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Yao Wang Polytechnic University, Brooklyn, NY11201 http://eeweb.poly.edu/~yao

Outline

**• Baseband communication: bandwidth requirement • Modulation of continuous signals
**

– Amplitude modulation – Quadrature amplitude modulation – Other modulation techniques: frequency/phase modulation

• Frequency division multiplexing • Application of modulation • Demo of AM and QAM

©Yao Wang, 2006

EE3414: Analog Communications

2

Baseband Communications • Signal strength attenuates with distance. must the channel operate at 0-B range of frequency? • How do we send multiple signals over the channel? ©Yao Wang. Needs repeaters to amplify the signals in stages • Received signal is corrupted by noise – R(t)=A S(t)+ n(t) • Received signal quality depends on channel noise and noise between repeaters accumulate • To transmit a signal with bandwidth B. 2006 EE3414: Analog Communications 3 . we need >=B Hz in channel bandwidth • If the signal is low-pass (0-B).

A Typical Communication System Modulator Signal to be transmitted (analog or digital) Transmitter Demodulator Received signal Receiver ©Yao Wang. 2006 EE3414: Analog Communications 4 .

2006 EE3414: Analog Communications 5 .Modulation = Frequency Shifting Baseband signal Modulated signal 0 fc Frequency ©Yao Wang.

ethernet. etc. they can be transmitted simultaneously over the same channel frequency division multiplexing ©Yao Wang. optical fiber. – Modulation translates a signal from its baseband to the operating range of the channel – By modulating different signals to different frequency bands.Why do we need “modulation”? – A communication channel only operates at a certain frequency range • telephone cables. 2006 EE3414: Analog Communications 6 . terrestrial (over the air broadcast).

2006 EE3414: Analog Communications 7 .22 in Signals and Systems • ©Yao Wang. From Figure 7. each signal is shifted to a different carrier frequency and then summed together.Frequency Division Multiplexing • To transmit the three signals over the same channel.

2006 EE3414: Analog Communications 8 .How do we shift the frequency of a signal? • By multiplying with a sinusoid signal ! x(t ) y (t ) = x(t ) cos(ω c t ) cos(ω c t ) carrier signal ω c : carrier frequency ©Yao Wang.

2006 EE3414: Analog Communications 9 .Basic Equalities • Basic equality x(t )e j 2πf ct ↔ X ( f − f c ) x(t )e − j 2πf ct ↔ X ( f + f c ) x(t )cos(2πf c t ) ↔ 1 ( X ( f − f c ) + X ( f + f c )) 2 • Proof on the board ©Yao Wang.

2006 EE3414: Analog Communications 10 .5 in Signals/Syste ms x(t ) cos(ω c t ) y (t ) = x(t ) cos(ω c t ) ©Yao Wang.Frequency Domain Interpretation of Modulation From Figure 7.

How to get back to the baseband? (Demodulation) • By multiplying with the same sinusoid + low pass filtering! H (ω ) w(t ) y (t ) − ωm cos(ω c t ) − ωm 2 x (t ) LPF ©Yao Wang. 2006 EE3414: Analog Communications 11 .

2006 EE3414: Analog Communications 12 .7 in Signals and Systems ©Yao Wang.Frequency Domain Interpretation of Demodulation Figure 7.

Using the equality cos 2 (θ ) = ©Yao Wang.Temporal Domain Interpretation Modulation : y (t ) = x(t )cos(2πf c t ) Demodulation : w(t ) = y (t ) cos(2πf c t ) = x(t )cos 2 (2πf c t ) 1 (1 + cos(2θ ) ) 2 1 1 1 w(t ) = (1 + cos(4πf c t ) )x(t ) = x(t ) + x(t ) cos(4πf c t ) 2 2 2 The LPF will retain the first term and remove the second term. 2006 EE3414: Analog Communications 13 .

2006 EE3414: Analog Communications 14 .Example • How to transmit a signal with frequency ranging in (-5KHz. and sketch the spectrum of the modulated and demodulated signals. ©Yao Wang.110KHz)? What should be the carrier frequency ? Draw the block diagrams for the modulator and demodulator.5KHz) using a channel operating in (100KHz.

2006 EE3414: Analog Communications 15 .22 in Signals and Systems ya (t ) = xa (t ) cos(ω a t ) ya (t ) = xa (t ) cos(ω a t ) ya (t ) = xa (t ) cos(ω a t ) w(t ) = ya (t ) + yb (t ) + yc (t ) ©Yao Wang.Frequency Division Multiplexing: Frequency domain interpretation Figure 7.

2006 EE3414: Analog Communications 16 .21 in Signals and Systems ©Yao Wang.FDM Transmitter Figure 7.

2006 EE3414: Analog Communications 17 .23 in Signals and Systems ©Yao Wang.FDM Receiver Demultiplexing cos(ω a t ) Demodulation Figure 7.

and sketch the spectrum of the modulated and demodulated signals. 2006 EE3414: Analog Communications 18 .10KHz) over a channel operating in the frequency range (300KHz.Example • How to transmit two signals each with frequency ranging in (-10KHz. ©Yao Wang.340KHz)? Draw the block diagrams for the modulator and demodulator.

