspire and instruct with a passing hint of truer commonplace of the poet and moralist mpermanence not only of sensuous enjoyment. but of fame and civic acHievenierTEs""was profoundly reality. position here. and Spinoza and Hegel that Ultimate Reality is taught either perfectly Ideal and Rational in nature. They do not stay. or else has absolute ideality and rationality as its necessary attribute.



uppn by philosophers,


by Plato and




of their thinking have been

wrought into the very fabric of western

change, movement are signs that what the Greeks called

Non-Being somehow

infect true Being.


strange, but

The phrasemany a modern who ridicules

the conception of

Non-Being repeats the same thought
change, there

under the name of the Finite or Imperfect.

stability is






proof of something the matter, of absence,

deficiency, incompleteness)*/

These are the




to the connection between change, becoming



and Non-Being,


and imperfection.
always and for-

Hence complete and true Reality must be changeless,
unalterable, so full of Being that

ever maintains








Bradley, the most dialectially ingenious Absolutist of

our own day, expresses the doctrine " Nothing that

perfectly real moves." fr And while Plato took, comparatively speaking, a pessimistic view of

change as mere


and Aristotle a complacent view of

as tendency

to realization, yet Aristotle doubted no

more than Plato

that the fully realized reality, the divine and ultimate,
changeless. I


it is

called Activity or

Energy, the


was the

knew no change, the energy did nothing. It activity of an army forever marking time and

never going anywhere.


this contrast of the


permanent with the tranoff the

sient arise other features

which mark


Reality from the imperfect realities of practical




change, there


of necessity numerical

and from variety comes opposition, strife. Change is alteration, or " othering " and Diversity means division, and this means diversity.
plurality, multiplicity,

means two



their conflict.

The world



must be a world of discord, for
lacks the government of unity.

lacking stability


unity completely rule, these would remain an unchanging totality.



has parts and partialities

which, not recognizing the rule of unity, assert themselves independently

and make


a scene of contention

and discord.
hand, since

Ultimate and true Being on the other
it is

it is


Total, All-Comprehensive

knows only harmony, and therefore enjoys complete and eternal Good. It is

and One.




Degrees of knowledge and truth correspond with degrees of reality point



The higher and more
Since the world of beis

complete the Reality the truer and more important the

knowledge that refers to


coming, of origins and perishings,

deficient in true

cannot be known in the best sense.
its flux

To know it

means to neglect

and alteration and discover

some permanent form which limits the processes that

alter in time.


The acorn undergoes a

series of


these are knowable only in reference to the fixed
of the


oak which

the same in the entire oak species in

spite of the numerical diversity of trees.

Moreover, this


limits the flux of

growth at both ends, the acorn

coming from the oak as well as passing into


such unifying and limiting eternal forms cannot be detected, there is

mere aimless variation and fluctuation,

and knowledge

out of the question.


the other

hand, as objects are approached in which there


movement at
tive, certain,


knowledge becomes really demonstra-


—truth pure and unalloyed.
known than
the earth,

heavens can be more truly

The God

unmoved mover than the heavens.
this fact follows the superiority of



tive to practical

knowledge, of pure theoretical specula-

tion to experimentation,

and to any kind of knowing
in things or that induces

that depends

upon changes

change in them.
ing, noting.

Pure knowing

pure beholding, viewitself.

complete in

It looks for

nothing beyond



lacks nothing and hence has no

aim or purpose.
for being.



most emphatically

own excuse

Indeed, pure contemplative knowing
it is


much the most truly



thing in the universe that

the highest and indeed

the only attribute that can be ascribed to God, the

Highest Being in the scale of Being.





moments when he attains to purely

divine in the rare

self-sufficient theoretical insight.

In contrast with such knowing, the so-called knowing of the artisan is base. He has to bring about changes
in things, in

wood and



this fact is of itself

evidence that his material

deficient in Being.

it is



knowledge even more

the fact that

not disinterestedly for



It has reference to

results to be attained, food, clothing, shelter, etc.

concerned with things that perish, the body and
It thus has


an ulterior aim, and one which


to imperfection.

every sort, indicate lack.

For want, Where

desire, affection of



need and

as in the case of

practical knowledge and








or political and moral knowledge rank

higher than do the conceptions of the artisan, yet intrinsically considered they are

a low and untrue type.
is, it

Moral and
plies needs

political action


practical; that



effort to satisfy them.

It has

an end



Moreover, the very fact of association

shows lack of self-sufficiency ;

shows dependence upon

Pure knowing


alone solitary, and capable of

being carried on in complete, self-sufficing independence.

In short, the measure of the worth of knowledge ac-

cording to Aristotle, whose views are here summarized,

the degree in which

it is

purely contemplative.


because it This is Ideal.. desires are is consummated. philosis self-enclosed. pure Mind. There of course such a thing as philosophic study which falls short of this perfection. Where there is learning. It it to the intuition of supernal and eternal the mind of the knower it is Thus transformed. Since it is . especially Platonism and St. and experiences no It has no desires because in it all change or variety. It has nothing to do beyond itself. Whatever may ophy be said for any other kind of knowledge. has no lacks. the Form of Forms. no needs. $ut the function of study and learning of philosophy it.THE IDEAL AND THE REAL highest degree is 111 attained in knowing ultimate Ideal Being. perfect Bliss — the acme of ration- ality is and One point more and reality the argument completed. pure. upon that are born and that decay. these ideas found their . it perfect Mind and ideality. it has no aim or purpose or function —except to be philosophy —that is. Philosophy therefore the last_ and highest term in pure contemplation. perfect Being. this The kind of knowing that concerns itself with ultimate (which is is also ultimate ideality) is philosophy. self-sufficing beholding of is ultimate reality. becomes assimilated to what knows. V Neo- Through a variety of channels. is. Augustine. as Plato put to convert the eye of the soul from dwelling contentedly the inferior realities upon the images of things. and to lead Being. there is change and becoming.

to the divine and so constitutes Through this taking over of the conception of knowl- edge as Contemplative into the dominant religion of Europe. yet so in this stage of life nor without supernatural it far as it is accomplished essence assimilates the human mind salvation. and to know it is Bliss Salvation.112 RECONSTRUCTION IN PHILOSOPHY into way Christian theology. say a physicist or chemist. While this knowledge cannot be achieved aid. the last thing he does is merely to contemplate. if Nowa- a man. He does not look in however earnest and . So deeply engrained was this idea that it prevailed for centuries after the actual progress of had demonstrated that knowledge is power to transform the World. There was bequeathed axiom the a mere beholding of to generations of thinkers as an unquestioned idea that knowledge is intrinsically or viewing of reality-l^the spectator conception knowledge. and great scholastic thinkers taught that the end of man is to know True True Being and Being. and centuries after the practice of effective knowledge had adopted the method of science experimentation. wants to know something. Let us turn abruptly from this conception of the measure of true knowledge and the nature of true philos- ophy days to the existing practice of knowledge. that knowledge is is contemplative. multitudes were affected who were totally innocent of theoretical philosophy. that pure Immaterial Mind.

but as a wall. While the astronomer cannot change the remote stars. If he cannot change the stars themselves. is regarded not as the key to knowledge of the thing.THE IDEAL AND THE REAL he will detect its fixed 118 prolonged way upon the object expecting that thereby and characteristic form. tries to break down apparent and to induce changes. the form of The form that remains unchanged seed or tree. an obstruction to be broken down. of taking Instead an antagonistic attitude toward change and to the stars because of their divinity and is denying it perfection. the experimental method fixities of change. as a lapse from reality or a sign of imperfection of Being. fall Change in short is no longer looked upon as a from grace. he can at least by lens and prism change their light as it reaches the earth. he can lay traps for discovering changes which would otherwise escape notice. to bring some energy to bear upon the substance to see how it reacts. he places it under unusual conditions in order to induce some change. Consequently the scientific man experiments with . He does not expect any amount of such aloof scrutiny to reveal to him any secrets. to find Modern science no longer tries some fixed form or essence behind each process Rather. even he no longer merely gazes. He proceeds to do something. he on constant and alert watch to find some change through which he can form an inference as to the formation of stars and systems of stars. to sense.

not just as objects in themselves. forms and changes which things exhibit to him. it Now human It this marks a much more general change nothing it in the attitude than perhaps appears at first sight. and that since the process is veiled from perception the way to know In short. If he took them as things to be observed and noted for their own sake. that there movement within to bring each thing in seeming repose . until happen until there as we say. record tho structures. the thing which is it is the thing into novel circumstances until change becomes evident. accepts things as he finds them. He assumes that there is is change going on all the time. say. and leave the matter there. but with reference to what he . some of him with a shelter. He would observe. But what makes the carpenter a If perchance builder is the fact that he notes things. something doing.114 this RECONSTRUCTION IN PHILOSOPHY and that agency applied to something begins to this . accepted precisely as the carpenter. the changes going on should present so much the better. is to be accepted and paid heed to not what is originally given but that which emerges after the thing has been set under a great variety of circumstances in order to see how behaves. and that condition is. he never would be a carpenter. less signifies it than that the world or any is part of as presents itself at a given time accepted It is or acquiesced in only as material for change. describe.

Under differing social conditions. In fact. 115 wants to do to them and with them. to the end he Fitness to effect certain special changes is that he wishes to see accomplished what concerns him in the wood and is stones and iron which he observes. —things that can be found by deliberate trying." His attention directed to the changes they undergo and the changes they make other things undergo so that he may select that combination of changes which result. sometimes contempt and desire to escape. he not only never achieves his purpose but he never learns what the things themselves are. the older or classic conception sometimes bred resignation and submission.THE IDEAL AND THE REAL has in mind. If he foregoes his own purpose and in the name of a meek and humble subscription to things as they " really are " refuses to bend things as they " are " own purpose. a keen esthetic curiosity which showed itself in acute noting of all the traits of given objects. The outcome is of this idea of the right way to know a profound modification in man's attitude toward the natural world. They are what they can do and what can be done with to his them. notably in the case of the Greeks. the whole conception of knowledge as beholding and noting enjoyis fundamentally an idea connected with esthetic . sometimes. will yield him his desired It is only by these processes of active manipulation of things in order to realize his^ purpose that he discovers what the properties of things are.

Conditions and events are neither to be acquiesced in . something to be subhuman something that has to be changed in order to be truly known. cultivated men in particular. This loses its pathos. and the environment regarded . is Since changes to learn enough are going on anyway. The moral disposition toward is change deeply modified. is becomes prophetic of a better future. the great thing about them so that we be able to lay hold of them and turn them in the direction of our desires. are still so dominated by the older conception of an aloof and self-sufficing reason and knowledge .116 raent ful RECONSTRUCTION IN PHILOSOPHY and appreciation where the environment life is is beauti- and serene. of Change becomes Change significant it new possibilities and ends to be attained. They are cither obstacles to our ends or else means for their accomplishment. and with esthetic repulsion and life is depreciation where troubled. nature morose and hard. it ceases to be haunted with melancholy through suggest- ing only decay and Joss. i But in the degree in which the active conception is of knowledge prevails. . associated with progress rather than with lapse and fall. to be contemplative In a profound sense knowing ceases and becomes practical. educated men. fled from nor passively they are to be utilized and directed. men are imbued with courage. may toward na- jected to The latter becomes plastic. Unfortunately men. with what ^almost be termed an aggressive attitude ture.

they have sought a refuge of complacency in the notion that knowing is something too sublime to be contaminated by con- tact with things of change and a practice. social im- potency of the calling of thought to which they are Forbidden by conditions and held back by lack of courage from making their knowledge a factor in the determination of the course of events. ir . of knowing as something in self-sufficing and self- enclosed. l- It means that the structures and set objects which science to the things and philosophy up in contrast and events of concrete daily experience do not constitute a realm apart in which rational contemplation may rest satisfied . thorough-going and disinterested reflection when they maintain the traditional philosophy of intellectualism that is. They have irresponsible transformed estheticism. impartial. historic intellectualism.THE IDEAL AND THE REAL They think they are sustaining the cause of 117 that they refuse to perceive the import of this doctrine.^* knowing into morally The true import of the doctrine of the intelli- operative or practical character of knowing. is objective. \jBtit truth. the is spectator view of knowledge. it means that they repremeans and ideal is sent the selected obstacles. doctrine which a purely compensatory have built' men of an intellectual turn up to console themselves for the actual and devoted. of gence. material methods of giving direction to that change which bound to occur anyway.

It separates friends and prevents intercourse. make the difference an obstacle. illustration will. rather that collection of imagined possibilities stimulates that still men to new efforts and realizations. the ideal world a haven in which it is essen- tially man finds rest from the storms of life. f In the classic philosophy. an idea it is only an object of personal aspiration or consolation. When the belief that knowl- edge active and operative takes hold of men. It isolates. so that it But the picture of the better is shaped may become an Hence. instrumentality of action. But it This change of does signify a radical change in the character and function of the ideal realm which ' man shapes for himis self. is Distance and makes contact and mutual understanding difficult. or ceases to be primarily a creature of the imagination. perhaps.^ It remains true that the troubles which men undergo are the forces that lead them to project pictures of a better state of things. while in the classic view the Idea belongs ready-made in a noumenal world.118 EECONSTRUCTION IN PHILOSOPHY human disposition toward the world does not mean that man ceases to have ideals. a source of trouble. the ideal it is realm is no longer something aloof and separate. an asylum in which he takes refuge from the troubles of existence with the calm assurance that it alone is is supremely real. is a suggestion of something to be done or of %**" a way of doing. \ ^An clear. while to the modern. .

is after all. the difficulty." space . Their relationaffected ships in the true world are not in special any way by is considerations. in a more It is modern version. or. distance. to pass. only casting a dream into an elaborate dialectic form through the use of a speciously scientific terminology? Practiis Practically. is merely phenomenal . does not suggest that ideal much of what philosophies have taught about the and noumenal or superiorly real world. fluent. is of reality. I say. for them distance not. pure do not live in a space world. however it may be "metaphysically. subjective. Pure minds. remains. cally. the trouble. then be argued. not. Does the illustration involve a caricature of ways of all it philosophizing with which we are it is familiar? But if not an absurd caricature. from some building to philosophic reflection. will Space. real. human intercourse is not in- by space. Now there are two ways One way all is to pass from a mere dream of some is heavenly realm in which distance abolished and by some magic friends are in perpetual transparent idle castleit communication. Their intercommunication direct. unobstructed. 119 This state of affairs provokes discontent and restlessit excites the imagination to construct pictures of a state of things where juriously affected out.THE IDEAL AND THE REAL ness . gives is Hence the obstruction and all trouble it not after " real " in the metaphysical sense spirits. metaphysically speaking.

