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ELEMENTARY

LATIN GRAMMAK

ARCHIBALD
ONK OF THE CLASSICAL MASTERS

H.
IN

BRYCE,
THE
lllQH

LL.D.,

TRIN. COLL., BUBLTn;

SCHOOL OF EPIN'BURGII.

-r.

T.

LONDON: NELSON AND SONS, PATERNOSTER ROW;
EDINBURGH: AND NEW YORK.

NELSON'S CLASSICAL SERIES.

FIRST LATIN READER. By
Edition.

Archibald H. Bryce, LL.D.
2s.

Fourth

21G pages 12mo.

Price

SECOND LATIN READER.
384 pages.
Price
3s. 6d.

By Archibald

H.

Brtce,

LL.D.

GRAMMAR OF THE LATIN LANGUAGE.
Brtce, LL.D.
12mo.
268 pages.
Price 2s. 6d.

By Archibald H.

ELEMENTARY LATIN GRAMMAR.
LL.D.
12mo.
170 pages.
Price
Is. 3d.

By Archibald H. Brtce,

FIRST GREEK READER.
Edition.

By Archibald
2s. 6d.

H. Brtce, LL.D.

Third

222 pages.

Price

HORACE.
High
3s. ed.

Edited hy Dr. Freund, author of " Latin Lexicon," &c,
Classical Masters of the

and John Carmichael, M.A., one of the
School, Edinburgh.

With

Life of Horace, Notes,

Vocabulary
Price

of Proper Names, and Chronological

Table.

12mo,

cloth.

VIRGILII MARONIS CARMINA.
Life, Notes,
3s. Gd.

Edited by Dr. Freund.

With
Price

and Vocabulary of Proper Names.

12mo,

cloth.

T.

NELSON AND SONS, LONDON, KDINBUROH, AND NEW YORK.

XtiRtIi,

This Work

is

an abridgment of
tlie

tlie

Laxger Latin

Grammar

forming part of

same

Series.

It is designed for tlie use

of beginners, and of those
studies only to

who

intend to prosecute classical
It

a

limited

extent.

therefore contains

merely the

amount and kind of

information

considered
students.
in smaller

necessary for the age and requirements of such

Some
type
tion,

matter, however, has been inserted

—usually

— which may be omitted
and which
will

in the earlier stages of instruc-

with more profit be presented to the

pupil

when he

is

farther advanced.

The Syntax has been less abridged than the other
of the work, because the natural connection of
parts rendered
is

portions

its several
it

curtailment more

difficult;

and because

right that all students, whatever their ultimate object
be,

may

should have a systematic view of the principles

which regulate the construction of Latin sentences, and of
the peculiar idioms of the language.

In compliance with the wish of many teachers in Scotland,
the author has appended to Part
II.

Ruddiman's Rules

of

iy

PREFACE.
free

Syntax; which, though not

from serious

defects,

have

the great merit of brevity, and

of being easily

committed to

memory.

To

illustrate satisfactorily the

many changes which

appear
of

in the declension of Nouns, an unusually large

number

Paradigms has been given ; and throughout the entire book
the greatest care has been taken,

by

simplicity of statement

and clearness of arrangement, assisted by the resources of
typography,
to

present the facts and principles of Latin

Grammar

to

the young in

a manner at

once interesting

and impressive.

€anitnh.

PART l.-ACCIDENCE.
CLaptrr
I.

Letikrs and Syllables,
Sect.
I.

Tlie Letters,

...

II.

Syllables— Quantity
...

II.

Classification of Words,

III.

Inflexion:

Gender— Number— Case,
14
14

IV. Substantives,
Sect.
I.

General Uemarks,
Declension,

II. First

16 17

III.

Second Declension,

IV. Third Declension,

20 31

V. Fourth Declension,
VI. Fifth Declension,

33
34

V. Adjectives,
Sect.
I.

Inflexion of Adjectives,

...

34
42 46
50

II.

Comparison of Adjectives,
...

VI.

The Numerals,

VII. Pronouns,
Sect.
I.

Personal Pronouns,
Reflexive Pronouns,

50
51
...

II.

III. Possessive

Pronouns,

51 52

IV. Demonstrative Pronouns,

V. The Relative Pronoun,

...

54

VI. The Interrogative Pronouns,
VII.

The

Indefinite Pronouns,

VI
Chapter

CONTENTS.
Thb Verb,
Sect.
I.

VIII.

Introductory,

...

II.

First Conjugation,

III.

Second Conjugfitlon,

IV. Third Conjugation— ^C(7o and Cap,

V. Fourth Conjugation,

VI. The Four Conjugations at one view
IX.

Deponent Verbs,
Sect.
I.

First Conjugation,

II.

Second Conjugation,
Third Conjugation,

III.

IV. Fourth Conjugation, X. Irregular Verbs,
Sect.
I.

The Verb Sum,

II.

III.

The Verb Possum, The Verb Prosum, The Veib
The Verb The Verb The Verb
Eo,

IV.

V. The Verb Fero, VI.
Volo,

VII. The Verb Nolo,
VIII.
ifalo,

IX.

Fio,

X. The Verb Edo,
XI. Defective Verbs,
XII. Impersonal Verbs,
XT. Adverbs,

XII. Prepositions,
XIII. CONJDNCTIONS,

XIV. Ikterjections,

PART ll.-SYNTAX.
I.

Sentences,

II.

III.

Agreement of Subject and Predicate, Agreement of Adjectivb and Substantive,

IV. Apposition,

V. The Nominative ant) Vocative Cases,
VI.
VII.

The Accusative, The Dative,

...

CONTENTS.
Chapter

Vll
p.g,

VIII.

The Genitive, ... IX. The Ablative, ... X. The Infinitive, ... XI. The Supines,

127 129 132
133
133

XII. Participles,
XIII.

The Gerund, XIV. The Imperative Mood, ... XV. Compound Sentences— Principal Clauses,
XVI. Subordinate Clauses,

134

135
136
137

XVII. Final Clauses,

...

138 139

XVIII. Conditional Clauses,

XIX. Concessive Clauses,

140

XX. Temporal Clauses,
XXI. Causal Clauses,
XXII. rtELATivE Clauses,
XXIII. Interrogative Clauses,
...

HO
141

141

143
143

XXIV. Sequence of Tenses,

XXV. Kuddiman's

Rules,

146

APPENDIX.
Gender of Nouns,
Irregular Verbs,
157
161

Greek Nouns, The Calendar, Roman JIonet and Measures, Roman Names,
Abbreviations,

169

170
172
174

175

ELEMENTARY LATIN GRAMMAR.

PART

I.

ACCIDENCE.
CHAPTEE I.— LETTERS AND SYLLABLES.
SECTION l.-THE LETTERS.
Letters are signs for sounds. 2. The Latin letters are the same wanting. Thus :—
1.

as the English, except that

W

is

Capitals.--A, B, C, D, E, F, G, II,

I,

J,

K, L, M,

N, 0, P, Q, R,
Small.-—a,
h, c, d, e,

S, T,
f,

U, V, X, Y, Z.
i,

g, h,

j,

k,
z.

1,

m,

n, o, p, q,

r, s, t,

u, V, X, y,

Obs.
i

1. The Eomaiis had originally only one form, i, for the vowel and the consonant j; and one form, v, for the vowel u and the

consonant
Obs. 2.

Thus is not properly a letter, but only a breathing. the twenty-five letters of the Alphabet may be reduced to twentytwo.
letters are divided into

— 11

v.

3.

The

two

classes

Voivels

and Consoe,

nants.
4.

The Vowels

{Vocales,

i.e.,

"sound-producing") are six,— ff,


10
5
Tlie


be

ELEMENTARY LATIN GRAMMAR.
Consonants
[Con-sonnntes),
whicli cannot

sounded

witliout the help of a vowel, arc either,
(1.)

(2.)

Semi -vowels*—^, m, n, r, and the sihihmt 5; Mutes—/), b,f, v; c, k, qu, g, h, {J); t, d.
admit of a double
classification
viz.,
:

or,

G.

Tlie jNIutes

(1.)

According to
;

the organ by whicli they are pronounced,
Palatals, or throat-letters
;

Labials, or lip-letters

Lingual Dentals, those uttered by apply-

ing the tongue to the teeth.

And
:

(2.)

According to the degree of
viz., light

breathing employed in their utterance,
diate,

and rough

or

flat.

Thus

or sharp, interme-

LAnrALS.
/'

PALATALS.
c,
5')
I',

LINGUAL DENTALS.
t

orqii

light or sharp.

b f)
7.
^'j

(i'^)

^h

W
ffs,

(i)

d
('^^O

intermediate.

rough or

flat.

X and

z are

double consonants, being equal,
cs,

(1.) d?

to

or

and sometimes

to hs or qus.

(2.) 2 to

sd or

ds.

8.

The Alphabet,
Six Vowels,

then,

may be arranged

as follows

:—
e,
i,

(1.)

a,
?,

0,

u, y.
s.

[ Five Semi-vowels,
(2.)

m,

n. r,

Nineteen

|

^

Four Labials,
Six Palatals,
Consonants,

p,h,f,v.
c,k, qu; g, h, (j).
d.
z.

Consonants,
divided into

-l

Mutes

(

j

(Two
Two Double

Lingual Dentals,.. <,
x,

[

A diphthong is 9. The word Diphthong means "double sound." composed of two vowels combined together in pronunciation. Those of most common occurrence are ae, oe (both sounded e), and au; as, ei, eu, oi, and ui are rare. coenae, audio,
Obs.

— When two vowels meet in a word, but are not to be taken as
mark
lias

a

diphthong, a

of diaeresis (") is placed over the second: as,

poeta, pronounced po-e-ta.

*

A

vowel sound

two characteristics:
it

and, secondly, when it is once formed, this second property, and hence their
», r,

First, it comes freely in pronunciation; Tlie semi-vowels possess can be prolonged. The semi-vowels /, m, of half-vowels. name

are also called liquids.


SYLLABLES

;

— WORDS.

11

SECTION ll.-SYLLABLES-QUANTITY.
1.

2.

A A

Syllable
syllable

is

one distinct articulate sound.
consist of one letter,
if

may

that letter be a vowel

or of two or

more

letters

sounded at a breath.
i,

Every

syllable
te,

contain one vowel sound; as,

"go;"

et,

"and;"

must "thee;"

poenae, "of punishment ;" urbs, " a city." 3. The quantity of a syllable is the time taken up in pronouncing
it.

short and lon^.

Hence, as regards quantity, there are two kinds of syllables— A syllable which is sometimes pronounced short,
is

and sometimes long, 4. When we wish
with a curve, thus

called variable.
is

to indicate that a syllable

short,

we mark
{i.e.,

it

sedeo; that
it is

it is

long, with a horizontal stroke,

thus— sedes ;
5.

that

variable, with both, thns

(enebrae

either

tenebrae or tenebrae).

A
;

short syllable

is

said to have one " time" {r)i5ra),

syllable

two " times."
all

Hence a long

ones

hence, too,

and a long two short diphthongs, being composed of two vowel
syllable is equal to

sounds, are long.
6.

Tlie quantity of a syllable generally depends on the vowel of

tliat syllable.
it

A

vowel
is

may

be long either

(1)

by nature

i.e.,

when
it

has absorbed, or

supposed to have absorbed, another vowel or a
;

consonant, as in diphthongs and contracted syllables
stands before two consonants or a double consonant the latter case
it is

or (2)

when

— as, mellis.

In

said to be long by position.

CHAPTER 11— CLASSIFICATION OF WORDS.
1.

The

eight classes,

words which form the Latin language may be grouped in commonly called the Eight Parts of Speech.

2. Four of these suffer changes, or inflexion, on the final syllables, and hence are called Declinable. The other four remain unchanged.

DECLINABLE.

INDECLINABLE.

Substantive (Noun).

Adverb.
Preposition.
Interjection.

Adjective (Noun).

Pronoun.
Verb.

Conjunction.
inflexion of substantives, adjectives,
\

06s.— The

and pronouns

is

called

Declension (dedinatio)

that of verbs, Conjugation {conjugatio).

!

12
3.
(I.)

El.KMlCNTAllY LATIN

GRAMMAR.
is

A

Siilistantive

(Noun)

is

a word which

used as the

name

of anything that
ildinns,

we speak about:
;

as, serviis, slave;

equm, horse;

house

•,jilxtUia, justice

htillum, war.
is

4. (II).

An

Adjective (Noun)

a word which

is

used with a sub-

fact: as,

announce some bonus 2Mer, a good boy; tres equl, three horses. 5. (III). A Pronoun is a word which is used to supply the place of a substantive, or to point to some substantive going before or following as, ego, I (ft,, thou fjui, who ille, that person. G. (IV.) A Verb is that part of speech which is used to make an
stantive, to indicate
attribute, or to
: ;

some quahty or

;

;

assertion about sometliing
praises the boy.

:

as,

magister lauddt

pMrum,

the master

7. (V.) An Adverb is a word which is used Avith verbs, adjectives, and adverbs, to modify their meaning in regard to time, place, manner, &c. as, turn praeerai exercUtii, he at that time commanded the army acnter pugnant, they fight keenly. 8. (VI.) A Preposition is a word wliich is placed before substantives, to show in what relation a thing, an action, or an attribute stands to some other thing as, fiscos cum pecunia, bags witli money venit in urhem, he came into the city. 9. (VII.) A Conjunction* is a word which serves to connect words, phrases, clauses, and sentences to one another each to one of its own kind: &s, pater et mater, the fatiier and mother; diu et acrlter, long and keenly froximus aetute, et ejitsdem clvitdtis, most nearly coeval, and a fellow -citizen lego et disco, I read and learn ;
: ;
:

;

;

;

lego ut discam, I read that I
10. (VIII.)

may
is

learn.

An

Interjection

a word which
!

is

used to express
!

some emotion

of the

mind

:

as, heu, alas

euge, bravo

heus, holla

CHAPTEK
1.

III.—INFLEXION, ETC.
made on the terminations of certain which we are able to show how the related to one another, how they are comof

Inflexion

is

the change

parts of speech, by

means

words of a sentence are
bined, and what
is

the nature of each proposition.

* It must be borne in iniinl tliat Ihtre arc other words which connect chiusus and sentences together, such us Relative Pronouns and Relative Adverbs.

3

GENDER

— NUMBER.

1

2. In the declinable parts of speech the inflexions are regulated by the " accidents " of Gender, Number, and Case ; and in verbs,

by those of Mood, Tense, Number, and Person.

GENDER.*
Animals are divided into two classes or sexes, the male and the female. Things without life have no distinction of sex. And thus we have three classes of things viz., things of the male sex, things of the female sex, and things of neither sex. there is a corre4. In the names of things— i.e., substantives sponding classification into Masculine Gender, Feminine Gender, and Neuter Gender. The word neuter means " neither." 5. The name of an individual of the male sex is called a mascu3.

line substantive

;

of one of the female sex, a feminine substantive

;

and of one of neither sex, a neuter substantive. 6. When a word can be applied either to the male or the female animal of a class, it is said to be of the Common Gender as, parem^, a parent, (either father or mother ;) clvis, a citizen, (either male or Such words are called female ;) vdtes, a prophet, or prophetess. masculine when applied to males, and fenanine when applied to
:

females.
7.

An

Epicene Noun

is

one which, while indicating an object that
as, axi'uAla,

has sex, yet leaves the sex unspecified:
IMSser, a sparrow, t
8.

an eagle;

Words

are said to be of Doubtfid

Gender which are used some:

times in one gender and sometimes in another
(masc. or fern.)

as,

dies,

a day,

NUMBER,
means
10.
is that change in the form of a declinable word by which we are able to indicate whether we are speaking of one object, or of more than one.

9.

Number
of

Plural, of

There are two Numbers ; the Singular, used of one the more than one. Singular comes from the Latin word
; ;

singuli, one by one

Plural, from plus, (gen. plur-is,) more.

• For the Rules of Gender, see Appendix.

t In the names of animals, we find that some are always, or almost always, feni., as, vuipes, a fox; aqitila, an eagle, <fcc. ; while others are as regolarly raasc.,— as,

passer, a sparrow; piscis,

a fish;— the iionuins having, fiom some cause or other, associated with one class the male sex, and witli anotlier tlie female.

;

14

ELEMENTARY LATIN GRAMMAR.
CASE.

11.

Case

is

the form in which substantives, adjectives, and protlie

nouns are used, for
12.

purpose of expressing the relation in which

they stand to other words in the sentence.

There

are six

Cases,— the Nominative, Genitive, Dative,

Accusative, Vocative, and Ablative.

CHAPTER

IV.— SUBSTANTIVES.
SECTION
I.

GENERAL REMARKS.
1.

A

Substantive (Noun)

is
:

a word which
as,

is

used as the name of
;

anything that we speak about
helium, war
2. 3.
;

senms, a slave

dumus, a house

justitla, justice.

Substantives are of two kinds,

— Common and Proper.
:

A Common

Substantive

is

a word which can be used as the
as, miles, solicrls, city,

nauie of each individual of the members of a class
dier, applicable to

any

soldier; Squus, horse, to

any horse;

to

any
4.

city.

A Proper Substantive is a word which is used as the name some special individual (person, animal, place, or thing) as, Romulus, Romulus Roma, Rome Bucephalus, (the horse) Buof
:

;

;

cephalus.
5.

Substantives are divided into five classes, called Declensions,
declension to which a substantive belongs

according to the system of inflexions adopted in forming their cases.

The

is

known by the

in-

flexion* of the genitive singular.

flexion.

word may be divided into two parts— the stem and the inis that part which remains unaltered throughout all the cases mens- in mens-a. The inflexion is that part which suffers change; as, -ae, -am, -a, -arum, -is, -as, &c. The stem of a noun may be ascertained by tailing away the inflexion of the gen. sing.; e.g., from mens-ae take away -ae, and mens- remains as tlie stem. In the paradigms of inflected words the stem is separated from tlie inflexion by a dash thus, mens ae. Stem is here used in a populai' sense: the stem oi mensa is, strictly spealiing, mensa-.
* Every declinable

The stem
as,

and numbers;


GENFztAL REMABKS.
6.

15

The Genitive Singular

of the First Declension ends in -ae.

...

Second Third
Fourth
Fifth

...
... ...

...

-i.

...
... ...

-is.

-us.
-ei.

...

7.

The
:

following general remarks are applicable to all the declen-

sions
(1.)

The

noni.

and voc, both

in the sing,

and the

plur., are

the

same
sion.
(2.)

in form,

except in nouns in -us of the Second Declen-

(3.)

The The

dat.

and

all. plur. are

always alike.
ace. plur. in -s, in

ace. sing,

always ends in -m, and the

masc. and fem. nouns.
(4.)

Neuter nouns have the ace. and voc. in each number the same as the nom., and in the plur. these (three) cases end
in -a.

(5.)

The

gen. plur. ends in -um.

Other points of similarity in the several declensions Ohs. 1. will be observed by the student; e.g., that in the Third,
Fourth, and Fifth, the nom., ace, and voc. plur. are always the same; that in the First and Fifth the gen. and dat. sing. are the same, respectively; that the dat. and abl. sing, of the Second are identical and that the dat. plur. of the first two ends in -Is, and of the other three, in -hus. In learning the declensions of nouns, the student should Ohs. 2. at the same time learn carefully the inflexions of adjectives, which are precisely the same, with some slight exceptions to be detailed in their proper place. Thus, of the adj. bSiius, good, the fern., bona, is declined exactly like menaa; the masc, bonus, like servus; and the neut., bonum, like malum.
;

N.B.

It is highly important that pupUs should be accustomed from the very first to exemplify in practice the rules of quantity which guide them in versification. Thus we should distinguish ido, I eat, from edo, I put forth; levis, light, from Icvis, smooth; pljpulus, the people, from populus, the poplar tree. To facilitate

this exercise, the quantity of each syllable is

marked

in the fol-

lowing paradigms, except in a few cases which are provided for by the rules on p. 11, 6. The quantity of the stem syllables
is

the same in

all

the cases, and

is

therefore

marked

only in the

Qom.

16

KLEMIENTARY LATIN GRAMMAR.

SECTION

II.

FIRST DECLENSION.
1.

The nouns

of this declension
p. 14,

the gen. in -ae* (See

note *

end in the nom. sing, and p. ] 5, N.B.)
;

in -d,

and

iu

Singular.

Nom. Mens-a,
Ocn.

fein.,

a

tabic.-]:

Plural. Mens-ae, tables.

Dat.
Ace.
Voc.

Mens-ae, a table's, or of a table. Mens-arum, tables', or of tables. Mens-ae, to or for a table. Mens-is, to or for tabks.

Mens-am, a

table.

Mens-as,

tables.

Abl.

Mens-a, table/ Mens-a, from, with,
tabic.

Mens-ae,
in, or
tables.

tables/
witli, in,

hy a Mens-is, from,

or by

2.
-Is.

A

few nouns have -uhus in the dat. and
as, fili-a,

abl. phir., as well as

They

are such as have a masculine of the
:

same stem

in the

a daughter ; but fUi-us, a son, of the Second. So the adjectives, duo, two, and amho, both, have in their fern, dudhus and ambahus.
f.,

Second Declension

Singular.

Plural.
Fili-ae, daughters.

Nom.
Gen. Dat.
Ace.
Voc.

Fili-a, fern.,
Fili-ae,

a daughter. a

a

daug/Uer's, or of

Fili-arum,
daughters.

dauglUers',

or

of

daughter.
T\li-a,e, to or for

a daughter.
/

Fili-abus, or filiis, to or for
Fili-as, daughters, [daughters.

Fili-am, a daughter.
Tili-k,

daughter

Tili^e,

daughters/

Abl.

Fili-a, frovi, wit/i, or ly

a

Fili-abus, or filiis, /ro?)i,M-i7/i,
or by daughters.

dauglifer.
3. Gender. mensa, table

—The
;

nouns of the First Declension are
niasc.
:

fern.

:

as,

but words denoting males are

as,

nauta, a

sailor.

Also names of rivers in -a, as jSeqiidna, the Seine. AUia, Alhula, and Matrona are fem.
4.

But

Adjectives of this declension are declined exactly like sub-

stantives.

Thus, Bona,

feni.

of

Bonus,

p. 35.

• Greek nouns, of all declensions, liave been omitfed. They will be found in the Appendix, and more fully in the Larger Grammar of this Series. t As there is no Article in Latin, wcnsa may mean either a table or llie. table, according to the sense required.

:

SECOND DECLENSION,
Singular.
Plural.

17

Nom. Bon-a,
Oen. Dat.
Ace.
Vac.

fern.,

good (woman, &c.) Bon-ae, good (wnmen, kc.)

Bon-ae.

Bon-arum.
Bon-is.

Bon-ae.

Bon-am.
Bon-a. Bon-a.
LIST OF

Bon-as
Bon-ae.
Bon-Is.

Abl.

WORDS TO BE DECLINED.
FEMININE.
tliiee

Jgutl-a, an eagle.

The

Funda,

a sling.

FiUa

following like

Squa, a mare. Serv-a, a slave.

Port-a, a gate.

Dta, a goddess.

MASCULINE.
AgricSl-a, a farmer.
Colleg-a, a colleague.

Poel-a, a poet.
Scrib-a, a scribe.

Belg-a, a Belgian.

Naut-a, a sailor.

ADJECTIVE AND SUBSTANTIVE TOGETHER.
Ancilla sldiila, a diligent

Mu!a parva, a small
mule.
Po)-ta aperta,

she-

Puella pukhra, a beautiful
gill.

maid-servant,

Luna plena, the

full inoon.

an open gate.

SECTION

III.

SECOND DECLENSION.
1.

Nouns

of the Second Declension end in the nom. sing, in -us,

-er, -ir, -ur,

and

-xim.

The

gen. sing, ends in

-i.

Singular.

Plural.
slave.

Nom. Serv-us, masc, a
Oen.
Serv-i, of

Serv-i, slaves.

a

slave.

Serv-orum, of slaves.
Serv-is, to or for slaves.

Dat.
Ace.
Voc.

Serv-6, to or for a slave.

Serv-iim, a slave.
Serv-e,
slave
/

Serv-6s, slaves.
Serv-i,
slaves !
li-c, slaves.

All.

Serv-6, /rom,

<ic.,

a

slave.

Serv-is, /ro?n,

LIST OF
Agnus, m., a lamb. Amicus, m., a friend. Annus, a year.

