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Physics Fields|Views: 662|Likes: 100

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https://www.scribd.com/doc/8116478/Physics-Fields

08/05/2013

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In subsection IIIB4 we saw that in the same way as a current in electrodynam-

ics or Yang-Mills is deﬁned as the matter contribution to the gauge ﬁeld’s equation

of motion,* δS*M*/δA*a =* J*a

(in that case* S*M excludes only the pure Yang-Mills ac-

tion), the “energy-momentum tensor” is deﬁned as the matter contribution to the

492

IX. GENERAL RELATIVITY

gravitational ﬁeld equation (in this case* S*M excludes only the pure gravity action):

*δS*M =

e−*1
*

*ζ*ab

*T*ab =* 1
2
*

* √−g*(*δg*mn

)*T*mn =* −1
2
*

* √−g*(*δg*mn)*T*mn

The case where* ζ*ab represents the invariances of the action implies restrictions on this

tensor: Using the separate gauge invariance of the matter action* δ*gauge*S*M = 0 and

the matter ﬁeld equations* δS*M*/δ*(*matter*) = 0 (as for the Yang-Mills case), gauge

variation of the gravity ﬁelds in* S*M implies

*ζ*ab =

*λ*ab =* −λ*ba* ⇒ T[*ab*]
*

= 0 : Lorentz

*−1
*

*2 (*a*λ*b*) ⇒ *a*T*ab

= 0 : coordinate

so coordinate invariance of the action implieslocal conservation of energy-momentum.

For example, for a real scalar ﬁeld:

*S* =

e−*11
*

*4*[(* χ*)*2
*

+* m2
*

*χ2
*

+* aRχ2
*]

*⇒* 2*T*ab = (* *a*χ*)(* *b*χ*)*− 1
*

*2η*ab[(* χ*)*2
*

+*m2
*

*χ2
*

]+*a*[(*η*ab* − *a* *b)+(*R*ab*− 1
*

*2η*ab*R*)]*χ2
*

Notice that for* a *= 0, the energy-momentum tensor gets extra total-derivative terms

which are separately conserved in ﬂat space (since they come from the* Rχ2
*

term,

which is separately covariant).

Excercise IXA6.1

Using the action given in subsection IXA4 and the variation of the covariant

derivative from subsection IXA5, ﬁnd the energy-momentum tensor for the

Dirac spinor, and use its ﬁeld equations to show this tensor is conserved.

Note that this is not the same as ordinary conservation* ∂*m*T*mn

= 0:

* √−gT0*n

does not deﬁne a conserved total energy-momentum. This is in contrast with the

conserved current in electrodynamics, since we then can derive the usual global con-

servation law

0 =

* d*D

*x* e−*1
*

* *a*J*a

=

* d*D

*x ∂*me−*1
*

*J*m

*∼ d
dt
*

* d*D−*1
*

*x* e−*1
*

*J0
*

On the other hand, it’s closely related to Yang-Mills, where* δA*a =* − *a*λ* leads to

* *a*J*a

= 0 in terms of the derivative* * covariantized with respect to the Yang-Mills

ﬁeld (as well as gravity, if in curved space), so* ∂*me−*1
*

*J*m

=* −*e−*1
*

[*iA*m*,J*m

]* *= 0 (see

subsection IIIC1).

However, if there is a Killing vector* K*a, then the component of momentum in

that direction is conserved:

*J*a

*≡ K*b*T*ba

*⇒ *a*J*a

= (* *a*K*b)*T*ba

+* K*b(* *a*T*ba

) = 0

A. ACTIONS

493

(Remember* (*a*K*b*)* = 0.) Some simple examples of this in ﬂat space are (*K*a)b

=* δ*b

a

(translational invariance), for which the corresponding “charge” is the total momen-

tum, and (*K*a)bc

=* δ[*b

a*x*c*]
*

(Lorentz invariance), for which the charge is the total angular

momentum.

Including the variation of the gravitational action, we get the gravitational ﬁeld

equations

*R*ab* − 1
*

*2η*ab*R* = 2*T*ab

Coordinate invariance of* S*G implies* *a(*R*ab

*− 1
*

*2η*ab

*R*) = 0, which also follows from

the Bianchi identities: In that sense gauge invariance is said to be “dual” to Bianchi

identities, one implying the other through variation of the action: In general, for any

gauge ﬁeld* φ* with gauge parameter* λ
*

*δφ* =* Oλ,* 0 =* δS* =

* dx* (*Oλ*)*δS
*

*δφ ⇔ O*T* δS
*

*δφ* = 0

where the “transpose”* O*T

is deﬁned by integration by parts. Positivity of the energy

(contained in any inﬁnitesimal volume) is the condition* T00
*

*≥* 0. The addition of

the cosmological term modiﬁes the left-hand side of the above equation of motion by

adding a term 2*η*abΛ.

Although there is no covariant deﬁnition of total energy-momentum, in the case

where spacetimeis asymptoticallyﬂat (the metricfalls oﬀ to the ﬂat metricsuﬃciently

fast at inﬁnity), one can deﬁne a noncovariant energy-momentumtensor* t*ab for gravity

itself which is covariant with respect to coordinate transformations that themselves

fall oﬀ at inﬁnity. (See excercise IIIC1.2 for the analogous Yang-Mills case.) This

tensor satisifes* ∂*m(*T*mn

+*t*mn

) = 0 (where* T*mn

is the usual tensor for matter), so the

usual conservation laws can be derived for the total energy-momentum coming from

integrating* T* +*t*. Many equivalent expressions exist for* t*. One way to derive it is to

expand the ﬁeld equations order-by-order in* h* as

*1
2*(

*2η*ab*R*)* ≡ L*ab* −t*ab

where* L*ab is the linearized part of the ﬁeld equations (see subsection IXB1) and* −t*ab

is the quadratic and higher-order parts. By the linearized Bianchi identities, we know

0 =* ∂*a*L*ab

*≡ ∂*a(*1
*

*2R*ab

*− 1
*

*4η*ab

*R* +* t*ab

) =* ∂*a(*T*ab

+* t*ab

)

where we used the ﬁeld equations in the last step. Note that there is a great deal

of ambiguity here: We could have linearized by expanding the metric around its ﬂat

space value instead of the vierbein, or by expanding* R*mn or* R*mn

instead of* R*ab, etc.

494

IX. GENERAL RELATIVITY

Because of the expression in terms of* L*ab* ∼ ∂∂h*, the integral of* T* +*t*, which gives the

total energy-momentum vector, can be expressed as a surface term, just as Gauss’

law in electrodynamics. Since space was assumed to be asymptotically ﬂat, only the

quadratic part of* t* contributes in the surface integral, which is why there is so much

freedom in the deﬁnition of* t*. Since* t* is not covariant, the energy-momentum of

the gravitational ﬁeld is not localized (coordinate transformations shift it around).

However, since the total energy-momentum is invariant, one can ask questions about

how much energy is radiated to inﬁnity, etc.

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