Invention proceeds. the telephone. But this time. and more of an actual fact. The idea becomes a standpoint from which to examine existing occurrences and to see if there is not among them something which gives a hint of how communication at a distance utilized as can be effected. This is action and reaction goes on. and at last we have the telegraph. possibility. It becomes less of a mere a wished-for possibility. state of things. Again. still The sug- gestion or fancy though ideal is treated as a possibility capable of realization in the concrete natural world. a fancy. not as a superior reality apart from that world. Observed from the point of view of disclose this things properties hitherto unde- tected. and in the light of what is discovered the possibility takes on concrete existence. something to be a medium of speech at long range. first through wires. idea.120 still EECONSTRUCTION IN PHILOSOPHY real: — it acts in a definite objectionable way. As such. the idea less of some agency for speech at a distance becomes vague and floating: it takes on positive form. it becomes a platform from which to scrutinize natural events. and then with no artificial medium. The possibility or idea employed as a method for observing actual existence. The concrete environ- . man dreams of some better From troublesome fact he takes refuge in fantasy. the refuge does not remain a permanent and remote asylum. In the light of these ascertainments.

the other inferior. But in the actual course of the development of science. for the experimental sciences. unless it is Now to undergo a complete break with the authorized spirit of science. ^JLet us pause to take stock of accessible only to reason The division of the world into two kinds of Being. S* results. it ceases to be con- templative and becomes in a true sense practical. turns inevitably into the idea that knowledge is contemplative in nature. this implies that philosophy. a tremendous change has come about. It must assume a practical must become operative and experimental. and ideal in nature. in fancy. one superior. material. selection and combination of concrete natural operations. is idealized in fact and not merely its The ideal is realized through own use as a tool or method of inspection.THE IDEAL AND THE REAL ment is 121 it transformed in the desired direction. knowing became about certain changes. experimentation. changeable. It assumes all a to contrast between theory and practice which was the disadvantage of the latter. it its nature. And we have pointed out what an enormous change this transformation of philosophy entails in the two con- . be dialectical When the practice of knowledge ceased to and became experimental. must also alter nature. empirical. means a certain kind of intelligently conducted doing. preoccupied with changes and the test of knowledge be- came the ability to bring Know- ing. accessible to sense-observation.

the prime functionof philosophy is that of rationaliz- ing the possibilities \i experience. ing it.122 RECONSTRUCTION IN PHILOSOPHY ceptions which have played the greatest role in historic philosophizing — the conceptions * of the " real " and " ideal " respectively. as the obstructions and the means of certain ideal specific d££J£ed changes. the great difference involved in the change from knowledge and philosophy as contemplative to operative. we are far from habitually treating knowledge as the method of active control of nature and of experience. The former it ceases to be some- thing ready-made and final. We tend to think of it after the model of a spectator viewing a finished picture rather than after that of the artist . becomes that which has to be accepted as the material of change. They represent intelligently thought-o ut possjbjlitks_gj£_theexistent world which may 'be used as methods for making over and improving Philosophically speaking. especially collective human realized experience. The change does not mean the lowering in dignity of philosophy from a lofty It signifies that plane to one of gross utilitarianism. a mere asylum from empirical deficiencies. The and rational also ceased to be a separate ready-made world incapable of being used as a lever to transform the actual empirical world. this is it. y The scope of this ch ange may be by c onsideri n g how far we are from accomplishIn spite of inventions which enable men to use still the energies of nature for their purposes.

it first effect is active and operative. For mind from a conception to seize of the relation of in knowing. after the analogy of experiment guided by by the imagination' not too much to say that the all would be to emancipate philosophy from the epistemological puzzles which these all arise now perplex it. sumes that to know is which asis upon what already m i existence. and processes of science. —- " Modern philosophic thought has been between realist and absolutist. or of invention guided of some possibility. knowing were habitually conceived of as hypothesis. subject and object. They ask how a mind and world. subject and object. For these questions all spring from the assumption of a merely beholding mind on one side and a foreign and remote object to be viewed and noted on the other. so separate and independent If can by any possibility come into such relationship to each other as to make true knowledge possible. so preoccupied with these puzzles of epistemology and the disputes between phenomenalist and many students are at a loss to know what would be left for philosophy if there were removed . that idealist.THE IDEAL AND THE REAL producing the painting. and world. J/Thus there arise tions of epistemology with all 123 the ques- which the technical student and which have made modern philosophy in especial so remote from the understanding of the everyday person and from the results is of philosophy so familiar.

more general and fundamental enlightenment and guidance than it now possesses.|instead of expressing the notion of another world or spine far-away unrealiz-l ggsL-wmald be used as a bietjxacLof understandinf and ye ctrf yingyipeciflc socia l ills? | able This is a vague statement. But in claiming this. the world over. I have tried to show that a radical change of the conception of in need of knowledge from contemplative to active result of the is the inevitable way in which inquiry and invention are now conducted. clear idea of better social possibilities in short upon an idea or ideal which. it must also be .124 RECONSTRUCTION IN PHILOSOPHY both the metaphysical task of distinguishing between the noumenal and phenomenal worlds and the epistemological task of telling independent object. note is hour. And in the second how contemporary society. how a separate subject can know an But would not the elimination of and more needed task? these traditional problems permit philosophy to devote itself it to a more fruitful Would and suffers. not encourage philosophy to face the great social moral defects and troubles from which hum anity to concentrate its attention and exact nature of these jtro jecting evils upon clearing up the causes and ~upoIi developing a . But note in the first' place that such a conception of the proper province of philosophy where it is released in line first from vain metaphysics with the origin of phi- and idle epistemology is losophy sketched in the place.

THE IDEAL AND THE REAL influenced for the side of 125 conceded. These considerations indicate to us how undevelope d are o ur_jglitics. life. how~crude and primitive our educatio n. serious new moral classes. trol of the sources of material con- wealth and prosperity. What would once have been miracles are now daily air. it but this progress has brought with disturbances. it has also produced and spread occasions for diseases and weaknesses. how pass ive and . the problem of capital and labor. that so far the change has most part only the more technical human arts. The sciences have created new in- dustrial Man's physical command of natural There is energies has been indefinitely multiplied. or rather asserted. optimistic But there are few persons and moral wel- enough to declare that any similar command of the forces which control man's social fare has been achieved. the relation of economic the fact that while the new science has achieved wonders in medicine and surgery. \ Where is the moral progress that corresponds to our economic accomplishments? direct fruit The latter is the of the revolution that has been wrought in physical science. performed with steam and coal and electricity and and with the human body. But where is there a correspondNot only has the iming human science and art? provement in the method of knowing remained so far mainly limited to technical and economic matters. I need only cite the late war.

as has been pointed out. Let me specify one problem quite directly suggested by certain points in this lecture. a prac- tical attitude. to what use can be put. It has been pointed out that the really fruitful application of the contemplative idea was not in science but in the esthetic It is field. difficult to imagine any high development is of the fine arts except where there curious and loving inirrespec- terest in forms tive of and motions of the world quite to which they any use may be put. On the other hand. — as the Greek. Its interest in change is in what it it leads to. been successfully accomplished. the scientific attitude that has actually proved itself in scientific progress is. It takes forms as disguises for hidden processes. . And it is not too much to say that every people that has attained a high esthetic development has been a people in which the contemplative attitude has flourished the Hindoo.126 RECONSTRUCTION IN PHILOSOPHY The causesr emain whi ch brought philoso phy into existence as an attempt to find an intelligent substitute for b lind custom aqd b lind impulse asTguid"es~ to life and conduc t! T he atte mpt has not inert our morals. the medieval Christian. Is there not reason for believing tha t the release of philosophy from itsourden of sterile metaphysics and sterile epistemology instead of depriving philosophy of problems and subject-matter would open a way to questions of the most per plexing andthe most significa nt sort?. what can be done with it.

man will be the sport and victim of natural forces which he cannot use or control. I suppose wholly fanciful. tive. is social and The western peoples advanced earlier its on the path of experimental science and applicaIt is tions in control of nature than the oriental. esthetic and speculatively and the former cal. industrial and practi- This difference and others which have grown up it is around pne barrier to easy mutual understanding. more of the scientific. then. restlessly driving hard bargains with natufej. bored with putting it leisure or capable of' to use only in ostentatious display and ex- travagant dissipation. makes The philosophy comprehend these a serious effort to respective attitudes in their relation and due balance. Like other moral questions. and with one another. With- out the former.- out the latter. not.THE IDEAL AND THE REAL While it 127 is has brought nature under control. mankind might become a race of economic monsters. . and one source of misunderstanding. Surely there is no more significant question be- fore the world than this question of the possibility and meth od of reconciliation o f the attitudes of practical science and contemplative esth etic appreciation. With. this matter even political. which. to believe that the latter have embodied in their habits of life more of the contemplareligious temper. there its attitude something hard and aggressive in toward nature unfavorable to the esthetic enjoyment of the world.

the " ideal " been so clamorous. as at the present time. Never have the " real " and And never in the history of the world have they been so far apart. The world war was car- ried on for purely ideal ends: — for humanity. justice alike. it is incredible that the question of the rela- tion of the " real " and the " ideal " should ever have been thought to be a problem belonging distinctively to philosophy. we call civiliza- The peace name settlement is loudly proclaimed in the of the ideals that stir man's deepest emo- tions. Indeed. all The very fact that this most serious of human is issues has been taken possession of by philos- ophy only another proof of the disasters that follow in the wake of regarding knowledge and intellect as something self-sufficient. but with the most realistic attention to details of economic advantage distributed in proportion to physical power to create future disturbances. by high explosives. and bombing airplanes and blockading marvels of mechanism that reduced the world well nigh to ruin. . so self-assertive.128 RECONSTRUCTION IN PHILOSOPHY fail to could hardly profit promote the capacity of peoples to by one another's experience and to co-operate effectually with one another in the tasks of fruit- more ful culture. so that the serious-minded are concerned for the perpetuity of those choice values tion. and equal liberty for strong realistic and weak And it was carried on by means of applied science.

THE IDEAL AND THE REAL It is 129 not surprising that some men are brought to all regard idealism as a mere smoke-screen behind which the search for material profit carried on. The true moral would seem to lie forcing the tragedy of that idealism which emen- in believes . any politics that takes account of other factors. physical force then conceived as profit and as sensations of power. that is. the things of the spirit. in while the great mass died as they were born elect devoted themselves fashion. life —industry and comanimal They will sigh for the return of the day when. Yet the most obvious conclusion would seem to be the impotency and the harmfulness of any and every ideal that is proclaimed wholesale and in the abstract. save as elements of clever propaganda and for who have not become realistically enlightened. as something in itself apart from the detailed it concrete existences whose moving possibilities bodies. the few not to science and the material decencies and comforts of existence but to " ideal " things. is based on illusions. may be more effectually materialistic inter- and are converted to the " Reality " is pretation of history. But others are equally sure that the real lesson of the war is that humanity took its first great wrong step when control of those human beings it entered upon a cultivation of physical science and an application of the fruits of science to the improve- ment of the instruments of merce. and enjoyment.

And these wrong tial. For as long .130 in RECONSTRUCTION IN PHILOSOPHY a spiritual world which exists in and by realistic itself. ideals have in turn their foundation in the absence in social matters of that methodic. from absence of ideals they spring from wrong ideals. problem of the relation of the ideal and the is That least the standing problem of life. Philosophy. systematic. a study conducted in a more scientifically accurate and complete manner than that of the professed Real-politik. to ignore facts and forces that are disagreeable and to magnify the enduring quality of whatever falls in with immediate desire. cannot " solve " the real. let it be repeated. bilities of the material and reason independent of the possiand physical. is It false that the evils of the situation arise . to sacrifice the future to immediate pressure. But in it can at lighten the burden of humanity dealing with the problem by emancipating mankind from the errors which philosophy has itself fostered —the existence of conditions which are real apart into from their movement something new and different. and the tragic need for the most study of forces and consequences. searching inquiry into " real " and opera- tive conditions which we call science and which has brought man in the technical realm to the command of physical energies. imparcritical. and the existence of spirit ideals. realistic For it is not truly or scientific to take short views.

limbs. it will walk forward with blinded eyes and bound effect. * It can make it mankind to takejhajright stepsin_action by making clear that a Sympatheti c^ andjntegraLintelligence brought to bear upon the observation and understanding of concrete* social events and forces. ^ . if it will. that is aims. can form ideals.THE IDEAL AND THE REAL as 131 humanity is committed to this radically false bias. And philosophy can this something more than easier for it negative task. w hich shall not be either illusions or mere emotional compensations.

superficial For a time a was maintained compromise equilibrium wherein the logic of formal demonstration which the Middle Ages extracted from Aristotle was supple- mented by an inductive logic of discovery of truth that Mill extracted from the practice of scientific men. It is elevated into the supreme and tive science only to fall into the trivial estate of keeper of such statements as A is A and the scholastic verses for the syllogistic rules. regarded by the modern objective idealist as the adequate substitute for ancient ontological metaphysics. or even to material falsity. But 132 . but others treat it as that branch of rhetoric which teaches proficiency in argumentation. It claims power to state the laws of the ultimate structure of the universe. on the ground that it deals with the laws of thought which are the laws according to which Reason has formed the world. Then it limits its pretensions to laws of correct is reasoning which correct even though it leads to no It is matter of fact.CHAPTER VI THE SIGNIFICANCE OF LOGICAL RECONSTRUCTION Logic — like philosophy itself — suffers from a curious legisla- oscillation.

Take such a Repu- rudimentary matter as the nature of judgment. and others assert that synthesis of reality is a them into something else. and of psychology. or again. The disit is tinction of subject and predicate is necessary. who regard it . scope or puris pose. cases. and judgment is not logical at is but personal and psychological. in logic . and it is an after-product from them. of mathematics. If logical. essen- some hold that judgment is an analysis of someit is thing prior into them. Logical theory presents a scene of chaos. table authority can be quoted in behalf of every possible is permutation of doctrine. it is though found in some those is not of great importance. have much they attacked one made common cause in attack upon the orthodox logics both of deductive proof and inductive discovery. Among those that who deny that judgment cate to subject. Among who hold that the subject-predicate relationship tial. Judgment the central thing all. is the attribution of predias a relation of elements. affects This disagreement not formal or nominal but the treatment of every topic. and it is totally irrelevant. no matter how another. little There is agreement as to its subject-matter. and others " reality " is logically irrelevant. Some hold that always the subject of judgment.LOGICAL RECONSTRUCTION students of 1S3 German philosophy. it the primary func- tion to which both conception and inference are subordi- nate .

in the first place. How does the modification in the traditional conception of the relation of experi- ence and reason. is is not purely formal. Bosanquet. is it concerned with the inherent thought structures of the universe. disagreement and incoherency. these contrarieties are so numerous.134 RECONSTRUCTION IN PHILOSOPHY is some hold that the relation it is " internal. contrary. It not confined to laws of formally correct reasoning Neither. intellectual They testify to some deep-lying cause of In fact. then logic. the nature of logic itself. is contemporary logical theory all the ground upon which philosophical differences and disputes are gath- ered together and focussed. and other epistemological logicians would have it. then these inconsistencies i are serious." some that it is " external. on the apart from truth of subject-matter. If logic an affair of practical moment." and others that sometimes one and sometimes the other. If thinking is the way is in which deliberate is re- organization of experience secured. as an account of the procedure of thought. the real s and ideal affect logic? It affects. nor with the successive approaches of human thought to this objective thought structure as the logic of Lotze. as Hegel's logic would have it . If thought or intelligence is the means of intentional reconstruction of experience. then logic such . so extensive. and is so irreconcilable that they are ludicrous. Unless logic is a matter of some practical account.

Each science from mathematics to history . In language familiar to students. a science so far as it gives an organized in and tested descriptive account of the way which thought actually goes on . study of the origin of myth. Psychology. so far as on the basis of this description it projects methods by which future thinking shall take advantage of the operations that lead to success and avoid those which result in failure. Men have been thinking for ages. the . Especially does the record of the growth of the various sciences afford instruction in those concrete ways of inquiry and testing ef- which have led men astray and which have proved ficacious. psychological or regulative. an art. experimental and pathological. logic both a science and an art .LOGICAL RECONSTRUCTION 185 a clarified and systematized formulation of the pro-1 cedures of thinking as will enable the desired reconstruct. tion to go on more economically and is efficiently. is Thus both. rhetoric and former logical compositions all tell us how men have thought and what have been the purposes and consequences of different kinds of thinking. makes important contributions to our knowledge of how thinking goes on and to what effect. legend and cult linguistics and grammar . Anthropology.t all They have of observed. Logic is based on a definite and executive supply? of empirical material. and reasoned in all sorts ways and to kinds of results. inferred. is answered the dispute whether logic emIt is pirical or normative.