WORDS TO BE DECLINED.
Magnus, m.
adj., great.

Campus, m., a plain.
CetTus, m., a stag.

m

,

Hortus, m., a garden.

Astnus, m., an ass.

LUpus, m., a wolf.

Mdlus, f., an apple tree. Parvus, m. adj., small. Ramus, m., a branch.

ADJECTIVE AND SUBSTANTIVE.
Amicus fiJus, a
friend.
faithful

Hortus amplus, a spacious
garden.

Mains parva, a small apple
tree.

2


18
2.

ELEMENTARY LATIN GEAIOtAR.
Words ending
in -r are declined like serims.

They seem

to

liave

ended originally

in -us,
:

but the inflexion of the nom. and of the

voc. has been lost.

Thus

Singular.

Plural.
boy. Piier-i, hoys.

Nom.
Gen. Dat.
Ace.
Voc.

Flier, uiasc,

a

Puer-i, of

a

boy.

Puer-orum, of
Puer-6s, boys.
Puer-i,
602/s /

boys.

Puer-o,

to

or for n boy.
boy.

Puer-is, to or for boys.

Puer-um, a

V\}.er,Oboyf

Abl.

Puer-6, /?'o?n, <ic.,a hoy.

Puer-is, /ro??i, d-c, boys.

LIST OF
Asper, m.
adj.,

WORDS TO BE DECLINED.
m.
adj., free.

rough.

Liber,

Liber, m., the

Bacchus.

god Liber or (No plur.)

Liber-i,

-Oriim,

ni.,

(no

MUer, m, Tener, m.

adj., wrctclied.
adj.,

tender.

sing.,) children.

ADJECTIVE AND SUBSTANTIVE.
Getier cdriis, a dear son-in-1.1^y.
|

Sifcer beatits, a Iiappy father-in-law.

3.

In most nouns ending
is

in -r, the e of the
is lost

nom.

is

not part of

the stem, but

merely euphonic, and
:

in the oblique cases

(see note *, p. 20)

as,—
Plural.
Magistr-i, masters.

Singular.
JVom. Magister,
Gen.

masc, a master.

Dat.
Ace.
Voc.

Magistr-i, of a master. Magistr-orum, of masters. Magistr-6, to or for a master. Magistr-is, to or for masters.
Magistv-Xira, a master.

Magistr-os, masters.
Magistr-i,
masters.

Magister,
master.

master.'

masters /

Abl.

Magistr-o, /row, dc, a

Magistr-is, /roni, dc.,

LIST OF
J.g?r, m., a field.
I

WORDS TO BE DECLINED.
Cciplr, ra.,

a he-goat.

I

I'ujer,

m.

adj., slothful. adj.,

Alexander, m., Alexander.

|

Xiger, m. adj., black.

|

Sacer,

m.

sacred.

ADJECTIVE AND SUBSTANTIVE.
Aper f^rus, a savage
boar.
|

LUir parvus, a small book.

4. Similarly are declined vir,

and

its

compounds, triumvir, decemis

vir, &c.

Levir, a husband's

brother, brothcr-in-laW;
-i>.

the only

other word of this declension ending in


SECOND DECLENSION,
Singular.
Plural.
Vir-i, men.

;

19

Xom.
Gen, Dat.
Ace.
Voc,

a man. Vir-i, of a man. Vir-6, to or /or a man. Vir-um, a man,
Vir,

Vir-orum, of men.
Vir-is, lo or for men,

Vir-6s, men.
Vir-i,

Vir,

man I
li-c,

men /

All.

Yit-bjfrom,

ama7i.

Vir-is, /row, dc., men.

5.

All words in

-um

are neuter.
:

The

following rule

must be ob-

served in their declension

Neuter nouns have the nom., ace, and and in the plural these cases end in -a.
Singular.

voc. alike in

each number

Plural.

Nom. Mal-iim,
Gen.

neut.,

an an

apple.

Mal-a, apples.

Mal-i, of an apple.

Mal-6rum, of
apple.

apples.

Dat,
Ace.
Voc,

Mal-6,

to

or for

Mal-is, to ovfor apples.

AU,

Mal-um, an apple. apple/ Mal-um, Mal-6, /j'om, d-c., an
LIST OF

Mal-a, apples. Mal-a, apples!
apple.

Mal-is, from,

<£-c.

,

apples.

WORDS TO BE DKCLLN'ED
n.,

CoUum,

n.,

the neck.

Oram,

an egg.
n.,

Signum,

n.,

a statue, sign.

Donum,
FOlium,

n.,
n.,

a
a

gift.

I'Oculum,

a cup, bowl.

7'eiiipluiii, n.,

a temple.

leaf.

ADJECTIVE AND SUBSTANTIVE.
Bellum longum, a tedious war. Ovum magnum, a large egg.
I

Arvum

latum, a wifle

field.

|

Oppidum parvum, a small town.

6.

Gender.

— Substantives in

-us, -er,

and -ur are generally
in the

nuisc.

those in
7.

-um

are neut.
;

Deus, godj has the voc. sing, like the nom.

voc. plur. it has dii (contracted into di) as well as dei;
dat.

and

abl., diis

(contracted into dis) as well as deis.

nom. and and in the Thus
:

Singular.

Plural.
De-i, Di-i, or Di, gods.

Nom.
Gen.

De-iis, m.

,

a god.

De-i, of

a

god.

De-orum, of gods.
De-is, Di-is, or Dis, to or for gods.

Dat.
Ace.
Voc.

De-6,

to

or for a god.

De-iim, a god.
De-iis,

De-os, gods.
De-i, Di-i, or Di,

god I
poetry,

gods I
<tc.,

Abl.

He-Offi'om, d-c, a god.
Obs.

De-is, Di-is, or Dis,/)-om,

gods.

— In

the voc. sing,

and in solemn religious forms (as treaties, &c.), of other words in -us is often made like the nom.


20

ELEMENTARY LATIN GRAMMAR.

8. Adjectives which have the masc. in -2ts or -er, and the neut. in -um, are declined like nouns of this declension. The masc. in -us has the same inflexions as servus; in -er, the same as puer or tnagister; and the neut. in -um, the same as malum. The fem. form

in -& belongs to the First Declension,

mensa.
tenera

Thus, bonus
(f.),

(m.),

bona

(f.),

and follows the inflexions of and honum (n.), good ; tener (m),
(See p. 35.)

and tenerum

(n.),

tender.

SECTION

IV.

THIRD DECLENSION.
1. In the First and Second Declensions the stem of a noun may be easily distinguished, even in the nom. but in the Third Declension it is so disguised, by the omission of consonants or the modifica;

tion of vowels, that

it

the oblique* cases.

The

cannot be known without reference to one of following arrangement groups the nouns

of this declension in Seven Classes, according to the change which

takes place on the stem in the nom.
2.

The

gen. sing, ends in

-is,

and the

dat. in

-i.

It will be ob-

served that the nom., ace, and voc. plur. are the same in form.

CLASS
The First Class stemf ill the nom. as,
3.
:

I.

contains those nouns which have the pure

Singular.
(1.)

Plural.
Honor-es, honours.

Nom. Honor,
Gen. Dat. Ace.
Voc.

m., honour.

Honor-i,

Honor-Is, of honour. to or for honour.

Honor-um,

of honours.

Honor-ibus,

Honor-em, honour. honour/ Honor,
Honor-e, from, dkc,
honour.

to or for honours. Honor-es, honours. Honor-es, honours!

Abl.

Honor-ibiis, from,
honours.

<tc.,

So

also anser, a goose, m. or

f.

:—
Plural.
Anser-es.

SiKanLAR.
(2.)

Nom. Anser.
,

Oen.

Anser-is,
&c.
• ie., gen., dut., ace, abl.

Anser-um.
&c.
t

See

p. 14,

note

*.

THIRD DECLENSION.
LIST OF
Anser, ans?r-is, m. or
Roose.
f.,

21

WORDS TO BE DECLINED.
f.,

a

Exul, erSlis, m. or
exile.

an

Miilier,

mutter-is,

{.,

a a

woman.
Pastor,
Sol,

Arbor, arbSr-is,
sar.

a tree. Caesar, Caesar-is. m., Caef.,

(No

pliir.)

Far, fdris, m., a thief. (Gen. plur. -urn or -ium.) Grdvior, gravior-is, m. and
f.

pastor -is,
is,

m.,

slieplierii.

Sol

m.,

the

sun.

Consul,con.'iul-is,m.,ii

consul

adj., lieavier. (Abl. sing.

Dolor, dolor-is, m., grief.

-c

or

-i;

gen. plur. -urn.)

(Wants Ken. plur.) Timor, timor-is, in., fear.

ADJEOTIVE AND SUBSTANTIVE.
Ftlr malus, a wicked thief.

Pastor fidus, a faithful shepherd.

Sol cldrus, a bright snn. Siror blanda, a kind sister.

4.

To

this class belong

nouns

\\\& pater

in the oblique cases, so that the gen. ispatris,
Obs.

and mater, which omit and not paieris.

e

Iter,

n.,

a journey, has Utner-is, from the old form of the

nom,

iliner.

Singular.
(3.)

Plural,
TT&tr-es, brothers.

Nom.
Oen.

YrQ,ier,m., a brother.
Fratr-is, of a brother.
Fratr-I, to or for a brother.

Fratr-um, of

brothers.

Dat.
Ace.
Voc.

Fratr-ibus, to or fur brothers.
Fratr-es, brothers.
Fratr-es,
brothers!

Fratr-Sm, a brother.
Frater,
Fratr-e,
brother.

brother!

Abl.

from,

dc,

a

Fratr-ihu«, from, &c,
l/rothers.

LIST OF
Areipfter,
accipitrit,

WORDS TO BE DECLINED.
,

m., a

Mater, matris, f a motlier.
Pater, jiatris,
lu.,

Vter, utris, m., a bap.

hawk.
Imber,* imbrit, m., rain.

a father.

Venter,vcntri$, m.,the Ijellf.

5.

See rule

for the inflexion of neuters, p. 19, art. 5.

Rinqular.
(4.)

Plural.
AnImal-iS, animals.

Novi. Animal,

Oen. Dat.
Ace.
Voc.

an animal. Animal-is, of an animal.
n.,

Animal-ium, of animaJs.
Animal-ibus,
to

Animal-i,

to

an animal.

animals.

Abl,

Animal, an animal. Animal, animal/ Animal-i,t /rom, rfc, an
animal.

Animal-ia, animals. animals! Animal-ia,

Animal-ibuB, /rom, de., animals.

* Jniber, uter,

t

Neuters In

-«, -«, -al,

and venter have -ium in the gen. pluv. /rnler has the abl. sing, and -ar, have -t in the abl. sing.

in -« or

-i.


22

ELEMENTARY LATIN GRAMMAR,
LIST OF

WORDS TO
niriR.

I!E

DECLINICD.
Vfis, vas-is, n.,

Atquor,*
sea.

acjifJ/'-t*;, ii.,

the

Ful(jur,fti!gur-ts, n., llgliU

a vessel. (PI-

vasa, -orum, 2nd Dccl.)
n.,

Cadaver, cadav^r-is,
corpse.
Calcar,
spur.
calcar-is,

n.,

a
a

Papaver, papaver-is, poppy.
Uber,
iibifr-is,

a

Vectlgal, vectigdl-is, n., re-

venue,

n.,

n.,

an

Ver, ver-is, n., spring.

(Ko

udder.

plur.)

6.

The

adjective par, equal to,

is

declined in

its raasc.

and

fern,

like honor,

and

in its neut. like animal.

(See p. o9.)

CLASS
7.

II.

To the Second Class belong
letter (usually s or
e)

those nouns which, in the nom.,

add a

to the pure

stem

:

as,

Singular.
(1.)

Plural.
TTrb-es, cities.

Nom.
Gen.

Urb-s,

f.,

a

city.
city.

TIrb-is, of

a

TJrb-ium, of
city.

cities.

Dot.
Ace.
Voc.

TJrb-i, to or for

a

Urb-ibus,
Urb-es,

to

or for

cities.

Urb-em, a city. TJrb-s, Ocityl
Vrh-e, from,
d;c.,

TJrb-es, cities.
cities.'

Abl.
Obs.

a

city.

Urb-ibus, /rom, dkc,

cities.

— Monosyllabic nouns whose stem ends in two consonants havo
LIST OF

-ium in the gen. plur.

WORDS TO BE DECLINED.
{nSp-is, m.,

Orus,\

grit-is,

m. or

f,

a

Inops,

and

f.

|

Siis, X sti-if,

m. or
is, (.,

f.,

crane.
fllems, h)?m-is, t, winter.

adj., poor.t

piK{.,

Stirps, slirp-is,

(or m.,)

Trahs, trab

a

beam.

(Wants g.,

d.,

and

ab. pi.)

a root, or race.

(2.)

A'om. Ret-e,
Gen.

Singular. n., a net.

Plural.
Eet-ia, nets.

Ret-is, of a net.
Ret-i, to or for a net.

B-et-mm, of
Ret-ibus,
Ret-ia,
Ret-i§,,
nets.

7iets.

Dat.
Ace.
Voc.

to or

for

nets.

Ret-e, a net.

Ret-e,

Onet/
<tc.,

nets/

All.

Ret-i,§ /roffi,

a

net.

Ret-ibuB, /rom,

dc,

nets.

LIST OF
Qrav-i, grav-ls,
adj..

WORDS TO BE DECLINED,
Ovil-S,
I

Mite, mil-is, n. adj., mild.
ilSnil-e,

dvil-is,

n.,

a sheep-

heavy.

monil-is,

n.,

f

!

fold.

Mari, mar-is,

n.,

the

sea.

necklace.

!

Sedil-^, s^dil-is, n., a seat.

ADJECTIVE AND SUBSTANTIVE.
Afare nltum, the deep sea.
* Acqiior, cadaver, fiilgur, pcipatcr,
|

liete

rUrnm, a wirle-meshod
iilur. in uni.

net.

and Qber have the gen.
contracted for suibus

t Grus and inops have t Gen. plur.

-vm
and

in gen. plur.
abl. subus,
§

-um;

dat.

See

p. 21,

note f.

THir^D DECLENSION.
8.

23
nouns ending
in x-

As X

is

equal to cs or
:

ffs

(see p. 10, 7), all

belong to this class

as,

dux := dues;

lex

= legs.
of laws.
to

Singular.
Ki.

Plural.
Leg-es, laws.

Nom. Lex,
Gen.

f.,

a

latv.

Leg-is, of a law.
Leg-i,
to

Leg-um,

Bat.
Ace.
Voc.

OT for

a law.

Leg-ibus,
Leg-es,

ovfor laws.

Leg-em, a law.
Lex,
laiv !
etc.,

Leg-es, laws.

laws 1

All.
A\>7n.

Leg-e, front,

a law.

Leg-ibus, /cow, d-c, hn Duc-es, leaders.

Dux,

li).

or

f.,

a leader.

Gen.

Due-is, of a leader.
kc.

Duc-um, of
kc.

leaders.

LIST OK
Arx,
arc-is,*
f.,

WORDS TO BE DECLLNEU.
coiijug-is,

Alrox, atroc-is, adj., savage.
adj.,

a citadel. m. and f.
f.

Coiyux,
Felix,

m. or

f.,

Pax,

a consort.
fslic-is,
,

m. and
a
flocl«.

f.

Audax, audac-is, m. and
during.

adj

liappy.
is,

pdc-is, f., peace. (Wants gen. plnr.) Radix, rddlc-is, f., a root. Hex, reg-is, m., a king.

Grex, grig

ni.,

APJKCnVE AND SUBSTANTIVE.
Conjux fdix, a happy consort. Grex foriiiOsus, a beautiful flock.
I

Pax

longa, a lonj; peace.

|

Jicx sacvus, a ciuel king.

9.

The

adjective/5/'i>, ha^ipy,

is

similarly declined.

(See p. 39.)

CLASS
10.

III.

In the Third Class are included those nouns wliich have a
:

vowel inserted in the nom., between the stem and the inflexion
caed-es, for caeds, gen.
caed-is.f

as,

The

gen. plur. usually ends

SiNOULAR.
(1.)

Plural.
Clad-es, defeats.

JVom. Clad-es,

f.,

a

defeat.
defeat.

Gen.

Clad-is, of
Cla.A.-l, to

a

Clad-ium, of defeats.
Clad-ibiis, to or for defeats.

Dat.
Ace.
Voc.

or for

a

defeat.

Clad-em, a defeat.
Clad-es,
defeat.'

Clad-es, defeats.
Clad-es,
defeats.'

Abl.

Cla,A-e, frojn, d-c, a difca'. Clad-ibus,/?-o?;i, dr., defeats.
-iiiin.

" Arx, atrox. audax, and /elix liave the gen. plur. in

The

last

three Of
s,

these iiave the abl sing, in
t

If tlie

-e or -i, though -i is more coninion* vowel were not inserted, ihe denWil would either be rejected before
it.

or

assimilated to

!

24

ELEMENT AKY LkTIS GEA30IAE.
LIST OF
y&bes, nub-ls, £, a clond. Supit, rup-U, f., a rock.

WORDS TO BE DECLINED.
Vulpet. vuJp-U,
j

Vutei,' vat-U,
|

t., a m. or

fox.
f.,

a prophet

SlNQTOAB,
(2.)

PlCRAL.

Xom.
Gen.

Host-Is, m. or

f.,

an enemy. Host-es,

enemies.

Host-is, of an enemy.

Dot.
.Ace.

Host-i,

to

or/or an enemy.

Voc.

Host-is,

All.

Host-em, an encTwy. enemy I Host-es, enemies I ^ostre, frem, <i-c., an enemy. "Kost-ibus, from, ttc., enemies,
LIST OF

HoBt-iam, of enemies. Host-ibas, to or for enemies. Host-es, enemtM.

I

WORDS TO BE DECLINED.
CoUis, eoll-is, m., a hill.

Amnis, amn-ii.t m., a
Auris, aur-it,
Jvis, av-is, t,
t,

river.

an

ear.

Ordvii, griv-ii,
Livit. liv-is,

a

bird.

m. and f. adj., heavy. m. and f. adj., light.

Brlvu, brgv-is, m. and t adj., short. Civis, civ-is, ra. or f., a citizen.

Mentis, mens-is, m., a month.
Miiis, mil-is,

m. and

fc

adj.,

mild.

Obs.

— Some words
abl.
;

have -im in the and some have -em or -im, and
in -is

ace. sing.,
-e

and

-t

in the

or

-i.

11.

Many adjectives

are declined in the masc.

and fem.

like hostis,

and

in the neut. like rete.

(See gravis, p. 38.)

CLASS
12.

IV.

The ForETH
st€m

Cl.^ss includes th/jse

letter of the

in the

nom.

:

as,

sermo

is; lac (for lact), gen. lact-is; cor (for
(for
oss),

nouns which drop the last sermon), gen. sermoncord), gen, cord-is; poem.a
(for

poemat), gen. poemdt-is; mel
gen. OSS-is.

(for mell), gen.

mell-is; 6s (for

SiKdCLAK.
(1.)

Plural.
Sermon-es, conversations.

iVom. Sermo, m., conversation.
Gen.

Sermon-is, of conversation.

Sermon-um, of conversations.
Sermbn-ihuB, to conversations. Sermon-es, conversations.
Sermon-es,
versutions.

Dat. Ace,
Voc.

Sermbn-l,

to conversation.

Sermon-em,

conversation.

All.

conversation Sermo, 8erm6n-e, from, d-c, conversation,

conversations I
d:c.,

Sermon-ibuB, from,

con-

*
t

VaUt has -um in the gen. plan Amnis, avis, citit, and eollis have either and
brfvis

t
-t

or

-i

Bing.; but tjritit, Ifvis, milis,

have

only.

(thongh usnally -<) in the ubL Mentis has sometimes -um in

the gen. plar.

,

THIRD DECLENSION.
LIST OF
Latro, m., a robber.
Lfgio, f, a IcKion.

25

WORDS TO BE DECLINED.
f.,

IJgo, m., a mattock.

Oralio,

Leo, m., a lion.

I'<}vo, an.,

a speech. a peacock.

Praeco. m., a pnbllo ciicr. Pracdo, m., a robber. Ealio, f, reason.

Singular.
(2.)

Plural.
Cord-a, hearts.

Nom.
Oen.

Cor, neut., the heart.
Cord-is, of the heart.
Cori-i, to OT for the heart.

(Cord-ium, or -Tim, of hearts.)
Cord-ibus,
Cord-a,
to

Dat.
Ace.
Vac.

or for hearts.

Cor, the heart. Cor,

Cord-a, hearts.

heart/

hearts/
<Lx.,

Abl.

Cord-e, from, dc., the heart.

Cord-ibus, /rom,

hearts.

LIST OF
Dogma, dogmal-is,
opinion.
Fil, fell- is,
n., bile,
n.,

WORDS TO BE DECLINED.
lact-is, n.,

an

Lac,

milk. (No pi.)
n.,

ds, osj-is, n.,

a bone. (Gen.
n.,

H^l,

(No

honey. (Wants gen., dat, and
mell-is,

plur. in -itim.)

Poeina,

poimatit,

a

gen. plur.)

abl. plur.)

poem.
abl.

Obs.

— Words

in -ma, like

plur. in -w, instead of -ibus ; as poematis, for

poema, usually make the dat. and poematVms.

CLASS
13.

V.

To the Fifth

Cl.\?3 belong those
lat(.s

nouns which omit
f.,

d

or

i

in the nom., before the final s: as,

(for lauds), gen. laud-is,

f

praise

;

/ron.s {ioT /ro7its), gen. front-is,
is

the forehead.

In one

word n

dropped;

viz., sanff^li3 (for

sanguins), gen. sangnhi-i^,

m., blood.

Singular.
(1.)

Plural,
Laud-es, praises.

Nom. Laus,
Oen.

f.,

praise.

Laud-is, of p ra i-se.
Laud-i,
to or for praise.

Laud-um, of praises.
Laud-ibus,
Laud-es,
praise.
to or for Laud-es, praises.

Dat. A«c.
Voc.

pi'uiscs.

Laud-8m, prai>(?.
Laus,
praise/
dkc.,

praises/

Abl.
(2.)

L&nd-e, from,
f.,

Laud-ibus, /rom, dr., praises.
Front-es, foreheads.

Nom. Frons,
Gen. Dat.
Ace.
Voc.

the forehead.

Tiont-ls, of the forehead.
Front-i,
to the forehead.

Front-ium, of foreheads.
Front-ibus,
Front-es,
to forehead^!.

Front-5m, the forehead. Frons, forehead/
FTont-e,from,d-c.,thefoi-chead.
^

Tront-es, foreheads.
foreheads/
ti^c,

All.

Front-ibus, /rom,
heads.

fore-

26

ELEMENTARY LATIN GRAMMAR.
Singular.

Plural.
Lapid-es, stones.

(3.)

Norn. Lapis, m., a stone.
Gen.
Lapid-is, of a stone.
Lapid-i, to or for a stone.

Dat.
Ace.
Voc.

Lapid-um, of stones. Lapid-ibus, to or for
Lapid-es, stones.
Lapid-es,
stones !

stones.

Lapid-em, a
Lapis,

s<onc.

stone.'

All.

Lapid-e, /rom,

Ac, a

stone.

Lapid-ibus, /ry)«.,

etc., stones.

LIST OF
Aetas* Amans,
aetfU-is,
f.,

WORDS TO BE DECLINED.
(lot-is,
f.,

ape.

Don,
f.

ninant-is,

m. and

Fviis, foiil-ts,

a dowry. ni., a founi.,

Pars, pnrl-is, f
I'fs, 2>Sd-i.%

,

a part.

m., a loot.
{.,

adj., loviiip.

tain.
art.
[.,

Sal lis,
a leaf.
f,

salut-is,

safety.

Ars, art-is,

{.,

From:, frond-i.i,

(No
an
f.

plur.)

CivXtas, cluitcit-is,

a state
f.,

O'lfins,

gland

is

Sapiens, sapient-is,
adj., wise.
f.,

m. and
virtue.

or city.
Cuslos, cusiud-is,

acorn.

m. or

a

keeper.

Mens, ment-is, f., tlie mind. Mors, mo7-t-is, f death.
,

Virtils, virtUi-is,

14.

Obs.

amans, loving; inonens, and all adjectives of similar termination, are declined like nouns of this class. (See p. 40.)
participles ending in -ns, as
;

— All

advising, &c.

