(Verbal and Non Verbal Communication)



This is to certify that the Project work of BUSINESS COMMUNICATION submitted to the College by the candidate


bearing Reg. No:


is the product of bonafide research

carried out by the candidate under my supervision in Business Communication.

(GUIDE) THRISSUR FEBRUARY, 2012 Mrs. Shalini Lecturer Gems B-School


If words are considered as a symbol of approval and token of acknowledgement, then the following words play the heralding role of expressing my gratitude. A great deal of time and much effort have gone into developing and researching this project. Many people have participated directly or indirectly in the completion of this project.

I express my deepest and sincere thanks to Mr. Prof: Rama Bharatha Varma, Dean, Gems B-School for providing all the facilities to carry out the study.

I deem it my pride and privilege to render my deep sense of gratitude to my guide and supervisor Mrs. Shalini for her intellectual and invaluable guidance and constant encouragement through out the progress of the study. Her fascination and inspiration in the form of help provided me in making this study more successful

I owe special thanks debt to the other staff members of this esteemed college and all the friends and family members for being favorable and compassionate, and for encouraging me through out this project to make it a grand success.


1. Introduction 2. Components of Communication Process 3. Importance of Communication 4. Types of Communication 5. Communication Barriers 6. Overcoming Communication Barriers 7. Seven C¶s of Effective Communication 8. Verbal Communication Used in Business 9. Advantages and Limitations of Verbal Communication 10. Non-Verbal Communication 11. Types of Non-Verbal Communication 12. Advantages and Disadvantages of Non-Verbal Communication 13. Conclusion



'Communication is a process of transferring information from one entity to another'. However, communication is not just a process. It's an art of first listening or reading the information, comprehending it, processing it and then transferring it. There is a huge amount of effort that goes into communication. Gesticulations, voice modulation, body language and the spoken language are some of the important aspects of communication. If the other person is unable to comprehend any of these factors of communication, then the process of communication fails.

Communication involves the sharing of ideas and information. While many people think of communication primarily in oral or written form, communication is in fact so much more. A knowing look or a gentle touch can also communicate a message loud and clear, as can a hard push or an angry slap. So, what is communication -an interaction between two people in which something is exchanged.

Communication is a process of exchanging verbal and non verbal messages. It is a continuous process. Pre-requisite of communication is a message. This message must be conveyed through some medium to the recipient. It is essential that this message must be understood by the recipient in same terms as intended by the sender. He must respond within a time frame. Thus, communication is a two way process and is incomplete without a feedback from the recipient to the sender on how well the message is understood by him.

Communication Process

The main components of communication process are as follows: 1. Context - Communication is affected by the context in which it takes place. This context may be physical, social, chronological or cultural. Every communication proceeds with context. The sender chooses the message to communicate within a context.

2. Sender / Encoder - Sender / Encoder is a person who sends the message. A sender makes use of symbols (words or graphic or visual aids) to convey the message and produce the required response. For instance - a training manager conducting training for new batch of employees. Sender may be an individual or a group or an organization. The views, background, approach, skills, competencies, and knowledge of the sender have a great impact on the message. The verbal and non verbal symbols chosen are essential in ascertaining interpretation of the message by the recipient in the same terms as intended by the sender.

3. Message - Message is a key idea that the sender wants to communicate. It is a sign that elicits the response of recipient. Communication process begins with deciding about the message to be conveyed. It must be ensured that the main objective of the message is clear.

4. Medium - Medium is a means used to exchange / transmit the message. The sender must choose an appropriate medium for transmitting the message else the message might not be conveyed to the desired recipients. The choice of appropriate medium of communication is essential for making the message effective and correctly interpreted by the recipient. This choice of communication medium varies depending upon the features of communication. For instance - Written medium is chosen when a message has to be conveyed to a small group of people, while an oral medium is chosen when spontaneous feedback is required from the recipient as misunderstandings are cleared then and there.

5. Recipient / Decoder - Recipient / Decoder is a person for whom the message is intended / aimed / targeted. The degree to which the decoder understands the message is dependent upon various factors such as knowledge of recipient, their responsiveness to the message, and the reliance of encoder on decoder.

6. Feedback - Feedback is the main component of communication process as it permits the sender to analyze the efficacy of the message. It helps the sender in confirming the correct interpretation of message by the decoder. Feedback may be verbal (through words) or non-verbal (in form of smiles, sighs, etc.). It may take written form also in form of memos, reports, etc.

Communication is an integral instinct of living things. The importance of communication is best understood when there is a lack of it.

There is more to communication than just talk and gesture. Listening, understanding and interpreting are as much integral to communication as words ± verbal, written or gestured. Yes, even gestures in communication play a crucial role in conveying and interpreting the message! Similarly, how we communicate or express ourselves goes a great way towards determining how our expressions are interpreted. To quote Karl Popper, "It is impossible to speak in such a way that you cannot be misunderstood". Faulty or incomplete communication can completely mar the purpose of communicating and may result in damaging consequences. This is where understanding the importance of communication and communicating the right way comes into picture. Not everyone is equally endowed with the ability to effectively express himself and this is where the importance of communication skills can be truly fathomed. The importance of communication is equal in every walk of like, be it in personal, professional or social life.

The success of any business lies as much in networking and building sound professional relationships as it does in individual tact and business acumen. Communication is a crucial decisive factor in business relations. It is very important to say the right things at the right time and at the right place when dealing with partners, customers and stakeholders. Any miscommunication or ambiguity can pour pails of cold water on your hard work and ruin your chances of survival in today's competitive business environment. Maintaining professional etiquette in oral and written business communication is of utmost importance and must not be taken lightly. We should be grateful that we are living in an era of enlightenment where we have access to training on just about anything under the sun! Nowadays, many courses are available that provide training on developing business communication skills and correspondence and conduct classes on ways to improve communication skills. Effective communication skills in business go a long way in sealing your success.