Out of this relationship of cause and effect . with ludicrously inept. The more study that is given to empirical records of actual thought. effica- exhibits typical fallacious cious methods in special Logical field theory has thus a large. Some sorts of thinking are shown by experience to have got nowhere. will Any one who considers this empirical manifestation not complain of lack of material from which to construct a regulative art. of The conventional statement that experience only us tells is is how men have thought or do think. almost inexhaustible empirical study. The parrot-like repetition of the distinction beis tween an empirical description of what tive and a norma- account of what should be merely neglects the most striking fact about thinking as it empirically is namely. the more ap- parent becomes the connection between the specific features of thinking which have produced failure and success. how men should think.136 EECONSTRUCTION IN PHILOSOPHY methods and typical subject-matters. and enduring of It is precisely in experience that the different consequences of different methods investigation and ratiocination are convincingly shown. Others have proved manifest experience that they lead to fruitful discoveries. or worse than nowhere — into systematized delusion in and mistake. success its flagrant exhibition of cases of failure and is. while logic concerned with norms. —that of good thinking and bad thinking.

basis of em- and The structure of alleged normative a priori mathe- . as common led to another. in which some men have struck out in this direction. Mathematics is often cited as an example of purely • normative thinking dependent upon a priori canons and' supra-empirical material. and in which some exercises others in and operations have resulted triumphant clarifications and in confusion and fruitful growths a history in which matter and methods have been constantly selected pirical success and worked over on the failure. nevertheless. this very structure a product of long historic growth. —not merely immediately practical but in the sense of being interesting. in the Certain ways were successful sense. of arousing attention. brain of a Zeus whose anatomy that of pure is But.LOGICAL RECONSTRUCTION as it is empirically ascertained 137 grow the norms and regulations of an art of thinking. One thing. student But it is hard to see how the who approaches the matter historically can is avoid the conclusion that the status of mathematics as empirical as that of metallurgy. in which all kinds of experi- ments have been tried.and some in that. Men began with counting and measuring things just as they began with pounding and burning them. The once present-day mathematical logician structure of mathematics as if it may is present the all at had sprung from the logic. of exciting attempts at improvement. speech profoundly has it.

any differently. The metallurgist who should write on the most highly developed method of dealing with ores would not. line been said about experience being a matter primarily of behavior. First. is So considered. far to seek in moral and Assuming. in truth. is the fact that think- ing takes its departure from specific conflicts in experi- ence that occasion perplexity and trouble. political affairs. Logic profound human importance precisely founded and experimentally 'jbecause it empir-ically applied.138 EECONSTRUCTION IN PHILOSOPHY is matics in truth the crowned result of ages of toilsome experience. let us proceed to discuss some of its chief features.been is a matter of is maximum of achievement. light is thrown by the origin of thinkIn with what has already ing upon a logic which shall be a method of intelligent guidance of experience. logic. intelli- gent method. He too selects. . accordingly. cific And it is only saying again in more spein general form what has been said while form to add re- that spect such a logic has been developed in to mathematics is and physical still science. a sensori-motor matter. this idea of logic without argument. re- and organizes the methods which found to yield the in the past have . Men do not. proceed fines. the problem of logical theory the in none other than the problem of the possibility of development and employment of intelligent method inquiries concerned with deliberate reconstruction of experience.

when they are dictated to them by authority.LOGICAL RECONSTRUCTION in their 139 natural estate. thinking only when thinking is the imperative or urgent way tion. but qua soldiers (as Aristotle would say) they are not notorious for being thinkers. difficulties is As we have seen. Thinking is done for them. Soldiers have difficulties and restrictions in plenty. out. a course of action to victorious consummation. also Men do not tend to think when their amid difficulties. personal solution of is not the only way in which a sought. reveries. According to modern psychology. life is Bein who think are beings whose so hemmed and constricted that they cannot directly carry through. of success without effort. probably hysteria itself. emotional idealizations are roads which are taken to escape the strain of perplexity and conflict. A life of ease. many sysas devices for getting freedom tematized delusions and mental disorders. only when it is the indicated road to a solureigns. dreams. think when they have no troubles to cope with. no difficulties to overcome. Thinking. thinking is Wherever external authority suspected and obnoxious. relief Such consideratraits essential to throw into some of the . is action. however. would be a thoughtless and so also would a ings life of ready omnipotence. The same is too true of most workingmen Difficulties occasion under present economic conditions. higher up. life. originate from troublesome tions conflicting factors.

It leads to that type of Idealism which has well been It creates a class of termed intellectual somnambulism. Every approximation to such " thinking " referred to. is really an approach to the method of escape and self-delusion just It substitutes an emotionally agreeable and rationally self-consistent train of meanings for inquiry into the features of the situation which cause the trouble. they only get rid of the feeling They cover up consciousness of it. This is the condition causing the tragic division of theory and practice. Because the conflict remains in fact and is evaded in thought. minute and extensive [scrutinizing.140 RECONSTRUCTION IN PHILOSOPHY. Nothing has done greater Tiarm to the successful conduct of the enterprise of thinking (and to the logics which reflect and formulate the undertaking) than the habit of treating observation as something outside of and prior to thinking. The thinking as a way of responding to difficulty. and leading to an unreasonable exaltation of theory on one . " solutions " alluded to do not get rid of the short-cut conflict of it. dis- orders arise. observation. The then is first distinguishing characteristic of thinking facing the facts — inquiry. " thinkers " who are remote from practice and hence from testing their thought by application a socially — superior and irresponsible class. and problems. and thinking as something which can go on in the head with- out including observation of new facts as part of itself.

Thinking which is a method of reconstruct-l ing experience treats observation of facts. random. but purposeful. When it is the scientific man appears is to observe aimlessly. but never inquires into their meaning it and consequences —a safe occupation. as the indispensable step of defining the problem. in- stead of a merely vague emotional. merely that he so in love with problems as is sources and guides of inquiry. specific the character of the trouble undergone. It is not aimless. which occupies ously with mere details. that he striving to turn up a problem where none appears on the surface: he . for never contemplates any use to be made of the ob- served facts in determining a plan for changing the situation.LOGICAL RECONSTRUCTION side 141 and an unreasonable contempt for current practice in it it on the other. sense of what the difficulty is and where it lies. of locating the trouble. on the other hand. Thus has the idealist conspired with the materialist to keep actual life impoverished and inequitable. isolation of thinking The facts from confrontation with encourages that kind of observation which merely itself labori- accumulates brute facts. of forcing home a definite. so to clarify the disturbed and limited by The purpose is and confused situation that it reasonable ways of dealing with may be suggested. miscellaneous. It confirms its hard brutalities and dead routines just because has transferred thinking and theory to a separate and nobler region.

in observing the signs of what the trouble we are at the same time expecting. we are overwhelmed. and is. When we intelli- gently observe. "Specific and wide observation of concrete fact always. When not only impending but completely actual and present. investigation. corresponds not only with a sense of a difficulty. Curiosity. but give way to complete and developing. tion and preparation.142 is. as we say apprehensive. indications. We do not think. then. is The kind is in- of trouble that occasions thinking that which is and where what found already in existence can be employed as a sign from which to infer what is likely to come. still We are on the alert for something di- to come. inquiry. hunting for trouble because of the had in satis- faction to be coping with it. very truly. is An the latter an interest in getting evidence. EECONSTRUCTION IN PHILOSOPHY as we say. that in of what It is it imports or signifies subsequent experience. Observation is diagnosis and diagnosis implies an interest in anticipa- It makes ready in advance an . problem or but with some vague sense of the meamrngj^i is. as well as apprehending. thejifficulty. becoming aware of meaning. is casting — in short. depression. foreframing an the trouble idea. symptoms for inferring the former. we are. We speak. are is rected quite as truly into what as into going to happen next intelligent interest in what has happened. impending trouble. a kind of anticipation or prediction of of what is coming.

LOGICAL RECONSTRUCTION attitude of response so that 143 we shall not be caught unawares. thought or conception. getting ready to pass into the physician observes his patient to detect symptoms of change in some definite direction . observation is The very fact that evi- not an end in itself but a search for dence and signs shows that along with observation goes inference. including that of subject and predicate in judgment. In a more technical context. not fancies. to get evidence of what . that which is only anticipated and inferred. a datum. It does not have the status of fact. we must confine ourselves to . That which is not already in existence. iron. " real " and " ideal " generally. object and subject in knowledge. to see fact it would be worth while what light this logical correspondence of observed and projected idea or meaning throws upon certain traditional philosophical problems and puzzles. an idea. the scientific man keeps his attention upon his laboratory material to get a clue as to what will happen under certain conditions. But at this time. framed by emotionalized So far as ideas are memory for escape and refuge. cannot be observed. they are precisely anticipations of some-| thing still to come aroused by looking into the facts of J a developing situation. anticipatory forecast — in short an idea. of something given. but of a meaning. its color is The blacksmith watches his! it and texture.

Now a method of action. the specifically mental function. or whatever word may be employed to denote Because they are sugor eventuate. he has the basis for doing something which will avert threaten- ing disaster. the . intended to produce a certain result —that is. he may do something that will lead to the situation eventuating in some other way. to enable the black- smith to give a certain form to his hot iron. All intelligent thinking Wans tion from chance and an increment of freedom in action an emancipafatality. gestions of something that may happen is they are (as we saw in the case of ideals generally) plat- forms of response to what going on. conceptions. detects that the cause of his difficulty is bearing down upon him is not guaranteed safety too late. a mode of response. f Because he foresees an impending result. he may have made his observation-forecast But if his anticipation-perception comes in season. commits us to some very important conse- quences concerning the nature of ideas. the physician to treat the patient so as to facilitate recovery.144 RECONSTRUCTION IX PHILOSOPHY in pointing out that this view of the correlative origin and function of observed fact and projected idea experience. The man who an automobile . " Thought " represents — the suggestion of a way of response that is different from that which would have been followed if intelligent observation had not effected an inference as to the future. meanings.

there it always danger that will be subordinated to maintaining some precon- ceived purpose or prejudice. it Then reflection ceases to be complete. They are tools. systems. to recognize that conceptions. Nevertheless. Being precommitted to . something worth while for something having its own is esthetic and moral interest. their value resides not in themselves but in their capacity to work shown in the consequences of their use. theories. inquiry is free only when the interest in it knowing is so developed that thinking carries with itself. sistent no matter how elaborate and self-con- they are. As in the case of all tools. The signifi- cance of this fact for the theory of truth will be dis- cussed below. They are to be accepted as bases of actions which test them. must be regarded as hypotheses. Here it is enough to note that notions. not as finalities. uncertain till — is by the nature of the case ten- tested by its results. tative.LOGICAL RECONSTRUCTION scientific 145 will experimenter to draw a conclusion which apply to other cases. lesson that It is to enforce the quite as we must be on the lookout much for indications to alter them as for opportunities to assert them. final Just because knowing not self-enclosed and but is is instrumental to reconstruction of situations. falls short. rigid To perceive this fact It is is to abolish dogmas from the world. theories and systems of thought are always open to development through use.

in advance. set meaning that knowing It is is self-enclosed and means that there no particular end up in advance so as to shut in the activities of observation. Disinterested and impartial inquiry is then far from irresponsible. is Inquiry is emanci- It is encouraged to> attend to every fact that relevant to defining the problem or need. Much less is it true it that the instrumental nature of thinking means that exists for the sake of attaining some private. pated.146 RECONSTRUCTION IN PHILOSOPHY it is arriving at some special result. not sincere. up every suggestion that promises a to free inquiry are so is The barriers many and so solid that mankind to be congratulated that the very act of investigation is capable of itself becoming a delightful and absorbing pursuit. but cramped. advantage upon which one has limitation whatever of the end Any in the means limitation it is thinking process attain its full itself. interfered with. all knowing has an end beyond and another thing. . and to follow clue. to say that an act of knowing has a particular end which it is bound. one-sided set one's heart. The only is situation in which is knowing is fully stimulated one in which the end developed in the process of inquiry and testing. a thing of a contrary kind. to reach. and application. capable of enlisting on its side man's sporting instincts. impeded. It is one thing to say that itself. forming of ideas. It signifies that does not growth and movement.

disinterested The only guarinquiry to the is antee social of the sensitiveness the inquirer needs . Investigation has become a domi- occupation for some persons. But when the path of true to retaken these things are brushed aside and forgotten. ings of vain They turn out impartial. Only super- ficially. a kind of intellectual busy work carried Details are heaped on by socially absent-minded men. does this confirm the idea that theory and knowledge are ends in themselves. They are. rela- tively speaking.LOGICAL RECONSTRUCTION down nant to ends fixed 147 Just in the degree in which thought ceases to be held' by social custom. sensitive to others' problems and transmitting results to them for wider application in action. however. " rationalized truth for science is its Then the occupation is " under the lofty name of devotion to own sake. up in the name of science. of have been the toy-| and irresponsible men. It degenerates into sterile specialization. a social division of labor life grows up. When this social relationship of persons par- ticularly engaged in carrying on the enterprise of know- ing is forgotten and the class becomes isolated. and abstruse dialectical de- velopments of systems occur. : But these persons represent a social division of labor and their specialization can be trusted only when such persons are in unobstructed co-operation with other social occupations. inquiry loses stimulus and purpose. ends in themselves for some persons.

that therefore is not one makes light of the de- ductive function. and necesThe instrumental theory only attempts to state is with some scrupulousness where the value found and to prevent It says that its being sought in the wrong place. As the instrumental theory favorable to high esteem for impartial and disinterested inquiry. or denies its fruitfulness sity. classifications and the development of consecutive implications self-resident. It a strange notion that because one says that the cognitive value of conceptions. definitions. the meaning.148 RECONSTRUCTION IN PHILOSOPHY problems of 'and those with whom he is is asso- ciated. To say that a locomotive is an agency. generalizations. itself requires careful scrutiny and prolonged development. specific observations knowing begins with that define the problem and ends with specific observations that test a hypothesis for its solution. or the need of subsidiary tools and processes that are devoted to introducing improvements into its structure. that ence and it is intermediate between a need in experi- its satisfaction. so. con- trary to the impressions of some critics. which the original observations suggest and the final ones test. But that the idea. is not to depreciate the worth of careful and elaborate construction of the locomotive. store it is sets much upon the apparatus of deduction. is One would rather say that because the locomotive . the theory would be the last to deny.

It can be employed in dealing with problems that were not anticipated. and when the new problem occurs till not have to wait ready. is impossible to devote too much care to its con- structive development. The does mind is prepared in advance for all sorts of intellectual it emergencies. on not Just because it is formed with a special application in mind. The development of by the latter runs far beyond any immediately visible use. abstraction is indispensable if one .LOGICAL RECONSTRUCTION intermediary in experience. But from the practical standpoint shows that the advantage as an instrumentality the side of the intellectual tool. indeed. it can get a special instrument More definitely. Such a deductive science as mathematics represents the perfecting of method. cerned with it should present is an end on own account no more surprising than that there for making any tool. There is. not primary and not it 149 final. The artistic interest in perfecting the method sils itself is strong —as the utenthis difference is of civilization may themselves become works of finest art. it is it is the more flexible in adaptation to unforeseen uses. one marked difference between the physical and the intellectual instrumentality. because a highly generalized tool. who employ it. should be a distinct business Rarely are those who invent and perfect a tool those. : That a method itself as to those conits .

so that it is esteemed barely in itself as some- thing of a higher order than the concrete from which tionally. it represents the only waj[_jn__whichone experience can be_madeof an y value for anolher —the only way in is which something enlightening can be secured. in its totality is Every concrete experience itself. tele ologj cally or pr actically. Abstraction is liberation. What called false or vicious abstractionism signifies that the function of the detached fragment is forgotten and neg- lected. it is a mangled frag- me£tj3_pc^u^sub*titirt^-4arjh^jivm it whole from which is extract ed. yields no instruction. Take n_by But viewed itself. the more abstract. much nearer the gross concrete experiFor that very reason they were . Looked at funcabstraction structurally and statically. the better fitted it is to deal with any one of the later indefinite variety of things that may present themselves. it unique . The more theoretical. not it muddy and irregular was wrenched. it is non-reduplicable. or the farther away it is from anything experienced in its concreteness. throws no that light. Taken it in its full concreteness. an abstraction. What it is is called abstraction means some phase of it selected for~the sake of the aid gives in grasping something else.150 RECONSTRUCTION IN PHILOSOPHY is experience to be applicable in other experiences. means that something has been released from one experience for transfer to another. Ancient mathematics and physics were ence than are modern.