CLASS
15. Tlie

VI.
in which the final

Sixth Class embraces those nouns
is

vowel of the stem

changed in the nom.

:

as,

stem iiomin-, but

uom. no)iien; stem

cdjnt-, but

nom. caput.
Plural. Nomin-a, names.

(1.)

Nom. Nomen,
Gen.

Dat.
Ace.
Voc.

Singular. n., a name. Nomin-is, of a name. Nomin-i, to or for a name. Nomen, a name.

Komin-um,

of names. Noniin-ibus, to or for names.

Nomen,

name!
t£r.,

Nomin-a, names. Nomin-a, names!
d;c.,

Ahl.

Nomin-e, /ra;)i,

a name. Nomin-ibus,/cci»i,
Capit-a, Iieads.

names.

Nom.
Gen.

Capiat, n., a head.

Capit-is, of a licad.
Capit-i, to or for

Capit-um, of
Gapit-ibus,

Iieads.

Dat.
Ace.
Voc.

a head.

to or

for

Jicads.

Caput, a Caput,

liead.

Capit-a, heads. Capit-a,
Iieads!

head!

Ail.
* Aetas
.':apie>is

Capit-e, /rom, ttc, a hcail.

Capit-ibus, /)'om, dr., heads.

Iiave -turn.

and civitas liave -iiin utteiicr tican -iitm in tlie gen. plur. Amans and have -iiim oftener than -urn. Custos. pes, and virtus have -um only; the reat Fars has -e, and sumetimes -i, in the abl. sing.

:

THIRD DECLENSION".
LIST OF
Cariiit'ii,

27

WORDS TO BE DECLINED.
JlumTn-U,
n.,

catniiii-is,

n..

a

Fluinen,
river.

a
n.,

Ndinen,
(ti'ity.

numln-is,

ii.,

a
a

poem.

Mar,

ibdr-ls,

n.,

ivory.

Gramen,
grii>.-i.

r/rdmln-ls,

I'eclen,

pectln-Xs,

m.

(Plur. rare.)

comb.

ADJECTIVE AND SUBSTANTIVE.
Carmen
poem.
gratiim, a pleasing
I

Pectfn cburneus, an ivory

I

Gramen

rfcens, fresli grass.

I

comb.

[

CLASS
16.
final letter of

Yir.
tlie

In the Seventh Class are ranged those nouns in which
the stem
is

changed, in the nom., into s:

mor), gen. mor-is;

flos {iovjfor), g&w. flor-is

as,

mos

(for

Singular.
(1.)

Plural.
Flor-es, flowers.

Nom.
Gen.

Flos,

111.,

a flower.

'Elor-is,

of a flower.

Dat.
Ace.
Voc.

Flor-i, to or for a flower.

Flor-ibus,

Flor-um, of flowers. to or for flowers.
Flor-es, flmcers.

Flor-em, aflo^ver.
Flos,
"Elox-e,

flower!

Flor-es,

flowers!

Abl.

from, &c., aflmer. a
leg.
leg.
leg.

Flor-ibus, /rom, £c., flowers.

(2.)

Nom.
Gen.

Crus,

n.,

Cnlr-a,

legs.
legs.

Crur-is, of a

Crur-um, of
Crur-ibus,
Crur-a, Crur-a,
to
legs.

Dat.

Crur-i, lo or for a

or for legs.

A cc.
Voc.

Crus, a Crus,

leg.

leg!
d-c.,

legs !
legs.

Abl.

Cv\XT-e,from,

a

leg.

CTUV-ibns,fro7n, &c.,

LIST OF

WOUDS TO BE DECLIXED.
Os, dr-ui, n.,tlie face,

Aa,

aer-is,

n.,

brass.

(Wants gen.

plur.)

Mos, mor-u, m., custom. Mus, mur-is, m. or f.,

mouth.

JuSyjur-is, n., law, right.

mouse.

(Wants gen. plur.) Rus. rur-is, n.; the country.
Tellus, (clliir-is,
{.,

Mas,* mar-is, m., a male.

the earth.

COMPOUND VARIETIES.
17.

The Seven

Classes thus set forth

comprehend
;

all

the impor-

tant simple varieties of this declension
• .Mas

hut there are
botll -e

many nouns
-i

sing.;

it

and mus have -iiin in the Kcn. plur. wants the gen., dat., and abl. plur.

Rus has

and

in tliu .ibl

28

ELEMENT A.KY LATIN GRAMMAR.

not yet exemplified, which exhibit the pecuharities of more than one Thus (1.) Judex, which makes the gen. judXc-is, adds s to the class.
stem, like the nonns of Class II.; and also changes the last vowel of

the stem, like those of Class VI.
princeps, gen. ^:)rmci5^-?s
;

So and many

also vertex, gen. vert'ic-is;

others.

(2.)

Homo,

cardo,

imago, and such like, drop the final n of the stem, like sermo, and change the last vowel of the stem, like Class VI. Class IV. (3.) Miles, equSs, dives, and many others, omit t before s, like Class
;

and change the final vowel of the stem, like Class VI. Corpus, tempxLs, vvlnus, fu7ius, &c., change the last vowel of the stem, as the nouns of Class VI.; and substitute s for r, like those
v.;
(4.)

of Class VII.

Thus:—
Classes.

Nom.

Stem.

Gen.

Enclish.

(1.)

(2.)
(3.)

(4.)

and VI. Judex, IV. and VI. Homo, V. and VI. Miles, VI. and VII. Corpus,
II.

Judic-,

Judic-is,

Homin-, Homin-is,
Milit-,
Milit-is,

Corpor-,

Corpor-is,

a judge. a man. a soldier. a body.

Singular.
(1.)

Plural.
Judic-es, judges.

JVom. Judex, m., a judge.
Gen.

Bat.
Ace.
Voc.

Ahl.

a judge. a judge. Jndic-em, a judge. judge I Judex, Juiic-e, fro7n, dc., a judge.
Judic-is, of
Judic-i, to

Judic-um, of judges.
Judic-ibus,
Judic-es,
to

judges.

Judic-es, judges.

judges!

JuAio-ibus, from, dc. , judges.

LIST OF
/ntfe.r,

WORDS TO BE DECLINED.
Vertex,
verKc-is,

indk-is, m.,

an

in-

Princeps,* princTp-is,

m., the

former.
Pollex,
polKc-is,

and
m.,

£ adj., chief. renug-is,
vn.,

summit.

the

liemex,

thumb.

oarsman.

Singular.
(2.)

Nom. Homo, m.
Gen.

or

f.,

a

man

(or

Plural. Homin-es, men.

Dat.
Ace.
Voc.

Homiii-Is,o/awifm.[i«oma?i.)Homiii-um, of men. Homin-ibus, to men. Homin-i, to a man.

Homin-em, a man. Homo, man !
Homin-e, /rom, a man.
* Abl.
(fie,

Ahl.

Homin-es, m^n. men ! Homin-es, Homin-ibus, /rowi,
men.

cC-c,

sing, in -e only; gen. plur. in -um.

THIRD DECLENSION.
LIST OF WOKDS TO BE DECMXED.
Arunclo,
reed.

29

arundln-is,

f.,

a

ImCigo,

{maijln-is,

{.,

an

Ordo,
Viif/o,

oi-dXn-is,

m., order.
i.,
i

Image.
^'emo,
j>em!n-ts,

vinjin-is,

Cardo, cardXn-is, m., a hinge. Grando, grandXn-is, {., hail.

(Wants
'

voc.

no one. sing, and all

niaideiL

the plur.;

abl. sing, rare.)
i

Obs.

— Caro,

f.,

flesh,

stem carin-, drops the

in the oblique cases;

as, gen. carnis, dut. carni, &c.

Singular.
(3.) iVoni.

Plural.
Mint-§s,
soldiers.

MilSs, m., a soldier.
Milit-is, of

Gen.

a

soldier.

Milit-um, of
Milit-ibus,

soldiers.

Dat.
Ace.
Voc.

Milit-i, to or for

a

soldier.

to or

for

soldiers.

Mllit-em, a soldier.
Miles,
soldier
I
,

Milit-es, soldiers.

Milit-es,

soldiers/

Abl.

Milit-e, /rom,

ttc.

a

soldier. Milit-ibus, /ro»i, die, soldiers.

LIST OF
Cespfi, eespit-is, m., turf.

WORDS TO BE DECLINED.
Obsis, obsid-is,

Squis, (quU-is, m., a horse-

m. or

f.,

CSmls, cSmU-is,

ni.

or

f.,

a

man.

hostage.

companion

18
fern.

The

adjective dives

is

declined like miles in the masc. and

Tlie neut. follows the usual rule.

(See p. 19,

5.)

Singular.
(4.)

Plural.
Corpor-a, bodies.
body.

Ifom Corpus,
,

n.,

a body.

Gen.

Corp6r-is, of

a

Dat.
Ace.
Voc.

Corpor-i, to or for

a body.

Corpor-um, of bodies. Corpor-ibus, to or for bodies.
Corpor-a, bodies.
Corpor-a,
bodies/
etc., bodies.

Corpus, a body. Corpus,

body/

All.
(5.) i\'o»i.

Corp or-e, /com, d-c, a body. Corpor-ibus, /rojrt,

Gen.

Dat.
Aec.
Voc.

a wound. Vuln§r-is, of a wound. Vulner-i, to or for a wound. Vulnus, a wound. wound/ Vulnus,
Vulnus,
n.,

Vuln?r-a, wounds.

Vulner-um, of wounds.
Vulner-ibus,
to

or for wounds.

Vulner-a, wounds. Vulner-a,

wounds/

Abl.

Vulner-e,/rom, <i:c.,awound. Vulner-ibus, /rom,cC'c. ,woMnc?j.
LIST OF

WOUDS TO BE DECLINED.
Pulvis, pulvgr-is, m., dust.
ScSlUs,
sc^lir-is,
n.,

Diciis^ dfcdr-is,

n

,

beauty.

Frigtu, frigSr-is,

n., cold.

Munus, mun?r-\s, n., a gift. Nlmta, nemOr-is, n., a
prove. dpUs, Bp?r-is,
n.,

a

Ofn&s, glner-is,
^n. adj.)

n.,

a kind.

crime.

Graviut, (gen.) gravior-is,
heavier.
Ldliis, Uitfr-h, n.,

a work.
n.,

SidHs, sld^r-is, n., a con-

Pignu),
pledge.

pignOr-is,

a

stellation.

a side.

Tempus, tempOr

is,

n.,

time.


so
19.

ELEMENTARY
Tlie

LA.TIN

GRAMMAU.
;

adjective
feui.

gmvior, heavier,

niasc.
p. 38.)

and

like

is siinihirly declined honor, and the neut. like corjms.

the
(See

20. A few nouns are quite irregular, and cannot be placed under any one of the above classes. Their forms are therefore given

separately

:

Singular.
(1.)

Plural.
cow.

JVom. Bos, m. or
,

f.

,

an ox or

B6v-es, oxen or

coios.

Gen.

Bov-is.

B8-um,
B6v-es.

(for

bov-um).

Dat.
Ace.
Voc.

Bov-i.

Bub-us, or bobus.
Bov-es.

B6v-em.
Bos.
Bov-e.

All.

Bub-us, or b5bus.

(2.)

Norn. Jupiter, m., Jupiter.

Ovn.

J6v-is.
Jov-i.

Dat,
Ace.
Voc.

Jov-em.
Jupiter.
Jov-e.

Ahl.

(3.)

Norn. Senex, m. or

f.,

an

old

man,

Sen-es.

Gen.

Sen-is.
Sen-i.

[or ivoman.

Sen-um.
Sen-ibus.
Sen-es.
Sen-es.

Dat.
Ace.
Voc.

Sen-em.
Senex.
Sen-e.
Vis,

Ahl.

Sen-ibus.
strai.gth.

(1.) .Vo??i.

f.,

Vir-es.

Oen.
Dat.
Ace.
Voc.

(Vis, rare.)
(Vi, rare.)

Vir-ium.
Vir-ibus.
Vir-es. Vir-es.

Vim.
Vi.

Abl.

Vir-ibus.
f.,

(6.)

Norn. Nix,

snoiD.

Niv-es.

Oen.

Niv-is.
&c.

Niv-ium.
&c.

FOURTH DECLENSION.

31

ABSTRACT VIEW OF THE THIRD DECLENSION.
CLASS.
I.

cr.Ass.

Pure stem

in the Nominaiicc.

-

IV. Last

letter

0/ stem dropped.

Consul.
Consul-is.

Honor.
Honor-is.

Sermo.
Sermon-Is.

Lac, n.
Lact-is.
s.

V. Letter thrown out be/ore

Aetas.
II.

Letter

added

Laus.
Laud-is.

to stent.

Urb-s.
Urb-is.

Dux

Aetat-i».

(=duc-s).
C

Due-is.

VI. Last vowel 0/ stem changed.

Nomen,
Vowel
inserted.

n.

Caput,

>».

Nomia-is.
Nav-i-s.
Clad-e-s.
Clad-is.

Capit-is.

VII. Last consonant of stem changed.

Flos.

Arbos

(or Arbor).

Nav-is.

Flor-is. Arbor-is.

NOUNS WITH PECCLI.\RITIKS OF MORE THAN ONE CLASS.
CLASSES.
(1.) (2.)

NOM.

STEM.

GEN.

(3.)
(4.)

and VI. IV. and VI. V. and VI.
II.

Judex

(Judic-)

Judic-is.

Homo
Miles

(Homin-)
(Milit-)

Homin-is.
Iffilit-is.

VI. and VII.

Corpus

(Corpor-)

Corpor-is.

SECTION

V.

FOURTH DECLENSION.
1.

The nouns
Those

of the

or

-il.

in -us are niasc. or fein.,

Fourth Declension end, in the noni., in and those in -u neut.
Plural.
Fruct-us, /rwi^s.

-us,

Singular.

Xom. Fruct-us,
Gen.

m.,/ri4i<.

Fruct-us, of fruit. Fruct-ui,
to ov

Fruct-uum, of fruits.
Fruct-ibus, to or for fruits.
'Fruct-us, fruits.

hat.
Ace.
Voc.

for fruit.

Fruct-um,
Fruct-us,

frait.

fruit I
iLe.,

Fruct-us,
fruit.

fruits!
drc.,

All.

Fruct-u, //w»,

Fruct-ibus, /row,

fruits.

A'om. Gen-ii, n.,

a

knee.

Gen-ua,

knees.

Gen.

Vat.
Ace.
Voc.

Gen-u,
Gen-u,

Gen-US, of a knee. to or for a knee.
knee:
etc.,

Gen-u, a knee.

Gen-iium, of knees. Gen-ibus, to or for knees. Gen-ua, knees.

Gen-ua,

knees:

AU.

Gen-u,from,

a

knee.

Gen-ibus, /ro?», d-c, knees.

)

32
2.

ELEMENTARY LATIN GRAMMAR.
Several nouns of this declension have also forms belonging to
as,

the Second;
as follows

senatus, gen. senatus or senati.

Domiis

is

declined

:—
Singular.

Nom. Dom-us,
Oen.

f.,

a

house.

Plural. Dom-us.

Dom-us,*

Dom-uum,
Dom-ibus.

or

domoram.

Dat.
Ace.
Voc.

Dom-ui
Dom-iis.

(rarely domo).

Dom-um.
Dom-o
{rarely domu).

Abl.
Ohs.

Dom-6s {or domus). Dom-us. Dom-ibus.

in -cms (and -cu), and also tribus, a tribe; artus, a joint; partus, a birth; partus, a harbour; v^ru, a spit; and one or two others, make the dat. and abl. plur. in -ubus, instead of -ibus. Partus and veru have also -ihus.

1.— Words

Ohs. 2.

— The

following couplet contains those nouns which have
abl. plur.
:

always or usually -uhus in the dat. and

Arcus, acus, portus, quercus, flcus, add, and arttis, Tr'tbus, locus, specus, too ; with vSru, pecu, partus.
LIST OF
a needle, Arcus, m., a bow.
Jlcus, t,

WORDS TO BE DECLINED.
Manus,
NSriis,
Viiltus,
{.,

to., a carriage. ExercUus, m., an army.

Currus,

Cantus, m., a song.

Fluctus, m., a billow.

a hand. a daugliter-ln-law. m., the face.
f.,

Cornu,

n.,

a horn.

Gradus,

la.,

a step.

Viru,

n.,

a spit.

3.

Gender.

—The

nouns of

this declension
:

which end in -us are

generally masc.
(a)
(b)

But the

following are feni
;

Names of trees The words—

as, quercus,

an oak

Acus, a needle. Anus, an old woman. Coins, a distaff (also masc.) Domus, a house.
Idus, (plur.), the Ides {IZth,
or, in

Niirus, a daughter-in-law. PSnus, gen. -us, or -i (f. or m. ,) provisions.

Portlcus, a porch.

Socrus, a mother-in-law.

same

cases, the 1 5th

SpScus, a cave (usually masc,
rarely neut.)

of the month.

Manus, a hand.
4.

Tribus, a
;

tribe.

Words

in -u are neut.

as,

gSnu, a knee.

Domi

is

used in the sense of "at homo.'

FIFTH DECLENSION.

.33

SECTION

VI.

FIFTH DECLENSION.
1. The nouns of the Fifth Declension have the nom. and the gen. in -ei.

sing, in -es

SiNOTTLAR.

Plural.

Nom.
Oen.

Di-es, m. or
Di-ei, of

f.,

a day.

Di-es,

in.,

days.

a

dat/.

Dat.
Ace.
Voc.

Di-ei, to or for a day. Di-em, a day.

Di-erum, of days. Di-ebus, to or /or days.
Di-es, days.

Li-eSfOday/
Di-e, from, d-c, a day.
f.,

Hi-es,

days /

All.

Di-ebus, from,
R-es, things.

dc,

days.

Nom. R-es,
Gen.

a thing.
or for a thing.

R-ei, of a thing.
Ti-ei, to

R-erum, of

things.

Dat.
Voc.

'R-ehus, to or for things.

A cc. R-em,
R-es,
3.-6,

a thing.
thing
I

R-es, things. R-es,
things
I

All.

from,

<Lc,,

a thing.

R-ebus, /ro?ft, dec, things.

2.

Dies and res are the only words of this declension which have

the plnr. complete.

The seven
and
spes,

substantives, dcies, effigies, fades,

gldcies, series, species,

have the nom., ace, and

voc. plnr.

The

other substantives of this declension want the plur. altogether.
Ohs. 1.

— In the gen. and dat. sing, the letter
it,

e is long
:

when a vowel
but

precedes

short

when a consonant

goes before

as, di-e-i;

r-i-i, fid-^-i.

Ohs.

2.

three,

— All the substantives of this declension end in except — a thing; I'lebes (another hope; fides,
-ies,

res,

spes,

s-nd

faith,

form of

plels), the

common

people, also ends in

-cs.

3.

Gender.

—The words of the Fifth Declension are
is

all fern.,

except
masc.

dies,
fern.,

a day, which in the sing,

sometimes masc. and sometimes

but in the plur. masc. only.
LIST OF

The compound mertdies

is

WORDS TO BE DECLINED.*
Fades, a
face.
I

Jiciei,

an army. Ca«ariej, a head of

I

Gldcies, ice.

hair.

|

fWes,

faith

|

Maleries, mutcrin}.

* See No. 2 of this Section.

3


34

;

ELEMENTARY LATIN GRAMMAR.

GENERAL VIEW OF ALL THE DECLENSIONS.
Singular.
1 Decl.

2 Decl.

3

DccL

4

DecL

5 Decl.

Norn. Mens-a.

Serv-us.
Serv-i.

Honor.
Honor-is.

Fruct-iis.

Di-es.
Di-ei.
Di-ei.

Gen.

Dat.
Ace.
Voc.

Mens-ae. Mens-ae.

Fruct-us.
Fruct-iii.

Serv-6.

Honor-i.

Mens-am.
Mens-a. Mens-a.

Serv-um.
Serv-g. Serv-6.

Honor-em. Honor.
Honor-e.

Fruct-iim.
Fruct-iis.

Di-em.
Di-es.
Di-e.

AM.

Fruct-u.

Plural.
Norn. Mens-ae.
Gen.
.

Serv-I.
.

Honor-es.

Fruct-us.

Di-es.

Mens-arum Serv-orum
Mens-is.
Serv-is.

Honor-um. Fruct-uum. Di-erum.
Honor-ibus, Fruct-ibus. Di-ebus.
.

Dat.
Ace.
Voc.

Mens-as.

Serv-6s.
Serv-i.

Honor-es. Honor-es.
,

Fruct-us.
Fruct-us.

Di-es. Di-es.

Abl.

Mens-ae. Mens-is.

Serv-is.

Honor-ibus, Fruct-ibus. Di-ebus.

CHAPTEE v.— ADJECTIVES.
SECTION
I.

INFLEXION OF ADJECTIVES.
1.

An
;

adjective

is

a word used with a noun to denote

some
a

quality or attribute, or to indicate

some

fact

:

as,

bonus

piier,

good boy
2.
(I.)

tres equi, three horses.

Adjectives

may be

divided into three classes

:

Those which have three forms one for each gender: as, bonus, masc, good ; bd7ia, fem., good bonum, neut., good: tener, masc, tender; tenera, fem., tender; tenerum, neut., tender celer, masc, swift ; cSleris, fem., swift ; celere,
; :

neut., swift.
(2.)

Those which have two foruis— one for the masc. and fem. in common, and one for the neut. as, gravis, masc, heavy gravis, fem., heavy; grave, neut., heavy: grdvior, masc,
:

heavier

;

grixvior, fem., heavier

;

grdvius, neut., heavier.

.

INFLEXION OF ADJECTIVES.
(3.)

35
:

Those which have only one form in the noni. for all genders as, filix, masc., happy filljc, fem., happy fUix, neut., happy xiar, masc, equal •par, fem., equal 'par, neut., equal sapiens, masc, wise sapiens, fem., wise ; sapiens,
;
;
:

;

;

:

;

neut., wise.

CLASS
3.

I.

In adjectives of three forms, in -us, -a, -um (as honus), the masc. is declined like servus, the feui. like mensa, and the neut. like malum. Hence these are called adjectives of the First and Second
Declensions.
is

In those of the Third Declension
(p. 20),

(as celer),
(p. 24),

the masc.

declined like aiiser

the fem. like hostis

and the neut.

like rete (p. 22).

When the nom. neut. ends in -e, the abl. sing, ends in -i.
deer,

Obs.— Celer,
or celeris.

in -is: as, deer or dcris,

and such adjectives, have the masc. occasionally masc; dcris, fem.; acre, neut.: so celer

BONUS,
Masc.
(1.)

m.,

BONA,

f.,

BONTJM,

n.,

good.

Singular.
Fem.
Neut.

Nom.
Gen.

Bon-iis.

Bon-a.

Bon-iim.
Bon-i.

Bon-i.

Bon-ae. Bou-ae.

Dat.
Aec.
Vac.

Bon-6.
Bon-iiin.

Bon-o.
Bon-iim.

Bon-am.
Bon-a. Bon-a.

Bon-e.

Bon-iim.
Bon-5.

Abl.

Bon-o.

Plural.

Nom. Bon-i.
Oen.

Bon-ae.

Bon-a.

Bon-5ruin.
Bon-is.

Bon-arum.
Bon-is

Bon-orum,
Bon-is.

Dat.
Ace.
Voc.

Bon-03.
Bon-i.
Bon-is.

Bon-a3. Bon-ae.
Bon-is.

Bon-a. Bon-a.
Bon-Is.
tender.

All.

TENEE, TENEEA, TENERUM,
Singular.
(2.)

Nom
Gen.

.

Tener.
Tener-i.

Tengr-a.
Tener-ae.

Tener-iim,
Tener-i.

Dat.
Ace.
Voc.

Tener-o.

Tener-ae.

Tener-6. Tener-iim,

Tener-um.
Tener.
Tener-6.

Tener-am.
Tener-a. Tener-a.

Tenor-um.
Tener-6.

Abl.

3G

ELEMENTARY

LA.TIN

GRAMMAR,

Plural,
Masc.

Fem.

Neut.

Nom. Tener-i.
Gen.

Tener-ae.

Tener-a.

Tener-orum.
Tener-is.

Tener-arum.
Tenjer-is.