The most difficult part of running an organization is managing the human resources. This is one resource which doesn't work on any principle of management, economics, psychology or any other social science! This is the most random and volatile resource which must be managed with great dexterity to reach desired organizational goals. Communication is that lubricant which keeps this resource moving throughout the organizational machinery. Importance of communication in the workplace is manifold, as it involves communication along vertical, horizontal and parallel organizational levels and such communication should always follow the hierarchy prescribed by the organization. A breach of the hierarchal channel of communication is known as a Gang Plank and should be avoided as much as possible. Communication in the workplace involves interpersonal communication between colleagues, superior and subordinate and vice versa and workplace communication skills come handy in such situations. A clear understanding of the purpose of such communication, especially if it is of a vertical nature, along with the expectations of the sender and receiver are extremely important for the smooth running of an organization. Read more about ways to improve communication skills to enhance your interpersonal communication skill.


What is the role of a leader? A leader is expected to represent his/her followers and motivate them to reach heights of success through individual and collective effort. Communication is the best equipment a leader can use to achieve this goal. Even ideals resting upon strong principles can fall flat and fail to motivate due to lack of effective communication skills. History is galore with examples of many national leaders who have moved the masses by their life-changing speeches and powerful writings! Abraham Lincoln and Martin Luther King Jr. are prominent examples of outstanding leadership through effective communication.


I don't think I need to elaborate much on this, as we all have some time or the other experienced certain road blocks and voids in our relationships owing to a lack of communication. Lack of communication in relationships result in frustrations, misunderstandings, unrealistic

expectations, guilt and can create personal differences. It is difficult for people who share their lives with each other to coexist for long without having regular and smooth communication oil the machinery of the relationship. Relationship communication problems can only be solved through active and effective communication.

As living beings, we need to express and understand the expressions of others. The importance of communication cannot and should not be underestimated. Sometimes, difficult situations in life can be resolved by just sitting down and talking it out! Similarly, most personal, professional and social disasters can be averted by maintaining clear, appropriate and unambiguous communication. All we need is some effort on our part to identify and avoid barriers to effective communication to make our lives and those around us better.

1. Clarity of Message: The way in which the sender presents a message plays an

instrumental role in the success or failure of the communication process. A message should be formulated taking into account the receiver¶s frame of mind and simple message formulation that conveys the correct meaning

2. Communication Channel: Choose the right communication channel according to the situation and the receiver. For example think whether in a particular situation having a face-to-face conversation would be a better option instead of speaking on the phone, or writing an e-mail.

3. Rapport between Sender and Receiver: If the sender and the receiver share a common background and have faced similar experiences, it increases the mutual understanding level and hence enhances the outcome of the communication process. The development of rapport will depend on the educational background, social background, family upbringing and the kind of experiences the person has come across.


Communication can occur via various processes and methods and depending on the channel used and the style of communication there can be various types of communication.







Based on the channels used for communicating, the process of communication can be broadly classified as verbal communication and non-verbal communication. Verbal communication includes written and oral communication whereas the non-verbal communication includes body language, facial expressions and visuals diagrams or pictures used for communication.


Verbal communication is further divided into written and oral communication. The oral communication refers to the spoken words in the communication process. Oral communication can either be face-to-face communication or a conversation over the phone or on the voice chat over the Internet. Spoken conversations or dialogs are influenced by voice modulation, pitch, volume and even the speed and clarity of speaking. The other type of verbal communication is written communication. Written communication can be either via snail mail, or email. The

effectiveness of written communication depends on the style of writing, vocabulary used, grammar, clarity and precision of language.

Non-verbal communication includes the overall body language of the person who is speaking, which will include the body posture, the hand gestures, and overall body movements. The facial expressions also play a major role while communication since the expressions on a person¶s face say a lot about his/her mood. On the other hand gestures like a handshake, a smile or a hug can independently convey emotions. Non verbal communication can also be in the form of pictorial representations, signboards, or even photographs, sketches and paintings.


Based on the style of communication, there can be two broad categories of communication, which are formal and informal communication that have their own set of characteristic features.

Formal Communication Formal communication includes all the instances where communication has to occur in a set formal format. Typically this can include all sorts of business communication or corporate communication. The style of communication in this form is very formal and official. Official conferences, meetings and written memos and corporate letters are used for communication. Formal communication can also occur between two strangers when they meet for the first time. Hence formal communication is straightforward, official and always precise and has a stringent and rigid tone to it.

Informal Communication Informal communication includes instances of free unrestrained communication between people who share a casual rapport with each other. Informal communication requires two people to have a similar wavelength and hence occurs between friends and family. Informal communication does not have any rigid rules and guidelines. Informal conversations need not necessarily have boundaries of time, place or even subjects for that matter since we all know that friendly chats with our loved ones can simply go on and on. Interpersonal Communication: Interpersonal communication is the process that helps us express our feelings, ideas, and thoughts and share them with the people around us. Efficient interpersonal communication is a very good quality that helps people in every aspect of life be it personal or professional. Interpersonal communication is the process where a person expresses his thoughts, converts the thoughts into a well designed message and sends the message across a communication channel (oral, visual, written, etc) and the receiver receives the message and responds to the message and sends his reply back via the communication channel. Interpersonal communication can be a formal dialogue between two people at a workplace, or even an informal tête-à-tête between two friends. Communication can occur with or without words and through a number of communication media. Here are the various channels of communication that can be used in interpersonal communication.

1. Oral Communication (Speaking face-to-face or on the phone) 2. Written Communication (Writing emails, letters, instant messaging and sms) 3. Visual Communication (Body Language or sign language)


There are various styles of interpersonal communication, which are as follows:

Controlling Style of Interpersonal Communication: The controlling style is actually a style of interpersonal communication wherein the sender leaves little or no room for the receiver to provide feedback or reply. People who are generally senior in workplace hierarchy use it to communicate with their subordinates and although this style might prove to be an efficient form of communication during crisis situations, it can intimidate the receiver or the audience and can actually create a communication gap.

Egalitarian Style of Interpersonal Communication: The Egalitarian style of interpersonal communication is much more efficient than the controlling style since it facilitates healthy twoway communication wherein information is shared mutually. This style of communication encourages the participants to express their ideas and hence creates a co-operative and healthy atmosphere.

Structuring Style of Interpersonal Communication: The structuring style of interpersonal communication is generally used to communicate specific goals and bring co-ordination to an organization. To avoid making this a one-way conversation it is always better to modify this style and keep it more open to responses from the audience.