I t carries over and in the dark. to the bat. however perfect. these other cases are individual and concrete they must is be dissimilar.v The pragmatic value of organization . This abstraction then carried over and expected in view of the application of the quality to have some of the other traits of the bird. applies. but thev cannot. it Abstraction sets free some factor so that used. This trivial instance indicates the essence of also illustrates the riskiness of the generalization. the negative It may be said that they are and positive sides of the same function. extends. . * . is There can be no assurance advance that what extracted from one concrete can Since be fruitfully extended to another individual case. and proceeding. The it is trait of flying is detached from the concrete bird. It transfers.LOGICAL RECONSTRUCTION more impotent trol over 151 in affording any insight into and conin such concretes as present themselves new and unexpected forms.. a result of some former experience to the reception and interpretation of a new one. It is I t is alway s in some sense a leap an adventure. purify and set in order the conceptions through which this enriching and directive operation is carried on. in extends. guarantee the outcome. may be Generalizatio n is the use. . <^' . Deductive processes define. . Abstraction and generalization have always been recognized as close kin. delimit. is so conspicu- .

as merely a linguistic device. especially by the empirical school. that they exist for the sake of economy and efficiency in reaching ends. When the existence of qualitative and fixed species was denied to be the supreme object of knowledge. The here. But this truth was perverted into a false notion. enabling General ideas are useful in economizing us to condense particular experiences into simpler and more easily carried bunches and making it easier to identify new observations. effort. ideas were recognized as a kind of teral- tium quid between things and words. So far nominalism and conceptualism that kinds exist —the theory only in words or in ideas —was on the right track. It emphasized the teleological character of systems and classifications. Classes were lowed to exist in the mind as purely mental things. classification was often classification regarded. speech.152 RECONSTRUCTION IN PHILOSOPHY life ously enforced in contemporary that it hardly seems necessary to dwell upon the instrumental significance of and systematization. because . Classes were supposed to exist only in Later. critical disposition of empiricism is well exemplified To assign any objectivity to classes was to enbelief in eternal species courage a and occult essences and to strengthen the arms of a decadent and obnoxious science — a point of view well illustrated in Locke. It was convenient for memory and communication to have words that sum up a number of particulars.

is Nevertheless there a genuine objective standard for the goodness of special classifications.LOGICAL RECONSTRUCTION the active ignored. concentrate. unresponsive. orchardists. One will further the cabinetmaker in reaching his end while another will hamper him. in and on the aggressive with respect to other things. may classed together in view of end. in carrying One classification will assist the botanist on fruitfully his work of inquiry. Now different ways be of behaving. grouped by woodworkers. a third case. common relationship to an No sensible person tries to do everything. 158 and doing side of experience was denied or Concrete things have ways of acting. inert . as many ways of acting as they have points of interaction with other things. docile. acting on the part of trees classification Each may be equally sound when the difference of ends is borne in mind. He have has certain main interests and leading aims he makes his behavior coherent and effective. One thing is callous. To the execution of different purposes different ways of acting and reare important. ently Cherry trees will be differartists. group. and an- . select. Thus a furnished for selecting and organizing things according as their ways of acting are related to carrying forward pursuit. eager. in the presence of some other things it is alert. by which To an aim basis is is to limit. it is receptive. scientists and merry-makers. in spite of their endless diversity.

theory of classification does not therefore commit us to the notion that classes are purely verbal or purely mental. for otherwise when they are applied to new events they interfere and produce confusion. the fewer. but these things are not restricted to verbal communication with others nor to they inner consciousness. concern objective action. a classification is not a bare transcript or duplicate of some finished and done-for arrangement pre-existing in nature. At the same time. simpler and more extensive the in scope to better. Organization is no more merely nominal or mental in any art. It is rather a repertory of weapons for attack upon the future and the unknown. In order that there may be ease and economy of movement in dealing with the . the details of past knowl- edge must be reduced from bare facts to meanings. Things have to be sorted out and arranged so that their grouping will promote successful action are for ends. including the art of inquiry. than it is in a department store or railway system. They must take effect in the world. For success. They must be broad enough prepare inquiry to cope with any phenomenon however unexpected. economy and efficiency the bases of classification.154 RECONSTRUCTION IN PHILOSOPHY The teleological other will retard and confuse him. They must be arranged so as not to overlap. of The necessity execution supplies objective criteria. Convenience.

be not understood. promoting transportation in inquir y. nature of truth given by the experimental and functional type of logic. In other words. spe- There must not only be but the streets must be laid out with reference to facilitating pa ssage from any one tn «. is Little time left to speak of the account of the'.LOGICAL RECONSTRUCTION selves.ny nthpr a wildernes s of by -waya ordered sys tem in Cla ssification tra nsforms ivrpnyi'pnr»n —j»te—a as well- of road s. the deductive operations in Importance. our various classes and kinds must be themselves classified in cific. graded series from the larger to the more streets. and whatever eliminates wasted material and promotes economy and efficiency of pro- duction is precious. 155 enormous diversity of occurrences that present them- we must be able to move promptly and definitely from one tool of attack to another. and communication As soon men beg in to take foresight f or the future selve s in and to prepare them an d prosper- advance to meet it effectively ously. the latter is understood. is any attempt to present the theory of truth to be confusing. the conception of truth If it lows as a matter of course. This is less to be regretted be- cause this account is completely a corollary from the If the view held as to fol- nature of thinking and ideas. bound and the theory itself to seem arbi- . and their results gain In every practical enterprise there are goods to be produced.

imj RECONSTRUCTION frarj and absurd. If they fail to clear if up confusion. then the lies in office. they increase confusion. notions. IN PHILOSOPHY If ideas. That which guides us truly true —demonstrated capacity what is for such . test of their validity ilf and value accomplishing this work. true. then are they false. true. it. dynamic function in the quality the all-important thing about and of activity induced by it lies all its truth and falsity. gaiK- ance is precisely is mean t by truth The adverb " truly " tive. conceptions. systems are instrumental to an active reorganization of the given environment. Now an idea or conception a claim or injunction or plan to act in a certain way as the way to arrive at the clea ring up of a specific is situation. works^consequences. it. a mod e of acting. that cases. meanings. uncer- tainty and evil when they are acted upon. . When it the claim or pretension or plan it acted upon o ur end or is guides us truly or falsely. corroboratio n. verification lie in Handsome is that handsome does. more fundamental than either the adjec- or the noun. to a removal of some specific trouble and perplexity. true T he truth pf hyp othesis is t hat works is the on e: and an abstract noun applie d to the collection actuaja-^jmaaseeji^ ancl~~desir^d. sound. to eliminate defects. good. -- By their fruits shall ye is know them. theories. Con firmation. An adverb expresses a is way. they succeed in their they are reliable. valid. truth. leads us to away from Its active.

the purpose and method of action. some individual has set his profit upon which a particular heart. ulated arises. fact. a meeting of purely personal need. a private comfort.LOGICAL RECONSTRUCTION receive 157 conse-j ' confirmation in their works and quences. tion in question But the satisfac- means a satisfaction of the needs and It includes conditions of the problem out of which the idea. for example. The usefulness . that the wonder that critics have attributed such a notion to sane men. truth as utility As matter of means service in making just that contribution to reorganization in experience that th e idea or theory claims to be able to make. It is not to be manip- by whim or personal idiosyncrasy. has been thought of as merely emotional satisfaction. doubtless its novelty and defects Too often. it is often thought mean utility for some purely personal end. public and objective conditions. it when truth has been thought of as satisfaction. So wholly does the worth of thinking that this conception of truth depend upon the correctness of the prior account of it is more profitable to consider why its the conception gives offence than to expound it it on own account. So repulsive it is a conception of truth which makes a mere tool of private ambition and agis grandizement. Part of the reason why is has been found so obnoxious in its statement. is Again when truth to defined as utility.

the chief obstacle to the recep- tion of this notion of truth in an inheritance from the classic tradition that has become so deeply engrained in is men's minds. in however an indirect way. truth deficient and falsity are thought of as fixed. makes claims to Reality which It is it can- not substantiate. superficial misunderstand- we find.158 RECONSTRUCTION IN PHILOSOPHY is of a road lends itself not measured by the degree in which It it is to the purposes of a highwayman. phenomenal. I think. are true because they do have to do with true Being — at with full and ultimate Reality. Turning from such rather ings. This view is radically challenged by . inherently belief. In just the degree in which existence divided into two realms. deceitful. And so with the serviceableness of idea or hypothesis as a measure of its truth. as and effective public transportation and an communication. reality. they are not mistaken ways of thinking. inferior and imperfect Reality It false Being. fraudulent. been a recipient of the ancient and medieval tradition. a higher one of perfect being and a lower one of seeming. is Supreme is Reality true Being. it measured by whether a means of easy actually functions as a road. ready- made static properties of things themselves. They are false because they admit and adOther notions here to false existences or subsistences. unworthy of trust and Beliefs are false not be- cause they mislead us. Such a notion lies the back of the head of every one who has.

LOGICAL RECONSTRUCTION the pragmatic conception of truth. that finds growth painful and change disturbing. prior. A society that chiefly esteems order. for the source It falls back upon what assurance. a jieavy burden of responsibility upon us for sear ch. however. a priori. toward the'. fear. in existence. 159 and the impossibility I think. \ toward consequences. unremitting hypotheses observation. still But they from hesitate to recognize the implication of this identification it. The older conception worked out t practically to identify truth with authoritative dogma. •eventual. inevitably seeks for a fixed body of superior truths upon which and sanction of it may depend. the cause of of reconciliation or compromise the shock occasioned is. for Th e thought of looking ahead. to something already truth. It looks backward. scrupulous development of and thoroughgoing t esting. and to derive the it is definition of truth For while nominally agreed upon as a commonplace that definitions ought to spring from con- crete and specific cases rather than be invented in the . original. creates uneasiness and is It disturbs the sense of rest that attached to It puts theideas of fixed Truth already in existence. by the newer theory. is antecedent. This contrast. constitutes the importance of the new theory as well as the unconscious obstruction to its acceptance. In physical in all s pe- m atter s men cific have slowly grown accustomed beliefs to ide ntifying the true with the ver ified.

Some of them. Such a change involves a great change in the seat of authority and the first methods of decision fruits of the in society. . will be considered in the fol- lowing lectures.160 RECONSTRUCTION IN PHILOSOPHY air empty truth. as newer logic. and imposed upon particulars. there is a strange unwillingness to act upon the maxim in defining To generalize thp rprngnition that th e true means_the verified and means nothing_else-places upon and njenthe r esponsibility for surrend ering political moral dogmas^ and subjecting to the test o f" consequences their most irejud ices.

CHAPTER VII RECONSTRUCTION IN MORAL CONCEPTIONS The impact of the alteration in methods of scientific thinking upon moral ideas is. and the rational consciousness of duty. principles. theory began among the Greeks as an attempt to find a regulation for the conduct of life which should have a rational basis and purpose instead of being derived from custom. This the diversity of theories. But reason as a substitute for custom was under the obligation of supplying objects and laws as fixed as those of custom had been. the maintenance of institutions in which the purpose of superiors is embodied. in general. But they have differed from one another because there was 161 . Ethical theory ever since has been' singularly hypnotized is by the notion that the its business to discover some fin al end or good or some ultimate is and_supreme law. Rules are softened into and principles are modified into methods of Ethical u nderstanding. obvious. the will of the secular ruler. Goods. ends are multiplied. is common element among* Some have held that the end this higher principle in loyalty or obedience to a higher power or authority and they have variously found Divine Will.

The question arises whether the is way out of the con- fusion and conflict not to go to the root of the Is not the matter by questioning this common ejement. sible it must be sought And in some have sought the good in self-realization. wherein rest is higher than motion. And yet these schools is have agreed in the assumption that there fixed a single. final and ultimate (whether conintellectual ceived as good or as authoritative law) an is product of that feudal organization which disappear- ing historically and of that belief in a bounded. laws are intellectual . to dis- and final good. and to a belief that principles. a single and final is Others have asserted that' it impossible to locate morality in conformity to law-giving power. ordered cosmos. individualized goods and ends. criteria. some in the greatest pos- aggregate of pleasures. belief in the single. which has It has been re- disappeared from natural science? peatedly suggested that the present limit of intellectual reconstruction lies in the fact that it has not as yet been seriously applied in the moral and social disciplines.162 RECONSTRUCTION IN PHILOSOPHY : one point in which they were agreed source of law. and that holiness. some some in happiness. Would not this further application demand to a belief in a plurality of precisely that we advance changing. They have been able pute with one another only because of their common premise. moving. in ends that are goods.

A moral situation is one in which judgment and choice are required antecedently to overt action. The practical meaning of the situation it —that is is to say the action needed to satisfy It has to be searched for. Then it ingly turns out that the primary significance of the unique and morally ultimate character of the concrete situation is to transfer the weight and burden of morality to intelligence. — is not self-evident. and in order to discover the meaning surpris-* of the idea ask for its consequence s. What needed is to find the right course of action. Let us. There are con- flicting desires and alternative apparent goods. however. and that the sence of the virtuous disposition is willingness to sub- ordinate every particular case to adjudication by a fixed principle. it It does not destroy responsi- only locates it. established tradition teaches that it is For the precisely the irregularity of special cases which makes necessary the es- guidance of conduct by universals.MORAL RECONSTRUCTION tions ? 163 instruments for analyzing individual or unique situa- The blunt assertion that every moral situation its is a unique situation having own irreplaceable good may seem not merely blunt but preposterous. the right . It would then follow that submission of a generic end and law to determination by the concrete situation entails complete confusion and unrestrained licentiousness. follow the pragmatic rule. bility.

^ good. There too it long seemed as if rational assurance and demonstration if we began with universal conand subsumed particular cases under them. keen sensitiveness. persistence in the face of the disagreeable. It is is. counting of the more insistent and vivid traits tracing the consequences of the various modes of action that suggest themselves . issue only the same as that which has been already threshed out in physical inquiry. moral traits —the virtues or moral excel-. regarding the decision reached as hypothetical and tentative until the anticipated or sup- posed consequences which led to its adoption have been squared with actual consequences. balance of interests enabling us to undertake the work of analysis and decision intelligently are the distinctively lencies. telligence. This inquiry is in- Our moral failures go back to some weaksome one- ness of disposition. dis. sided bias that makes us perform the judgment of the concrete case carelessly or perversely. inquiry is exacted: observation of the situation. Wide sympathy. RECONSTRUCTION IN PHILOSOPHY Hence. clarification of what obscure. some absence of sympathy. detailed makeup of the analysis is into its diverse factors. worth noting once more that the underlying after all. The men who initiated the methods of inquiry that are could be attained only ceptions now everywhere adopted were denounced in their day (and sincerely) as subverters of truth and foes of .

the method of universals confirmed prejudices and sanctioned ideas that had gained currency irrespective of evidence for them placing the initial and final weight . while upon the individual case. the transfer of the burden of the' life from following rules or pursuing fixed ends ills over to the detection of the special case that need remedy in a and the formation of plans and methods for dealing with them. In the end. as If they have won in the end. of hindered in- operation scrupulous and unremitting quiry.MORAL RECONSTRUCTION science. loss of eternal truths was more than compensated for in the accession of quotidian facts. strin- gency and fertility in passing judgments upon physical phenomena. eliminates the causes which have kept moral theory controversial. it is has already been pointed out. The loss of the system of superior and fixed definitions and kinds was more than made of hypotheses all. stimulated painstaking inquiry into facts and ex- amination of principles. up for by the growing system used in classifying facts. The old method in spite of of the nominal and esthetic worship because it reason discouraged reason. More moral definitely. 165 because. and laws we are only" pleading for the adoption in moral reflection of the logic that has been proved to make for security. After then. and which have also kept it remote from helpful contact with the exigencies . And the reason its is the same.

there also are not as many as there are specific situations that require amelioration. ingly Suppose we take a seemis more empirical view. We cannot seek or attain health/ wealth. as they are sure to do? we resort to the method that to once brought such disrepute upon the whole business of ethics: Casuistry? Or shall we have recourse what Bentham well that end? called the ipse dixit method: the arbitrary preference of this or that person for this or Or shall we be forced to arrange them all in an order of degrees from the highest good down to the least precious? Again we find ourselves in the middle of unreconciled disputes with no indication of the out. but there are a number of such natural goods as health. temperance. wealth. learning. etc. friendship. of What Shall or who is to decide the right way when these ends conflict with one another. the special moral perplexities where the aid of intelligence is required go unenlightened. learning and such moral goods as justice.166 RECONSTRUCTION IN PHILOSOPHY The theory of fixed ends inevitably leads of practice. benevolence. and say that while there not a single end. what is To consider this to place ourselves in the midst of controversies that are as acute now as they were two thousand years ago. thought into the bog of disputes that cannot be settled. esthetic appreciation. problem one supreme end. justice . If there is it? is one summum bonum. honor or good name. way Meantime.