Tener-orum.
Tener-is.

Dal.
Ace.
Voc.

Tener-os.
Tener-i. Tener-is.

Tener-as.

Tener-a. Tener-a.
Tener-is.

Tener-ae.
Tener-is.

Abl.

PIGEE, PIGRA, PIGRUM,
SlNOULAR.
(3.)

lazy.

Nom. Piger.
Gen.
Pigr-i.

Pigr-a.

Pigr-iim.
Pigr-i.

Pigr-ae. Pigr-ae.

Dat.
Ace.
Voc.

Pigr-o.

Pigr-o.

Pigr-um.
Piger.
Pigr-o.

Pigr-am.
Pigr-a.

Pigr-um. Pigr-um.
Pigr-o.

Abl.

Pigr-a.

Plural.

Nom
Gen.

.

Pigr-i.

Pigr-ae.

Pigr-a.

Pigr-oriim.
Pigr-is.

Pigr-arum.
Pigr-is.

Pigr-orum,
Pigr-is.

Dat.
Ace.
Voc.

Pigr-os.
Pigr-i.

Pigr-as.

Pigr-a.

Pigr-ae.
Pigr-is.

Pigr-a.
Pigr-is.

Abl.

Pigr-is.

CELER, CELERIS, CELERE,
Singular.
^4.)

fled

Nom. Celer
Gen.

(or celeris),

Celer-is
Celer-is.

Celer-e.
Celer-is.
Celer-i.

Celer-is.
Celer-i.

Dat.
Ace.
Voc.

Celer-i.

Celer-em.
Celer (or celeris).
Celer-i.

Celer-em.
Celer-is.
Celer-i.

Celer-e.
Celer-e.
Celer-i.

Abl.

Plural.

Nom.
Gen.

Celer-es.

Celer-es.

Celer-a.

Celer-um.
Celer-ibus.

Celer-um.
Celer-ibus.
Celer-es. Celer-es,

Celer-um.
Celer-ibus.
Celer-a. Celer-a.

Dat.
Ace.
Voc.

Celer-es
Celer-es.

Abl.

Celer-ibus.

Celer-ibus.

Celer-ibus.


INFLEXION OF ADJECTIVES.
LIST OF
(1.)

37

WORDS TO BE DECLINED.
Liber, liber-a, Uher-um,, free.
(3.)

Amantl-us,

-a,

-urn,

(deserving) to

be loved.

Amatur-m,
Amat-us,
-a,

-a,

-vm, about to love. -um, loved.
(4.)

Niger, nigra, nigrum, blaek. Nostcr, nostra, nostrum, our.

Pulc/ier,pukhra, pulchrum, beautiful.
Acer, or acris, acris, acre, sharp.
CVli-ber, or -6ns, Celebris, celebre, fa-

Gravissim-us, -a, -urn, heaviest. ZMt-us, -a, -um, broad.

(2.)

Me-us, -u, um, my.* Mult-US, -a, -um, much (many) Parv-us, -a, -um, small. Asper, asper-a, asper-um, rough.

mous.
pater, or ptitris, putris, putre, rotten.
VOlUcer, or volucris, volucris, volucre,
swift.

4.

The

following adjectives of this declension have the gen. sing.
-i,

in -ins,
sing,

and the dat. in and plur. they are

for all genders

;

in the other cases of the

like

hdims;
whole.

viz.

:

Ullus, ani/.

Totns,

all,

Alter, one {of two.)
tJter, which {of two.) Neuter, neither {of two.)

Nullus, none.
Solus, alone.

Onus,

one.

Alius, one {of many.)

NTILLUS, NULLA,
Masc.

NULLUM,

none.

Singular.
Fern.

Nenfc

Nom
Gtn.

NuU-iis.
Null-iUs.

NuU-a. NuU-ius.
NuU-i.

Null-um. NuU-ius.
Null-I.

Dat.
Acc.
Abl.

NuU-i.
Null-iim.
Null-6.

Null-am. Null-a

Null-um.
Null-6.

Plural.

Nom
Gen.

Null-i.

NiiU-ae.

NuU-a.
Null-orum.
Null-is.

Null-orum.
Null-is.

Null-arum.
Null-is.

Dat:
Acc.
Abl.
5.

Null-OS.

Null-as.
Null-is.

Nnll-a.
Null-is.

NuU-is.
is

Alius

similarly declined, except that

the nom., ace, and

voc. sing. neut.

end

in

-ud instead of -um.
another.
Neut.

ALIUS, ALIA, ALlUD,
Singular.
Masc.
Fern.

Nom.
Gen.

Aliiis.

Alia. Alius.
Alii.

Aliud.
Alius.
Alii.

Alius.
Alii.

Dat.
Ace.
Abl.

Alium.
Alio

Aliam.
Alia.
voc. inasc. mi.

Aliud.
Alio.

Meus has the

Volucer has the gen. plur. in -um.

38

ELEMENTARY LATIN GRAMMAR.
Plural.

Mast

Fern.

Neut
Alia.

Nom.
J)at.

Alii.

Aliae.

Gen. Aliorum.
Aliis.

Aliarum.
Aliis.

Aliorum.
Aliis.

Ace.
Abl.

Alios.
Aliis.

Alias.
Aliis.

Alia.
Aliis.

CLASS
6.

II.

Adjectives of two forms belong to the Third Declension.
fern., is

Tlius

gravis, both niasc. and

declined

liiie

hostis

(p.

24),

and

grave, neut., like
like

rete.

(p. 22).

Qravior, masc. and

fern., is

decUned

hdnor

(p. 20),

and gravius,

neut., like corpus (p. 29).

GEAVIS, GRAVIS, GRAVE,
Singular.
Masc.
(1.)

heavy.

Fein.

Neut.

N(m.
Oen. Dat. Ace.
Voc.

6ra.v-i3.

Grav-is,
GrS,v-is.

Grav-is. Grav-i.

Grav-i.

Grav-em.
Grav-is. Grav-i.

Grav-gm.
Grav-is. Grav-i.

Ahl.

Grav-e. Grav-is. Grav-i. Grav-e. Grav-e. Grav-i.

Plural.

Nom. Grav-es.
Oen. Dat. Ace.
Voc.

Grav-es.

Grav-ia.

Grav-ium.
Grav-ibus. Grav-es. Grav-es. Grav-ibus.

Grav-ium.
Grav-ibus. Grav-es. Grav-es. Grav-ibus.

Grav-ium.
Grav-ibus. Grav-ia. Grav-ia. Grav-ibus.
heavier.

Abl.

GRAVIOR, GRAVIOR. GRAVITJS,
Sikqular.
(2.)

Nom, Gravior.
,

Gr5.vior.

Gravius,
Gravior-is. Gravior-i.

Oen. Dat. Ace.
Voc.

Gravi5r-is. Gravior-i.

Gravior-is. Gravior-i.

Gravior-em.
Gravior. Gravior-e or
-i.

Abl.

Gravior-em. Gravior. Gravior-e or

-i.

Gravius. Gravius. Gravior-e or

-

Plural.

Nom. Gravior-es.
,

Gravidr-es.

Gravior-a.

Gen. Dat. Ace.
Voc.

Gravior-um.
Gravior-ibus. Gravior-es. Gravior-es. Gravior-ibus.

Gravior-um.
Gravior-ibus. Gravior-es. Gravior-es. Gravior-ibus.

Gravior-um.
Gravior-ibus. Gravior-a. Gravior-a. Gravior-ibus.

Abl.

INFLEXION OF ADJECTIVES.
LIST OF
(1.)

39

WORDS TO BE DECLINED.
(2.)

Briv-is,

-is, -e,

short.

Breri-or, -or, -us, shorter.
Docti-or, -or, -us,

£)ulc-is, -is, -e,

sweet
brave. every,
all

more

learned.

Fort-is,

-is, -e, -is, -e,

Dulci-or, -or, -us, sweeter.

Omn-is,

Maj-or, -or,

-tis,

greater.

CLASS
7.

III.

AJjectives of one form belong to the Third Declension.
is

Thus,

felix
like

declined like lex
(p. 25).

(p. 23), ^j>a;- like

/rnior (p. 20), these,

and sapiens

frons

In the neut. of
(p. 19, 5)

all

the rule for the

declension of neut. nouns

of course applies.

PAR, PAR, PAR,
Singular.
Jlasc.

equal

to.

Fern.

Neut.

(1.)

Nom. Par.

Par.
Par-is.
Par-i.

Par.
Par-is.
Par-i.

Om.
Dal.
Ace.
Voc.

Par-is.

Par-i.

Par-em.
Par.
Par-i {rarely
-e).

Par-em.
Par.

Par.

Par.
-e),

All

Par-i {or

Par-i {or

-e).

Plural.

Kom
Gen.

Par-es.

Par-es.

Par-ia.

Par-ium.
Par-ibus.
Par-es. Par-es.
Par-ibus.

Par-ium.
Par-ibus.
Par-es.

Par-ium.
Par-ibus.
Par-ia.
Par-ia.

Dat.
Ace.
Voc.

Par-es.

Abl.

Par-ibus.

Par-ibus.

FELIX, FELIX, FELIX, happy.
Singular.
(2.)

Nom
Gen.

Felix.
Felic-is.
Felic-i.

Felix.
Felic-is.
Felic-i.

Felix.
Felic-is.

Dat.
Ace.
Voc.

Felic-i.

Felic-em.
Felix.
Felic-e or
-i.

Felic-em.
Felix. Felic-e or
-I.

Felix. Felix.
Felic-e or
-i

Abl.

Plural.

Nom
Gen.

.

Felic-es.

Felic-es.

Felic-ia.

Felic-ium.
Felic-ibus.
Felio-es.
Felic-es.

Felic-ium.
Felic-ibus.
Felic-es.
Felic-es.

Felic-ium.
Felic-ibus.
Felic-ia,

Dat.
Ace.
Voc.

Felic-ia.

Abl.

Folic-ibu3.

Felic-ibus.

Felic-ibus.

;

40

ELEMENTARY LATIN GRAMMAK.
LEGENS, LEGENS, LEGENS,
Singular.
JIasc.

choosing.

Fem.

Neut.

(3.)

Nrni. Legens.
Oen.
Legent-is.

Legens.
Legent-is.
Legent-i.

Legens.
Legent-is.

Dat.
Ace.
Voc.

Legent-i.

Legent-i.

Abl.

Legent-em. Legens. Legent-e or

A..*

Legent-em. Legens. Legent-e or

Legens. Legens.
-i.

Legent-e or

Plural.

Nom
Gen.

.

Legent-es.

Legent-es.

Legent-ia.

Legent-ium.
Legent-ibus.
Legent-es.
Legent-es.

Legent-ium.
Legent-ibus.
Legent-es.
Legent-es.

Dat.
Ace.
Voc.

Legent-ium. Legent-ibus
Legent-ia.

Legent-ia.

All.

Legent-ibus. List of

Legent-ibus.

Legent-ibus

words to be declined.
Audiens, gen. audient-is, hearing. CompOs, gen. compSt-is, master of; abl. sing, in -e; gen. plur. in

(1.)

J/ftnor, gen. jn^mffr- is, mindful; abl.
sing, in -i only; gen. plur. -um. Pauper, gen. pauplr-is, poor; abL sing, in -e; gen. plur. in -um.
Vigil,^ gen. vJgil-is, watchful.

-um.
Concors,

gen.

concord-is,

harmoni-

(2.)

Atrox,

gen. atroc-is, savage.
audae-is, daring.
fierce.

ous; -nm in gen. plur.
Iners,t gen. inert-is, inactive.

Audax, gen.

Ferox, gen. feroc-is,

ilonens, warning.

Inops, gen. indp-is, needy; gen. plur.

-um;

abl. sing, -i only.

Portans, gen. portant-is, carrj'ing. QuadrSpes, gen. guadr&pM-is, fourfooted; -e in abl. sing.,
in gen. plur.

LOcHples,

gen.

li}cup!et-is,

rich; gen.

and -um

plur. -um, or -ium.

{Pubes), gen. pubfr-is,
sing. In -e
(3.)
;

young

;

abl.

Preens, gen. recent-is, fresh.

gen. plur. in -um.
loving.

Sapiens, gen. sapient-is, wise.

Amans, amant-is,

TUmsns, gen. tument-is, swelling.

COMPOUND VARIETIES.
8.

Some adjectives
is

are declined like the substantives on pp. 28, 29

thus, simplex

like judex, dives like miles,

and vetus

like vulnus.

The

usual differences between mascs. and neuts. must be observed.

• Adjectives
-i; 80 also

and

participles of one termination in the

comparatives.

When

the abl. ends in
-la,

-i,

or -e

nom. have the abl. In and -i both, the gen.

-t

or

plur.

ends in -ium, and the nom. plur. neut. in

except comparatives which hare -wn

and
t

-a.

Vigil

X Iners

has the abL sing, in -t (-c rarely), and gen. plur. in -um. has the abl. sing, almost always in -»'.

INFLEXION OF ADJECTIVES.

41

SIMPLEX, SIMPLEX, SIMPLEX,
Singular.
Masc.
(1.)

simple.

Fcm.

Neut.

Xom. Simplex.
Oen. Dat. Ace.
Voc.

Simplex.
Simplic-is. Simplic-i.

Simplex.
Simplic-is. Simplic-i.

Simplic-is.
Simplic-i.

All.

Simplic-em. Simplex. Simplio-e or

-i.

Simplic-em. Simplex. Simplic-e or

Simplex. Simplex.
-i.

Simplic-e or

-i.

Plural.

Nom.
Gen. Dat. Ace.
Voc.

Simplic-es.

Simplic-es.

Simplic-ia.

Simplic-ium.
Simplic-ibus. Simplic-es. Simplic-es. Simplic-ibus.

Simplic-ium.
Simplio-ibus. Simplic-es. Simplic-es. Simplic-ibus.
rich

Simplic-ium.
Simplic-ibus. Simplic-ia. Simplic-ia. Simplio-ibus.

Abl.

DIVES, DIVES, DIVES,
Singular.
(2.)

Xom. Dives.
,

Dives.
Divit-is.
Divit-i.

Dives.
Divit-is.
Divit-i.

Gen. Dat. Ace.
Voc.

Divit-is.
Divit-i.

Divit-em. Dives.
Divit-e, (or
-i.)

Divit-em. Dives.
Divit-e, {or
-i.)

Dives. Dives.
Divit-e, {or
-i.)

Abl.

Plural.

Nom,
Gen. Dat. Ace.
Voc.

,

Divit-es.

Divit-es.

(Divit-ia).*

Divit-um.
Divit-ibus. Divit-es.
Divit-es.

Divit-um.
Divit-ibus.
Divit-es. Divit-es. Divit-ibus.

Divit-um.
Divit-ibus.
(Divit-ia.) (Divit-ia.)

Abl.

Divit-ibus

Divit-ibus.
d'ltis;

Obs.— Dives has a contracted form,
neut. ditia, &c.

dis; neut. dlte; gen.

plur^

VETUS, VETUS, VETUS,
Singular.
(3.)

old.

Nom. Vetus.
Gen. Dat. Ace.
Voc.

Vetus.
Veter-is. Veter-i.

Vetus.
Veter-is.
Veter-i.

Veter-is.

Veter-i.

Veter-em. Vetus.
Veter-e, {or
-i,,)

Veter-em. Vetus.
Veter-e, {or
-i.)

Vetus. Vetus.
Veter-e, {or
-i.)

Abl.
*

The nom., ace, and
dis, is

voc. plur. neut.

do not occur; but the shorter form

ditia,

trom

used instead.

;

42

ELEMENTARY LATIN GRAMMAR.
Tlural.
jrasc
Fern.

Neut.

Nom. Veter-es.
Gen.

Veter-es.

Veter-a.

Veter-um.
Veter-ibus.
Veter-es.
Veter-es.

Veter-um.
Veter-ibus.
Veter-es. Veter-es.

Veter-um.
Veter-ibus
Veter-a.
Veter-a.

Bat.
Ace.
Yoc.

All.

Veter-ibus.

Veter-ibus.

Veter-ibus

LIST OF
(1.)

WORDS TO BE DECLINED.
(2.)

Duplex, gen. duplk-is, double. Princcps, gen. princfp-is, cliief; al)!. sing, in -e, gen. plur. in -urn. Supplex, gen. supplic-is, supjiliant; gen. plni'. in -um. Vindex, gen. vindic-is, avenging.

Anccps, gen. anclpXt-u, double, doubtful

(-um in gen.
-e,

plur.)

Dises, gen. dlsul-is,

lazy (abL sing,

in

gen. plur. wanting).

Particcpsy gen. partMp-is, sharing.
Pixieccps,* gun. praedpU-is, headlong.

9.

Some
and

adjectives in -us, -a,
-i,

-um

(or -ud),

make

their gen. in

-ius,

their dat. in
classical

found in
of these

though the regular forms are occasionally For a list writers, as, e.g., in Cicero and Caesar.

and

their inflexions see p. 37.

SECTION

COMPARISON OF ADJECTIVES.
1.

Most

adjectives are used to indicate qualities or attributes

hence, as qualities and attributes exist in different individuals in varying degree, adjectives have three varieties of form, called

Degrees of Comparison, for the purpose of expressing this difi'erence. 2. The Degrees of Comparison are— the Positive, the Comparative,

and the Superlative.
3.

The

Positive degree
;

is
;

the simple adjective

:

as,

bonus, good

;

malus, bad
4.

niger, black

fortis, brave.
is

The Comparative degree

used to indicate that one individual

(person or thing), or set of individuals, possesses a certain quality or
attribute in a greater measure than the other individual or set of

individuals spoken of: as, Tullus Hostilius ferocior erat
;

Romulo,

Tullus Hostilius was more warlike than Romulus aurum est villus vlrtutilus, gold is more worthless that virtues ; lupi ferociores sunt

quam

canes, wolves are
J'raeceps

more

ferocious than dogs.
in the gen. pUu'.

and pwtkcps have -uw


COMPARISON OF ADJECTIVES.
5.

_

43

The Superlative degree

is

used to indicate that one individual

(person or thing), or set of individuals, possesses a certain quality or
attribute in a greater measure than

any
;

other individual or set of

individuals of the class spoken of

as,

magister
all.

est

doctissimus

omnium, the master
Ohs. 1.

is

the most learned of

It must be noted that the Latins often use the comparative degree as equal to " rather " or " too " in English as, culUdior, rather cunning, too cunning; i.e., more cunning than one ought
:

to be.

Ohs. 2.

— In like manner the superlative
very cunning.

is

used as equal to " very;"

as, callidissimus,

G.

The comparative degree

-ius, n., to the

is formed by adding stem of the positive as,
;

-ior, m., -icr,

f.,

POSITITE.
Stem.
Jlasc.

Comparative.

Clams.
Doctus. Saevus.
Gravis.

Clar-

Clar-ior.
I)oct-ior.

Clar-ior.

Clar-ius, clearer.

Doct-

Doct-ior.

Doct-ius, 7norc learned.

Saev-

Saev-ior.

Saev-ior.

Saev-ius, more cruel.

Tener.
Felix.

GravTenerPelic-

Grav-ior.
Tener-ior.
Felic-ior.

Grav-ior.

Grav-ius, heavier.
Tener-ius, more tender.
Felic-ius, happier. , .^ -

Tener-ior
Felic-ior.

Sapiens.
Dives.

SapientDivit-

Sapient-ior. Sapient-ior.
Divit-ior.

Sapient-ius,

reiser

Divit-ior.

Divit-ius, richer.

Niger.

Nigr-

Kigr-ior.

Nigr-ior.

Nigr-ius, Hacker.

7.

The
f.,

superlative degree

is

-issima,

-issimum,

n., to tlie

formed by adding -issimus, m., stem of the positive as,
;

Positive. CosirAR.
ilasc.

Superlative.
]'(.-ni.

Ncut.

Clar-U3.

Clar-ior.

Clar-issimus.

-issima. -issimum, c/carcs<.

Doct-us. Doct-ior.

Doct-issimus.

-issima. -issimum, most learned. -issima. -issimum, most crud. -issima. -is&im.MXO.,hcuviest.
-issima. -issimum, happiest.
-issima. -issimum, richest.

Saev-us. Saev-ior.
Grav-is. Grav-ior.

Saev-issimus.

Grav-issimus,
Felic-issimus.

Felix.
Div-es.

Felic-ior.

Divit-ior.

Divit-issimus.

Sapiens. Sapient-ior. Sapient-issimus. -issima. -issimum, wisest.

Ols.—ln writers

wlio affect an antique style, as Sallusl, the super

iative teraiiuutiuu is often written -issumiis.

— — —
44
8.

;

ELEMENTARY LATIN GRAMMAR,
Exceptions
;

(1.)

When
as,

the positive ends in

-r,

the superlative takes -rimus;

Positive.

Comparative.
Tener-ior.

Superlative.
Teuer-rlmus.

Tener, tender,

Kigec, black.
Acer, sharp.
Obs. — mtus,

Nigr-ior.
Acr-ior.

Niger-rimus.
Acer-rlmus.

old (stem 7'cter-), has a superlative, veter-rimus.
ripe,

Maturus,

has both maturissimus and maturrimus.

(2.)

Six adjectives ending in -Us take -limus in the superlative

POSITITH.
Facil-is, easy. Gracil-is, slender.

Comparative.
lacil-ior.

Superlative.
Facil-limus.

Gracil-ior.

Gracil-limus.

Hnmil-is, low.
Simil-is,
like.

Humil-ior.
SImil-ior.
Diificil-ior.

Humil-limus.
Simil-limus.
DifEicil-limus.

DifEcil-is,

difficult.

Dissimil-is, unlike.

Dissimil-ior.

Dissimil-limus.

So

also

Imbecill-u3 {or 4s).
Obs.

rlmhecillimus or
Ilnbecill-ior.
(.

Imbecillissimus.
utll-is,

— Other adjectives
iitU-isslmus.

in

-lis

are regular; as,

utU-ior,

(3.)

Compound

adjectives ending in

-d'icus,
if

-ftcus,

and volus,

take -entior atid -entissimus, as
mdledicens, (jn&leficens),
Positive.

from positives in -ens, mdlevdlens ; as,
Superlative.
Maledicent-issimus.

Comparative.
Maledicent-ior.

Maledic-us, abusive.

Magnific-us, splendid.
Malefic-US, vicious.

Magnificent-ior.
Maleficent-ior.

Magnificent-issimus.
Maleficent-issimus.

Malevol-us, ill-disposed.

Malevolent-ior.

Malevoleut-issimus.

So

also

Egen-us, needy.
Provid-us, foreseeing.

£gent-ior.
Provident-ior.

JEgent-issimus.

Provident-issimus.

Magnil6qu-us.

Magniloquent-ior.


COMPARISON OF ADJECTIVES.

45

IRREGULAR COMPARISON.
9.

Some

adjectives form

the degrees of comparison from stems
;

entirely different

from those of the positives
Comparative.
Melior,
better.

as,

Positive.

Bonus, good. Malus, lad.

Pejor, icont.

SUPEKLATIVE. Optimus, best. Pessimus, worst.

Magnus,

great.

Parvus, little. Multus, much.

Major, greater. Minor, less.
Plus, more.

Maximus, Minimus,

greatest.
least.

Frugi

(in.iecl.), discreet.

Frugalior.
Senior. Junior.

Plurimus, most. Frugalissimus.

Senex, old. Juvenis, young.
Ohs.
Obs.

Katu maximus. Natu minimus.

substantive in the nom., ace, and gen. sing., and only in the neut. gender but in the plur. it is a regular adjective, plures, plures, plura (or pluria), gen. plur-ium, &c.
;

l.—Nequam, worthless, is regular, 2.— Plus is used most commonly as a

—nequ-ior, nequ-issimus.

10.

A few

adjectives have two forms in the superlative

;

as,-

POSITIVK.

Comparative.

Superlative.

(Poster-us), -a, -um, being
behind.

Posterior, further
lack, later.

/"Postremus, the last; and Postiimus, one ) "j born after his father's
death.
time)
the last (in

\ }CSupremus, summus,
Superior, higher.

<

;

the

above.

\

highest.

II.

A

stem appears
Positive.
(Ante, before.)

few adjectives have no proper positive, but the positiv( as, in adverbs or other indeclinable words
;

Comparative.
Anterior.
Citerior.

Superlative.
Citimus. Deterrimus. Intimus. Ocissimus. Primus.

