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Agalactia occurs worldwide affecting sows and gilt. It is the failure of the sow to produce milk, however the sow is not ill.Its effects are no milk after farrowing, neonatal deaths.
Causes of Agalactia
Agalactia is the Failure of the sow to produce milk. Failure may be on the maternal side (production or let down) or on the side of the piglet (failure to suck). Agalactia can follow the blockage of teats for congenital reasons and may be associated with blind teats, inverted nipples, teats or absence of the total absence of mammary tissue. Scarring and non-function of the teats teats necrosis may follow when a piglet damages the teats or it may be damaged as an adult. Transient agalactia may occur after farrowing, particularly if pigs are born prematurely. Agalactia may result from water deprivation, particularly if drinkers do not deliver at a sufficient rate, are blocked, if water is unpalatable or in hot weather. Milk products may be suboptimal in thin or underfed sows. Infection is a major cause of agalactia and may occur in one or more mammary glands without causing obvious illness in the sow. Infection of the uterus (metritis) is also a common cause of agalactia. Milk let-down may not occur when the young gilt is frightened by her litter or when she is disturbed for other reasons. Agalactia develops rapidly if piglets are unable to suck and unsucked individual glands dry up rapidly.
Effects of Agalactia
The most consistent sign of oblivious and agalactia in pigs is the effect on the litter. Sucking piglets require milk on an hourly basis, and if it is not available, the piglets are restless, continue to nurse, and may grunt and squeak in dissatisfaction instead of leaving the sow and lying down in the creep area. If agalactia continues, the piglets start to lose condition and their hair coat may become erect. Weaker individuals develop hypoglycaemia, convulsions, go into a coma and die. Behavior of the litter draws attention to the sow. Sows with agalactia may be normal or inappetent, reluctant to rise and may have fever or abnormal vulval discharge. The udder may be swollen where mastitis, milk let down or failure to suck are the cause of agalactia and after farrowing in blocked glands with teats. Backpressure acts soon to reduce secretion and the swelling subsides soon. The
but the development of agalactia associated with premature farrowing require consultation of the records. Inspection of the teats should reveal physical factors such as necrosis and blind teats teats. Milk quantity and quality can only be studied following oxytocin injection as milk let down is under voluntary control. Closer examination of the sow and the presence of an overstocked udder suggests the presence of mastitis or agalactia due to inadequate milk let down. Expressed milk may be abnormal in appearance or present in small amounts. Failure of milk production can be determined by udder examination. Diagnosis of Agalactia Inappetence and depression in recently farrowed sows may draw attention to the presence of agalactia. Sow condition is obvious from clinical examination. injection of oxytocin to release retained milk is the first step. Where mastitis or milk let down is a problem. some kind of teat abnormality. Where is responsible for mastitis or metritis agalactia. Abnormalities of the teats may be visible. water deprivation or long term reduction in sucking. but the quantity available is more difficult to estimate. The presence of mastitis can be confirmed by laboratory means such as cell counts and bacteriology. Observation and a subjective assessment may be the only way to determining whether gilt behaviour is preventing let down or piglet approach. Young piglets should receive colostrum for their first feed and may need to be fed by stomach tube.udder is not swollen where there is immaturity of the gland. Water must be . water drinkers should be provided in piglet and sow freshly prepared milk substitute should be provided. If this treatment does not provide adequate milk for the piglets. but the most immediate indicator is the behaviour and state of the litter. Examination of the litter will confirm the presence of disease which would prevent sucking. Treatment & Control of Agalactia Treatment of agalactia centres on making milk available to the piglet as soon as possible. The most important cause of this is poor water supply and the capacity of the drinkers to deliver adequate water should be checked. or if let down is not the primary problem. an antimicrobial may be given by injection along with the oxytocin.