temperamental and acquired weaknesses and Not man in general but a particular man suffering from some particular disability aims to live healthily. his opportunities. others to seeking learning. Healthy living is not some- thing to be attained by itself apart from other ways of living. to being a good citizen. are adverbial. These things. is How to live healthily or justly ' a matter which differs with every person. is To say that a man seeks health or justice only to say that he seeks to live healthily or justly. not apart from it. 167 Action is always specific. fine . It varies with his past experience. of his mean except the aggregate pursuits and activities? A man who aims at and what does a mechanical performer of exercises. "When the endeavor to all a so-called end does not temper and color life is other activities. or an athlete so one-sided that his pursuit of bodily develop- ment realize injures his heart. or health as a distinct end becomes a valetudinarian. individualized. And consequently judg- ments as to acts to be performed must be similarly specific. A man needs to be healthy in his life life. his abilities. or a fanatic. like truth. fiers They are modi- of action in special cases. portioned out into strips and fractions. con- crete. unique. Certain acts and times are devoted to getting a devotee of art health. and it consequently health cannot mean for him exactly what means for any other mortal.MORAL RECONSTRUCTION or kindness in general. others to cultivating religion.

disease. but because generalized science provides a man as physician and artist and citizen. he sinks to the level of the routine . dealing with Just in the degree in which. the only logical alternative to sub- aims to the accomplishment of one alone is This out of fashion at present. with questions to ask. no matter is sees. once more. ordinating fanaticism. but who life. artistic culture are of great importance: Not. can say how much of distraction and dissipation in and how much of has its hard and narrow rigidity realize that is the outcome of men's failure to its each situation own unique end and that the whole personality Surely. be brought exspecific traits however. because this or that case may its haustively under a single head and shut out. should be concerned with it? man all needs and it this result so affects the activities of his life that cannot be set up as a separate and independent good. to furnish him with tools of inquiry into the individual case. he subordinates the individual case to some classification of diseases and some generic rule of treatment. no matter how great his learning.— 168 EECONSTRUCTION IN PHILOSOPHY This all is and so on. justice. Nevertheless the general notions of health. what a is to live healthily. and with methods of forecasting a method of it. investigations to make. and enables him to understand the meaning of what he degree in which a physician uses his science. Just in the an artist in his work he how extensive and accurate.

they suggest methods of action to be tried in removing the inferred causes of in ill. evils in the existent situation. learning. suffers. amiability. and to generalize the corresponding goods into classes. enterprise. exist only when something has The This fact that something has to be done proves that there are deficiencies. They are tools of insight . Morals is not a catalogue of acts nor a set of rules to be applied like drugstore prescriptions or cook-book . It cannot intelligently be injected into the situation from without. projected and attained on the basis of the exact defect and trouble to be rectified. is But or the value analytic. It never is an exact duplicate of anything Conse- quently the good of the situation has to be discovered.MORAL RECONSTRUCTION mechanic. wealth. courtesy. of this systematization intellectual Classifications suggest possible traits to be on the look- out for in studying a particular case. ill is just the specific ill that else. industry. Health. to gather together the ills from which humanity temperance. thoroughness and a multitude of other gen- eralized ends are acknowledged as goods. Yet it is the part of wisdom to compare different cases. Moral goods and ends to be done. His intelligence and his action become dogmatic. esthetic capacity. courage. initiative. instead of free and flexible. patience. 169 rigid. it is. their value is promoting an individualized response in the indi- vidual situation.

is and seems harm- But carried into practice it it has an import that tragic. At present those who would be liberal conceive intrinsic goods as esthetic in nature rather than as exclusively religious or as intellectually contemplative. Indeed. to make this distinction. the distinction is interesting less. often thought to be the very beginning of wisdom. are divorced from those interests . has been the source and ideal justification of a hard and fast difference between goods on one side and material goods on the other. whether religious or esthetic. each having its own irre- placeable good tion of theory and principle. of moral discrimination. But the So-called intrinsic goods. morals is for specific methods of inquiry locate difficulties and of contrivance: Methods of inquiry to and evils. Dia- lectically. is to transfer the atten- from preoccupation with general con- ceptions to the problem of developing effective methods of inquiry. The belief in fixed values has bred a division of ends into intrinsic and instrumental. And the pragmatic import of the logic of individualized situations. Two ethical consequences of great moment should be remarked. methods of contrivance to in dealing form plans to be used as working hypotheses with them. effect is the same.170 RECONSTRUCTION IN PHILOSOPHY The need in "recipes. Historically. of those that and those that are are really worth while in themselves of importance only as it is means to intrinsic goods.

left. Or. they Esthetic. artistic it cannot command either intellec- or moral attention and respect. and that ideal if life is to be worth while. for in the name of higher ends. then it will be seen that they are capable of idealization. re- must acquire and intrinsic value. .MOEAL RECONSTRUCTION of 171 daily life which because of their constancy and urgency form the preoccupation of the great mass. This withdrawal. approach drudgery tual. No is one can possibly estimate how much of the oblife noxious materialism and brutality of our economic due to the fact that economic ends have been re- garded as merely instrumental. So men of " ideal " interests have of neglect and escape. nized to be as intrinsic When they are recog- and final in their place as any others. That which regarded as merely instrumental must . " lower " ends have been The urgency and pressure of chosen for the most part the way covered up by polite conventions. Aristotle used this distinction to declare that slaves the and working class though they are necessary for the state —the commonweal is —are not constituents of it. they have been relegated to a baser class of mortals in order that the few might be free to attend to the goods that are really or intrinsically worth while. has activities in mankind at large and especially for energetic " practical " people the lower complete command. it is Anything becomes unworthy whenever sically thought of as intrin- lacking worth.

to amelioration of existing And in so doing. It pro- tects the vanity and irresponsibility of his calling from de- observation by others and by himself. Some excel- schools have even gone so far as to regard moral lencies. like the virtues. logic But the experimental that is when carried into morals makes every quality judged to be good according as it contributes ills. and natural goods and the like. it . also in turn The van- ity and irresponsibility of values that are merely final and not means to the enrichment of other occupations of life ought to be obvious. specialist. art. Only in connection with the latter can they be woven into the texture of daily life and made substantial and pervasive.172 ligious RECONSTRUCTION IN PHILOSOPHY and other " ideal " ends are now thin and meagre or else idle and luxurious because of the separation from " instrumental " or economic ends. like health. esthete and religionist. science The point under discussion is not the only one which has deplored this rigid distinction and endeavored to abolish it. ficiency of the calling is The moral transformed into a cause of admiration and gratulation. The all other generic change lies in doing away once for with the traditional distinction between moral goods. comfort and sup- port to every socially isolated and socially irresponsible scholar. economic of view security. qualities of character as of value only beeause they promote natural goods. But now the doctrine of " higher " ends gives aid.

its It loses its thinness and shrillness as well as vagueness. may lie well wonder whether the root diffi- culty does not in the separation of natural and moral science. It is technical only in the sense that it provides the technique of social and moral engineering.MORAL RECONSTRUCTION enforces the moral all is 17S meaning of natural science. The latter then loses its peculiar flavor of the its ultra-moralistic didactic and pedantic. chemistry. is When the consciousness of science fully impreg- nated with the consciousness greatest dualism which of human value. When said and done in criticism of present social deone ficiencies. something to be pursued not in a technical and specialized way for what is called truth for its own sake. the now weighs h uman ity_down. but with the sense of its social bearing. its intellectual indispensableness. they become moral they become part of the apparatus of moral inquiry or science. It is humanistic in quality. is It gains agencies that are efficacious. biology. When physics. it Natural science loses itself divorce from humanity. medi- contribute to the detection of concrete human woes and to the development of plans for remedying them and relieving the human estate. But the gain becomes not confined to the side of moral its science. the split between the materi al. the mechanica l^thejcjentific and the moral and ideal will be destroyed. and horta- tory tone. Human forces that now waver because of this division will be . cine.

and intelligent plans of improvement are worked out. considerations general may be amplified. : Inquiry. validation. discovery take the same place in morals that they have come to occupy in sciences of nature. a mat-! ter of consequences. But when attention concentrated upon the diversified concretes. are moralized. demonstration become experimental.174 unified RECONSTRUCTION IN PHILOSOPHY and reinforced. No past decision nor . recourse to all intellectual materials needed to clear up the special cases will be imperative. abstract generalities promote Remote and conclusions. the obstacles and resources. and the adequate stimulus to the moral or social use of natural science and historical data is will be lacking. But shifting the issue to analysis "of a specific situation makes inquiry obligatory and alert observa- tion of consequences imperative. always an honorific term becomes actualized in the methods by which the needs and conditions. the mind be content with abstrac- tions. As long will as ends are not thought of as individualized according to specific needs and opportunities. in ethics. of situations are scrutinized in detail." Bad consequences are then deplored as due to natural perversity and untoward fate. is terminated. jumping at " anticipations of nature. Reason. The vexatious and wasteful conflict between naturalism and humanism These First . At the same time that morals are things intellectual made to focus in intelligence.

No amount of pains taken in formis ing a purpose in a definite case quences of its adoption must be carefully noted. of living. rendered flexible. is standards judgment are improved. and purpose held only as a working hypothesis until results confirm its Tightness. Ends grow. with every other. of attending to business all making a demands — of the things which under the sanction of . readjust- ment. is It is no means to some- It is a final and intrinsic value. They of are indica- tions of the need of revision. vital. thing thing else. then for that^ situation health the ulti- mate and supreme good. the consef course of action. Man under just as much obligation to develop his most advanced standards and ideals as to use conscientiously those which he already possesses. Moral life is protected from falling into formalism and It is rigid repetition. is In the second place. The same and family true of improvement of economic status. growing. They are lessons in wrong methods of using intelligence and instructions as to a better course in the future. development.MORAL RECONSTRUCTION old principle can ever be wholly relied 175 upon to justify a final. Mistakes are no longer either mere unavoidable accidents to be mourned or moral sins to be expiated and forgiven. If the need and deficiencies of a specific situation indicate improvement of health as the is end and good. every case where moral action required becomes of equal moral importance and urgency.

and deserves the intelligent attention. excludes It that accompanies . The good man is the man who no matter how morally unworthy he has been is moving to become better. Such a conception makes one severe arrogance which always in judging himself and humane in judging others. The absurdity of applying the same standis ard of moral judgment to savage peoples that be judged by whether they come used with civilized will be apparent. rank and dignity with every other good of any other situation. but by the is direction in which they are moving. and so relatively base and unimfixed ends portant. The bad man the man who no matter how good he has been is beginning to deteriorate. to grow less good.' We note thirdly the effect in destroying the roots of Phariseeism. I No individual or group will up to or fall short of some fixed result. We are so accustomed to thinking of this as deliberate hypocrisy that we overlook its intellectual premises. Anything that all is in a given situation is an end and good at same of equal worth. same measure of judgment for is all When one factor of the situation a person of trained mind and large resources.176 RECONSTRUCTION IN PHILOSOPHY have been rendered of secondary and merely instrumental value. The conception which looks for the end of action within the circumstances of the actual situation will not have the cases. more will be expected than with a person of backward mind and uncultured experience.

as far as may be removing. of perfecting. 177 fixed In the fourth place. maturing. alleviating. \Not health as an end fixed once and for all.MORAL RECONSTRUCTION judgment based on degree of approximation to ends. rather than the static outcome and result. the process of growth. wealth and learning. not real. becomes the significant thing.^ is Growth itself the only moral " end. tem- perance. are if not goods to be possessed as they would be pressed fixed ends to be attained. / Honesty. justice. refining is the aim in living. but the ever-enduring process. be reached. industry. J Philosophy is no longer under obligation evils to find in- genious methods for proving that are only ap- parent." / Although the bearing of this idea upon the problem pessiit of evil and the controversy between optimism and too vast to be here discussed. The problem ceases to be is a theological and metaphysical one. j and perceived to be the practical problem of reducing. but the needed im- provement in health—'a continual process — is the end limit to and good. or to elaborate schemes for explaining ./ Not perfection as a final goal. mism evil is may be worth of i while to touch upon it superficially. of in? provement and progress. the evils of life. The end It is is no longer a terminus or the active process of transforming the existent situation. they ex- They are d irections of change in J:he quality of experience. like health.

and to put forth endeavor for the improve- ment of conditions. in comfort. In declaring that the world evil wholesale. in any event may their be bettered. possible. of those who have been sue- . it makes futile all efforts to discover the remediable causes of specific evils and thereby destroys at the root every attempt to make the world evil better and happier. an incubus. however. For good is already realized in ultimate make us gloss over the evils that con- cretely exist.178 EECONSTRUCTION IN PHILOSOPHY or. positive It encourages intelligence to study the means of good and the obstructions to It arouses confidence realization. the best what would a world which was fundamentally Meliorism is bad be like? the belief that the specific conditions which exist at one moment. is. After all. It as- another obligation: —That of contributing in in is is however humble a way to methods that will assist us ills. for justifying them. which has been the con- sequence of the attempt to explain equally away. the optimism that says that the world all is already the best possible of worlds might be regarded If this is as the most cynical of pessimisms. Wholesale optimism. them away "sumes worse yet. discovering the causes of humanity's a" Pessimism paralyzing doctrine. be they com- paratively bad or comparatively good. It becomes too readily the creed of those who live at ease. in declaring that reality tends to and a reasonthe latter able hopefulness as optimism does not.

. it is not a fixed attainment. moving in advance. however. such as bliss. Yet most ascetic moralist has usually restored the idea of happiness under some other name. y 179 Too readily optimism makes the men who hold it callous and blind to the sufferings of the less fortunate. . either the unworthy selfishness it is. intelligent effort It beckons men away from the world of relativity eternal. It is _an jjCtjye getting forward.MORAL RECONSTRUCTION cessful in obtaining this world's rewards. and change into the calm of the absolute and of The import been the many of these changes in moral attitude focusses in the idea of happiness. It thus co-operates with pessimism. a millennium of ease in It could satisfy from all struggle and labor. moralists have so bitterly condemned. Goodness without happiness. or ready to find the cause of troubles of others in their personal viciousness. relief an insipid tedium. in benumbing sympathetic insight and in reform. valor and virtue without satisfaction. Happiness is not. a bare possession a happiness is . in spite of the extreme nominal differences between the two. only the most delicate of molly-coddles. ends without conscious enjoyment —these Such which even if things are as intolerable practically as they are self- contradictory in conception. or labelled bliss. Happiness is found only in success but success means succeeding. Happiness has often made the object of the moralists' contempt.

it Above acclimatized in human test. and down to the and concrete. humane. idea of a fixed. That the renewal and re-creation come unconsciously not by set intention but makes them the more genuine.180 RECONSTRUCTION IN PHILOSOPHY Accordingly it process. final and supreme end. in- eludes the overcoming of obstacles. the elimination ot sources of defect and ill. tioned the current notions as to the nature of this . It opposed unearthly and other all. not a passive outcome. destined to speedy death from starvation. from re-creation of mind and purification of emotion is a weak and sickly thing. now possible. institutions are made for man and not man for institupromoted all issues of reform. Upon the whole. imagination the idea of social welfare as a supreme But it was still profoundly affected in fundamental It never questioned the It only ques- points by old ways of thinking. had definite It insisted upon getting away from vague specific generalities. any worthy happi- But the esthetic appreciation which is totally separated from renewal of spirit. it actively natural goods of worldly morality. utilitarianism has marked the It best in the transition from the is classic theory of ends and goods to that which merits. life. It made moral good natural. in touch with the tions. Esthetic sensitiveness and in enjoyment are a large constituent ness. It subordinated law to human achievement instead of subIt taught that ordinating humanity to external law.

and possessive. but because and it external results feed pleasure.MORAL RECONSTRUCTION sible 181 end. deficiencies. Since pleasure was an outcome. in making the end passive operations mere tools. and then inserted pleasure and the greatest pos- aggregate of pleasures in the position of the fixed end. Material ^oinfofF^nd ease were magnified in contrast with the pains and risk of experimental creation. The acquisitive instincts of man were worth of its exaggerated at the expense of the creative. under certain conceivable condi- might have remained merely theoretical. Such a point of view treats concrete specific interests activities and not as worth while in themselves. to (. but as mere external means to getting pleasures. poetry. religion and the state into mere servile means of attaining sensuous enjoyof the active processes ments. But the disposition of the times and the interests of those who . ' These tions. a result valuable on its own account independently it. or as constituents of happiness. made all active Labor was an unavoidable evil be minimized. sets Like every theory that up fixed final aims. that achieve happiness was a thing to be possessed and held onto. Production was of importance not because of the invention < intrinsic and reshaping the world. The upholders of the old tradition could therefore easily accuse utilitarianism of making not only virtue but art. L Security in possession was the chief thing practically.

provided only property was obtained through free competition and not by govern- mental favor. If utilitarianism did not actively promote the new it. economic. ills utilitarianism tended to cover up or The emphasis upon acquisition and posin session of enjoyments took on an untoward color connection with the contemporary enormous desire for wealth and the enjoyments it makes possible. The stress that Bentham put on se- curity tended to consecrate the legal institution of private property provided only certain legal abuses in connection with its acquisition and transfer were . new ideas in attacking old social abuses.182 KECONSTRUCTION IN PHILOSOPHY In spite of the power of the propagated the utilitarian ideas. it had no means of combating Its general spirit of subordinating productive activity to the bare product was indirectly favorable to the In spite of its cause of an unadorned commercialism. But it. endowed them with [jpower for social harm. The reforming zeal was class shown in criticism of the evils inherited evils from the system of feudalism. there were elements in the teaching which operated or protected to sanction new social abuses. the new economic order of capitalism that was its superseding feudalism brought own social evils with and some of these defend. legal and political. utilitarianism fos- tered a new class interest. interest in a thoroughly social aim. that of the capitalistic property-owning interests. economic materialism.