(Citra, on this side.)

(De, down.) (Intra, within.)
('fiKi;s, sivift.)

(Pris, or prae, before.)

(Prope, near.) (Secus, otherwise.) (Ultra, bojond.)

Deterior. Interior. Ocior. Prior. Propior. Sequior, Ulterior,

Proximus.
(n.

sequius

[orsecius. Ultimus.

— —
4G

;

ELEMENTARY LATIN GRAMMAR.

CHAPTER VI.— THE NUMERALS.
1.

An

important class of adjectives consists of those indicatiiig

number or amount. They are called Numerals. 2. The four principal classes of numerals are
(1.)

The Cardinal,

or chief Numerals, which express the
:

number

of things absolutely
(2.)

as, units,

one
as,

;

duo, two, &c. order in which
first (in

The Ordinal Numerals, which express the
some object stands
secundus, second
in a series
:

primus,

order)

(in order), &c.

(3.)

The Distributive Numerals,
or to each individual
:

indicating

how many each time,

(4.)

two at a time, or two each deni, ten at a time, or ten each, or by tens. Multiplicative, or Adverbial Numerals, which indicate how
as, hlni,

often a thing
i.e.,

is

repeated:
;

as, ter mille, thrice

a thousand,

three thousand

sexies, six times.
;

3.

Of the

Cardinals, the first three are declinable

but

all

those

from four up to one hundred are indeclinable. The hundreds, from two hundred up to one thousand, are regularly declined like the plur.
of bonus: as, ducent-i, -ae, -a; ducent-ormn, -arum, -orum, &c.

The Ordinals
4.

are regular adjectives, like honus

:

as, terti-us, -a,

-um;

terti-i, -ae, -i,

&c.
is

Unus, one,

thus declined (see

p. 37, 4)

:

Masc.

Fera.

Neut.

Nam.
Gen.

TJn-us, one.

Un.a.
Un-ius.
TJn-i.

Un-um.
Un-ius.
Un-i.

Un-ius.
Un-i.

Dat.
Ace.
Ahl.
Ohs.

TJn-um.

Un-am.
TJn-a.

Un-um.
Un-o.

Un-o.

The plur. of unus is quite regular. It is used only with such substantives as have no sing, form, while they have a sing, meaning: as, unae liierae, one letter (i.e., epistle); una castra, one
camp.

5. Duo, two, and tres, three, have of course no singular form. Amho, both, is declined like duo. Observe that these two words

take, in the dat. certain

and abl. plur. f., the -ahus form, which nouns of the First Declension.

is

found in


NUMERALS.
M;1SC.

47
Nert.

Fern.

Nom.
Gen.

Dii-o.

Du-ae.

Du-o.

Du-6rum.
Du-obus.
Du-6s.

Du-arum.
Du-abus.
Du-as.

Du-6rum.
Du-6bus.
Du-o.

Dat.
Ace. All.

Du-6bus.
,

Du-abus.
Tres.

Du-obus.
Tria.

Nom.
Oen. Dat.
Ace.
All.

Tres,

Trium.
Tribus.
Tres.

Trium.
Tribus.
Tres.

Trium.
Tribus.
Tria.

Tribus.

Tribus.

Tribus.

6.

The

four principal classes of

Numerals are arranged
:

in parallel

columns, for more easy comparison
CARDINALS.
1.

DISTKIBnTlVES.

MtlLTIPLICATIVES (adv.)

Un-us, un-

a,

un-

fSingiil-i, ac,

a,\
j \

um,
2.
two.

one.

Duo, duae, duo,
tria,

3. Ties, ties,
thret.

one each time, Secund-us, a, um, or liiiii, ae, a, two each time. alter, a, um, second. ("Tenil, or trini, -Tertius, a, um, third. \ three each lime,
Quavt-us,
Quiiitus.
a,

Priin-U3, first.

\

Semel, once.

)
"I

Ter, three times.

j

4. Quatuor, ;%!ir.
5. Quinque.

um,/OM?'Wi,

j

Qudtemi, four
each time.
Quinl.
Sent.

Quater,
times.

four

\

QuinquTes.
Seiies.
Septies. Octies.

6. Sex.
7. Septem.

Scstus.

8. Octo.

Septimus. Octavus.

Septeni.
Octoni.

Nuvem. 10. DCccm.
9.

11. 12. 13. 14. 15.

UiulCcim.

NOnus. Decimus. Undecimus.
Duoilecimus. Teitlus decimus. Quaitus decimus. Quintus decimus.

NQvenL
Deni.

Novies.
DScies.

Undent
Duodeni.
Terni deni. Quaterni deni. Quini denj. Scui denL
Septeni deni. f Octoni deni, or \ duodevlceni.
J
(

DuodCcim.
TredCeim.
Qiiatuoidecim. Quindecini.

Undecics. Uuodecies. Terdgcies. Quaterdecics. Quinquiesdecios iSexiusdecies, or
sedecies.
Septiesdecies.

16. Sedecim. 17. Scptendecim.
18. Duodeviginti. 19. Undeviginti. 20.
Yigiiiti.

Sextus decimus.

Septimus deciriuw.
Duodevicesimus.
Undevicesimus.
VicEsImus. Uiius et vicesimus, or

Octiesdecios, or

Noveni deni,
Vicenl.

o;

duodevicios. Novicsdecics.or

undevlceni.

undevicits.
Vicits.

21. Viginti iinu3.

vicesimus primus. (Alter et vicesimus, or

primus mus, or

et

vicesi-

Viceni singuli.

Semel

et \icios.

22. Viginti duo.

}' iccni

biiii.

Bis et vieies.


48


MIII.TIPLICATiviis (adv.)

;

ELEMENTARY LATIN GRAMMAR.
CARDINALS.
30. TilRinta.

ORDINALS.
riccsimus, fTH

DISTRIBUTIVRS.
1

or

peslmus.

Triceni.

Tricics.

40. 50. 60. 70. 80. 90. 100. 101.

Qu.ldraKlnta.
QuinqiiiiKiiita.
SfxiiEiiita,

QuadraK5simua.
Qiiliiquaccsliims.

SexaKCsimusi.
Septuafceslmus.
Octofresiraus.

Septuaclnta. Octo^lnta.

QuadragCni. Quinquagenl. Sexageni. Septuageul.
Octogeni.

Quadraglcs. Quinquagies.
Sexagics.
Septuagies. Octogies.

Nonacinta.

Centum.

NonaKUsiniua. Centesimus.

Nonageni. CentenL
Centciii

Nonagies.
Ccnties.

Centum
us,

etun-'^

or cent- ]>Centeslmu8 primus. iim unus. )

sin-

Centies semeL

guli.

102. Centum et duo. Centesimus seciindus. Centeni binl. Duceni. 200. DucentI, ae, a. Ducentesimus. Trecenl. 300. TrScenti, ae, a. Trecentesimus. 400. Quadringenteslmns. Quadringeni. ( 500. Quingenti, ae, a. Qulncenteslmus. 600. SexcentI, ae, a. Sexcenteslmus. 700. > Septingentesimus.
'

Centles bis. Ducenties.
Trecenties.

Quadrlngentles.
Quingenties. Sexcenties.

Quingeni.
Sexceni.

SeptingenL
Octlngeni.

Septingentiei
Octingenties.

800.
'

> Octingenteslmus.

900. Nongenti, ae, a. Nongenteslmus. Milleslmus. 1,000. MiUe. fiillia, or") 2,000. Duo m;
Bis millesimus.
mille, bis m;

Nongeni. Singula millia.

Kongenties.
Millies.

Blna milUa.

Bis millies.

j

10,000. Decern millla. Decies millesimus. 100,000. Centum millla. Centies millesimus.

Dena

millia.

Centena

millia.

Decies millies. Centies millies.

7.

Mille, one thousand,
;

is

indeclinable in the sing., and

as

an adjective

e.g.,
it
is

mille milites, one thousand soldiers

times, however,

used as a substantive,
in the plur.
it is

used somemille militum, one
is
;

thousand

soldiers.

But
is

declined regularly, millia,
;

millium, &c., and

almost always used as a substantive

e.g.,

duo

millia militum, two thousand soldiers.
Obs.

a smaller number follows the thousands, the gen. is as, dico millia quingenti homines, two thousand five hundred men.
not found
;

— 'When

8.
first,

Between twenty and one hundred,
no conjunction
the smaller
is if

if

the larger number

is

put

required; &s,viffinti quinque, tvrenty-five
first,

but

number come
as,

just as in English, five and twenty.

number precedes
9.

;

we must say, quijique et viginti, Above one hundred the larger centum quadraginta quaiuor, or centum et
of the tens,
e.g.,

quadraginta quatuor.

The two numbers preceding any

eighteen,


NUMERALS,


49
liest

rineteen, twenty-eight,

twenty-nino,

&c.— are

expressed by
i.e.,

Kubtraction

:

as,

duodeviginti, two from twenty,
i.e.,

eiglitceii

;

undetriginta, one from thirty,
10.

twenty-nine.

nals are used

In expressing the year in which an event happened, the ordie.g., 18G5 will be, anno millesimo octingentesimo sexagesimo qidnto.
;

l\.

The Roman symbols
ROlfAN

to indicate iminbcrs are

:—
ARABIC
SVMIiOI.

SYMBOL.
I.

AUABIC SYMBOL.
1. 2.

n 031 AN SYMnOL.

LXX.

70.
80. 90.

n.
ni.
nil. or IV.
V.

LXXX.
xc.
c.

3. 4.

100.
101.
200.

5.
6.

CI.

VI. IX.

CC.

9.

CCC.

300.

X.

10.
14. 20.
26. 30.

CCCC. or CD.
D. or lo.

400.
500.

XIV.

XX. XXVI.

DC.

600.
900.
1,000.

DCCCC.
M.
or CIO.

XXX.
XL.
L.

40.
50.
60.

MM.

or CIoCIo.

2,000.
5,000.

loo-

LX.

CCIOO.

10,000.

12.

To understand
:

these symbols, the following principles must be

remembered
(1.)

When
When
IX

two symbols of the same value come together, they are added as, II 2 XX 20 CC 200.
;

=

;

=
;

;

=

(2.)

a symbol of less value precedes,

it

is

{i.e.,

X

minus

I)

=9
less
]

subtracted

;

as,

XL LX

{i.e.,

L
L

minus X)
it
is

= 40.
added
60.
;

(3.)

(4.)

When a symbol XI {i.e., X plus When C inverted
that the

of
I)

ralue follows,
;

=

as,

1

{i.e.,

plus X)

=

(o) follows the

symbol Ig
;

(500), it indicates

sum

is

and Iqoo
(5.)

= 50,000, and so on.
;

to be multiplied by 10

so

Iqq

= 5,000
the

;

When C
ber
is

is

repeated before I as often as
thus, since

doubled

Iqq

=

q

follows

it,

num-

.5,000,

CCI^q

= 10,000.

——
60

ELEMENTARY LATIN GRAMMAR.

CHAPTER VII.— PRONOUNS.
1.

A

PiioNouN

is

a word which

is

used to supply the place of a
fol-

substantive, or to point to
lowing.
2.

some substantive going before or
Pronouos
:

There are seven
I.

classes of

II.

III.

IV.

V.
VI.
VII.

The Personal or Substantive Pronouns. The Reflexive Pronouns. The Possessive Pronouns. The Demonstrative Pronouns. The Relative Pronoun. The Indefinite Pronouns. The Interrogative Pronouns.

SECTION

I.

THE PERSONAL PRONOUNS.
1.
(fl)

The Personal Pronouns
Ego,
I,

are three

:

nos, we, indicating the person or persons speaking-

first

person.
vos, you, indicating the person or persons

il)

Tu, thou,

spoken to

— second person.
(c)

Be, him, her,

it,

them, indicating the person or persons, thing

or things, spoken
2.

about— third

person.

jy.B.—Se
since
it

is more frequently a reflexive pronoun than a personal, does not introduce a person independently, but refers to the subject of its own clause (though sometimes to the subject of the principal clause). When a person or thing diiferent from that represented by the subject is referred to, him, his, &c., must be expressed by the proper case of is, ea, id; iUe, ilia, illud; or, The demonstrative, is, ea, id, is often used as the hie, haec, hoc.

substantive pronoun of the third person.


PRONOUNS.
Singular.
1 Peri.

51

2

Pui-a.

3 Pcis.

Nom. £go,
Gen.

/.

Tu, thuu.
Tui, of me.
Te,
thee.

Mei, of me.

Sui, of himself,

dbc.

Dat.
Ace.
Voc.

MiM,

to or for

Tibi, to or for thee.
thcc.

Sibi,^o or for himself, d-c.

Me, mc.

Se, himself, herself, itself.

Tu, thou.

All.

Me,

with, by,

from Te,

with,

dc,

thee.

Se, with himself, do.

or in me.

Plural.

Nom. N53,
Gen.

we.

Vos, ye or you.
.

Nostr-i, or -um,o/«s . Vestr-i,or-um,r)/^oii

Sui, of themselves.
Sibi, to or for themsehes.

Dat.
Ace.
Voc.

N5bis,

to

or for U3.

Vobis,

to 01

for you.

N6s, U3.
Nobis, with, from,
d-e., us.

Vos, you. Vos, ye or
Vobis,
<tc.,

Se, themselves.
t/ou.

All.

ivilh,

from,

Se,

wi'</i,

from,

dc.,

you.

themselves.

SECTION

II.

THE REFLEXIVE PRONOUNS.
Uffo and ^m serve in the oblique cases as Reflexives of the first and second persons. Sometimes they are strengthened by the addi1.

tion of the syllable
2.

-7)iet, self.

The

substantive pronoun se

is

more frequently used

as a re-

flexive

than as a personal pronoun, and refers (or is reflected back) to the subject of its own dunse {see ^.50, KB.); thas, stuUiis sibi inimicus est, the fool is an enemy to himself. The form sese is often
used for the sake of emphasis.

SECTION

III.

THE POSSESSIVE PRONOUNS.
The
Possessive

Pronouns are formed from the personals, and

are regular adjectives like bonus ox piger; as,

Me-us,
Tu-us,

-um, my or mine; gen. me-i, -ae, -i. -um, thy or thine.; gen. tu-i, -ae, -i. Su-us, -a, -um, his, hers, its, theirs; gen. su-i, -ae, -i. Noster, nostr-a, nostr-um, ours; gen. nostr-i, -ae, -i.
-a,
-a,

Vester, vestr-a, vestr-um, yours; gen. vestr-i, -ae,

-i.

— —

——
ELEMENTARY LATIN
GRAlNrJTATl.

SECTION

iV.

THE DEMONSTRATIVE PRONOUNS.
1.

A Demonstrative Pronoun
;

is

employed to draw special attention
Tlie demonstratives

to an object, or the description of an object.
are, hie, hacc, hoc, tliis
iste,
;

ista, istud,
is,

that of yours, or that
;

near you
same.
2.

;

ille, ilia,

ilhcd, that

ea, id, this

ipse, ipsa,

ipsum,

this very person,

self;

idem, eadem, idem, this person here, the
this

Hie,

haec,

hoc,

near ine, refers to what

is

near the

speaker, or to what has been most recently mentioned.
is

Hence

it

called the demonstrative of the first person.
:

It is declined as

follows

Singular.
Masc.
Fein.

Plural.
Neut. Masc.
Fern.

Neut.

Nam
Gen.
Dat.

Ace.
V(>c.

Haec. Hujus. Hujus. Huic. Huic. Hunc. Hanc.
Hie.

Hoc, this. Hujus.
Huic.

Hi.

Hae.

Haec.

Horum.
His.

Harum.
His.

Horum.
His.

Hoc.
Hoc.

Hos.
His.

Has.
His.

Haec.
His.

AM. Hoc.

Hac.

3. Iste, ista, istud,
it is

called the demonstrative
:

means that near you, or that of yours. Hence pronoun of the second person. It is

declined as follows

Singular.

Plokal.
Neut.

Masc

Fem.
Isti.

Masc
Isti.

Fern.

Neut.

Nam
Oen.

Iste.

Istud, that.
Istius.
Isti.

Istae.

Ista.

Istius. Istius.
Isti.
Isti.

IstSrum.
Istis.

Istarum. Istorum
Istis. Istis.

Dat.
Ace.
Voc.

Istum. Istam.
Ist5.

Istud.

Istos.

Istas.

Ista.

All.

Ista.
Iste is

Isto.

Istls.
is

Istis.
tu,

Istis.

06s.

made up

of

and the stem of

the second person

pronoun.

4.

illud, that near

The demonstrative pronoun him
:

of the third person

is

ille,

ilia,


SiXODLAR,
M;ibC.

:

PRONOUNS.
Plural.
Kent.

53 5

Fcm.
Ilia.

Masc.
Illi.

Fern.

Neat
nia.
I115rum,
Illis.

Nom.
Gen.
Dat.

,

Ille.

Illud, that.
Illius.
Illi.

Illae.

Illius.
Illi.

Illius.
Illi.

Hlorum.
lUis.
Illos.

lUarum.
Illis.

Ace.
Voc.

Ilium. Ulam.
nio.
Ilia.

niud.
1116.

Illas.

nia.
niis.

All.

lUis.

Illis.

5.

7s, ea, id,

the person or thing before mentioned,

is

mere

fre-

quently used as a personal than as a demonstrative pronoun.

It

often stands as the antecedent to qui; as, is qui, the person who,

he who
father
:

:

or

is

used as a pronoun of reference

;

as, ejus pater, his

Singular.
JIasc.

Plural.
Kent.
JfaBC.

Fem.

Fem.

Neut.

3'oWl. Is.

Ea.
Ejus.
Ei.

Id. this<(hcn).

li or ei.

Eae.

Ea.

Gen.

Ejua.
Ei.

Ejus.
Ei. Td.

Eorum.
lis or eis.

Earum.
lis, eis.

Eorum.
lis, eis.

Bat.
Ace.
Voe.

£um.
E6.

Earn.

Eos.

—_
lis
0?-

Eas.
eis.
lis, eis.

Ea.
lis, eis.

AM.

Ea.

E6.

6.

The two

derivatives of

is, viz.,

ipse

and tdem, are here classed

with the demonstratives, though they have in use lost
their original

much

of

demonstrative character.
self,
it

Ipse,

ipsa,

ipsum,

thi.s

very person,

is

sometimes used

as

pronoun

;

but

is

generally attached to

an emphatic personal some other pronoun, or
It
is

to a substantive, for the purpose of imparting additional emj)hasis.

Hence

it

is

sometimes called the adjunctive pronoun.

pounded of

is

and the suthx -pse
SiNOULAK.

com-

Plural.
Neut.
Ipsum,.?f''/.

Mnsc.

Fem.

Masc.

Fcm.
Ipsae.

Ncut
Ipsa.

N(ym, Ipse.
.

Ipsa.

Ipsi.

Gen.

Ipsius. Ipsius. Ipsius,
Ipsi.

Ipsorum. Ipsarum. Ipsdrnm.
Ipsis.
Ipsis.

Dat.
Aee.
Voc.

Ipsi.

Ipsi.

Ipsis.

Ipsum. Ipsam. Ipsum.
Ipso
Ipsa. Ipsd.

Ipsds.

Ipsas.

Ipsa.

Abl.

Ipsis.

Ipsis.

Ipsis.


64
7.

ELEMENTARY LATIN GRAMMAR.

Idem, iadem, idem, this person here, the very man, tlie same, compounded of is, ea, id, and tlio suffix -dem. It is declined like ts with -dem attached
is
:

S INGUIiAn.
Afnsc.

Fem.
the same.

Ncut.

Nom. Idem,
Oen.

Eadem.
Ejusdem. Eidem.

Dat.
Ace.
Voc.

Ejusdem. Eidem.

Eundem.
£odem.

Eandem.
E&dem.
Plural.

Idem. Ejusdem. Eidem. Idem.

Abl.

E5dem.

Kom ndem.
Gen.

Eorundem.
lisdem or elsdem. Eosdem.

Eaedem. Earundem.
lisdem, etc

Eadem. Eorundem,
lisdem,
die.

Dat.
Ace.
Voc.

Easdem.
lisdem,
tfcc.

Eadem.
lisdem,
i:c.

Abl.

lisdem or elsdem.

SECTION

V.

THE RELATIVE PRONOUN.
is used to " carry back") the reader to a substantive, called the antecedent, in a foregoing clause. It introduces a clause of its own,

The

Relative Pronoun, qui, quae, quod, who, which,

refer

{i.e.,

which

is

inserted for the purpose of giving

some

fuller description

or explanation in regard to the person or thing spoken of:

SlKQULAR
Masc.

Plural.
Neut.
Masc.

Fem.

Fem.

Neut
Quae.
Quibus.

Kom
Gen.

Qui.
Ciijas.

Quae.
Cujus.
Cui.

Qu5d.
Cujus.
Cui.

Qui.

Quae.
Quibus.

Qu6rum
Quibus.

Quarum. Quorum
Quas.
Quibus.

Dat.
Ace.
Voc.

Cui.

Quem. Quam.
Qu5.

Quod.
Qu5.

Qu5s.
Quibus.

Quae.
Quibus.

Abl.

Qua.


SECTION


PRONOUNS.
VI.

55

THE INTERROGATIVE PRONOUNS.
1.

The

Interrogative Pronouns are,

(a) Quis, quae, quod, or quid,
(h)
(c)

who, which, or what
?

?

Qui, quae, quod, who, which, or what
Uter, utra, utrum, which of

two

1

(d)
2.

Some compounds

;

as,

quisnam, ecquis, &c.
little in its inflexion

Quis, who, which, or what, differs

from

t'lc

slativei

pronoun :—
Singular.
Jlasc.

Plural.

Fem.

Neut

Masc.

Fem.

Ncut.

Kom.
Gen.
Jjat.

ftuis.

Quae.
Cujus.
Cui.

Quod
Cui.

or quid.

Qui.

Quae.
Quibus.

Quae.
Quibus.

Cujus.
Cui.

Cujus.

Quorum. Quarum. Quorum.
Quibus.
Quos.
Quibus.

Ace.
Voc.

Quem. Quam. Quod
Quo.

or quid.

Quas.
Quibus.

Quae.
Quibus.
It

Abl.
3.

Qua.

Quo.
is

The

interrogative qui

declined exactly as the relative.

refers rather to the internal qualities

merely for the name

:

quis
is

est,
?

who

is is

and iiature, wliile qriis asks he ] what is his name ? qui est,
his nature, disposition, &c.
?

what kind

of a person

he

what

SECTION

Vil.

THE INDEFINITE PRONOUNS.
1.

The
are,

Indefinite

Pronouns are used to speak of an individual
is

(person or thing) of which nothing distinct

known

or specified.

They
(1.)

Quis, quae, quod, or quid, any one, any; declined like the
interrogative.

(2.)
(.3.)

Qui, quae, quod, any one
Aliquis,
stantive.
,

;

declined like

tlie relative.
;

aliquid, any one,

some one

used as a sub-

(4.)

Aliqui, aliqua, aliquod, any, some
Siquis,
,

;

used as an adjective.

(5.)
(6.)

siquid,
if

if

any one,

Siqui, siqua, siquod,

any.


66
(7.)
(8.)


ELEMENTARY LATIN GKAMMAR,

Quisq^uxm,

quidquam, any one (uo plur.), Quicunque, quaecitnqrie, quodamque, whoever, whichever.
,

(9.)

Quisquis, quaequae, quidquid or quicquid, every one who,

whoever.
(10.)

Quidam, quaedam, quoddam
Quisqtie, quaeque,

(11.)
(12.)

or quiddam, a certain one. quodque or quidque, every one. Quispiam, quaepiam, quodpiam or quidpiam, any one.
Qifcvls, quaevis,

(13.) (14.)

quodvis or quidvis, any one you please.

QuiUhet, quaelihet, quodlibet or quidlibet, any one you please. (15.) JVequis, nequa, 7iequid, lest any one.
Obs. 1.

— In aliquls

in the simple

a.\\di. aliqui, siquis and ncquis, those forms which pronoun qui or quis end in -ae are made in -a; as

siqua, for siquae, &c.
2. Quisquatn is not used in the sing, fem., nor in any part of the plur. It is used for awj one, in negative clauses. Obs. 3. For the declension of ullus, nullus, uter, neuter, alius,

Ohs.

kc,
2.

see pp. 37, 38.