Demo: modulating a sound signal (amplitude_modulation.02 5.05 4 10 -10 0 5 10 x 10 4 ©Yao Wang.03 5.01 5.m) X1 Waveform 10 0.05 x 10 Modulated X1: Waveform 0.02 5.2 5 5.04 5.01 5.03 5. 2006 EE3414: Analog Communications x 10 19 .2 5 5.2 0 4 10 -10 0 5 10 4 10 0 x 10 Modulated X1: Spectrum fc=50k -0.2 0 0 X1 Spectrum fs=22k -0.04 5.

5 5 5.5 10 0 DeModulated X1: Spectrum 0 -0.2 5 ©Yao Wang.01 5.2 0 -0.01 5.04 5.03 5.02 5. 2006 4 10 -10 0 5 10 4 x 10 Reconstructed X1: Spectrum 10 0 10 -10 5.05 10 0 5 10 10 4 EE3414: Analog Communications 4 20 .04 5.DeModulated X1: Waveform 0.03 5.02 5.05 x 10 Reconstructed X1: Waveform 0.

04 -200 -400 -600 -800 0.02 0 0 5 10 15 20 25 0 2 4 6 Frequency (Hz) 8 10 x 10 4 Length=20.06 0 Phase (degrees) 6 Frequency (Hz) 8 10 x 10 4 0. 2006 EE3414: Analog Communications 21 . Cut-off freq=11k ©Yao Wang.12 0 0.1 Magnitude (dB) -50 0.Lowpass Filter 0.08 -100 -150 0 2 4 0.

Original and Reconstructed Waveform 0.2 original 0.3 original reconstructed 0.1 0 -0.2 -0. 2006 EE3414: Analog Communications 22 .1 -0.3 reconstructed 5000 5005 5010 5015 5020 5025 5030 5035 5040 5045 5050 ©Yao Wang.

we can send 2 signals each with bandwidth B over a channel bandwidth of 2B – Equivalent to each signal with bandwidth B ©Yao Wang.Quadrature Amplitude Modulation • With amplitude modulation: a signal with bandwidth B needs 2B channel bandwidth – This is called double sideband (DSB) AM – Other techniques can reduce the bandwidth requirement • Single sideband (SSB) • Vestigial sideband (VSB) • By using QAM. 2006 EE3414: Analog Communications 23 .

Quadrature Amplitude Modulation (QAM) • A method to modulate two signals onto the same carrier frequency. 2006 EE3414: Analog Communications 24 . but with 90o phase shift cos( 2π f1t ) s1 ( t ) m (t ) cos( 2π f1t ) s1 ( t ) LPF m (t ) s2 (t ) sin( 2π f1t ) QAM modulator LPF s2 (t ) sin( 2π f1t ) QAM demodulator ©Yao Wang.

2006 EE3414: Analog Communications 25 . ©Yao Wang.QAM in more detail Proof (in time domain) the demodulator can separate the signal on board! Discuss the sensitivity of the system to synchronization of the carrier signal.

• Frequency modulation y (t ) = cos(θ (t )). 2006 EE3414: Analog Communications 26 .Other Modulation Methods • Amplitude modulation y (t ) = x(t ) cos(2πf c t +θ 0) – The amplitude of the carrier signal is controlled by the modulating signal – Pitfall of AM: channel noise can corrupt the amplitude easily. dθ (t ) = 2πf c t + k f x(t ) dt – The frequency of the carrier signal is proportional to the modulating signal • Phase modulation y (t ) = cos(2πf c t + θ 0 + k p x(t )) – The phase of the carrier signal is proportional to the modulating signal ©Yao Wang.

UHF:470-890MHz) – Each station is assigned 6 MHz – The three color components and the audio signal are multiplexed into a single baseband signal – Using vestigial sideband AM to shift the baseband signals. ©Yao Wang. 2006 EE3414: Analog Communications 27 . to transmit a stereo audio. – The left and right channels (each limited to 15KHz) are multiplexed into a single baseband signal using amplitude modulation – Using frequency modulation to shift the baseband signals • TV broadcast (VHF: 54-88. to transmit a mono-channel audio (bandlimited to 5KHz) – Using Amplitude modulation to shift the baseband signal • FM Radio (88MHz--108 MHz): – Each radio station is assigned 200 KHz.Application of Modulation and FDM • AM Radio (535KHz--1715KHz): – Each radio station is assigned 10 KHz.174-216MHz.

• Understand how do AM and FM radio and analog TV work in terms of modulation and multiplexing. for multiplexing of two to three signals. 2006 EE3414: Analog Communications 28 . ©Yao Wang.What Should You Know • Understand the bandwidth requirement – Channel bandwidth > signal bandwidth • Understand the principle of amplitude modulation – Know how to modulate a signal to a certain frequency – Know how to demodulate a signal back to the baseband – Can write the equation and draw block diagram for both modulation and demodulation – Can plot the signal spectrum after modulation and demodulation • Understand the principle of frequency division multiplexing – Can write the equation and draw block diagram for both modulation and demodulation.

Willsky. Chapter 10. 2nd edition. Noll. Oppenheim and A. 8. 2006 EE3414: Analog Communications 29 . S. M. • A. Chapter 8.References • A.1-8. Sec. Signals and Systems. V.3 (copies provided) ©Yao Wang.

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