Up to a certain point. extraneous favors from government.MORAL RECONSTRUCTION abolished. Utilitarian ethics thus afford a remarkable example of the need of philosophic reconstruction which these lectures have been presenting. was still But it down by fundamental ideas of that very order which it thought it had completely left behind: tied The idea of a fixed and single end lying beyond the diversity of human needs and acts rendered utilitarian. and education is i J getting ready. utilitarianism gave intellectual con- firmation to all those tendencies which make " business " not a means of social service and an opportunity for personal growth in creative power but a lating the way of accumu- means of private enjoyments. it reflected the meaning of modern thought and aspirations. It has to be its reconstructed through emancipation from If a few it is inherited elements. since the latter < a continuous passage of experience from worse to Education has been traditionally thought of as better. The end is remote. words are added upon the topic of education. Thus that is. ism incapable of being an adequate representative of the modern spirit. is a preliminary to some- . | only for the sake of suggesting that the educative is all process is one with the moral process. acquiring certain things because they will later be useful. ? preparation: as learning. 183 Beati possidentes —provided possessions had been obtained in accord with the rules of the competitive game —without.

is the only end. Thus the process of The ence of adulthood education as the main business of life ends when the social de- young have arrived at emancipation from pendence. Getting from the present the degree . a preparation for some- thing coming later. unversed. he is is still in process of growth. save as a by-product. has for future use and enjoyment. We are born ignorant. Education is thought of also as something needed by some human beings merely because of their dependence upon others. These two ideas. business of childhood is to grow into the independby means of the guidance of those who have already attained it. in and consequently a state of social dependence.184 RECONSTRUCTION IN PHILOSOPHY Childhood life is life. unskilled. not the present. moral discipline are processes by which the mature. training. Always the future. immature. life in business. generally assumed but rarely ex- plicitly reasoned out. In- struction. gradually raise the helpless to the point where they can look out for themselves. If at whatever period we choose'tcTtake a person. then education not. or the continuous reconstruction of experience. thing more important to happen later on. the adult. ibeen the significant thing in education: Acquisition of knowledge and skill formation of habits required later in good citizenship and pursuit of science. only a preparation for adult and adult for janother life. contravene the conception that growing.

and kind of growth there


is in it is



a constant function, independent of age.

jThe best

thing that can be said about any special process of
education, like that of the formal school period,





subject capable of further education:

more sensitive to conditions of growth and more able to
take advantage of them. (Acquisition of


of knowledge, attainment of culture are not ends



marks of growth and means to

its continuing.


contrast usually assumed between the period

of education as one of social dependence
as one of social independence does

and of maturity





and over that man


a social animal, and then con-

the significance of this statement to the sphere in

which sociality usually seems least evident,

The heart of the
fixed limit of

sociality of



in education.


idea of education as preparation

and of adulthood as a
same obnoxious

growth are two

sides of the


If the moral business of the adult as well as


a growing and developing

experience, then

the instruction that comes from social dependencies and

interdependencies are as important for the adult as for
the child.
rest of

Moral independence

for the adult means ar-

growth, isolation means induration.



gerate the intellectual dependence of childhood so that
children are too

much kept

in leading strings,

and then

we exaggerate the independence of adult



contacts and communication with others.

macy of


the identity of the moral process with the processes of




the more conscious

formal education of childhood

be seen to be the
social advance

most economical and


means of

and reorganization, and
test of all

it will

also be evident that the
life is their effect in

the institutions; of adult

furthering continued education.

Government, business,

art, religion, all social institutions have a meaning, a


capacities of
sex, class

That purpose is to set free and to develop the human individuals without respect to race,

or economic status.


this is all one with

saying that the test of their value

the extent to which

they educate every individual into the full stature of

Democracy has many meanings, but
it is

if it

has a moral meaning,


in resolving that the


test of all political institutions



arrangements shall be the contribution they make to
the all-around growth of every


of society,




can philosophic change seriously
affect social



far as fundamentals are concerned,

every view and combination appears to have been for-

mulated already.



composed of individuals;

obvious and basic fact no philosophy, whatever

pretensions to novelty, can question or alter.
these three alternatives


Society must exist for the sake

of individuals


dr individuals must have their ends and
set for

ways of living

them by' society; or

else society

and individuals are correlative, organic, to one another,
society requiring the service

and subordination of




at the same time existing to serve them.

Beyond these three

none seems to be


Moreover, while each of the three types
subspecies and variations within



the changes seem to have been so thoroughly rung that

at most only minor variations are



Especially would


seem true that the " organic "

conception meets


the objections to the extreme indisocialistic theories, avoiding the

and extreme


Just because soindiis

errors alike of Plato and Bentham.

composed of individuals,


would seem that

viduals and the associative relations that hold them to-

gether must be of coequal importance.

Without strong

and competent individuals, the bonds and
society have nothing to lay hold on.

that form

Apart from

ciations with one another, individuals are isolated from

one another and fade and wither ; or are opposed to one

another and their conflicts injure individual development.


state, church, family, friendship, industrial

association, these

and other


and arrange-

ments are necessary in order that individuals

may grow


find their specific capacities



out their aid and support
brutish, solitary, nasty.


life is,




plunge into the heart of the matter, by asserting

that these various theories suffer from a



They are
we want


committed to the logic of general notions
be brought.

under which

specific situations are to




is this

or that group of individuals,
being, this or that special

this or that concrete


institution or social arrangement.

For such a

logic of

inquiry, the traditionally accepted logic substitutes dis-

cussion of the meaning of concepts and their dialectical
relationship to one another.


discussion goes on in

terms of the state, the individual
tions as such, society in general.

the nature of institu-

They us about the state when we state. They are not instru-' employed and tested in clarifying con- crete social difficulties. We meet is with the reply of theft.SOCIAL PHILOSOPHY ties in 189 We need guidance in dealing with particular perplexidomestic life. We want to know about it the worth of the institution of private property as operates under given conditions of definite time and place. They tell are ready-made principles to be imposed upon particulars in order to determine their nature. They are general answers supposed to have a universal meaning that covers and dominates all particulars. /-Hence they do not assist inquiry. the to definitions effect. mentalities to be They close it. will the end of and that private ownership as the expression of cal mastery of personality over physi- nature is a necessary element in such realization. in con- Both answers may have a certain suggestiveness nection with specific situations. want to know about some that But the implication is what is said about the state applies to any state that we happen to wish to know about. >But the conceptions are not proffered for what they may be worth in connection with special historic phenomena. and are met by dissertations on the Family or by assertions of the sacredness of individual Personality. or is Proudhon that property generally with that of Hegel that the realization of all institutions. i-*-"" In transferring the issue from concrete situations and conceptual deductions. espe-' .

the tendency is to throw the glamor and prestige. if not German idealism as applied in social philosophy was to provide a bulwark for the mainte- nance of the radical ideas political status quo against the tide of coming from revolutionary France. this Was apologetic tendency accidental. if we once grant logic of rigid universals under which the concrete cases . the meaning and value attached to the general notion. the intention. of The effect. Those most interested in practical social progress and the emancipation of groups from oppression have turned a cold shoulder to the organic theory. If we talk about the about state and the individual. or did it spring from something in the logic of the notions that were employed ? Surely the latter. Al- though Hegel asserted in explicit form that the end of states and institutions all. is to further the realization of the freedom of sian his effect was to consecrate the Prus- State and to enshrine bureaucratic absolutism. to supply the apparatus for intellectual justification of the established order. over the concrete situation and thereby to cover seri- up the defects of the latter and disguise the need of ous reforms. The meanings which Quite properly so are found in the gen- eral notions are injected into the particulars that come the under them. rather than this or that political or- ganization and this or that group of needy and suffering human beings.190 > RECONSTRUCTION IN PHILOSOPHY is cially of the organic theory.

why pay much attention to the fact that in this state are suffering from oppressive conditions ? their interests cannot be in conflict with those of the only superCapital and labor cannot " really " is state to ficial which they belong . Aristotle could easily employ to the state. tention is Even if the ineffect is not to justify the existing order the to divert attention from special situations. the logic of general concepts superior to individuals to show that the institution of slavery was in the interests both of the state and of the slave class. since they are already reconciled in principle and conception. the individual Since in theory and the state are reciprocally necessary a whole group of individuals In " reality " and helpful to one another. now operates to . and conflict because each is an organic necessity to the other. There cannot " really " be any sex-problem because men and women are indispensable both to one another and In his day. the tendency of the organic point of view to minimize the significance of specific conflicts. and both to the organized community as a whole. the opposition casual. is Since the individual and the state or social institution are but two sides of the same reality.SOCIAL PHILOSOPHY plained. the conflict in any particular case can be but apparent. Rational- istic logic formerly made men careless in observation of It the concrete in physical philosophy. 191 have to be subsumed in order to be understood and ex- Again.

labelled political science or sociology. concrete difficulties. citation of precedents.192 RECONSTRUCTION IN PHILOSOPHY The social philosopher. endeavor at So they are dealt with not by even an scientific method but by blind rule of thumb. dwelling in the region depress and retard observation in specific social phe- nomena. of course. evils They are not magically waived out of existence The region of because in theory society is organic. of his concepts. Meanwhile. and the matching of brute all In theory. smoothing things over. But in empirical fact they remain as perplexing. instead of helping men solve prob- lems in the concrete by supplying them hypotheses to be used and tested in projects of reform. it has therefore got on somehow —so . the particulars are neatly dis- posed of. use of coercive force and the clash of personal ambitions. they come under their appropriate heading and category. considerations of immediate advantage. upon short-sighted opportunism forces. confused and unorganized as they were before. men are thrown back upon the crudest empiricism. " solves " problems by showing the relationship of ideas. operate. they are labelled and go into an orderly pigeon-hole in a systematic filing cabinet. the concrete troubles and remain. is ur- precisely where intelligence fails to In this region of the specific and concrete. still The world : survives . where the assistance of intelligent is method for tentative plans for experimentation gently needed.

upon the belief that individuals are alone real. In what way then can individualism be said to come under the animadversions that have been passed? defect To say the was that this school overlooked those connections with other persons which are a part of the constitution of every individual is true as far as it goes . individuality.SOCIAL PHILOSOPHY much cannot he out denied. The in the. etc. philosophically speak- ing. less exists as an idle luxury rather than as a guiding method of inquiry and planning. real difficulty is that the individual is regarded Conse- as something given. law. school of England and France eighteenth and nineteenth centuries was empirical in intent. that classes and organizations are secondary and derived. lies the true impact of philosophical reconstruction. . It based its individualism. while individuals are natural. They are artificial. but unfortu- nately it rarely goes beyond the point of just that wholesale justification of institutions which has been criticized.. 'In the question of methods concerned with reconstruction of special situations rather than in any refinements in the general con-i cepts of institution. freedom. I Consider the conception of the individual individualistic self. something already there. progress. The. state. order. 193 The method But of trial and error and competition of selfishnesses has somehow wrought social theory neverthe- many improvements.

As achievements.___They are means of c reatin g indi viduals.194 RECONSTRUCTION IN PHILOSOPHY quently. But they are not means for obtaining something for individuals. And this use varies with the environ- The import of this conception comes out in consider- ing the fortunes of the idea of self-interest. anything that can be done to him or for him sions it can only be by way of external impres- and belongings: sensations of pleasure and pain. of them. securities. inventiveness. laws. When the individual is taken as some- thing given already. some- thing whose pleasures are to be magnified and possessions multiplied. institutions are made that man is agencies of made human for them. but achievements. These are not gifts. they is are not absolute but relative to the use that to be made ment. Virtue was to be atprofitable to the by making benevolent action . Now it is true that social arrangefor man. rather than ments. varied resourcefulness. was the tained sole motive of mankind. that they are means and welfare and progress. assumption of responsibility in choice of belief and conduct. All memIt bers of the empirical school emphasized this idea. he can only be something to be catered to. sense is is an Individuality in a social It and moral initia- something to be wrought out. not even happiness . Only in the physical sense of physical bodies individuality that to the senses are separate original datum. means tive. comforts.

they are the natural terms of any concrete social thinking. When the what remains? What Those who idenits concrete moving forces can be found? tified the self with something ready-made and in- terest with acquisition of pleasure and profit took the most effective means possible to reinstate the logic of abstract conceptions of law. free- dom. sovereignty. etc. Moralists of the opposite school were not backward in pointing out the evils of any theory that reduced both morals and political science to means of calculating self-interest. and interest to be is name for whatever ment. concerned in furthering its move- The same logic applies to the old dispute of whether .SOCIAL PHILOSOPHY individual . But they are damned beyond recovery when as vital terms only they are identified with the things of a petty selfishness. play of interest eliminated. Consequently they threw the whole idea of interest overboard as obnoxious to morals. The effect of this reaction was to strengthen the cause of authority and is political obscurantism. — all of those vague general ideas that for all their seeming rigidity can be manipulated by any clever politician to cover up his designs and to make the worse seem the better cause. justice. Interests are specific and dy- namic . They can be employed self is when the a seen to be in process. 195 social arrangements were to be reformed so that egoism and altruistic consideration of others would be identified.

They may add conveniences and comforts to life. When the self is regarded as something complete within itself.196 RECONSTRUCTION IN PHILOSOPHY reform should start with the individual or with institutions. active process But when it is self-hood is perceived to be an also seen that social modifications are the only means of the creation of changed personalities. social and Individuals are led economic passivity are encouraged. to concentrate in moral introspection vices upon their own and virtues. Morals withdraw from active concern with detailed economic and political conditions. The terest in individual moral improvement ^interest in objective and the social reform of economic and political conditions are identified. perfect ourselves within. Institutional changes are said to be merely external. then it is readily argued that only internal moralistic changes are of importance in general reform. foster- . •Institutions are viewed in their educative effect: —with in- /reference to the types of individuals they foster. And while saints are engaged in introspection. and to neglect the character of the Let us environment. We are led to ask what the specific stimulating. burly sinners run the world. (The result to throw the burden for social improvement upon will in its free- most impossible formj? Moreover. but is they cannot effect moral improvements. and in due season changes in society will come of themselves is the teaching. And inquiry into the meaning of social arrangements gets definite point and direction.

or its manifestation spasmodic and capricious? Since responses are of an indefinite di- versity of kind. how widely? Among a few. dwelling on the forms and is surfaces of things or it also intellectual search- ing into their meaning? well as the Such questions as these (as qualities con- more obvious ones about the ventionally labelled moral). so that becomes a power. is 197 ing and nurturing power of each specific social arrange- The old-time separation between politics its and morals abolished at root.starting-points of inquiries about every institution of the community . and Are men's senses rendered more and that form of Is curiosity delicately sen- sitive and appreciative. Just what response does this social arrangement. or in an extensive and equitable is it way ? Is the capacity which set free also directed in some coherent way. political or economic. or are they blunted and dulled social organization ? by this Are their minds trained so that the hands are more deft and cunning? quality awakened or blunted? an What is its : is it merely esthetic.SOCIAL PHILOSOPHY ment may be. become the. and what effect does it have upon the disposition of those who engage in it? Does it release capacity? If so. Consequently we cannot be satisfied with the general statement that society and the state individual. is organic to the The question is one of specific causations. these inquiries have to be detailed specific. evoke. with a corresponding depression in others.

of mental energy due to conducting discus- What sort of individuals are created? The waste is sion of social affairs in terms of conceptual generalities astonishing. discussion confined bandy- ing back and forth the concepts of organ and organism — be If for example one school thought respiration could insisting known and understood by upon the fact that is it occurs in an individual body and therefore an in- " individual " phenomenon. Not only does the solemn and organic or reiteration of categories of individual . it inquires what is done to release specific capacities and co-ordinate them into working powers. But instead of leading us to ask what it does in the way of causing pains and pleasures to individuals already in existence. created under the influences of associated Like utilitarianism. How if far would the biologist and the physician progress when the subject of respiration itself to is under consideration. while an opposite school sisted that it is simply one function in organic inter- action with others and can be therefore only known or understood in by reference to other functions taken an equally general or wholesale way? is Each proposition is equally true and equally futile. inquiries into What needed is specific a multitude of specific struc- tures and interactions. the theory subjects every form of organization to continual scrutiny and criticism.198 RECONSTRUCTION IN PHILOSOPHY it is when recognized that individuality is is not originally given but life.



whole not further these


and detailed





checks them.