Some words

in

Latin are mutually related, and hence are

called correlatives.
strictly speaking,

They are

often considered as pronouns, though,

they are

sirajjle

adjectives as,

Demonstrative.
Talis, of that (or such a) kind.

Indefinite.

Qualis or quis, of what kind.

Tantus,
(

so great.

Quantus,
Quot, so

so great as,

how

great.

Tot, so many.

many as, how many;

with

\ Totidem, ^Msi so ma»y.
Obs.

several others.
list

—The indefinites in this

are also used as iuterrogatives.

CHAPTER

VIII.— THE VERB.
I.

SECTION

INTRODUCTORY.
1.

A VeSb

is

that part of speech which

is

used to make an asser-

tion
2.

about something,

(1.)

Verbs are divided into two classes, according to their meaning Transitive, in which the action or feeling is represented as directed towards, or '^ passbig over" to some object: as, /
:

strike the

dog ; he praises his friend.


VERBS.
(2.)

;;

57

IpfTRANSiTiVE,* in

wliicli (a) the actifjii or feeling is represented as not directed towards, or " not passing over" to an

object, but as confined to the subject

;

as,

I run; I walk
{b)

I
3. 4.

reflect, (active intransitive
is

:)

or in -which

a state or

condition

expressed

;

as,

I am; I stand; I rejoice.

Verbs have two Voices,— the Activb and the PASsiTE.t
N.B.
Intransitive verbs have only those parts of the passive voice which are used impersonally. Thus, we cannot say, curror, I am run; but we can say, curritur, it is run tliat is, peoj)le run not yugnalur, he is fought; but pngnatur, it (the battle)

:

is

fought.

5.

Depoxext Verbs

passive voice, but the

part transitive

are those which have the inflexions of the meaning of the active. They are for the most verbs, though some of them are intransitive, and

some
6.

reflexive.

Neuter Passive Verbs
;

are tliose which have an active form

but a passive meaning
7.

as,

rdpulo, I

am

beaten.

Semi-depoxexts are those which have some of tlieir tenses of the active form and some of the passive, with an active meaning in all as, gaudeo, gdvlsus surn, gaudere, to rejoice; f'ldo, flsus sum,
:

fldere, to tmst.
8.

A great
;

many

verbs of the passive voice are used in a reflexive
(i.e.,

sense: as, fallor, I deceive myself

I

am

deceived); vertor, I

turn myself

versor, I turn myself, I stay in, or frequent, a place
i.e.,

vehor, I ride

I

am

carried.

MOOD.
9.

The Latin Verb has

four

Moods

;

i.e.,

modes (modus)

of re-

presenting a state or an action

viz.,

the Indicative, Subjunctive,

Imperative, and Infinitive.
10.

Besides these there are certain forms which partake of the

An activs transitive verb does not make complete sense -ivittiDut a noun after it some other case, pen.. d;it., oi abl.), repi tseiUinK tlie otiject, whereas an intransitive verb does. Tlius, he praises, does not nialie complete sense till the person or thing praised is mentioned; hut, I run, I walk, require no such addition. JIany verbs are both transitive and intransitive: thus, exctdto, I go out, is intransitive; but exceJa, I exceed, or, po beyond bounds, is transitive. t Verb is derived from rcrbttrn, a word; VoiCB, from vex, a word, or saying; ACTiVK, from the perf. part, of (igo, to do; 1'assivk, from the pcrf. part, of patior, to sutTer; Thansitive, from transeo, to pass over.

in the accusative case (or

S8
nsiture of the

ELEMENTARY LATIN GRAMMAR.
noun as well as of that of the and Gerund.
verb, sucli as the Supine,

Participles,

TENSE.
Tense means time. All time is divided into three great periods -past, present, and future. Hence there are three leading tenses, to indicate past time, present time, and future time.
11.

12. Thus,tlie leading or principal tenses are,

the Present, Present-

and Future the secondary or subordinate are, the Im.perfect. Pluperfect, and Perfect-Aorist. 13. The present, future, and present-perfect are sometimes called
Perfect,
;

Fmnari/ tenses; wliile the imperfect, perfect-aorist, and pluperfect, are called the Historical tenses, because most frequently employed in the narration of past events.*
the
14.

There are two Numbers, Singular and Plural

;

and three

Persons in each number.
15. Verbs are divided, according to their stems and iuflexions, into four classes, called Conjugations, which are distinguished by the

termination of the present infinitive

;

thus

:—
imarS, to love. monere, to warn.
audire,
to /tear.

The XL The III. The IV. The
I.

First Conjugation has -are, as

Second

...
... ...

-er§, as

Third

-gre, as legere, to choose.
-ire, as

Fourth

16. The stem of amare is, properly speaking, ama-; of 7nonere, mone-; and of audire, audi-; but for convenience in conjugation, and for the purpose of avoiding confusion, the four classes are printed

uniformly as
as leg17.

if

am- were the stem
is

the stem of each ended in a consonant,— z.e., as if of amare, mon- of monere, and aud- of audire,

of legere.

While ama-, as seen in the present imperative, is tlie primary and proper stem of the whole verb, it will be found advantageous to

make

the verb.

use of certain secondary stems appearing in different tenses of Thus, while ama- or am- is the stem of all presents and

ness and

as, — "When

But historians often ufe the present tense in narrating past events, to add vividlife to the story, by representing incidents as if passing before our eyes; tliis had been reported to Caesar, he lom no time in starting from Kome; he hastens into further Gaul, and reaches Geneva."— Coe*. Bell. Oall., Bk. I., 7.


VERBS.
imperfects,

59

amavall

(perfect)

may

be taken as a secondary stem run;

ning through

the perfects and pluperfects

and amat-, occurring

in supines, future participle Act., and future subjunctives.

Thus there are four parts of the verb, wliich exhibit all the and secondary), namely, the Present Indicative, Perfect Indicative, Supine, and Present Infinitive. These are called the Principal Parts, because when they are once known every
18.

possible stems (primary

other form of the verb
19.

may

be readily ascertained.
of the verbs

The

principal parts

which represent the fonr

conjugations are as follows
Present
I.

:—
India
Supine.
Pies. Infln.

Perf.

II.

Am-0. Mon-eo.

Amav-i.
Monii-i.
Leg-i.

Amat-um.
Monit-um.
Lect-um. Audit-um.

Am-are. Mon-ere.
Leg-ere.

III. Leg-o,

IV. Aud-io.

Audiv-i.

Aud-Ire.

20. It will be observed that in the active voice the persons

end as

follows

:

Singular.
1

Plural.
... ... ...

rers.

.

..

-in (-0, or
-s (-sti).
-t.

-i).

-mus.
-tis (-stis),

2 Pers. 3 Pers.

.

..

.

..

...

-nt.

21.

In the following Tables of Verbs
are in the
It
will

all

the parts of the same
across

Mood

same column, and the same Tense extends
also be observed, that

the table.

the three
;

Incomplete

Tenses come together, and have the same stem
plete Tenses are likewise together;

that the three

Com-

and that these two classes of The Leading Tenses are tenses are separated by a double line. printed in bold type, to give them due prominence.
N.B.

—The English attached to each tense of the verbis that wliich
;

most commonly suitable when the verbal form is used strictly mood and tense, as the verb of a principal clause but the pupil must remember that the English idiom requires many of those forms which are in the subjunctive in Latin to be in the indicative, and hence the tenses of the subjunctive are very frequently translated by the corresponding tenses of
is

according to

the indicative.

CO

ELEMENTARY LATIN GTlAMMAn.

SECTION II.—REGULAR ACTIVE
Principal Parts
INDICATIVIC.
S.

—Amo, Amavi,
love.

SOBJUNCTIVB.
loving.

Am-6

(or -o),

/

am

Am-em,

/

may

P.

Am-as, thou art loving. Am-&t, he w loving. Am-amiis, we are loving. Am-atis, ye or yu arc loving. Am-ant, they are loving.
Am-abara, / was loving. Am-abas, thou icast loving. Am-ab&t, he was loving.

Am-es, thou mayst love. Am-et, he may love. Am -emus, we may love. Am-etis, you may love. Am-ent, they may love.

S.

Am-arem, / might or should
Am-ares, thou mightst love. Am-arCt, he might love. Am-aremus, ice might love. Am-aretls, you might love. Ani-arent, they might love.

love,

1

P. AiJQ-ubanius,

we

zvcre loving.

Am-abatis, you were loving. Ain-abant, they were loving.
S.

3
P.

Am-aio, / shall love. Am-abis, thoii, wilt love. Am-abit, he will love. Am-abimiis, toe shall love. Am-abitis, you xuill love.

Am-abunt,
S.

they

ivill love.

Amaturus sim, / may Amaturus sis, thou mayst Amaturus sit, he may Amaturi simus, we may Amaturi sitis, you may Amaturi sint, they may
Amav-erim, 7 may have

>.

S*
%.

,

§
3-

'

g-

J

S

Amav-i, I have
Amav-isti, thou hast Amav-it, he has Amav-imus, we hare Amav-istis, you have

^
\

-s

~
k
-^

V

P.
S.

J

Amav-erunt
S.

(-ere), they

have

Amav-eris, thou mayst have Amav-erit, he may have Amav-erimus, 7ve may have Amav-eritis, you may have Amav-erint, they may have

[

1

f*
'

%

J

a,

3

loved. Amav-issem, / might or shd. Amav-6ras, thov, hadst loved. Amav-isses, thou wouldst Amav-er&t, he had loved. Amav-isset, he wou/d P. Ainav-6ramus, we had loved. Amav-issemus, we should Amav-Sratis, you had. loved. Amav-issetis, you would Amav-erant, they had lovid. Amav-issent, they would

Amav-eram, I had

-.

S

'

S.

Amav-6ro, I shall Amav-6ris, thou wilt

\

^
|
;^

1

Amav-Siit, he ivill P. Aniav-grimus, ice shall Amav-grltis, you will
Aniav-erlnt, they
ivill

1

f

S

%
'

VERBS.

61

VERBS— FIRST
VOICE.

CON'JUGATrON;

Amatum, Amare,
IMPERATIVE.

to love.
INFINITIVE.
P.\RTICII'LE.

Am-a,

Icvc thou.

Am-ans,
Am-are,
to love.


,

Am-antis,;''^'''"'^'-

Am-ate,

love ye.

[See p. 40.]

Am-ato, thou .ihalt love. Am-ato, he shall love.
Am-atote, pe shall love. Am-anto, thc>/ .ihaU love.

Amat-urum, -uram, Amat-urus,
-urum, esse,
about to
love.

"|

S"

a

to be

Amat-ura,

Amat-urum,
[Seep. 37,

f 2
}

^

f ^

list (1).]

Amav-isse,
loved.

to

have

GERUND.

SUPINES.

Amand-I, of loviv(j. Aniat-um, to lore. Amand-o, for or by A miit-u, to be loved.
loving. .Vinanrl-um, loving. Anirind-n.fe?/, i«,&c.

ELEMENTARY LATIN GRAMMAR.

REGULAR VERBSPASSIVE
Principal Parts
IKDICAXn-E.
1

—Amor, Amatus
SUBJUNCTIVE.
-.

S.

-s Am-6r, / am Am-aris (-are), thou art
\

Am-?r, I may
|"
_£,

a

Am-atiir, he
P. Am-amftr,

is

1

Am-firis (-ere), thou mayst Am-etur, he may

we are Am-amini, ye or you arc
Am-antflr, they are

Am-emur, we may
Am-emlni, you may Am-entnr, they maj/
Am-arer, I might or should
Am-arfiris (-arere), them mtsl.
-.

"1

j

^

S.

p.

Am-abaj, / was [wast^ Am-abaris (-abare), thiM Am-abatur, he was P. Am-abaoiur, we were Am abamini, you were Am-abantur, they were J
S.

o1

Am-aretur, he might

g.
'

Am-aremur, we
Am-aremini,

viight
J

§

ye/u mii/ht

Am-a.Teutur, they might

Am-abor, / shall [u-ill-s Am-aberis (-abere), thou, 95 Am-abitur, he w-ill 3 3 P. Am-abimur, we shall Am-abimini, you will Am-abuntur, they will S.

R,

P.
Oh

(-a, -urn) sum, I have Amat-uB (-a, -urn) sim, Imay^ g* Amat-us es, thou hast •\ c- Amat-us sis, thou mayst % Amat-us esthekas [have 2 Amat-us sit, he may f Amat-i (-ae,-a) sti.mus,it;e 5- Amat-i (-ae,-a)8imus,weOTa2/ ^ Amat-i estis, you have Amat-i sitis, you may § |^ J .aAmat-i sunt, they have J Amat-i sint, they may

Amat-iis

1

'

S.

C
3

P.

Amat-us eram, 7 ^ad Amat-us eras, ihou hadst Amat-us erat, he had Amat-i erauius, we had Amat-i eratis, you had Ataat-i erant, they had ^
>,

I"
-

I^

P-

Amat-us essem, /m/. or sArf.-N g* * Amat-us esses, tfwu wouldat 2* Amat-us esset, he would Amat-i cssemus, we should ^ Amat-i, essetis, you would § Amat-i, esseiit, tliey would J .a*
.

'

S.

a,

P.

3

Amat-us 6ro, / shall Amat-us oris, thou, wilt Amat-us erit, he will Amat-i erlmus, we shall Amat-i eritis, you will
Amat-i erunt, thty
icill

-,

z

.

VERBS.

63

FIEST COXJUGATIOX.
VOICE.
sum, Amari,
to he loved.
INFINITIVE.

IMPERATIVE.

1

PARTICIPLE.

Am-are,

be thou loved.

Ama-ri,

to he lovtd.

Am-amlni,

be ye loved.

Am-ator, thou shall Am-ator, he shall

? Amat-um
about

iri, to be

to be loved.

Am-andns, -anda, -andum, d^servimj
or requiring to be
loved.

Am-abimini, ye shall Am-antor, they shall

J

[Seep. 37,

list (1).]

Amat-um,
-run,

-am,
to

Amat-ns,
loved,

-a,

-nm,

esse,

or

having

have been loved.

been loved.
[See p. 37,
list (1).]

Gl

ELEMENTARY LATIN GRAMMAR.

SECTION

III.— REGULAR

VERBS
ACTIVE
Monfti,

Principal Pabts
INDICATIVE.
S.

—Mongo,
SUBJUNCTIVE.

M6n-eo, / am Mon-es, tliou art Mon-et, he is

^

Mon-eam,
=
J"

/ 'inay advise.

\

P.
£i

Mon-emus, we are Mon-etis, ye or ymi are Mon-ent, they are
Mou-ebam, I was
Mon-ebas, thou wast Mon-eba,t, he was

j

i

- Mon-eamus, toe may advise. > Mon-eatis, you may advise.
Mon-eant, they may
advise.

Mon-eas, thou mayst advise. Mon-eat, he may advise.

>

S.

>.

Mon-crera, / miyht or would ^ Mon-eres, thou viightst ^^ Mon-eret, he might g1

!

P.

Mon-ebamus, we

tvere
<5
'

£

Mon-ebatis, yoit tvere Moii-ebant, they u-cre
S.

Mon-eremus, we might Mon-eretis, i/ou miyht Mon-erent, they miyht

j

S"

i

Mon-ebo, T shall advise. Mon-ebis, thou ivilt advise.
Mon-ebit, he
icill

S 3

advise.

P.

Mon-ebimus, we shall advise. Mon-ebitis, you will advise. Mon-ebunt, they u-ill advise.
>
r,
^.
J>
\

Moniturus sim, / may he ^ Moniturus sis, thou mayst he Moniturus sit, he may he Monituri simus, we may he Monituri sitis, you may be Monituri sint, they may be J
Monu-erim, 7 may have Monu-eris, thou mayst have
-,

g,

§

^
a

'

s H

S.

£

Monu-i, I have Monu-isti, thou hast Monu-it, he has P. Monu-imus, ice have Monu-istis, yon have

a
a-

_£.

J

may have Monu-erimus, we may have Monu-erltis, you, may have
Monu-erit, he
^

Monu-erunt
S.

(-ere), they

have Monu-erint, they m.ay have
^

Monu-Sram, / had Menu-eras, thoic hadst Monu-erat, he had
Monu-eramus, we had Monu-eratis, you, had Monu-erant, they had
Monu-ero, / shall Monu-eris, thou wilt MoDu-erit, he will

P.
S.

Monu-issem, / miyht or shd.^ Monu-isses, thou uouldst Monu-isset, he ivould Monu-issemus, ive should
a-

Ok

>

Monu-issetis, j/ou ivould Monu-issent, they ivmild

1

>

S.

%

sr-

<^

g
£•
[

£
3
3
b.

P.

Monu-enraus, we shall Monu-erltis, you will
Monu-erint, they will

S
J

^

VEKBS.

65

—SECOND CONJUGATIC^.
VOICE,

Monitum, Monere,
IMPERATIVE.

to advise.
INFINITIVE.

PAKTIOIPLE.

Mon-e, advise

thou.

Moii-eiis,^

,

.

Mon-§re,

to advise.

Mon-ens, I

Mon-ensJ

"Jj^"

Mon-ete, advise

ye.

[See p. 40.]

Mon-eto, thou shalt advise. Mon-eto, he shall advise.
Mon-etote, ye shall advise. Mon-ento, Ihcy shall advise.

Monit-urum, -uram, Monit-Qrus, ] » |-arum, esse, to be Monit-ura, r S. =
about to advise.

Monit-urum,-'
[See

r^

g-

p. 37, list (1).]

Monu-isse,
advised.

(o

have

GEKUND.
Monend-i, of advising. Monend-o, to ovfor advising.

SUPINES.

Monit-um,

to

advise. Moiiit-u, to he

Monend-um, advising.
Monend-o, by,
in, &e.

advised.

66

ELEMENTARY LATIN GRAMMAR.

REGULAR VERBSPASSIVE
Principal Parts
INDICATIVE.
S.

—Moncor, Monttus
SUBJUNCTIVK.

P.

Mon-eor, / am Mon-eris (ere), thou art Mon-etur, he w Mon-emur, we are Mon-emini, pe or you are Mon-entur, they are
[wast Mon-ebar, / was Mon-ebaris (-ebare), thou Mon-ebatur, he was

Mon-ear, / may Mon-earis (-eare), thou mayst Mon-eatur, he mxiy Mon-eamur, we may Mon-eamini, you may Mon-eantur, they may
Mon-erer, I might or should Mon-ereris(-erere), thoumtst. Mon-eretur, he might

S.

Mon-ebamur, we

%verc

Mon-ebamitii, you were Mon-ebantur, they were
S.

Mon-eremur, we might Mon-eremini, you might Mon-erentur, they might

Mon-ebor, I shall \wilt-^ Mon-eberis (-ebere), thou Mon-ebitur, he will

P.

Mon-ebimur, ^oe shall Mon-eblmini, you will Mon-ebuntur, they loill
Monit-us (-a,-um) sim, I may Monit-us sis, thou mayst Monit-us sit, he may Monit-i simusj we may Monit-i sitis, you may Monit-i sint, they may
Monit-us essem, I mi. or shd.^ Monit-us esses, thou wouldst Monit-us esset, he would Monit-i essemus, we should Monit-i essetis, you would
Monit-i essent, they would
g-

S. Monit-us(-a,-um)suin,7Aat'(;

P.

Monit-us es, thou hast Monit-us est, he has Monit-i siinins, we have Monit-i estis, you have Monit-i sunt, they have

J

?-

S.

Monit-us gram, / had Monit-us eras, thouhadst Monit-us erat, he had P. Monlt-i eramus, we had Monit-i eratis, you had
Monit-i erant, they

had

)f

S.

Monit-us Monit-us Monit-us
Monit-i
]\Ionit-i

ero,
eris,

I shall thou wilt
he will

erit,

P. Monit-i erimus,
eritis,

we shall you will

erunt, they will

VERBS.

67

SECOND CONJUGATION.
VOICE.
sum, Moneri,
to he

advised.
INFINITIVE.

IMFKRATIVE.

PARTICIPLE.

Moa-ere, be thou advised.
Mon-eri,
vised.
to he

ad-

Mone-mini,

he ye advised.

Mon-etor, thou shalt Mon-etor, he shall

S"
,

Monit-um
about vUed.

iri, to he

|_

to

be

ad-

Mon-endus, -enda, -endum, deserving
or requiring to be advised.

Mon-ebimini, ye shall Mon-entor, they shall

"

g.

J

[Seep. 37,

list (1)].

Monit-nm, -um, esse,

to

-am, Monit-us, -a, -um, have advised, or having
been advised.

been advised.

[See p. 37,

list (1)].

68

ELEMENTARY

T-ATIN GKAMMAPv.

SECTION IV.-REGULAR VERBS
ACT1 V
Principal Parts
INDICATIVE.
Leg-0, I choose. Leg-is, thvu chooscst. Leg-it, he chooses. P. Leg-imiis, we choose. Leg-itis, ye or you choose.
S.
li

Leffo,

Led.

SUBJUNOTTVK.

Leg-am, 7 may

choose.

a c

Leg-unt, they
S.

choose.

Leg-as, thou viayst choose. Leg-at, he may dioose. Leg-amiis, we may choose. Leg-atis, you viay choose. Leg-ant, they may clwose.
L5g-(5rem,
Leg-t5res,

LGg-ebam, I teas choosina.
Leg-eba-s, thou ivasl choosing.

I might or should thou mightst

-

1 p.
E

Leg-ebat, he was choosing.
Leg-cbatis,

P. heg-chiunus, jcewerechoosi'ng.

Leg-<3r6t, he might Lcg-erciuus, we might you were choosiuij. Leg-eretis, you anight Leg-ebant, they icere choosing. Leg-erent, they might

1
-"

S.

Leg-am, /

shall choose.

3
P.

Leg-es, thou wilt choose. Leg-et, he will choose.

Leg-emus, we
Leg-ent, they

shall choose.

Leg-etis, you will choose.
icill

choose.

Lectarus (-a, -um) sim, I may lecturus sis, thou mayst Lecturus sit, he may [may o Lectiiri (-ae, -a) simus, we Lectiiri sitis, you may ' 3Lecturi sint, they may
-,

S. Leg-i,

I have

>

Leg-erim, /

may

have

Leg-isti, thou hast Leg-it, he has
P. Leg-imiis,
(li

%
-

|
~

we have
(-ere),

Leg-istis, yoni have

Leg-erunt
S.

they have

Leg-eris, thou mayst have Leg-erit, he may have Leg-erfmiis, toe may have Leg-eritis, t'ou may have Leg-erint, they may have
Leg-Jssem, / 7yiight or shd. Leg-isses, thou wouldst. Leg-iss5t, he would Leg-issetnus, we should
Leg-issetis, you,

-^

Leg-6ram, / had chosen. Leg-Sras, thou hadst chosen.

>

s

P.

5

had chosen. Leg-6ratnus, we had chosen. Leg-6rati3, you had chosen. Leg-5rant, they had chosen.
Leg-firat, he
-\

would
'

o I

Leg-issent, they ivoidd

S. Leg-6ro,

3
3

/ shall Leg-eris, thou unit Leg-5rU, he will P. Leg-6iTmu3, wc shall Leg-Cruis, you will
Leg-6rint, they will

g
1

^
c"

\

2
'

VEEBS.

69

—THIRD CONJUGATION.
VOICE.
LectuDQ, Legere, to choose.
IMPERATIVK.
1

INFINITIVE.

PARTICIPLE.

1

Leg-e, dwose thou.
L5g-er5,
leg-ite, choose ye.
to choose.

Leg-ens,
LSg-entis,

\ choos)

ing.

[See p. 40.]

Legito, thou shalt choose. Leg-ito, he shall choose.
Leg-itote, yc shall choose. Leg-nnto, th(y shall chouse.

-ura, Lect-urum, -uram, Lect-urus, -urum, esse, to he -urum, about Ui
abirut to choose.

choose.

[Seep. 37,

list (1).]

Leg-isse,
chosen.

to

have

GERUND,
LSgend-i, of choosir/y. Lejrend-o, to or for choosing. Legend-urn, choosinri. Legend-o, by or in, &c.

SUPINES.
Lect-iim,
choose.
to

Lcct-u, to he chosen.

70

ELEMENTARY LATIN GRAMMAR.

REGULAR VERBSPASSIVE
Principal Parts
INDICATIVIJ.
S.