Dynamic Style of Interpersonal Communication: This is style of interpersonal communication is a high-energy approach which involves use of motivating words and phrases to encourage the person to get inspired and achieve a certain goal. However this style cannot function when the receiver does not have enough knowledge about the required action desired out of him/her.

Relinquishing Style of Interpersonal Communication: The relinquishing style of interpersonal communication is highly open for ideas to the extent that it can transfer the responsibility of the communication to the receiver. This style of communication works well when the sender and the receiver are equally interested in carrying the conversation ahead. Withdrawal Style of Interpersonal Communication: It is ironical to call this process a style of interpersonal communication since the withdrawal style is basically the failure or lack of communication. This is a style of interpersonal communication in which the person shows complete disinterest to participate in the communication process or carry it forward.

The essence and success of every relationship lies in effective communication and in the business world, it is the magic mantra for profit. Business communication in any venture essentially targets promotion of a product or service.

Business communication can either take place within an organization or outside of it. Within the organization, the communciation takes place among the management and employees. Internal business communication involves effective communication of strategies and plans and emphasis on the corporate culture and shared values. Guiding principles to the new and existing staff are also taken care of via internal communication. Within the organization, the communication ensures the establishment of avenues for employee motivation and ideas.

On the outside, the communication takes place between the organization and another one that is affiliated or related to the operations in some way or the other. External business communication involves the establishment of company branding and marketing ideas and strategies. Effective advertising and after sales customer and media relations with external links and individual

parties are also dependent on communication. Probably, the most important area where business communication helps a lot is negotiating business transactions. Business communication comprises of both external communication and internal


Any exchange of information, or even advertising of any sort that an organization establishes with the people outside the organization can be termed as external business communication. External communication involves exchange of information or transmission of messages to clients, investors, or any other organization, which is directly or indirectly related to the performance of your business.


Advertising: Advertising is perhaps a very crucial mode of communication as far as the clients of the company are concerned. Advertisements in any form - prints, video or audio can be used effectively to communicate your message to the clients/ customers. Advertising your products/services can help you to reassure your existing clients as well as give you a chance to attract new customers. Advertising can be done using the following media.

Print media: Newspapers, Magazines, Fliers, Brochures, Newsletters, and Catalogues.

Electronic media: Internet, Telephone, Television, Radio or the emerging Podcasts can be used effectively for external business communication.

Non-conventional: If your Business is looking for un-conventional communication ideas, then investing in Trade shows, Promotional events, or setting up kiosks and hoardings can be a good option.


Creating a Corporate Image: Any external communication that a corporate organization undertakes is instrumental in creating a corporate identity for the business. Every form of communication and all its elements contribute to building a corporate image. For example even the kind of colors a Company used for its corporate stationary or the company logo will speak volumes about the kind of image the company is trying to portray.

Retaining Old Customers and Attracting New Customers: External business communication can be used effectively to reach out to your old customers and strengthen their trust in the Business. The other objective is to reach out to the new customers/clients. Thus ultimately effective communication will translate into increased and steady inflow of revenues.

Tips: Be concise and clear during communicating. Explain your goals and objectives very precisely. Do not bluff or make false claims. Failure to fulfill those claims will earn your Business a bad reputation. While arranging meetings or conferences with your clients/customers, value their time and consider their convenience


Communication within the organizational structure of a corporate company is called internal business communication. Internal business communication is also one factor that cannot be compromised upon if you want to ensure a successful business.


Creating Better Work Atmosphere: Workplace atmosphere can be enhanced by effective business communication. Healthy flow of communication across all the peer groups, subordinates and seniors ensures a healthy work atmosphere.

Increased Productivity: Better communication translates into better understanding of the Corporate goals and objectives of the company. Hence if the communication between work groups is clear and sound, that results into increased productivity for the business.


Print: Memos, in-house newsletters, fliers, magazines or leaflets can be used according to the Business needs.

Electronic: PowerPoint presentations, videoconferences, telephone; fax, emails or even Internet messengers can be used for in-house communication.

Personal Communication: Regular meetings, conferences, brainstorming sessions or even informal chats can be considered as effective communication tools at workplace.

Internal business communication can be further classified into three categories of communication:

Communication within the organization that passes from a lower hierarchy to higher hierarchy is called upward communication. For example subordinates passing on information to their seniors will be considered as upward communication.Here are some useful pointers to use while communicating with your seniors: Subordinates should communicate with their seniors with an amount of respect. Although, we live in an age where workplace atmospheres are getting more friendly and open, it is necessary that one must not cross their boundaries. Try maintain a healthy relationship with your senior. Always seek feedback and at the same time make it a point to convey your own ideas and suggestions to them


Communication that flows from the higher hierarchy to lower hierarchy is called downward communication. Some points to keep in mind while communicating with your subordinates at work: y y y Treat your subordinates with respect Criticism if unavoidable should be kept constructive Regularly ask for suggestions or feedback


Communication within peer groups can be terned as horizontal communication. Bitching and gossiping may not be the only form of information exchange. Make not of some useful tips while you are at your workplace:

y y

Do not indulge in mud slinging /back stabbing Try and avoid conversations that tend to de-motivate you or your colleagues from work

The term mass communications is also used to describe the academic study of the ways people and groups relay messages to a large audience. Mass communications are widely used, primarily because it is a rewarding exercise which awards a person or company brand and name recognition, instantly increasing credibility. Commonly used units of analysis for mass communications are the messages, medium for communication, and the audience for whom the message is intended.

Grapevine is an informal channel of business communication. It is called so because it stretches throughout the organization in all directions irrespective of the authority levels. Man as we know is a social animal. Despite existence of formal channels in an organization, the informal channels tend to develop when he interacts with other people in organization. It exists more at lower levels of organization .Grapevine generally develops due to various reasons. One of them is that when an organization is facing recession, the employees sense uncertainty. Also, at times employees do not have self-confidence due to which they form unions. Sometimes the managers show preferential treatment and favour some employees giving a segregated feeling to other employees. Thus, when employees sense a need to exchange their views, they go for grapevine network as they cannot use the formal channel of communication in that case. Generally during breaks in cafeteria, the subordinates talk about their superior¶s attitude and behaviour and exchange views with their peers. They discuss rumours about promotion and transfer of other employees. Thus, grapevine spreads like fire and it is not easy to trace the cause of such communication at times.