It detains thought within

pompous and sonorous

generalities wherein controversy

as inevitable as

it is

incapable of solution.




enough that

if cells

were not

in vital interaction with

one another, they could neither conflict nor co-operate.

But the fact of the existence of an " organic "


group, instead of answering any questions merely marks
the fact that questions exist: Just what conflicts and

what co-operations occur, and what are

their specific

and consequences?

But because of

the persist-

ence within social philosophy of the order of ideas that

has been expelled from natural philosophy, even sociologists take conflict or co-operation as general categories

upon which

to base their science,

and condescend



pirical facts only for illustrations.


a rule, their

" problem "


a purely dialectical one, covered up

by a thick

quilt of empirical anthropological



torical citations


do individuals unite to form



are individuals socially controlled?
justly called dialectical because


the problem


from antecedent " social."



" individual "

Just as "individual"


not one thing, but



blanket term for the immense variety of specific reactions, habits, dispositions

and powers of human nature

that are evoked, and confirmed under the influences of




so with the term " social."



one word, but infinitely



It covers all the



which by associating together men share their


and build up common interests and aims;

street gangs, schools for burglary, clans, social cliques,

trades unions, joint stock corporations, villages and
international alliances.

The new method

takes effect in

substituting inquiry into these specific, changing and
relative facts (relative to

problems and purposes, not

metaphysically relative) for solemn manipulation of
general notions.

Strangely enough, the current conception of the state

a case in point.

For one

direct influence of the

classic order of fixed species

arranged in hierarchical
political philosophy in



the attempt of


the nineteenth century to enumerate a definite


of institutions, each having its


mutable meaning; to arrange them in lution " which corresponds with the dignity and rank
of the respective meanings.

and iman order of " evoessential

The National State was

placed at the top as the consummation and culmination,


also the basis of all other institutions.


a striking example of this industry, but he


far from the only one.

Many who

have bitterly quar-

with him, have only differed as to the details of the " evolution " or as to the particular meaning to be
essential Begriff


some one of the

enumerated institutions.


The quarrel has been

only because the underlying premises were the same.

Particularly have


schools of thought, varying

more widely

in respect to

method and conclusion,

agreed upon the

consummating position of the
as far as Hegel in making the

They may not go

meaning of history to be the evolution of National

Territorial States, each of which embodies
the prior the State

more than
we arrive

form of the


meaning or conception of

and consequently



at that triumph of historical evolution, the Prussian

But they do not

question the unique and su-

preme position of the State in the social hierarchy.
Indeed that conception has hardened into unquestionable

dogma under



of sovereignty.

There can be no doubt of the tremendously important

played by the modern territorial national


The formation of these
political history.

states has been the centre of

France, Great Britain, Spain

were the

peoples to attain nationalistic organiza-


in the nineteenth

century their example was


lowed by Japan,
a large

Germany and

Italy, to say nothing of

number of smaller

states, Greece, Servia, Bul-

garia, etc.

As everybody knows, one

of the most im-

portant phases of the recent world war was the struggle
to complete the nationalistic

movement, resulting

in the


of Bohemia, Poland,




and the accession of Armenia, Palestine,


the rank of candidates.

The struggle for the supremacy of the State over other forms of organization was directed against the





against the dispersion of power
well as, in


feudal lords as

ecclesiastic potentate.

some countries, against the pretensions of an The " State " represents the

conspicuous culmination of the great movement of social
integration and consolidation taking place in the last

few centuries, tremendously accelerated by the concentrating and combining forces of steam ad electricity.

Naturally, inevitably, the students of political science

have been preoccupied with


great historic phe-

nomenon, and their intellectual
rected to


have been


systematic formulation.

Because the con-

temporary progressive movement was to establish the
unified state against the inertia of

minor social units

and against the ambitions of
theory developed the

rivals for power, political


of the sovereignty of the

national state, internally and externally.


the work of integration and consolidation reaches

climax, the question arises, however, whether the nais

tional state, once it

firmly established

and no longer

struggling against strong foes,

not just an instru-

mentality for promoting and protecting other and more

voluntary forms of association, rather than a supreme

industrial corporations. for the cultivation of every conceivable interest that they develop in to men have in common. What upon multiplying one side looks like a movement toward in- dividualism. As number and importance. Compul- sory associations have been replaced by voluntary ones rigid organizations by those more amenable to human choice and purposes —more and directly changeable at will. Its venting and settling conflicts. more inclusive and more unified organization of the state has gone the emancipation of individuals from restrictions and servitudes previ- ously imposed dividuals freed by custom and class status. bine d in n ew associations and organizations. trade unions. the state tends become more and more a regulator and adjuster defining the limits of their actions. development of the larger. clubs and societies without number. schools. " supremacy " approximates that of the conductor of an orchestra. churches. scientific and artistic organizations. The . But the in- from external and coercive bonds have not Social molecules have at once recom- remained isolated. who makes no music himself but who harmonizes the it activities of those who in producing are doing the thing intrinsically worth while.SOCIAL PHILOSOPHY end in in itself. pre- among them. 203 Two actual phenomena may be pointed to Along with the support of an affirmative answer. turns out to be really a all movement toward of associations: kinds varieties Political parties.

^nd_what h ave well be en called Jjanajtational The weal and woe that of others. that men share have become They occupy the place which traditional theory has claimed either for mere isolated individuals or for the supreme organization. nominally is it in all any modern community the end for the the other societies sake of which exist. / The other concrete fact is the opposition between the jplaim of independent sovereignty in behalf of the terri- torial national state and the growth of state is int ernational interests. artistic and scientific advances. . false principles on its the part of any state are not confined within daries. into a It cannot be degraded means to glorify the State. One reason that it for the increased demoralization of war is forces the State into an abnormally supreme position. and organizations Groupings for promoting the diversity of goods the real social units. of any modern bound lip with boun- Weakness.204 state RECONSTRUCTION IN PHILOSOPHY remains highly important —but its importance consists more and more in its power to foster and coOnly ordinate the activities of voluntary groupings. Every [combination of human forces that adds its own its con- tribution of value to life has for that reason own iunique and ultimate worth. is They spread and infect other states. and single political Pluralism is well ordained in present political practice and demands a modification of hierarchical and monistic theory. The same true of economic. disorder.

particular. It is the vogue of this doctrine. 205 of do Associations of mathematicians. But too . And these are literally indefinite in number. or dogma. are as Hence there many associations as there are goods which are enhanced by being mutually communicated and participated in. objective. is -^Society^as was said. that presents the strongest barrier to the effective for- mation of an international mind which alone agrees with the moving forces of present-day labor. many associations not a single . not a sentimental ideal but a force. In such ways as these. organization. business corporations. like Plato. art and religion. Moralists have always inis sisted upon the fact that good universal. churches are trans-national because the interests they represent are worldwide. just private. not often. capacity to endure publicity and communication is the test is by which it is decided whether a pretended good genuine or spurious. labor organizations. Society means association coming to- gether in joint intercourse and action for the better realization of any form of experience which is aug- mented and confirmed by being shared. these interests are cut across Yet and thrown out of gear by the traditional doctrine of exclusive national sovereignty. internationalism is not an aspiration but a fact. astronomers .SOCIAL PHILOSOPHY Moreover the voluntary associations just spoken not coincide with political boundaries. Indeed. commerce. chemists. ' science.

It is the modern sense of humanity and democracy. But the counterpart this is proposition is that the situation in which a good is [consciously realized lor private appetites not one of transient sensations but one of sharing and communi- cation J — public. even misery loves company. and the selfishness includes a most extreme or band of followers attained some partner to share in the good. which with- out this factor degenerate into moral condescension and moral interference.VTt follows that organization itself. Universalization means socialization. the extension of the area and range of those who share in a good. joint participation are the only actual ways of universalizing the moral law and end. Even the hermit communes with gods or spirits. they have been content with a metaphysical universality or. sharing. social. * "i The increasing acknowledgment that goods the means of conjoint sharing exist and endure only through being communicated and that association is lies back of the |. with a logical universality. saving salt in altruism and philanthropy. taking the form of trying to regulate the affairs of others under the guise of doing them if it is good or of conferring upon them some right as never an end in It were a gift of charity. sisted at the last We of in- hour upon the unique character of ievery intrinsic good. is a means of promoting asso- . like Communi- cation.206 RECONSTRUCTION IN PHILOSOPHY Kant.

he remains dumb.SOCIAL PHILOSOPHY 207 elation.' it is not employed to facilitate and enrich the tacts of human beings with one another. signifies an active process. values and made'.! emotions. ready change when modification It is required. rights and dutiesJ strife The long-time controversy between law and freedom is another version of the between the Individual and Society as fixed concepts. both the individual* to. common) To this active process. directing their intercourse into the modes of greatest f ruitfulness. and the institutionally organized may truly be said be subordinate. institutionalized when-) con-. Only in association with fellows does'. sentient. of multiplying effective points of contact be- tween persons. process of associating in such ideas. Organiza- which is what traditional theory has generally Statejj'is also meant by the term(Society or because ever it subordinate becomes static. that of release of . tion. The individual is subordinate because^ except in and through communication of experience from and to others. Freedom j for an individual means growth. he become a conscious centre of experience. merely a brute animal. The tendency to treat organization is as an end in itself responsible for all the exaggerated theories in which individuals are subordinated to some institution to Society is which is given the noble name of are society. rigid. the '. ways that transmitted experiences.

stable against accident only when all its members can function to the limit of their capacity. it is absurd to suppose that freedom has positive significance for individuality but negative social interests. forceful.208 RECONSTRUCTION IN PHILOSOPHY it in. If British liberal social philosophy tended. capacity from whatever hems But since society can develop only as new resources are put at its disposal. But is socially as well as scientifically the great thing not to avoid mistakes but to have them take place under conditions such that they can be utilized to increase intelligence in the future. Such functioning cannot be achieved without allowing a leeway of experimentation beyond the limits of established and sanctioned ir- custom. the remedy not to be found in recourse to a philosophy of fixed obligations and authoritative law such as characterized German political thinking. A certain amount of overt confusion and regularity is likely to accompany the granting of the find margin of liberty without which capacity cannot itself. dangerous because of its implicit menace to the groups. as events have demonstrated. true to the spirit of its atomistic empiricism. free self-determination of other social But In it is also weak internally when put to the to the free experimentation in determining its hostility and power of choice of the individual . is The latter. to make freedom and is the exercise of rights ends in themselves. final test. meaning for Society is strong.

governments. or to the less life. Personality must be educated. things for the sake of which men and and so on. the aims and policies of the social groups to which he' belongs. in proportion to capacity. capacities foresight. political democracy with democ- racy which ever. its and personality cannot be educated by confining important relationships of is operations to technical and specialized things. industrial companies. it limits the capacity of 209 many or most individuals to share effectively in social operations. women form groups The The — families. It This fact fixes the significance of democracy. principle holds as scientific associations much of one form of association. of collective efficiency indi- and power vidual and use of the diversity of planning. vigor and endurance. Full education! comes only when there a responsible share on the part) of each person. cannot be conceived as a sectarian or racial thing nor as a consecration of some form of government which It is has already attained constitutional sanction. based responsible for most of its failures is. churches. and thereby deprives society of the its full contribution of all members.SOCIAL PHILOSOPHY social affairs. as identification of is does in government. but a name for the fact that human nature is developed only when its elements take part in directing things which are common. howthe upon the traditional ideas which make . in shaping. is The best guarantee liberation in initiative. it say in industry and commerce.

but will be a spontaneous way of envisaging life. the new ideas find adequate expression in social they will be absorbed into a moral background. color the imagination fections. will The religious spirit be revivified because it will be in harmony with men's unquestioned scientific beliefs and their ordinary day- by-day social activities. while they are fort. less conscious ef- by deliberate by taking thought. ready-made entities in them- As life.210 RECONSTRUCTION IN PHILOSOPHY and the state individual selves. They are technical and abstract just because they are not as yet carried as matter of course feelings. It will not be obliged to lead a life timid. half-concealed and half-apologetic and because tied to scientific ideas social creeds that are con- tinuously eaten into and broken down. and belief sV themselves willthe ideas and be deepened and be unconsciously transmitted and sustained. by imagination and European philosophy scientific We began by pointing out that arose when intellectual methods and results . now maintained by more or reflection. They and will and temper the desires af- They will not form a set of ideas to be ex- pounded. Then they will take on religious value. will the ideas But especially and beliefs themselves be deepened and intensified because spontaneously fed by emotion and translated into imaginative vision and fine art. reasoned out and argumentatively supported.

the ideas of mechwill lie like anism and matter a dead weight upon the emotions. a stranger to the daily occupations of making a living. scientific meagre sisting standpoint with the obstinately perbeliefs. free movement and infinitely diversified opportunity have been suggested by until they have displaced modern science. will life be at one with making a that is worth living. the mystic force one might say. art will not be a luxury. . organization and established something that cannot be avoided practically and yet something that is a threat to conservation of the most precious values of the past. body of warm and abounding imaginative Conceptions of possibility.SOCIAL PHILOSOPHY moved away from fancy. But from imagination the heritage of the immutable and the oncefor-all ordered and systematized. when the liberating of human capacity operates as a socially creative force. of the miracle of shared life and shared experience ness in is spontaneously felt. progress. Making a living economically speaking. And when the emotional force. the hard- and crudeness of contemporary life will be bathed the light that never was on land or sea. the liberation of capacity When no longer seems a menace to institutions. paralyzing religion and distorting art. since social traditions 211 which had consoli- dated and embodied the fruits of spontaneous desire and It was pointed out that philosophy had ever thin and had the problem of adjusting the dry. of communication.

science and emotion will interpenetrate. When philoso- phy shall have co-operated with the course of events and made clear and coherent the meaning of the daily detail. | We are weak is today in ideal matters because intelligence divorced from aspiration. but by substituting faith in the active tendencies of the for dread and dislike of them. but our deeper f thoughts and desires turn backwards. Not day indeed by action directly aimed at their production. practice and . where it listeth and the kingdom of God in such things But while it is imdoes not come with observation. art. The bare force of circumstance compels us onwards in the daily detail of our beliefs and acts. religion are precious things. contact. They are an out-flowering of thought and desires that unconsciously converge into a disposition of imagination as a result of thousands and thousands of daily episodes and They cannot be willed into existence or The wind of the spirit bloweth coerced into being. possible to retain and recover by deliberate volition old it sources of religion and art that have been discredited. is possible to expedite the development of the vital sources of a religion and art that are yet to be. and by the courage of intelligence to follow whither social and scientific changes direct us.212 RECONSTRUCTION IN PHILOSOPHY They can- Poetry. industry and politics has destroyed. not be maintained by lingering in the past and futilely wishing to restore what the movement of events in science.

Poetry and religious feeling life.SOCIAL PHILOSOPHY imagination will will 213 embrace. . be the unforced flowers of To further this articulation and revelation of the meanings of the curis rent course of events the task and problem of philoso- phy in days of transition.