—Legor,
->

SUBJDNCTrVE.
Leg-ar, / inay Leg-axis (-are), thou inayst Leg-atur, he may

0^

Leg-or, / am •. Leg-6ris (-ere), thou art Leg-Itur, he is P. Leg-Inmr, we are Leg-Imlni, ye or ymi are J Leg-untur, they are
S.

Leg-amur, we may Leg-amlni, ymi may
Leg-antur, they

3
-'

may

Lcg-ebar, / urns
Leg-ebatur, he ivas

[wast-s
|

Lcg-erer, / miyht or should

>

Leg-ebaris (-cbare), thou
1

^
o*

Leg-€reris (-erere), thouvitst.
Leg-eretur, he viiyht

P.

L6g-ebamur, we were Legebamiai, you were
Leg-ebantur, they were
J

§

Leg-6remur, we might Leg-eremlui, you might Leg-erentur, they might

1
'

S.

3 o

-. Leg-ar, 7 shall Leg-eris (-ere), thou wilt Leg-etur, he will

P.

L§g-emur, we shall Leg-emlni, you will Leg-entur, they icill

'1
J
>. Lect-US sim, / may have Leot-us sis, thou, mayst have Lect-US sit, he may have Lect-i simus, ive may have Lect-i sitis, you may have Lect-i sint, they may have ^

S,

Lect-U3 (-a, -mn) sum, I have Lect-US gs, thou hast ^ ^ Lect-U8 est, he has % P. Lect-i sumus, we have % Lect-i estis, you have | J ? Lect-i sunt, they have
S.
1

S.

J
I"

Lect-US eram, I had Lect-US eras, thou hadst Lect-US erat he had
Lect-i eratis, Lect-i erant,

-s

^
§ ^
g §

,

p.

a

P. Lect-i Sramus,

we had you had they had

Lect-US essem, / mt. or shd. ^ Lect-US esses, thou wouldst Lect-us esset, he would Lect-i essemus, we should
Lcct-i essetis,
Lect-i essent, they

1

[

'
-^

you would would

^

1

S. Lect-US ero,

I shall

Lect-US eris, ihcni wilt Lect-US erit, he will
P. Lect-i eriraus,

i

3

Lect-i erltis,

we shall you will
^

1

Lect-i erunt, they will

1

VERBS.

71

THIRD CONJUGATION.
VOICE.
Lectus sum, LSgi.
IMPERATIVE.
INFINITIVE.

PARTICIPLE.

Leg-ere, be thou chosen.
Leg-i,
to be chosen.

Leg-imini, be ye chosen.

Leg-itor, thou shalt be Leg-itor, he shall be

Lect-um
about

iri,

to be

Leg-endu3,
be chosen.

-enda,
to

to be chosen.

S

-endum, about

leg-emini, we shall be Leg-untor, they shall be-'

[See p. 37, list (1).]

Lect-um, -am, -um, Lect-us,
esse, to have been
cJwsen.

-a,

-um,
having

chosen,

or

been chosen. [See p. 37,
list (1).]

i

ELEMENTARY LATIN GRAMMAR,

REGULAR VERBS—
ACTIVE
Principal Parts
Some Verbs
of the Third Conjugation have an
i

Capio,

in the

Present Indicative,

INDICATIVE.
S. Capi-0,

SUBJUNCTIVE.

/ am, taking.

CSpi-am, I

may

take.

Cip-is, thou art taking.
c
P.

Cap-it, he is taking.

Capi-as, thou mayst take. Capi-it, he may take.

Cap-imus, we are taking. Capi-amus, we may take. Cap-itis, ye or you are taking. Capi-atis, you may take. Capi-unt, they are taking. Capi-ant they may take.
Capi-e^aIn, / teas taking.

p.

B

Cap-5rem, / might or shotdd take. Cap-6res, thou mightst take. Capi-ebat, he was taking. Cap-erSt, he might take. P. Capi-ebaraGs, we were taking. Cap-gremus, we might take. Capi-ebatis, you icere taking. Cap-Sretis, you might take. Capi-ebant, they were taking. Cap-grent, they might take.
S.

Capi-eba.s, thofu tvast taking.

S.

Capi-am, / shall
Capi-et, he

take.

Capi-es, thou wilt take.
:3

ivill take.

3

P.

Capi-emus, ice shall take. Capi-etis, you will take.
Capi-ent, they unll take.

Capturus sim, / may be Capturus sis, thou mayst be Capturus sit, he may be Captiiri simus, we may be Capturi sitis, you may be
Captiiri sint, they

>.

a
S
"

S"

may

1

be

S. Cep-i,

I have

^

Cep-istI, thou hast

Cep-it, he has
P. Cep-imus, ive have

e

Cep-istis,

you have

Cep-eruiit(-ere),?/(r7//K7?'eS.

Cep-6rim, 1 may have taken. Cep-Sris, thou mayst have taken. Cep-§rlt, he may have taken. Cep-erimiis, %ve may have taken. Cep-eritis, you may have taken. Cep-erint, tliey may have taken.
Cep-issera, / might or should >

Cep-eram, I had taken.
Cep-gras, thou hadst taken. Cep-erat. he had taken.

Cep-isses, thou wotddst
Cep-isset, he teould

a
"

o.

P.

Cep-eramus, we had taken. Cep-eratis, you had taken.
Cep-erant, they

Cep-issemus,
Cep-issetis,

tve

should
^

E a
ft-

had

taken.
-^

you would Cep-issent, they would

P

S. Cep-ero,

/ shall

Cep-eris, thou wilt

c"
1

Cep-erTt, he

wiU
will
%oill

^
|^

2
"3

P. Cep-erimus, wcs^o?Z
Cep-eritls,

|

you

§
J

Cep-erint, they

VERBS.

73

THIRD CONJUGATION.
VOICE.
Cepi,

Captum, Capere.
it
;

and the tenses derived from
IMPERATIVE.

such are capio, fodio, facio, kc.
INFINITIVE.

PARTICIPLE.

Cap-§, take thou.
Cip-er5, to take.
Cap-It§, take ye.

Capi-ens, \ takCapi-entis,J ing.

Cap-Ito, thou shall take.

Cap-ito, he shall take.
Cap-Itote, ye shall take. Capi-unto, they shall take.

Capt-urum, -uram, Capt-urus, -a, -tun, about to take. •urum, esse, to be
about to take.

CSp-isse,
taken.

to

have

GERUND.
Capiend-i. Capiend-o. Capiend-ura.

SUPINES.
Capt-uiD. Capt-u.

n

ELEMENTARY LATIN GRAMMAR.

REGULAR VERBSPASSIVE
Principal Parts
INDICATIVE.
S.
•. Capi-or, I am Cap-eris (-ere), thou art a Cap-itur, he is P. Cap-Imur, we are a Cap-imini, ye or you are C5.pi-untur, they are

Capior,

SUBJUNOTIVE.
Capi-ar, / may Capi-aris (-are), thoxi mayst Capi-atur, he may
«,

B

Capi-amur, ive may Capi-amini, i/ou may
Capi-antur, they
G&TQ'^TeT,

a

5
*

may

S.

Cipi-ebar, 7 ivas

[icast

>,

Capi-ebaris (-ebare), than Capi-ebatur, he ^vas
P.

^

T might ov should -. Oap-Creris (-erere), thou vitst. Cap-eretur, he miyht
-

E

P.

~ were f Capi-cbamiiii, yoa were Capi-ebftntur, they were J
ice
-^ Capi-ar, I shall Capi-eris (-ere), thou iviU Capi-etur, he will

Capi-ebamur,

Cap-eremur,

?re

might

a

Cap-eremini, you might Cap-erentur, they might

S.

P.

Capi-emur, we shall Capi-emini, you will Capi-entur, they will
^

V

a

S.

|1^

Capt-us sum, I have Capt-us gs, thou hast Capt-us est, he has P. Capt-i sumus, 7ve have Capt-i estis, you have Capt-i sunt, they have
Capt-us 6ram, / had Capt-us eras, thou hadst Capt-us erat, he had P. Capt-i eramus, loe had
S.

Capt-us sim, Tmay Capt-us sis, thou mayst Capt-us sit, he may Capt-i simus, we may Capt-i sitis, yoii may
Capt-i sint, they

>.

§"

1

^
g"
S.

!

\

1

|-

'

may

J

»

-^

1

^
^
a
~

1

o.

\

Capt-us essem, I mt. or shd, ^ g' Capt-us esses, thou wouldst n S* Capt-us esset, he would Capt-i essemus, we should S.
Capt-i essetis, you would Capt-i essent, they would

Capt-i eratis, you Capt-i erant, they
S.

had had

%
J

J
->

?

i2

Capt-us ero, I shall Capt-us eris, thou loilt Capt-us erit, he will P. Capt-i eiimus, loe shall
Capt-i
eritis,

|"

n
|"
1

'^

S.

5 3

you

will
ivill

%
J

Capt-i erunt, they

r

VEKBS.

75

THIRD CONJUGATION.
VOICE.
Captus sum, Capi.
IMPERATIVE.
INFINITIVE.

PARTICIPLB.

Cap-ere, he thou taken.
Cap-i, to he taken.

Cap-imini, he ye taken.

Cap-itor, thou shalt Cap-itor, he shall

'^-

Capt-um

Iri, to

he

Capi-endus, -enda,

,

?
?

ahout to he taken.

-endum, deserving
or requiring to he

Capi-emini, ye shall Capi-untor, they shall

taken.

J

Capt-um, -am, -um, Capt-us,
esse, to have heen

-a,

-um,

taken,

or having

taken.

been taken.

7G

ELEMENTARY LATIN GRAMMAR.

SECTION v.—REGULAR VERBS
ACTIVE
Principal Parts
tv
.

Audio,
.

^
SUBJUNCTIVK.

INDICATIVE.
S.

c

Aud-io, 1 am Aud-is, thou art Aud-It, he is P. Aud-imus, u-e are Aud-itis, ye or you are Aud-iunt, they are
Aiid-IObaiii, / ivas

-,

Aud-iam,
s

/

may

hear.

Aud-ias, thou mayst hear. Aud-iat, he may hear.

-

Aud-iamus,
^

ivc

Aud-iatis, you

Aud-iant, fhey

may hear. may hear. may hear.
\
1

S.

-n

AuJ-iebas, Ihou wast Aud-iebat, he was
P.

AuJ-iebamus, ice were AuJ-iebatia, you ivere
Aud-iebant, they u-cre
^

Aud-Irem, I might or should Aud-ires, thou miyhtst Aud-iret, he might Aud-Iremu3, we might Aud-iretis, you might Aud-irent, they might

§*
!

\
i

^

J

S.

Aud-iam, /

shall hear.

5 P.

Aud-ies, thou wilt hear. Aud-iet, he will hear.

Aud-iemus, we shall hear. Aud-ietis, you will hear.
Aud-ient, they will hear.

Auditurus sim, / may be a Auditurus sis, thou mayst be g" Auditurus sit, he may be ^ Audituri simus, u-e mny be ^ Audituri sitis, yoii may be g ^' Audituri sint, they may be '
>,
\

1

'

ft!

Audiv-i, / have Audiv-isti, thou hast Audiv-it, he has P. Audiv-imus, wc have Audiv-istis, yoii, have
S.

s
gV
\

2
?~

J

Audiv-erunt
S.

(ere), they

have
-.

^ may have Audiv-eris, thou mayst have ^ Audiv-erit, he may have § AUdiV-erimus, we may have §. Audiv-eritis, ymi, may hare Audiv-erint, they may have J

Audiv-erim, 1

s
a
P.

Audiv-Sram, / had Audiv-eras, thotc hadst Audiv-erat, he had
Audiv-eratis,

Audiv-issein, / might or shd.-s

^
1

Audiv-isses, thou ivoiddst
Audiv-isset, he

r

had had AUdiv-erant, they had
Audiv-gramus,
ive
yoii,

g
J^

would
u-e

'

Audiv-issemus,
Audiv-issetis,

should
>

J

yrm would Audiv-issent, they would

S. Audlv-ero, [shall Audiv-eris, ihou u-ilt Audiv-erit, he will

-s

P.

Audiv-erlmuSjWC

s/ia/Z

5

Audiv-erftis, you will

a.
^

Audiv-erint, they will

VERBS.

— FOUETH
VOICE.

CONJUGATION.

Audivi, Auclltum, Audire.
IMPERATIVB.
INFINITIVE.

PAUTICIPLE.

Aud-i, hear thou.

Aud-ire,
Aud-ite, hear ye.

to hear.

Aud-iens, "j Aud-iens, Kheariny. Aud-iens, )

Aud-ito, thou shall hear. Aud-ito, he shall hear.
Aud-itote, ye shall hear.

Auditur-um, -am, -um, esse, to be
about to hear.

Auditur-us,-a,-um,
about
to

hear.

Aud-iunto, they shall hear.

Audiv-isse, to have heard.

GERUND.
Audiend-i, of hearinrj. Audiend-o, to or for hearing. Audiend-um, hearing. Audiend-o, hy hearing.

SUPINES.
Aii'lltura, to

hear. AuiJitu, to he

heard.

78

ELEMENTARY LATIN GRAMMAR.

REGULAR VERBSPASSIVE
Principal Parts
INDICATIVE.
Aiid-ior, / am Aud-iris, thou art Aud-itur, he is Aud-imur, we are Aud-imini, ye or yoii are Aiid-iuntur, tlu!ii are
S. Auil-iebar,

Audior,

SUBJUNCTIVE. Aud-iar, / may he heard. Aud-iaris, thou mayst he heard. Aud-iatur, he may he heard.

Aud-iamur, we may

he heard.

Aud-iamini, you may he heard. Aud-iantur, they may he heard.
Aud-Irer, I might or should Aud-ireris (-irere), thoumtst.
>,

I was

[loast

Aud-iebaris(-iebare),<^ow

Aud-iebatnr, he icas
P. Aud-iebamur, tve were

Aud-iebamiui, you lotre Aud-iebantur, thry were
S.

^

Aud-iretur, he might Aud-iremur, we might Aud-iremiui, you might Aud-irentur, they might

[wilt-. Aud-iar, I shall Aud-ieris (-iere), thou Aud-ietur, he ivill P. Aud-iemiir, we shall And-iemini, you ivill Aud-ientur, they will

g
=^

'

S.

Audit-US (-a, -um) sum, Z/iare Audit-US es, thou hast ^ Audit-US est, he has Audit-i sumus, we have Audit-i estis, you have Audit-i sunt, they have
\

aim, I may have Audit-us sis, thou mayst have Audit-US sit, he may have Audit-i simus, we may have Audit-i sitis, you may have Audit-i sint, they may have ^
A.VLAit-\xs
')
I

s-

|

S.

Audit-US eram, / had Audit-US eras, thou hadst Audit-US erat, he had Audit-i eramus, we had
Audit-i eratis, you had Audit-i erant, they had

Audit-US essem, I mt. or shd.-. Audit-US esses, thou wouhlst Audit-US esset, he would Audit-i essenius, we should
Audit-i essetis, you loould

I

\l

Audit-i essent, they would
-^

J

Audit-us ero, I shall Audit-US eris, thou wilt Audit-us erit, he ivill Audit-i erimus, we shall Audit-i eritis, you will Audit-i erunt, they will

\

J

I

VERBS.

79

FOURTH CONJUGATION.
VOICE.
Audltiis sum, Audiri, to be heard.
IMPERATIVE.
INFINITIVE.

PARTICirLE.

Aad-Ire, be thou heard.
Aud-iri,
to he

heard.

Aud-lmini,

be ye heard.

Aud-itor, thou shall Aud-itor, he shall

^
»i

Andit-um

iri, to he

about to be heard.

-a, Audiend-us, -um, deserving or

s.

Aud-iemini, ye shall Aud-iuntor, they shall

f

.^

requiring heard.

to

be

'

Audit-um, -um, esse,

-am,
to

Audit-us,

-a,

-um,

have

been heard.

heard, or having been heard.

80

ELEMENTAKY LATIN GRAMMAR.

SECTION VI.—THE FOUR
ACTIVE
i

6
1.
-J

INDICATIVE.

SUBJUNCTIVE.

Par-0, -as, -at,

&,c.

Par-em,
Par-iam,

-es, -et, &;c.

a

2.

Par-eo, -ea, -Ct, &c. P&r-io,
-is, -It,

Par-earn, -eas, -eat, &c.
-ias, -iat,

a.

&c.

&c.

4.

Ap6r-io,

-Is, -It,

&c.

ApSr-iam,

-ias, -iat,

&c.

*s <g

1.

2.

Par-abam, -abaa, -abat, &c. Par-ebam, -ebas, ebat, &c.
Par-iebam, -iebas, -iebat, &c. Ap6r-iebam, -iebas, -iebat, &c.
Par-abo, -abis, -abit, &c.
Par-ebo, -ebis, -ebit, &c.

Par-arein, -ares, -aret, &c.

Par-erem, -eres, -eret, &c.

E

3.
4.

Par-Grem, -ores,
Ap6r-Irem,

-6ret, &c.

-ires, -iret,

&c.

1.

Paraturus sim,
Pariturus sim,

sis,

&c.
&c.

£
3

2.

sis,
sis,

3.
4.

Par-iam,

-ies, -iet,

&c. &c.

Parturus sim,

&c. &c.
&c.

Aper-iam,
Parav-i,
Paru-i,
Pep6r-i,

-ies, -iet,

Aperturus sim,
Parav-erim,
Paru-6rim,
Peper-Grim,

sis,

1.

-isti, -it,

&c.
&c. &c. &c.

-eris, -erit,

o S

2. 3.

-isti, -it, -isti, -it,

-eris, -erit, &c.
-eris, -erit,

&c.
&c.

4.

Apcru-i,

-isti, -it,

Ap6ru-erim,
Parav-issem,

-eris, -erit,

^
•n o.

1.

Parav-Cram,

-eras, &c.

-isses,
-isses,

&c.

2.
3. 4.

Paru-eram,
Peper-eram,

-eras, &c. -eras, &c.

Paru-issem,

&c.

Pepfir-issera, -isses, &c.

s d
"S
PL.

Aperu-eram,
Parav-6ro,

-eras, &c.

Ap6ru-issem,

-isses, &c.

1. 2.

-eris, &c.

Parti-ero, -eris, &c.

3. 4.

Pep2r-ero, -eris, &c.

Aperu-ero,

-eris,

&c.

SUPINES.
1.
2.

Parat-ura,
Parit-iim,
-

u.

u.
J.

3.
4.

Part-um,

-

Apert-um

- u.

VERBS.

81

CONJUGATIONS AT ONE VIEW.
VOICE.
IMPERATIVE.
INFINITIVE.

PARTICIPLE.

Pir-a, -ate.
Par-e, -ete.
Par-6,
-ite. -Ite.

Par-aie.
Par-ere.
Prir-ere.

Pa,r-ans.

Par-ens.
par-iens.

ApCr-I,

ApCr-Ire.

Aper-ions.

Par-ato, -atote, -anto.

Par-eto, -etote, -ento.
Par-ito, -itote, -iunto.

ApCr-ito, -Itote, -iunto.

Piraturum esse. Pariturum esse. Parturum esse. Aperturum esse.
Parav-isse.
Parii-isse.

Parat-urus.
Parifc-urus.

Part-urus.

Apert-urus.

Pep6r-isse.

Aperu-isse.

GERUNDS.
1. 2. 3. 4.

Parand-i,
Parend-i,

-o,

-um.

-o,

-um.
-um.

Pariend-i, -o, -um.

Aperiend-i,

-o,

6

82

ELEMENTARY LATIN GRAMMAR.

THE FOUR CONJUGATIONS
PASSIVE

a

H
1.

INDICATIVE.

SUBJUNCTIVE.

Par-or, -aris, -atur, &c.
Par-eor,* -eris, -etur, &c.
Par-ior, -eris, -itur, &c.

Par-er, -eris, -etur, &c.

ZJ

2. 3. 4.

Par-ear, -earis, eatur, &c.
Par-iar, -iaris, -iatur, &c.

Ap6r-ior,

-Iris, -itur,

&c.

Aper-iar, -iaris, -iatur, &c.

J

1.

Par-abar, -abaris, &c.
Par-ebar, -ebaris, &c.
Par-iebar, -iebaris, &c.

Par-arer, -areris, &c.

2.

Par-erer, -ereris, &c. Par-erer, -ereris, &c.

g

3.

L
1.

Ap6r-iebar, -iebaris, &c.

Ap6r-irer, -ireris, &c.

Par-abor, aberis, &c.
Par-ebor, -eberis, &c.
Par-iar, ieris, &e.

o

b

3

3. 4.

Aper-iar, leris, kc.

1.

Paratus sum,
Paritus sum,

es, &c. es, &c.

Paratus sim,
Paritus sim,

sis,
sis,

&c.
&c.

^

2.
3. 4.

Partus sum,

es, &;c. es, &c.

Partus sim,

sis,

&c. &c.

Apertus sum,
Paratus eram,

Apertus sim,

sis,

1.

eras, &c.

Paratus essem, &c.
Paritus essem, &c.

r
p.
dn

2.
3. 4.

Paritus eram, eras, &c.

Partus eram, eras, &c.

Partus essem, &c.

Apertus eram,
Paratus

eras, &c.

Apertus essem, &c.

*J

1. 2.

ero, eris, &c.
eris, &c.

jj 6.

Paritus ero,

3.
e!

Partus

ero, eris, &c.

4.

Apertus

ero, eris, &c.

The passive voice ufpareo

is

used ouly

VERBS.

83

AT ONE VIEW.
VOICE.

IMPERATIVE.

INTINITIVE.

PARTICIPLE.

Par-are, -amini.
Par-ere, -emiui.

par-ari.
Par-eri.
Par-i.
ApCr-Ii'i.

Par-ore, -imiui.

Apcr-Ire. -imiui.

Par-ator, -abimini, kc. Par-etor, -ebimini, &c.
rar-itor, -iomini, &c.

Paratum
Paritum

iri. iri. iri.

ParandusParendus.
Pariendus.

Partum

Aper-Itor, -icmini, &c.

Apertum
Paratum
Paritum

iri.

Aperiendus.

esse. esse.

P^ratus.
Paritus.

Partum

esse.

Partus.

Apertum

esse.

Apertus.

la the Impersonal forms.

Sec

p. 57, i.

8i

ELEMENTARY

L.VTIN

GRAMMAR,

CHAPTER IX.—
Deponent Verbs are those
wliicli

have the inflexions of

tlie

Passive Voice

known, as

in other Ilcgular Verbs,

by

SECTION
rRES.— (l
S.

L— FIEST CONJUGATION— Hortor,
SUBJUNCTIVE.
(I

1

INDICATIVE.
admonish, &c.)

may

aJmonisli, &c.)

Hort-or, -aris, &c.

Hort-er, -eris, &c.

IMl'EKF.—
S.

Ilort-abar, &c.

Ilort-arer, &c.

FUT.—
S.

Hort-ahor, -aberis, &c.

Hortatur-us sim, &c.

S.

FEltF.— Hortat-us sum, &c.

Hortat-us sim, &e.

FLUFERF.—
S.

Hortat-us eram, &c.

Hortat-us essem, &c.

S.

FUT. PERF.— Hortat-us ero, &c.

Supines— Hortatum,

&c.

SECTION II.— SECOND CONJUGATION— VSreor,
PRES.—a
S.
fear, &c.)
(I

may

fear, &c.)

Ver-eor, -eris, &c.

Ver-ear, -earls, &c.

IMPERF.—
S.

Ver-ebar, &c.

Ver-erer, &c.

FUT.S.

Ver-ebor, &c.

Verlt-urus sim, kc.

PERF.—
S.

Verit-us sum, &c.

Verit-as sim, &c.

FLUPERF.—
S. Verit-us

eram, &c.

Verit-us essero, &c.

S.

FUT. PERF.— Verit-us ero, &c.

Supines

—Yeritum,

&c.

DEPONENT VEKBS.

85

DEPONENT VERBS.
but the racaning of the Active.
the favourite vowel.

The conjugation

to

which each belongs

is

(See p. 53, 15, sqq.)

admonish.

Principal Parts, Hortor, Hortatus sum, Hortari.
INFINITIVE.
(To adinonish.)

IlirERATIVK.

PARTICIPLE.
(Admonishing.)

(Admonish thou, &c.) Hort-are, -amini.

Hort-ari.

Hort-ans.

(About to admonish.)

Hort-ator, kc.