Advantages of Grapevine Communication.


Grapevine channels carry information rapidly. As soon as an employee gets to know some confidential information, he becomes inquisitive and passes the details then to his closest friend who in turn passes it to other. Thus, it spreads hastily.


The managers get to know the reactions of their subordinates on their policies. Thus, the feedback obtained is quick compared to formal channel of communication.


The grapevine creates a sense of unity among the employees who share and discuss their views with each other. Thus, grapevine helps in developing group cohesiveness.

y y

The grapevine serves as an emotional supportive value. The grapevine is a supplement in those cases where formal communication does not work.

y The grapevine carries partial information at times as it is more based on rumours. Thus, it does not clearly depicts the complete state of affairs. y The grapevine is not trustworthy always as it does not follows official path of communication and is spread more by gossips and unconfirmed report. y The productivity of employees may be hampered as they spend more time talking rather than working. y y The grapevine leads to making hostility against the executives. The grapevine may hamper the goodwill of the organization as it may carry false negative information about the high level people of the organization. A smart manager should take care of all the disadvantages of the grapevine and try to minimize them. At the same time, he should make best possible use of advantages of grapevine.


Various communication barriers have often come in the way of our productivity and relationships. To overcome them, knowing what these barriers are, is imperative, and have been enlisted here.

At some point in time, we have all been victims of miscommunication in the workplace or other aspects of life, and ended up saying, hearing, perceiving or understanding things that mean otherwise. The way they alter the result then, is probably something you are familiar with. It may be something as small as missing a movie because you didn't hear the time right, or something as big as missing out on a deadline because your boss and your client gave you two different dates. At the end of the day, it is you who has to bear the brunt either, small or big. Various types of communication barriers are the reasons why we tend to confuse important information, and make blunders that are sometimes unforgivable. To avoid these, you must first know about what accounts for these barriers to communication, and then, how these can be overcome by simple means.


We are all aware of the importance of communication, and no matter how good your communication skills are, there are a lot of barriers that can mar these skills. As such, learning about these barriers and overcoming them is essential in the realm of the workplace as well as the personal front, so as to enhance productivity as well as the quality of our relationships.

One of the biggest reasons for miscommunication is that most of it is taken for granted. We tend to 'expect' people to 'understand' what we are saying. However, your perception may differ from that of the opposite person in several ways, which is why things need to be spelled out clearly. Also, assumptions are one of the barriers in non-verbal communication. Using a tone of voice and expecting the listener to understand is slightly optimistic with some people. Not everyone understands body language, and therefore, using clear modes of communication (verbal or written) is imperative. Those with effective communication skills do not assume, they clearly communicate. Yet, a lot of factors account for these assumptions and these have been explained below.


In settings such as nursing and health care, one of the biggest barriers is that of an information overload. There are several patients to take care of, and though all communication occurs by means of writing more than verbal communication, there are times when because of so many things happening at the same time it is difficult to process this information and get confused. Moreover, communication does not exist only between a doctor and a nurse. Communication with external agencies such as insurance agencies, with the patient, with relatives of the patient, the general doctor, the specialist, the nurse, etc. are all essential. Such communication barriers in health care cannot be allowed to exist, as it can have a highly dangerous outcome. To overcome these communication barriers in nursing and health care, it is vital that clarity be attained on the type of information a person is meant to receive. You may take a look at these communication techniques in nursing for some additional help in this regard. This is only an example and information overload as a barrier may exist in any setting.


Communication is not only about providing information, but also absorbing it correctly. Poor span of attention, heavily worded information, etc. can all contribute to misunderstandings and barriers to effective communication. When someone has poor listening skills, no matter how clearly a particular piece of information has been communicated, it is possible that the listener will misunderstand it. In an entirely different context, poor listening can also pose as one of the many communication barriers in a relationship. In fact, just because one partner does not have the time or the urge to listen to the other partner, these relationship communication problems lead to an unfortunate break up. As such, developing the art of listening is crucial. Learning ways of improving attention, and paraphrasing complex information to ensure you have understood it, are ways in which you can overcome communication barriers such as poor listening.


When one piece of information is provided to one person, to be given to another person, chances are it may be filtered to a point where the eventual information understood may be completely different from what was actually provided. For example, in the realm of workplace communication, information from the receptionist to an assistant, to the manager, to the CEO, etc. can all be severely altered by the time it reaches the ultimate receiver. In such a case, reconfirming the information with the original source ensures that it has been thoroughly understood.


Two people who are required to communicate may not necessarily belong to similar backgrounds. They may belong to different cultural backgrounds (from two different countries),

to different social backgrounds (from two different classes of society), or there may be differences in language, education, age, gender, political beliefs, the environment while growing up, etc. These differences contribute to varied perceptions about events or behaviors and may lead to a misunderstanding. Language particularly is a great barrier in communication, and overcoming this barrier can be done only by clearly wording your information, written or spoken, and using simple language that everyone around will be able to comprehend. Keep your information short and simple. Don't use fancy language in a setting where it won't be understood and appreciated. Understanding all these differences for instance, in intercultural

communication, and learning not to assume that everything is understood is the key to overcoming communication barriers such as these. You have to be empathetic to be able to relate to people from different backgrounds, and accept them with all their beliefs and perceptions, in order to carry out effective communication.


Emotions are one of the biggest communication barriers between men and women, and all other kind of relationships. The reason why men and women have specifically been mentioned here is because we all know that both tend to express emotions differently. It is this lack or perhaps, necessity of expression of these emotions that tends to become one of the biggest barriers in effective communication. Moreover, some of us have the tendency to carry emotions to work. How we receive and communicate information is largely altered due to our emotional state. The only way this can be overcome is by being aware of your emotional state, and controlling it so that it does not overpower your logical thinking and decision making.

Finally, be it business communication, or communication in the personal realm, overcoming the aforementioned communication barriers is of extreme importance to achieve results. Reconfirm information to ensure that you have heard it right. Ask questions if you think the information is not enough. Remember, you may also be at the receiving end of communication, and not always the one who is communicating information to others. Once these methods are understood and

incorporated in your daily scheme, they are bound to help you make all your relationships (personal and professional), and their associated outcomes, highly productive.