Where correction of agalactia is not possible. hungry piglets. Metritis. always be demonstrated in the plasma of affected animals. Agalactia may be prevented by careful examination of the udder of sows prior to service for userserviceable teats. These represent the effector mechanism. reducing udder damage using soft floorings or by clipping piglets' teeth. high nutrition density rations. proper feeding in pregnancy and lactation. MMA (Mastitis. The effects of MMA are that within 48 hrs of farrowing . agalactia) occurs worldwide in gilts and sows after farrowing. hard udder. Hormonal causes have also been suggested. however. oestrogen and progesterone and changes in their levels have been demonstrated in pigs with agalactia. coli).made freely available. piglets should be fostered or reared artificially. Bacteria in the gut or in endometritis may be the source of endotoxin in these cases. Prolactin levels may be dramatically reduced by small volumes of endotoxin and the inhibition of prostaglandin F2 alpha production in the uterus (possible by infection) may reduce prolactin secretion. Adequate nutritional feeding will correct under production of affected sows. overfeeding and poor hygiene all appear to predispose to the condition. the provision whether adequate water supplies. neither can bacteria or mastitis always be identified in the mammary glands. Agalactia) Generally caused by bacterial invasion of the udder and subsequent production of endotoxins (the cell wall lipopolysaccharide produced by bacteria like E. Levels of a number of hormones may be depressed following parturition. clean housing with adequate drainage to reduce infection. metritis. Metritis. Levels of oxytocin are often half those in normal sows. . cortisone and prolactin. The importance of water intake and stress or disturbance during parturition is not yet clear. prompt treatment of mastitis and other diseases and encouragement of milk let down by tranquilising frightened screams. but the initiating factors have not been identified. Hormones involved in lactation include insulin. Causes of MMA (Mastitis. fever. Management and nutrition appear to be important in the aetiology and low exercise. Endotoxin cannot.inappetence. oxytocin. Agalactia) MMA (mastitis.
restlessness when being suckled and loss of condition in the litter. The presence of bacterial mastitis may be confirmed by the examination of milk samples. Collection requires oxytocin injection as milk let down is under voluntary control. Metritis.three days of parturition. Agalactia) Diagnosis is based on clinical signs. In some cases mycotoxins such as trichoethecenes may be involved Pathological investigation is of little value. if mastitis is present. The condition may be preceded by delays in parturition (>5 hours) and may vary in its intensity.Effects of MMA (Mastitis. The disease lasts for a minimum of 3 days and then resolves spontaneously. The udder should be palpated (felt) on both sides by running the hand under both lines of glands. In mild cases of hypogalactia unaccompanied by mastitis or other elements of the complex. Inappetence is commonly the first sign to be noted followed by depression. normal 125g/day) may be the only indication of the problem. erysipelas).g. A history of difficulty in farrowing. particularly inappetence in the sow and a reduction of condition in the litter. will establish this. may indicate retention of a foetus or placentae. Neither mastitis nor metritis is a constant finding. depressed daily live weight gain in piglets (<105 g/day. small litters or incomplete cleansing. Metritis. Metritis. By this time the litter may have been lost. Diagnosis of MMA (Mastitis. Agalactia) . The microscopic structure of glands of affected pigs often resemble those of sows at 110 days' gestation. Where mastitis occurs. Individual affected glands feel firm and hot. Treatment & Control of MMA (Mastitis. if within 24 hours of parturition. Examination per vagina.5-41°C. only a single gland is mastitic. The litter should be examined as diarrhoea septicaemia or hypothermia may lead to decreased intake of milk and overstocking of the udder. In many cases. it appears to be patchy within a gland. Oedema of the subcutaneous tissue and inflammatory changes in the draining lymph nodes occur where mastitis is present. 39. Affected sows may have a slight fever. Vulval discharge and constipation are frequently associated with this condition but neither may be present. Fever may indicate the presence of another disease (e. Agalactia) The syndrome usually occurs within 12 hours .
gestation and use of vegetable protein reduced the incidence of hypogalactia. Feed medication with trimethoprim: sulphonamide at 15 mg/kg body weight or tetracyclines from day 112 of gestation to day 1 post partum.Affected sows can be given frequent small doses of oxytocin. Decreases in agalactia may occur in sows which farrow early as a result of prostaglandin use. Anti-inflammatory drugs such as flunixin meglumine or corticosteroid may improve recovery. be left with their mother and fed artificially until the sow recovers. Antimicrobial infections are advisable when mastitis. reduces the incidence of the disease markedly. . Piglets should receive sow colostrum by stomach tube or by sucking another sow. The use of oxytocin in early cases may reduce the need for veterinary involvement.4°C 12-18 hours post farrowing. Ampicillin. but this is not necessary if they are being suckled regularly. Reduction of feed intake to 1 kg/day from 100 days. Adequate water should be available to sows at all times. and exercise of the sows prior to farrowing and during the early stage of lactation may reduce MMA. trimethoprim sulphonamide or enrofloxacin may be given. Hygiene. Long acting tetracycline injections given 1 day before farrowing may be beneficial. tetracyclines. metritis or fever are present. Treatment should begin when sow body temperature is 39.
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