Bacon's charge against. St. 41. material. 212 Artisan. 110 on slavery. Bliss. 47. 20 Abstractions. 107 Beliefs and facts. 41. Plato and Aristotle on. 41 his day. on philosophy as contemplation. kind of. 184 Christian mediaeval philosophy. 97- Kant " knowledge is power. 149-150. 50 Biology. ultimate reality. 17. 15. 132 Aristotle. 13. 112 Animals. 29-30. See also Final good Bacon. perfect. 97. knowledge. 43 Capital and labour. 182 Castes. 19 Christian theology. ancient idea of. 63 Causes. 81. 19. 116 Chemistry. 142 Aquinas. 36 distinction in ends. 55. Ill Authority. 23. 61. 27 Absolutism. 75 Child life. 34. 190. 80 Adult life. 60 Certainty. 191 Capitalism. 97. 71 Berkeley. Bosanquet. 113. 107. 66 Business. experience. 91 dramatisation in primitive life of man. 84 98 29. 99 Abstract definition. 59. 106 Art. 152. seat of. 111 Church. 182.. law of the universe. 57. 166 Causation. 69 Casuistry." of ideas. 75 Athenians. summary Amoeba. 79. 30-31. 205 . 191. 59 203 Astronomers. voluntary. 12 Bentham. 185. 33 Apprehension. 174 Absurdities. 111 Being and non-being. 43. 10 Achievements. 171. 28. 21 Capital. 21. 194 Action. 107. progress and. 45 Classes. 4 Antiquity. 166. 155. 111. Bishop. 109. 65. 48. 183 Butler. 211. 188 Bergson. 19 Augustine. 139. 55. 13. universal. 91-92. 80. 44. 106 Argumentation. 105 on change. 75. 195. 75. 22 Change. . forms. theory of the state. Francis.. existing view. 107 Bruno. 113 Astronomy.INDEX Absolute reality. 161. in ancient conception of world. 103. 31. 134 Bradley. experience. 110 Associations. final. 29 Being. 160. 17. and. criticism of the learning of the the 217 . 186 America.

life and. moral. 152. 169 Common sense. 32. 77 Crusades. 40. reconstruction in. of the state. 127 Dante. 55. 161 Discord. 13 Criteria. 210 Empirical and rational. 117. 17. 200-201 Existence. world Dualism. logic of. 103. in morals. 87 Empiricists. 175 English empiricism. 104 Details. 18. 82 Ends. moral. 163 Conflict. 33. 145. means and. 156 Concrete cases. 35 Esthetic and practical. 184 conception of philosophy. 81 Conduct. 81. social cause of intellectual revolution in 16th and 17th centuries. 177 Evolution. 32 Descartes. 103.. 115-116. discovery vs. 201. 55.218 Classic INDEX Development. 142 Direction. investigating. values. Auguste. 64 Co-operation in research. 7273. 174 Distance. 188 Concreteness. 140. 173 Duties and rights. 8. problem of. 150 Condillac. 100 Communication at a distance. 9 Cosmology. 20. 55 Darwin. 125. 176 Disagreeable. 37 Cosmogonies and cosmologies. of facts. 31. 31. 126 Errors. consolidation. 148 Delusions. 66 Ethical theory. 38-39 Evil. 9 Custom. 123. 109. 206. 12. 161. 17. 66 Estheticism. 138. 207 of. significance. 46 Consequences. 39. 42. 172-173. 66 Economic ends. ancient conception. 70. 45 Control. 105 Classification. nationalistic movement. 108. 209 Efficient cause. 9 Dogma. 166 Conscience. 80. relation to universe. 22. 78. science and. 66. 60 Emotion. 39 Cults. 139. 171-172 Education. 166. 24. 33. 118-119. 58. 59. 120. 49. 70. fixed. 120 Doctrines. 209 Demonstration. Aristotle's use of term. 58 Diagnosis. intrinsic and instrumental. 145. 75 Deduction. frustration. two realms. 119. 61 Contemplation. contacts of 16th and 17th centuries.. 10. right course. 84 Epistemology. 22 Desires. 110. 180. 10 Conceptions. reconciling. 21. of ends. 103 Discipline. 141 111. conflicting. 47. 139 Ether. in social philosophy. 161. 108 Discovery. 170. 57. 161 186. 70. 75 Craftsmen. 100 Constant. 74. 159 Dreams. 120 Comte. Democracy. 81. 163-164 Conservatism. truth. 118. 111 Contract theory of the state. 8. 144. consolidation. . 50 Europe. 183. in Aristotle. 104. demonstration vs. 99 Environment. 7 Earth.

Greek. 13 Experimentation. 59. 139 of philosophy. 161. 59. 59. of the universe in ancient conception. 56. 31. 88. 15 Final cause. 128 Humanism and naturalism. 19. 10. Humanity. 99 Germans. 200. existence of a single good questioned. 134 Helvetius. 140. 158 Family principle. 60 Aristotle. 45. 40 Feudalism. order. law and.INDEX Experience. 188 Generalities. 48. 206 43 "real" and Formal cause. 60. 207. 81 Hierarchical order. 75 German political philosophy. 25 Hobbes. 126 conception. 105 "ideal. 48 Hysteria. 93 Facing facts. 19. in morals. religion. world at large. 109 Golden Age. docility. 126 Finite. 162 Fine arts. Plato. 9. Forms of Free will. See Final good Goodness. 43. 188 Fixed ends. 50. Human life. 42. 166. principles and. 103. 200. conception of the state. 86. 56 Hegel. 57. 89 Hypotheses. 177 in the Fancy. new conception. moral. science and arts. 189. ethical theory. 92. 13. 143 Facts. 168 Growth. 174 196 Freedom. evil result of unimaginative of. social affairs and. combined doing and suffering. 71 Human aims. 39. 189. 22. 167. system. 201 logic. 179 Greeks. 201 History of philosophy. 61-62 Fighting. 77 classic notion and modern. 48. 165 Flux. 98-99 94-95. 98 Falsity. 141. Experimental method. 184. . 161-162. 106. 145 ligious. 11. 40 Germany. 83. 78 basis of old notion of. Hegel's History. 177 Heavens. 67. 81. 66. 61-62 Fanaticism. 86 Happiness. 83. 151 Geology. of knowledge. 68 Final good. 183. Future aim changed conceptions. 79. 26 Ideal. 79 changed conceptions. 48 Good. as a guide in science and moral life. conception 100-101. 179 Healthy living. 190. modern appeal to. 161 in social philosophy. 19 God. 42 Exploration. true " stuff " of. re- Hume. 32. 46 Future. ancient conception. 126." a live issue. See Imagination Fear. 10. 108 Homo faber. 172 Hindoos. 174. 107 Finite and infinite. 59 "Higher" ends. 91 219 General notions. 66 Fire. 198 Generalisations. 105. 10. self -regulative. 208-209 German rationalism.

concept as something given. 106 Ideas of Plato. reshaping power. 118 Idealism. 185 India. Bacon's three kinds. one with reality. 113. 51 61. 9 Judgment. 132. 38 Judea. 166 Irresponsibility. 36. theological. philosophic empiricism. apparatus. 117 Knowledge is power. philosophic conception. 50. empirical as organ of imagination. 196 Invention. 35. 133. 194. 147 Ipse dixit method. 176. 39 Locke. 147. as inquiry tive. 67 Initiative 46. 111. 4)9. standards. 89. See also Final Law. 117 Intelligence. 194-195 International interests. 169. movements. 74. 50. 41 Individual. 163-164. 129 . 97 James. 112. 45. 206. 98-99 Kinship. 193. 89. religious consequences. 36. 108. 20 Instability. classic and modern conceptions contrasted. 197 Instrumental ends. 51. 96 Interest. definition. 170 Insincerity. 196. 206 Introspection. 62 Knowledge. 38. 46. . state and. 140 Intellectualism. 51. 190. positive vs. impartial. 46. philosophy and. 21. in social and moral sense. tradition. tragic kind. methods in moral ills. 128 Ideal realm. 29 Licentiousness. character. 122. political. a science and an art. 42. environment and. 38. 35. religious. 171 Intellect. 82 Logic. 146. 49. 134. 47. 112. INDEX into problem of relation to the 130." 29. 191 Individualism. 211. 205 Intrinsic good.220 real. 34 Industrial revolution and scientific revolution. science and. free. 174. 107 Institutions. 50. 167. sensations and. social. 122 Investigation. 73. epistemological. 175 83. spectator conception. practical and operative. 199. 204. posi- Kant. good Learning. 88. Pragmatism. 36 Ills. 121. degrees. empirical knowledge and. 39. 106 Independence. 152. 115. 135. 64. 209 Innate ideas. true startingpoints of inquiry about. freedom and. conception as beholding. 74. 110. 105 Idols. a human issue. 20. modern view of right way to get it. 46 Induction. his philosophy and German character. 41. 51. 45. 129-130 Ideality. 81. " 16. moral. social and. 73. reason and. 163 Life. 84-85 Literary culture. 66. real and. 42. 98. importance. 82 Inquiry. 21. and moral. 98. 177178 Imagination. 103. 41 Industry. 42 Infinite. 12. William. 170. 87. 207. SO. existing practice. 6 Intellectual somnambulism. 211.

5. primitive. J. 126 Methods.. 137. 8. 107 Noumenal Nous. Greeks and. 18. 47. web imposed on. 67 Mechanism. 67. 163. of discovery vs. 85. 71-72. 36 reality. 124. 133 Logical system. Moral See mankind. 19. 69. 32. 202-203. 32 64. 206-207 Oriental nations. end or instrument. Obliviscence of the disagreeable. 73. 33. 47. 125 Mistakes. 49. 25 See also Thought Pantheon. 201 Nationalistic movement. 103 Observation. Greek. 169 Moral life. standard of judgment. 49. 165 science. emotional character. 132 Mind. 86 Organisation. 1. 134. 126. 28. 138. in morals and politics. 178 Phariseeism. true. 6. 127 Origin of philosophies. 97 Neo-Platonism. 52. 132 Military art. 17. 209 Persuasion. 2. Bacon as founder. 71 Naturalism and humanism. r61e of the modern. 72. that oft argumentation. 49. 24. 48. individual and group. 69. SO. 37. 15 Mill. 169. 177 Personality. 174 Nature. 111 New World. 72-73 Mechanics.INDEX 138. pure. 39 Non-being. 193. 31 Pessimism. social philosophy. chaotic state. 105 Past. 189. of discovery. 178 Memory. S. 182 Mathematics. inconsistencies. 49 under Science Morality. 111 Miracles. See under Science Making a living. 4. pragmatic rule. 211 Man. 36. 71-72 Mediaeval Christianity. 23 Middle Ages. 9 Lotze. in man's atti- Means and ends. loss of poetry when considered as mechanism. 106 Materialism. primitive. 31. value 115. 126 Meliorism. 70. 134 221 Morals. 212 Perfectibility of Mohammedans. 17. savage and civilized. 35-36 Neglect. 39 Moral ends. 197 National state. theory. 50. 53-64 inquiry into. 201 Natural Science. 178 Opportunity. 176 . pro- found change tude to. 187 Organisms. of mechanisation. 211 conceptions. 5. 171. 175 Modern thought. 211 Organic society. 149. 149 Matter. early. 211 Mechanisation of nature. politics and. 200. new. 176 Perfection. perfectibility. tool-maker. 103. contrast of ancient and modern Marcus Aurelius. 3 Metaphysics. 140 Optimism.

Aristotle's use of term. classic conception. future aim and scope. 25. social philosophy and. 100 Rank. in moral conceptions. practical nature. 174. 122. move- ments. 66 essential. 204 Poetry. 42. 46 Religious spirit. 111. a human issue. value of a solution of the dilemma ofi reason and experience. specific present problem. 125 Proof. 14. changed conceptions. ultimate reality. 8. phenomenal. history. 81. 51. 48 Probability. 78 Questioning. 38 Pretensions. 75 Plato. 24. 47 Religious freedom. 197. 5. 210 Renaissance. See also In- Radicalism. proper province. starting179. co-operative. 29 Research. ideal realm. 53. 82 43. 130 Reality. 105. 106 Pluralism. 18. 121. 46 Proudhon. 188. INDEX 23 Pure reason. changed conceptions. 19. 97. 123. 102 Real. 168 Physics. 180. 27. 107. 83. 103. 125. 88 Religion. 124 work. one with ideality. 32. Philosophy. 49. hard and fast alternatives of English and German schools. 105. 101 Re-creation. 98 Rationalists. 51. 18 Physician. 77 92. malicious. 181 Plotinus. 88. 111 Reason. ideal and. 20 Property. 21 Primitive man. 84. 24. 97. 106 Pleasure. 135. 180 Reform. 103. 63 Rationalism. 196 Relativity of sensations. rigidity. nomenal vs. ultimate.222 Phenomenal reality. 190. 17. 161. 43 Political organisation. 42. ultimate. 187. as re-adjusting intelligence. 87. morals and. 89 Rationalisation. 60 Rights and duties. quiry 17. 163. 48. 99-100. 189 Protestantism. contrast. economic and moral. criteria of experience. 31 Potentiality. 13. Pragmatism. 207 . emancipation. 95. 83. on change. 44 Politics. as a faculty separate from experience. 211: Bacon and. 96. 106. 94. change In. 19. 212 Political changes. 28. problem of relation to the ideal. historical factors. 7. scientific factor. 205. movements. experience. 23. origin. 128. 212. 32 Reconstruction 52. 18. social arts. 189 Prussian State. 47 Possession of knowledge. Reasoning. 4 Principles. 182. 201 Psychology. 21 Production. 25. 58 Practical and esthetic. point. 103. 15. 34. 211. 26. of philosophy. 23. 57. ideas. dramatic sense. 181 Progress. function. 79. 163 Revolution of thought. 116. 37 Responsibility. opportunities.

53 Self-delusion.. 120 Telephone. Space. positive knowledge vs. separation of natural and moral. 140 Self-interest. 187. socalled. 88 Senses. 165 Sailors. 145. 118-119. 124 Socrates. 190. Aristotle's theory. 156-157. 140 Truth. habits. old and new. 23. 44. 117. 6. 140 Things as they are. 203 Subject and ruler. place. advance in. modern. 42. relativity. pragmatic conception.INDEX Rome. 37 estheticism and. defining. 159-160. 64 Success. defect of usual theories about. 187-188. 156 144. 21 Theories. 17 Soldiers. George. industry and. 180 Sociality. 14. importance. open world of. reconstructive impact. 204 Social welfare. 115 Thinking. relation to experience. instrumental nature. 145 Tolerance. 44. difficulties. 191. as points of readjustment. origin. 145-146. 12. 134. 42. 30 Science. on Locke. 64-65. 157. test of. 188. St. 106 Standards. 89. 46 Tradition. 159. 64 Rules of conduct. good and bad thinking. in nature. 73 Shakespeare. reconstruction. logical conception. 193 Social unit. its origin in kinds. 44. 41. 39. validity. 194-195 Sensations. 96. 84. 175 State. 139 Sophists. 30 Scientific revolution. 38. 182. logic and. Theory and practice. 14. 33. 157 Savage.3. See Final Supernaturalism. picture of universe. three views. 158 Slavery. individual and. •15. su- H Salvation. 157. 176 Scholasticism. 9 Ruler and subject. 75. 138-139. as utility. in nature. traditional. 16 Transitoriousness. 61 origin. contract theory. 98. 191 Social belief. also See Thought Thomas. 120 Terminology. 136. why the modern conception is offensive. 74. systems. 44. 138. 95. 13. 179 Suggestions. 26 Social development. 120 Spinoza. 34. 202. 53. See also Ills Social philosophy. 47 System. 48 . co-operative pursuit. 84. 7 Summum good Conum. current conception. 94 premacy. 155. 14. . 99 Telegraph. 112 Santayana. 82 Satisfaction. 156. human value. 43 Social evils. Thought. 14 Society. 185 200. 135. 173. 87 Sentimentalism. 166. individuals and. 205. 200. reconciling. nature of. natural. 40 Trouble. real. 36. 106 Travel. 204. See Aquinas. 85. 3. 17. 127. philosophy and. 223 44.

40. 129. 11 Work. 128 Wealth. 157 and "ideal" in. " real Universal. nationalistic phase. 23 . 54. 21 phenomenal. 180. 15 Verification. 183 Utility. nomenal and Vision. 64 Universe. 164 Wind. 181 Workingmen. 181 merit. 204 War. need of reconstruction. 108 INDEX War. 42. 114. 156 Virtues. 201 . 125 Valves. closed conception.224 Unity. modern conception as material for change. world. 60-61. lesson. 54 defects. 139 World. closed and open conceptions. Utilitarianism.