There are lots of communication barriers faced these days by all. The message intended by the sender is not understood by the receiver in the same terms and sense and thus communication breakdown occurs. It is essential to deal and cope up with these communication barriers so as to ensure smooth and effective communication. Let¶s talk about how to overcome these barriers of communication. 1. Eliminating differences in perception: The organization should ensure that it is recruiting right individuals on the job. It¶s the responsibility of the interviewer to ensure that the interviewee has command over the written and spoken language. There should be proper Induction program so that the policies of the company are clear to all the employees. There should be proper trainings conducted for required employees (for eg: Voice and Accent training). 2. Use of Simple Language: Use of simple and clear words should be emphasized. Use of ambiguous words and jargons should be avoided. 3. Reduction and elimination of noise levels: Noise is the main communication barrier which must be overcome on priority basis. It is essential to identify the source of noise and then eliminate that source. 4. Active Listening: Listen attentively and carefully. There is a difference between ³listening´ and ³hearing´. Active listening means hearing with proper understanding of the message that is heard. By asking questions the speaker can ensure whether his/her message is understood or not by the receiver in the same terms as intended by the speaker. 5. Emotional State: During communication one should make effective use of body language. He/she should not show their emotions while communication as the receiver might misinterpret the message being delivered. For example, if the conveyer of the

message is in a bad mood then the receiver might think that the information being delivered is not good. 6. Simple Organizational Structure: The organizational structure should not be complex. The number of hierarchical levels should be optimum. There should be a ideal span of control within the organization. Simpler the organizational structure, more effective will be the communication. 7. Avoid Information Overload: The managers should know how to prioritize their work. They should not overload themselves with the work. They should spend quality time with their subordinates and should listen to their problems and feedbacks actively. 8. Give Constructive Feedback: Avoid giving negative feedback. The contents of the feedback might be negative, but it should be delivered constructively. Constructive feedback will lead to effective communication between the superior and subordinate. 9. Proper Media Selection: The managers should properly select the medium of communication. Simple messages should be conveyed orally, like: face to face interaction or meetings. Use of written means of communication should be encouraged for delivering complex messages. For significant messages reminders can be given by using written means of communication such as : Memos, Notices etc. 10. Flexibility in meeting the targets: For effective communication in an organization the managers should ensure that the individuals are meeting their targets timely without skipping the formal channels of communication. There should not be much pressure on employees to meet their targets.

There are 7 C¶s of effective communication which are applicable to both written as well as oral communication. These are as follows: Completeness - The communication must be complete. It should convey all facts required by the audience. The sender of the message must take into consideration the receiver¶s mind set and convey the message accordingly. A complete communication has following features: y Complete communication develops and enhances reputation of an organization.


Moreover, they are cost saving as no crucial information is missing and no additional cost is incurred in conveying extra message if the communication is complete.


A complete communication always gives additional information wherever required. It leaves no questions in the mind of receiver.


Complete communication helps in better decision-making by the audience/ readers/ receivers of message as they get all desired and crucial information.


It persuades the audience.

Conciseness - Conciseness means wordiness, i.e, communicating what you want to convey in least possible words without forgoing the other C¶s of communication. Conciseness is a necessity for effective communication. Concise communication has following features: y y It is both time-saving as well as cost-saving. It underlines and highlights the main message as it avoids using excessive and needless words. y Concise communication provides short and essential message in limited words to the audience. y y Concise message is more appealing and comprehensible to the audience. Concise message is non-repetitive in nature.

Consideration - Consideration implies ³stepping into the shoes of others´. Effective communication must take the audience into consideration, i.e, the audience¶s view points, background, mind-set, education level, etc. Make an attempt to envisage your audience, their requirements, emotions as well as problems. Ensure that the self-respect of the audience is maintained and their emotions are not at harm. Modify your words in message to suit the audience¶s needs while making your message complete. Features of considerate communication are as follows: y y Emphasize on ³you´ approach. Empathize with the audience and exhibit interest in the audience. This will stimulate a positive reaction from the audience.


Show optimism towards your audience. Emphasize on ³what is possible´ rather than ³what is impossible´. Lay stress on positive words such as jovial, committed, thanks, warm, healthy, help, etc.

Clarity - Clarity implies emphasizing on a specific message or goal at a time, rather than trying to achieve too much at once. Clarity in communication has following features: y y y It makes understanding easier. Complete clarity of thoughts and ideas enhances the meaning of message. Clear message makes use of exact, appropriate and concrete words.

Concreteness - Concrete communication implies being particular and clear rather than fuzzy and general. Concreteness strengthens the confidence. Concrete message has following features: y y y It is supported with specific facts and figures. It makes use of words that are clear and that build the reputation. Concrete messages are not misinterpreted.

Courtesy - Courtesy in message implies the message should show the sender¶s expression as well as should respect the receiver. The sender of the message should be sincerely polite, judicious, reflective and enthusiastic. Courteous message has following features: y Courtesy implies taking into consideration both viewpoints as well as feelings of the receiver of the message. y y y Courteous message is positive and focused at the audience. It makes use of terms showing respect for the receiver of message. It is not at all biased.

Correctness - Correctness in communication implies that there are no grammatical errors in communication. Correct communication has following features: y y y y The message is exact, correct and well-timed. If the communication is correct, it boosts up the confidence level. Correct message has greater impact on the audience/ readers. It checks for the precision and accurateness of facts and figures used in the message.


It makes use of appropriate and correct language in the message.

Awareness of these 7 C¶s of communication makes you an effective communicator.


What is Verbal Communication? Verbal communication can be defined as communicating your thoughts through words. Such thoughts may be ideas, opinions, directions, dissatisfaction, objections, your emotions and pleasures. For example, whenever you conduct a meeting, have a conversation over the phone, talk to a friend, or any other form of conversation that you perform with others using words. While the term "verbal communication" seems almost self-explanatory, verbal communication is far more complex than simply talking. By definition, verbal communication includes not only oral discussions, but also written messages and even mediated communication.


The most apparent type of verbal communication is oral, and a number of examples of oral communication are readily available. Oral communication implies communication through mouth. It includes individuals conversing with each other, be it direct conversation or telephonic conversation. Speeches, presentations, discussions are all forms of oral communication. Oral communication is generally recommended when the communication matter is of temporary kind or where a direct interaction is required. Face to face communication (meetings, lectures, conferences, interviews, etc.) is significant so as to build a rapport and trust.

While it may seem counter-intuitive, written communication is considered a form of verbal communication under most commonly accepted definitions of the term. For this reason, a plethora of seemingly nonverbal communication forms can be used as examples of verbal communication, including written letters, memos, newsletters, newspapers, journals and even personal notes. Textbooks, novels and other literature also serve as examples of verbal communication, because they use words as the medium through which a message is conveyed.

Even though the field of mediated communication is a separate branch of communication study, it contains examples of both verbal and nonverbal communications. Most World Wide Web content consists of either typed text or videos, both of which rely heavily on verbal communication to convey their messages. Likewise, webcasts and other online interactive media use verbal communication, as do emails, telnet sessions and newsgroup postings. Mediated communication does not stop with the Internet, of course; television broadcasts use a combination of verbal and nonverbal communication, and radio broadcasts rely on verbal communication. Likewise, telephone conversations are effective because of the flow of words from a sender to a receiver, augmented only by variances in tone, inflection, speed and pitch (all of which are also subtle forms of verbal communication).

All verbal communication activities that an individual engages in, would fall into one of the two styles of verbal communication techniques. They are; formal verbal communication and informal verbal communication. Let us understand these verbal communication styles better.


Formal Verbal Communication: This style of verbal communication is very formal and makes use of correct linguistics. Verbal communication in the workplace, as a principle, should be in this style. Formal verbal communication does not involve slang language. It mostly requires an individual to stick to a certain language, hopping between languages is not an appropriate formal verbal communication. More so, the language being used in the verbal communication technique should be used correctly. Errors are seldom tolerated in formal verbal communication. Read more on workplace communication and business communication to understand this better.


Informal Verbal Communication: Verbal communication in classrooms, which the students use is mostly informal in nature. A chat between good friends will probably be the best verbal communication example for this style. Slang language and language hopping is permitted. In the workplace, the grapevine ordinarily makes use of this style of communication. It has been seen through surveys and studies,that this style of communication is better at helping people bond and communicate freely.

In case of oral verbal communication, body language plays a very major role. Body language and other non-verbal communication techniques help make the communication more complete and effective. It facilitates intercultural communication to a great extent, as well. For example, if some one were to say, "I care about you", with absolutely no facial or physical expression, you would think that a robot is talking to you, right?

Well, that is why, verbal communication techniques are said to be one of the most complex, yet essential activities that a human being engages in. Communication is inevitable. Even while we try not to communicate, we communicate. It has been there since before the dawn of time, it is omnipresent and is the reason why all the elements on Earth are tied together.

When it comes to business, verbal communication is very important for the reason being that you are dealing with a variety of people through out the day. In some cases you may deal with people who have different culture, ages and with different levels of experience.

Now take for example the way you converse with a family member or friend around your same age, you interact with them with a lot of confidence, there is without doubt that verbal communication is expressed with much ease, and perhaps you may speak differently from the way you speak with a person related to business.

Imagine if you expressed yourself the same way with a customer who has different culture, is much older than you and have many years of experience in his field. Most likely your thoughts will be difficult to express. Thus it is necessary to have proper skill when using verbal communication while dealing with different people.

First of all you need to be aware of the fact that you must be flexible with people depending on the circumstances. Let us say you are presenting a speech in front of an audience at work, and you express your thoughts using business vocabulary. Now what if your audience where to be unfamiliar with the terms you are using, it is without question you will notice the audience lose focused attention to what you are saying , so then you must be flexible and change the way you are expressing your thoughts by using words that are more comprehendible to the audience.

It is suggested to build skills by attending a college course related to business communication. When you are attending the class you will then be forced to communicate more organized. Try to use the opportunity to overcome the fear of talking to a big crowd and a stranger while you are in class.

Besides attending a class that teaches business communication, you may also want to consider working in a job-field that involves working with strangers, such job can be a form of practice to gain confidence in yourself and help reduce shyness and intimidation.

Another form of practice can be talking to older relatives and friends, about a topic that involves expressing emotions and strong opinions or a discussion that may concern experiences. Such communication helps you to accumulate skills to express yourself in a more formal and proper manner. When practicing with your relatives or friends it is important for you to back up your opinions or statements with facts. In order to have references about your subject it is suggested to read and study about it. Like for example, if you where to discuss the issue that we are all facing today such as the world's economy for instance, then you may obtain the facts from the news paper, the news, Internet, and you can even get it from books

You always want to support your opinions with facts since it makes verbal communication much easier to express when it comes to expressing an idea. Such suggestions if applied may result to improve your verbal communication.



There is high level of understanding and transparency in oral communication as it is interpersonal.


There is no element of rigidity in oral communication. There is flexibility for allowing changes in the decisions previously taken.


The feedback is spontaneous in case of oral communication. Thus, decisions can be made quickly without any delay.


Oral communication is not only time saving, but it also saves upon money and efforts.


Oral communication is best in case of problem resolution. The conflicts, disputes and many issues/differences can be put to an end by talking them over.

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Oral communication is an essential for teamwork and group energy. Oral communication promotes a receptive and encouraging morale among organizational employees.


Oral communication can be best used to transfer private and confidential information/matter.


Relying only on oral communication may not be sufficient as business communication is formal and very organized.


Oral communication is less authentic than written communication as they are informal and not as organized as written communication.


Oral communication is time-saving as far as daily interactions are concerned, but in case of meetings, long speeches consume lot of time and are unproductive at times.

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Oral communications are not easy to maintain and thus they are unsteady. There may be misunderstandings as the information is not complete and may lack essentials.

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It requires attentiveness and great receptivity on part of the receivers/audience. Oral communication (such as speeches) is not frequently used as legal records except in investigation work.


It is a permanent means of communication. Thus, it is useful where record maintenance is required. It assists in proper delegation of responsibilities. While in case of oral communication, it is impossible to fix and delegate responsibilities on the grounds of speech as it can be taken back by the speaker or he may refuse to acknowledge. Written communication is more precise and explicit. Effective written communication develops and enhances an organization s image. It provides ready records and references.





ü Legal defenses can depend upon written communication as it provides valid records

Written communication does not save upon the costs. It costs huge in terms of stationery and the manpower employed in writing/typing and delivering letters.

Also, if the receivers of the written message are separated by distance and if they need to clear their doubts, the response is not spontaneous.

Written communication is time-consuming as the feedback is not immediate. The

encoding and sending of message takes time.

Effective written communication requires great skills and competencies in language and vocabulary use. Poor writing skills and quality have a negative impact on organization¶s reputation.

Too much paper work and e-mails burden is involved.

Written communication helps in laying down apparent principles, policies and rules for running of an organization.

Nonverbal communication (NVC) is usually understood as the process

of communication through sending and receiving wordless messages. i.e., language is not the only source of communication, there are other means also. NVC can be communicated through gestures and touch (Haptic communication), by body language or posture, by facial expression and eye contact. NVC can be communicated through object communication such as clothing, hairstyles or even architecture, symbols and infographics. Speech contains nonverbal elements known as paralanguage, including voice quality, emotion and speaking style, as well as prosodic features such as rhythm, intonation and stress. Dance is also regarded as a nonverbal communication. Likewise, written texts have nonverbal elements such as handwriting style, spatial arrangement of words, or the use of emoticons. However, much of the study of nonverbal communication has focused on face-to-face interaction, where it can be classified into three principal areas: environmental conditions where communication takes place, the physical characteristics of the communicators, and behaviors of communicators during interaction.

1. Non-verbal messages primarily communicate emotions, attitudes. 2. Non-verbal cues substitute for, contradict, emphasize or regulate verbal message. 3. Non-verbal cues are often ambiguous. 4. Non-verbal cues are continuous. 5. Non-verbal cues are more reliable. 6. Non-verbal cues are culture bound.

Non-verbal communication can be classified into several branches, which are as follows:

Proxemics was a concept first developed by Edward T. Hall. Proxemics pertains to the perception of space. The study of how people perceive the physical spaces around them is known as proxemics. Proxemics takes into account body spacing and postures as involuntary reactions to sensory fluctuations. According to proxemics, the physical distance between two people can be correlated to the relationship they share be it personal or social. Here is how Proxemics defines these distances: Intimate distance Usually seen amongst people who share an intimate relationship. The distance includes embracing, touching or whispering amongst close ones. Close phase - less than 6 inches (15 cm) Far phase - 6 to 18 inches (15 - 45 cm)

Personal distance Observed between good friends. Includes general interactions among good friends. Close phase - 1.5 to 2.5 feet (45 - 75 cm) Far phase - 2.5 to 4 feet (75 - 120 cm) Social distance Social distance is observed amongst formal acquaintances, working colleagues or business associates. Close phase - 5 to 7 feet (1.5 - 2.1 m)

Far phase - 7 to 12 feet (2.1 - 3.6 m) Public distance

Public distance is used while interacting with strangers or also used while public speaking. Close phase - 12 to 25 feet (3.6 - 7.5 m) Far phase - 25 feet (7.5 m) or more


Chronemics is the study of time usage in nonverbal communication. Chronemics states that the way in which we perceive time, structure our time and react to time is a powerful communication tool. Time perceptions can be expressed through punctuality, willingness to wait, speed of speech or even the amount of time people are willing to listen. According to Chronemics, the timing and frequency of any action as well as the tempo of communications within an interaction contribute to the process of non-verbal communication.


Information about the relationship and affect of these two skaters is communicated by their body posture, eye gaze and physical contact. Developed by anthropologist Ray L. Birdwhistell in the 1950s, Kinesics is nothing but the study of body movements, facial expressions, and gestures. Kinesics studies include the study of following elements:

Posture can be used to determine a participant¶s degree of attention or involvement, the difference in status between communicators, and the level of fondness a person has for the other communicator. Studies investigating the impact of posture on interpersonal relationships suggest that mirror-image congruent postures, where one person¶s left side is parallel to the other person¶s right side, leads to favorable perception of communicators and positive speech; a person who displays a forward lean or a decrease in a backwards lean also signify positive sentiment during communication. Posture is understood through such indicators as direction of lean, body orientation, arm position, and body openness.

A gesture is a non-vocal bodily movement intended to express meaning. They may be articulated with the hands, arms or body, and also include movements of the head, face and eyes, such as winking, nodding, or rolling ones' eyes. The boundary between language and gesture, or verbal and nonverbal communication, can be hard to identify. Although the study of gesture is still in its infancy, some broad categories of gestures have been identified by researchers. The most familiar are the so-called emblems or quotable gestures. These are conventional, culture-specific gestures that can be used as replacement for words, such as the hand-wave used in the US for "hello" and "goodbye". A single emblematic gesture can have a very different significance in different cultural contexts, ranging from complimentary to highly offensive. Another broad category of gestures comprises those gestures used spontaneously when we speak. These gestures are closely coordinated with speech. The so-called beat gestures are used in conjunction with speech and keep time with the rhythm of speech to emphasize certain words or phrases. These types of gestures are integrally connected to speech and thought processes. Other spontaneous gestures used when we speak are more contentful and may echo or elaborate the meaning of the co-occurring speech. For example, a gesture that depicts the act of throwing may be synchronous with the utterance, "He threw the ball right into the window."

Gestural languages such as American Sign Language and its regional siblings operate as complete natural languages that are gestural in modality. They should not be confused with finger spelling, in which a set of emblematic gestures are used to represent a written alphabet. Gestures can also be categorized as either speech-independent or speech-related. Speechindependent gestures are dependent upon culturally accepted interpretation and have a direct verbal translation. A wave hello or a peace sign are examples of speech-independent gestures. Speech related gestures are used in parallel with verbal speech; this form of nonverbal communication is used to emphasize the message that is being communicated. Speech related gestures are intended to provide supplemental information to a verbal message such as pointing to an object of discussion. Gestures such as Mudra (Sanskrit) encode sophisticated information accessible to initiates that are privy to the subtlety of elements encoded in their tradition.


Facial expressions are one of the most important attributes of nonverbal communication. Just a smile or a frown can speak thousands of words for us. Facial expressions to depict happiness, sadness fear or anger are same throughout the world and hence they prove to be very advantageous when it comes to language barriers. Reading facial expressions can give us insights into the thoughts and feelings of other people.

The study of the role of eyes in nonverbal communication is sometimes referred to as "oculesics". Eye contact can indicate interest, attention, and involvement. Studies have found that people use their eyes to indicate their interest and with more than the frequently recognized actions of winking and slight movement of the eyebrows. Eye contact is an event when two people look at each other's eyes at the same time. It is a form of nonverbal communication and has a large influence on social behavior. Frequency and interpretation of eye contact vary between cultures and species. Eye aversion is the avoidance of eye contact. Eye contact and

facial expressions provide important social and emotional information. People, perhaps without consciously doing so, probe each other's eyes and faces for positive or negative mood signs. Gaze comprises the actions of looking while talking, looking while listening, amount of gaze, and frequency of glances, patterns of fixation, pupil dilation, and blink rate.

Paralanguage (sometimes called vocalics) is the study of nonverbal cues of the voice. Various acoustic properties of speech such as tone, pitch and accent, collectively known as prosody, can all give off nonverbal cues. Paralanguage may change the meaning of words. The linguist George L. Trager developed a classification system which consists of the voice set, voice qualities, and vocalization. 

The voice set is the context in which the speaker is speaking. This can include the situation, gender, mood, age and a person's culture. 

The voice qualities are volume, pitch, tempo, rhythm, articulation, resonance, nasality, and accent. They give each individual a unique "voice print". 

Vocalization consists of three subsections: characterizers, qualifiers and segregates. Characterizers are emotions expressed while speaking, such as laughing, crying, and yawning. A voice qualifier is the style of delivering a message - for example, yelling "Hey stop that!", as opposed to whispering "Hey stop that". Vocal segregates such as "uh-huh" notify the speaker that the listener is listening.

Appearance deals with the communication role played by a person¶s look or physical appearance(as compared with physical gestures associated with kinesics). It deals with physical aspects of body shape, hair color and skin tone, as well as grooming, dress (both clothing and jewelry) and use of appearance enhancements such as body piercings, brandings and tattoos. Consider, for example, how attire is an essential part of nonvocal communication among areas influenced by Arab culture. Among North and Western Africans, public speakers prefer long

robes and big sleeves so that when they raise their hands, extra sleeve cloth slips through the arms and puffs up their shoulder, making them look bigger and more elegant. The Arab and North African head covering with different bands of cloth and the color of the robes (white in daytime, dark at night) are more than fashion statements.

Dance is a form of nonverbal communication that requires the same underlying faculty in the brain for conceptualization, creativity and memory as does verbal language in speaking and writing. Means of self-expression, both forms have vocabulary (steps and gestures in dance), grammar (rules for putting the vocabulary together) and meaning. Dance, however, assembles (choreographs) these elements in a manner that more often resembles poetry, with its ambiguity and multiple, symbolic and elusive meanings.

When communicating, nonverbal messages can interact with verbal messages in six ways: repeating, conflicting, complementing, substituting, regulating and accenting/moderating. Repeating "Repeating" consists of using gestures to strengthen a verbal message, such as pointing to the object of discussion. Conflicting Verbal and nonverbal messages within the same interaction can sometimes send opposing or conflicting messages. A person verbally expressing a statement of truth while simultaneously fidgeting or avoiding eye contact may convey a mixed message to the receiver in the interaction. Conflicting messages may occur for a variety of reasons often stemming from feelings of uncertainty, ambivalence, or frustration. When mixed messages occur, nonverbal communication becomes the primary tool people use to attain additional information to clarify the situation; great attention is placed on bodily movements and positioning when people perceive mixed messages during interactions.

Complementing Accurate interpretation of messages is made easier when nonverbal and verbal communication complement each other. Nonverbal cues can be used to elaborate on verbal messages to reinforce the information sent when trying to achieve communicative goals; messages have been shown to be remembered better when nonverbal signals affirm the verbal exchange. Substituting Nonverbal behavior is sometimes used as the sole channel for communication of a message. People learn to identify facial expressions, body movements, and body positioning as corresponding with specific feelings and intentions. Nonverbal signals can be used without verbal communication to convey messages; when nonverbal behavior does not effectively communicate a message, verbal methods are used to enhance understanding. Regulating Nonverbal behavior also regulates our conversations. For example, touching someone's arm can signal that you want to talk next or interrupt. Accenting/Moderating Nonverbal signals are used to alter the interpretation of verbal messages. Touch, voice pitch, and gestures are some of the tools people use to accent or amplify the message that is sent; nonverbal behavior can also be used to moderate or tone down aspects of verbal messages as well. For example, a person who is verbally expressing anger may accent the verbal message by shaking a fist.

The advantages of non-verbal communication are:

1) You can communicate with someone who is hard of hearing of deaf. 2) You can communicate at place where you are supposed to maintain silence. 3) You can communicate something which you don't want others to hear or listen to. 4) You can communicate if you are far away from a person. The person can see but not hear you. 5) Non-verbal communication makes conversation short and brief. 6) You can save on time and use it as a tool to communicate with people who don't understand your language.

The disadvantages of non-verbal communication are:

1) You can not have long conversation. 2) Can not discuss the particulars of your message 3) Difficult to understand and requires a lot of repetitions. 4) Can not be used as a public tool for communication. 6) Less influential and can not be used everywhere. 7) Not everybody prefers to communicate through non-verbal communication. 8) Can not create an impression upon people/listeners.

Communication is life blood of a business organization. No organization can succeed or progress, build up reputation, and win friends and customers without effective communication skills.

In fact successful communication is the bed rock of ground and pleasant relationship between the seniors and sub ordinates, between the workers and the management, between the customers and the sellers good and efficient system of communication helps in better coordination and efficient control. It results in clear understanding, good production, healthy climate within the organization willing cooperation among the various levels, if businessman can communicate effectively and successfully. Profit and prosperity shall knock at the doors of firm, organization or shop keeper through effective system of communication.

Poor and ineffective communication system may result in mismanagement, bad business and sure show down. Communication can build or destroy trust depending or use of words. A poorly worded message or talk may result in communication break down. On the other hand planned and well meant communication helps in better service, removes misunderstanding and doubts; builds up good will, promotes business and earns favorable references. It is the key to success in business and trade. A good businessman believes in the saying, 'take care of communication and success shall take care of itself.


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