Hortatur-um"j

Hortatur-am V Hortatur-umJ

esse.

Hortat-urus, &c. (Dusei'ving to be admonished.)

Hortand-us,

-a,

-um.

(Having admonished.)

Hortat-um

esse.

Hortat-us,

-a,

-um.

Gerund — Hortand-i,

kc,

J fear.

Principal Parts, V^reor, Yeritus sum,
(To
fear.)

VerSri.

(Fear thoit, &c.)

(Fearing.)

Ver-ere, -emini.

Ver-eri.

Ver-ens.

Ver-etor, kc.

Verit-urum

esse, &c.

Verit-iirus {ad.), and

Ver-endus

(pass).

Verit-um

esse.

Verit-Bs, -a, -Tim.

GekunI)

— V'ercnd-i,

kc.

86

ELEMENTARY LATIN GRAMMAR.

DEPONENT
SECTION
III.— THIRD COTs^JUGATION— L&in-or,
SUBJDNCTIVR.
(I

INDICATIVE.

PRE.%—a
S.

speak, *e.)

may

speak, &c.)

L6qu-or, -eris, -itur, kc.

I5qu-ar, -aris, &c.

IMPERF.—
S.

Loqu-ebar,

kc

Lnqu-erer,

fcc.

PUT.—
S.

Loqu-ar, -eris, &c.

Lociitur-us sim, &c.

PERF.—
S.

locut-us sum, &c.

Locut-us sim, &c.

PLUPERF.—
S.

Locut-us erani, &n.

Locut-us essem, &c.

S.

FUT. PERF.— Locut-us ero, &c.

Supine

— Locut-uni, &c.

SECTION IV.— FOURTH CONJUGATION— Part-ior,
PRES.—(\
S.
divide, Ac.)
(1

may

divide, &c.)

Part-ior, -Iris, -Itur, &c.

Part-iar, -iaris, &c.

JMPERF.—
S.

Part-iubar, &c.

Part-Irer, &c.

FUT.—
S.

Part-iar, leris, &c.

Partitur-us sim, &c.

PERF.—
S.

Partit-us sum, &c.

Partit-us sim, &c.

PLUPERF.—
S.

Partlt-us eram, &c.

Partit-us essem, &c.

FUT. PERF.—
S.

Partlt-us ero, &c.

Supine

—Partlt-um, &c.

DEPONENT VERBS.

87

VERBS.
/ spra/^-.
PpjNCirAL Parts

— Luqaor, Luciitus sum, Loqui.
PARTICIPLE.
(Speaking,
<fcc)
(fee.)

IMPERATIVE.
(Spciik tliou, Ac.)

INFINITIVE.
(To speak,

Loqu-ere,

-itor.

Loqu-i.

Loqu-ens, &c.

Loqn-itor, &c.

Locutur-um esse,&c.

Locut-urus, -ura, kc.

Loquend-us,-a,-um, &c.
(Requiring to be spoken.)

(HavinK spoken,

<tc.)

Locut-um

esse, &c.

L6cut-us,

-a,

-um.

Gerund — Loqucnd-i,

&c.

/ divide.

Princip.\l Parts

—Partior, Partitus
<fec.)

sura, Partlri.

(Divide thou, &c.)

(To divide,

(Dividing, &c.)

Part-ire, -imini, &c.

Part-iri.

Part-iens, &c.

Part-itor, &c.

Panitur-um esse,&c. Partit-ums,
,

-ura, &c.

Partiend-us -a,-uni,&c.

Partit-um esse.

Partit-us, -a, -um, &c.

GJiituNi>

— I'arLifud-i,

i:c.

88

ELEMENTARY LATIN GRAMMAR.

CHAP.
Sum
is

X.,

SECT. I.—
tlie

very iiTPcrnlnr in

tliosf>

Tenses nliich are

fornicil
;

from

stem of the

ends, not in -ham, but in -ram., like a pluperfect

sum

not in -ho In Latin s is often is for csum, sim for csim, sunt for esunt, &c. Verb, because, being joined with perfect participles, it assists in com(from suhstantia, essence, or being), because it denotes existence.
its future,

SUM, I am.
INDICATIVE.

Peincipal

eUBJUNOTIYE.

PIiES.-(l am,
S.

&c.)

(I

may

be, Ac.)

Sum, £s, Est.

Sim,

Sis, Sit.

p. Siimus, Estis, Sunt.

Simus,
(1

Sitis, Sint.

lilPERF.—O.
S.

was, &c.)

misht or should

be, &c.)

P.

Eram, Eras, Erat. Eramus, Eiatis, Erant.

Essem, Esses, Esset. Essemus,f Essetis, Essent.
(I may be about to be, <fec.) Fnturus sim, Futurus sis, Futurus sit. Futuri simus, Futuri sitis, Futuri sint.

(FUT.—a
S.

sliall

or will be, &c.)

£ro, Eris, Exit.

P.

Erimus, Eritis, Erunt.

PERK— (I have been,
S. Fiii, Fuisti,

&c.)

(I

may have

been, &c.)

Fuit.

Fu-erim,

-eris, -erit.

P. Fiiinius, Fuistis,

Fuerunt, or

Fu-erimus,

-eritis, -erint.

Fuere.

PLUPERF.—{1 had
S.

been, &c.)

(I

might or should have been,
-isses, -isset.
-issetis, -issent.

<fcc.)

Fu-eram, -eras, -erat. P. Fu-eramus, -eratis, -erant. FUT.
S.

Fu-issem,

Fu-issemus,

PERF.~a

shall

have been, &c.)

Fu-ero,

-eris, -erit,

P. Fu-erimus, -eritis, -erint.

* Like sum are declined its compounds, ahsum, "lam away from;" adsum, "I a d in those parts in which the simple verb bejfins with an e; as, pro-d-es, pro-d-eram,
foret, &c., are often used instead of esscm, &c. perfect fid and its derived tenses are formed from an old verb,/j«j (^vta). In very old writers the perfect and derived tenses are often written with a v; as,fuvi,
t §

Form, forts,

The

In early writers the present subjunctive is often written siem, sks, siet, stent, Ac, simple verb Las no present paiticiplc ; but escns, or sens, which would be the proper
II

rRrvEGULAE VERBS.

89

IRREGULAR VERBS.
The imperfect indicative principal part; i.e., the present indicative. or -am, but in -ro, like a future perfect. The atera is properly cs-, so that
first

Sum is called an AuxiHari/ changed into r, so that cram is for esam. It is also called a Substantive Verb pleting the tenses of other verbs.

Parts

—Sum,
(fee.)

Fui, Esse.*
1

IMPERATIVE.
(Be thou,

INFINITIVE.

PARTICIPLE.

(To be.)

£s.
Este.

Esse.

CThou

slialt be, <tc.)

(To be about to be.)

(About to

be.)

Esto, Esto.

Futur-um

^

Futur-us,
essej.

-i.

am
Estote, Snnto.

\
)

a, -ae.

tun

um,

-i,

&c.

(To have been.)

Fuisse.

am

present; " desum,

"I am

wantitiR," &c.

But pronum, "I

am

nseful to," iniiorts

pro-d-ero, &c.
J Fore is often used instead of futwvm esse. whose stem appears in/it-iiinij, and in the antique subjunctive present, /ii-am, -as, Ac, fuveram, Ac for Sim, sis, &c. so also escit (i.e., esi() for eril, and escunl (i e., csuiif) for erunL 'Die form, appears in tlic compoundi prae-sens, ab-sens, Jec.
;

90

ELEMENTARY LATIN GRAMMAR.

SECTION II.—
Possum
is

compounded ofpof-, the stem of tlic adjective potis, " able," and but when they begin witli s, tlie t is assimilated to s as, perfect and derived tenses, the / of fui is omitted as, pot-ui for used as an adjective. Posse is for pot-csse.
is

retained

;

;

;

POSSUM, / am
INDICATIVE.

able.

Peincipal

SUBJUNCTIVE.

S.

rHES.—ri am able, &c.) Possum,* Potes, Potest.

(I

may be

able, &c.)

Possim, Possis, Possit.

P. Possiimus, Potestis, Possunt.

Possimus, Possltis, Possint.
might or should be
-es, -et.
-etis, -ent.

IMPERF.—{\ was
S.

able, &c.)

(I

able, &c.)

Pot-erara, -eras, -erat.

Poss-em,

P. PSt-erfimus, -eratis, -erant.

Poss-emus,

FUT.—{\
S.

shall

be

able, &c.)

Pot-ero, -eris, -erit.

P. Pot-erimus, -eritis, -erunt.

PERF.—(l have been
S.

able, &c.)

(I

may have been

able, &c.)

Potu-i, -isti,

-it.

Potu-erim,
-erunt,

-eris, -erit.

P. Potu-imus,
-ere.

-istis,

or Potu-erimus, -eritis,- erint.

PLUPERF.—(1 had
S.

been

able, &c.)

(I

might have been

able, ikc.)

Potu-eram,

-eras, -erat.

Potu-issem,

-isses, -isset.
-issetis, -issent.

P. Potu-eramus, -eratis, -erant.

Potu-issemus,

FUT. PERF.S.

(I shall

have been

able,

&c.)

Potn-ero,

-eris, -erit.

P. Potu-erimus, -eritis, -erint.

and In authors who imitate the antique style, the forms are found uncontracted, the adjectival part po'is remaining possis; and the passive forms, potestur (for potest), poieralur {(or poterat), possitur
^Titers,
for possumus,
<fec.,

* In early Latin

for potest.

IKrvEGULAE VEULS.

91

IRREGULAR VERBS.
sum, "
pot-fui.
I

am."

fotes, pot-cram

;

Whenever tlie parts of siim begin with an e, the but possum for pot-sum, passim for pot-sim.
is

t

of pot-

In tho
is

The imperative

wanting, and the present participle, potcns,

Parts

—Possum,

Potiii, Posse.

IMPERATIVE.

INFINITIVE.

rARTICIPLE.

Cro be able.)

Posse.

(To have been able.)

Pot-uisse.

poKs sum for possum, polit at for potest, potis sunt or potessunt for possunt, potis sumui unchanged. So also potesse for posse, putesseC for posset, potsiem, possios, for passim, Potis and pott were often used ^for postil), when used boforo passive infinitives.

93

T-

--,-v -..aXT LaITS ^E*Tr»*»

SECTION rn

.

Hiff ie

'^^^^7''^^

iiiu.

^»i~^

If.Tn-mzLZS-^

:

:

.

-:-

-::-iZzi\s

-dai,-

3eM»^*tJ

aarteAaitf iMteMefellik Ac)

93

IEEEGULA2 VZBBS.

.

EUaOIUL
i

j

.Prs&^ae.
1

1

f

!

?r~T--^

;:;;
-

«^-"
1

1

r

1

1

94

ELEMENTAKY LATIN GRAMMAR.

SECTION IV.EO, I
Eo belongs
to ihe

go.
i-,

Principal
becomes
c-

Fourth Conjugation.
;

Its stem,

before

indicative eo for io

third plural present eunt for iunt.

The imperfect

INDICATIVE.

SUBJUNCTIVE.
(I

PRES.—(\
S.

RO, or

am

going, Ac.)

may

go, &c.)

£o, Is, It.

£aiu, £as, Eat.

r.

Imus,

Itis,

Eunt.

Eamus,

Eatis, Eant.

IMPERF. — (I was
S.

going, &c.)

(I mjglit, &c., go,

&c.)

Ibam, Ibas, Ibat. P. Ibamus, Ibatis, Ibant.

Irem, Ires,

Iret.

Iremus,
(I

Iretis, Irent.

FUT.—(l
S.

shall or will go, &c.)

may

be about to go, Ac.)
sis, &;c.

Ibo, Ibis, Ibit.

Iturus sim, Iturus

P. Ibimus, Ibitis, Ibunt.

PERK— (I liave gone,
S. iv-i, -isti, -it.

&c.)

(I

may have

gone,

&a)

Iv-erim, -eris, -erit.

P.

Iv-imus,

-istis,

-erunt or -ere.
gone, &c.)

Iv-erimus, -eritis, -erint.
(I

PLUPERF.— {1 had
S.

might have gone, Ac.)

Iv-eram, -eras, -erat.

Iv-issem, -isses, -isset.

P. Iv-eramus, -eratis, -erant.

Iv-issemus, issetis, -issent.

FUT. PERF.—(\
S.

shall

have gone, &c.)

Iv-cro, -eris, -erit.

P. Iv-ertmus, -erltis, -erint.

Supine

— Itum,

Itu.
;

Note (1.) That eo has a passive voice only in the third singular as, Uur, "to go away;" ineo, " to enter;" redeo, "to return," &c.) are conjugated are usually contracted into it, iisti {isti). (3.) That some of the compounds (4.) That some of the compounds of eo are transitive, and therefore have the compound ?'cMeo," I am sold" (which has a passi ve signification, and v;hich Its imperfect indicative the imperative, the participles, and the gerund. regular verb of the Fourth Conjugation as, amhiiint, amhiebam or amhiN.B.—Quco, "I amable,"andnfgMeo, "I am unable,"are conjugated like seldom occur. They are occasionally used in the passive voice, when are used for ncquis and ncquit.
;

IRREGULAR VERBS.

95

IRREGULAR VERBS.
Parts
is

Eo,
o,

Ivi,

Itum,

Ire.
for

tbe vowels a,

u:

thus, present subjunctive earn
;

iam; present
in -am.

ibam, and not i-e-bam

and the future euds

in -bo,

and not

IMPERATIVE.
(Go thou,
I.
(tc.)

INFINITIVE.
(To go, &c.)

rARTICIPLE.

Ire.

lens, Euntis. lens, Euntis.

Ite.

lens, Euntis.

(I'liou slialt go, itc.)

(To be about to go.)

(About
Ittir-us,
-i.

to go.)

Ito, Ito.

Itote, Eunto.

Itur-um Itur-am vesse. Itur-um J
-v

Itur-a, -ae.

Itur-um,
<fcc.)

-i.

(To have gone,

Iv-isse.

Gerund — Eundum, Eundi,

&c.

"it is gone;" ibatui', "it was gone/'&c. (2.) That the compounds of eo {abeo, in the same way as the simple verb: but that ivi, ivisti, &c., in the perfect, occasionally take -am instead of -60 in the future as, redcam, redies, kc. a complete passive voice as. adco, ineo, praetereo, transeo, &c. (5.) That is contracted fur veuuni eo), is conjutjated like the simple verb, but wants is often made venicbam, for veuibam. (6.) That the compound ambio is a
; ;

ham, ambiam, &c. eo ; but they want the imperative and the gerund.
governing the infinitive passive of another verb.

Xvn

Their participles very quia and non quit

9G

ELEMENTARY LATIN GRAMMAR.

SECTION v.—
Fero
is

of

tlii

Third Conjugation, but

is irregular in the Perfect and thus, fers for fer-i-s, fa-t {or fer-i-t, ferre iorfcr-e-re,

ACTIVE
FERO, I
INDICATIVE.

bring or hear.

Principal

SUBJUNCTIVE.

PliES.—{l
S.

bear, &c.)

(I

may

bear,

<fcc.)

Fero, Fers, Fert.

Fer-am,

-as, -at.
-atis, -ant.

P.

Fer-imus, Fer-tis, Fer-unt.

Fer-amus,

IMPERF.—(I was
S.

bearing, &c.)

(I

might

bear, &c.)

F6r-ebam, -ebas, -ebat.

Fer-rem,

-res, -ret.
-letis, -rent.

P. Fer-ebamus, -ebatis, -ebant.

Fer-remus,

FUT.-(l
S.

shall or will bear, &c.)

(I

may

be about to bear, &c.)
sis, ka.

Fer-am,

-es, -et.

Laturus sim,

P.

Fer-emus,

-etis, -ent.

PERF.—{1 have
S.
Tiil-i, -isti, -it.

borne, &c.)

(I

may have

borne,

&c)

Tiil-erini, -eris, -erit.

P. Tul-imus, -istis, -erunt, or -ere. Tiil-erimus, -eritis, -erint.

PLUPERF.— i,l\\^&'bome,
S.

&c.)

(I

might have borne,
-isses, -isset.

<fec.)

Tul-6ram,

-eras, -erat.

Tul-issem,

P. Tul-eramus, -eratis, -erant.

Tul-issemus,

-issetis, -issent.

FUT. PERF.—{1
S.

shall

have borne. &c.)

Tul-ero, -eris, -erit.

P. Tul-erimus, -eritis, -erint.

Supines

— Lat-um,

Lat-u,

)

lEEEGULAR VERBS.

97

IRREGULAR VERBS.
Supine and ilerived tenses.
In some parts
it

omits the connecting vowel:

fcrris (second singular present passive) ior fcr-e-ris.

VOICE.

Parts

Fero,

Tiili,

Latum, Ferre.
INFINITIVE.

IMPERATIVE.

PARTICIPLE.

(Bear thou, ic.)

(To bear.)

(Uearing.)

Fer.
Fer-te.

Fer-re.

Fer-ens, -entis.

Fer-ens, -entis.
Fer-ens, -entis, &c.

(Tliou Shalt bear.)

(To be about to bear.)

(.Vbout to bear

Fer-to, Fer-to.

Fer-tote, Fer-unto.

Latur-um Latur-am

^

Latur-us,
esse.

-i.

>
)

Latur-a, -ae.

Latur-um

Latur-um,

-i.

(To have borne.)
Tiil-isse.

Gerund — Ferend-i,
7

-o, <lc.

98

ET.KMENTARY LATTN GRAMMAK.

IHREGULAR
PASSIVE
Principal Paets
INDICATIVE.

Feror, Latus

SUBJUNCTIVE.

rnES.— (l am
S.

borne, &c.)

(I

may be

borne,

&a)

Fer-or, Fer-ri8, Fer-tur.

Fer-ar, -aris

(-are),

-atur.

P.

Fer-imur, -amini, -untur.

Fer-amur, -amini, -antur.
might be borne,

IMPERF.—{1 was
S.

borne, &c.)

(I

<feo.)

Fer-ebar, -ebaris, &c.

Fer-rer, -reris, -retur, &c.

FUT.—(\
S.

shall

be borne, &c.)

Fer-ar, -eris, -etur.

P.

Fer-emur, -emini, -entur.

I'ERF.—{1 have been borne, Ac.)
S.

(I

may have

been borne,

<fcc.)

Latus sum,

es, kc.

Latus sim,

sis, &c.

PLUPERF.—(\
S.

had been borne, &c.)

(I

might have teeu borne, &c.)

Latus eram, eras, kc.

Latus essem, esses kc.

FUT.

PEEF.—a

shall

have been

borne, &c.)

S. Latus ero, eris, &c.

In the same way are conjugated
AfFero (ad faro)
EfiFero (e or
i

Attuli

ex

fero)
I

Extuli
Pertuli

Perfero (per fero)

IRREGULAR VERBS.

99

VERBS.
VOICE.
sum, Ferri,
to he

bmme.
INFINITIVE.

IlIPERATIVK.

PARTICIPLE.

(Bo thou borne.)

(To be borne.)

Fer-re.

Fer-ri.

Fer-imini.

(Thou Shalt be borne.)

(To be about to be borne.)

(Requiring to be borne.)

Fer-tor, Fer-tor.

Latum

iri.

Ferend-us,

-i.

Fer-emini, Fer-untor.

Ferend-a, -ae.

Ferend-um,
been borne.)

-i,

&c.

(I'o liave

(Borne.)

Lat-um Lat-am Lat-um

Lat-us,
J

-i.

i
)

esse,

Lat-a, -ae.

Lat-um,

-i,

&c.

the compounds of Fero:

Allatum Elatum
Perlatum

A ffcrre.
Efferrc.

Perferre, &c. &e.

100

ELEMENTARY LATIN GRAMMAR.

SECTION VI.—
VOLO, 7 am
This verb
I'clSrc,
is

willing.

Principal
by assimilation

irregular in the present indicative and present infinitive, and
this,

vuH and

which was syncopated into rcl'rc; and vulti^, older writers use volt and voltis.

INDICATIVK.
l'RES.—(\
S.

SUBJONCIIVE.
<fec.)

am

willing,

(I

may be
-is, -it.

willing, A,c.)

Volo, Vis, Vult.

Vel-im,

P. Voliimus, Vultis, Volunt.

Vel-imus,
(I

-itis, -int.
willing, &c.)

IMPERF.-a
S.

was

willing, &c.)

might be

Vol-ebara, -ebas, kc.

Vel-lem,

-les, -let, i^c.

FUT.— {\
S.

shall be willing, &c.)

Vol-am,

-es, -et, &c.
willing,

PERF.^il have been

&c

)

(I

may have been

willing,

.fee.)

S. V61u-i, -isti, -it, &c.

Volu-erim,
willing, &c.)
(I

-eris, &c.

PLUP£RF.—{I had been
S.

might have been wiUing, &c.)

V6lu-eram,

-eras, &c.
shall

Volu-issera, -isses, &c.

FUr. PERF.-{1

have been

willing, &c.)

S. Vfilu-ero, -eris, &c.

SECTION VII.—
NOLO, I am
Nolo
PRES.—(,l am unwilling, &c.)
S.
is

unwilling.

Principal

composed of ne or non, " not," and
(I

may be

unwilling,

&c)

Nolo, Non-vis, Non-vult.

N61-im,

-is, -it.

P.

Nolumus, Non-vultis, Nolunt.

Nol-imus,
(I

-itis, -Int.
<fec.)

IMPERF.— {\ was
S.

unwilling, &c.)

might be unwilling,
-les, -let,

Ndl-ebam, -ebas, -ebat, &c.

Nol-lem,

&c.

FUf.— (\
S.

shall

be unwilling, &c.)

Nol-am,

-es, -et.

)

JRUEOULAR VERBS.

101

IRREGULAR VERBS.
Parts

Volo, Volui, Velle.
The
vclle.

the tenses derived from tLem.

full

form of the
is

infinitive

would be
Instead of

of the liquids

I

and

r,

became

So vellan

for vclercm.

IMPERATIVK.

INFINITIVE.
(To be willing.)

PAIiTICIPLK.

(Willing.)

Velle.

Volens.
Volentis, &c.

(To have been willing.)

Volu-isse.

IRREGULAR VERBS.
Parts

N5lo, Nolui, Nolle.

vvlo; the first syllable is therefore long.
(I5e

thou unwilling

(To be unwilling.)

(Unwilling.)

Noli.
Nolite.

Nolle.

Nolens.
Nolentis, &c.

(Thou Shalt be unwilling.)

Nolito, Nolito.

Nolitote, Nolunto.

102

ELEMENTARY LATIN GEAMMAR.

IRREGULAR
NOLO, I am
INDICATIVE.
PI-:iiF.—{\ luive been unwilling,

SUBJUNCTIVE.
<S:c.)

(I

may

liave

been unwilling, &c.)

S. N61u-i, -isti, -it, &c.

Nolu-erim,
<fec.)

-eris, &c.
<tc.j

PLUFERF.— il
S.

had been unwilling,

(I

might have been unwilling,

Nolu-erara, -eras, kc.

Nolu-issein, -isses, &c.

FUT. PERF.S.

(I

simll liave

been

unwilling, &c.)

Nolu-ero,

-eris,

&c.

SECTION VIII.—
MALO, / am more
Mdlo
PRES.—(L am more
S.
is

willing.

composed of magis or mage, " more,"

willing, &c.)

(I

may

be more wUling,

<fcc.)

Male, Mavis, Mavult. P, Malumus, Mavultis, Malunt.

Mal-im, -is, -it. Mal-imus, -itis,
(I

-int.
willing, &c.)

JMFERF.—Q. was more
S.

willing, .tc.)

might be more
-les, -let,

Mal-ebam, -ebas, &c.

Mal-lem,
&c.)

kc.

,S.

FUT.— {I shall be more willing, Mal-am, -es, et, &c.
PERF. — (I have been more
willing, &c.)

(I

may have been more
willing, Ac.)

S.

Malu-i,- -isti,

-it,

&c.

Malu-erim,
(I

-eris, &c.

PLUPERF.—(l had
willing,

been more

might have been more
willing,

(fee.)

&c)
&c.

S.

Maln-eram,

-eras, &c.
shall

Malu-issem,

-isses,

FUT. PERF.— (I
8.

have been more

willing,

<fec.)

Malu-ero,

-eris, &c.

lEBEGULAR VERBS,
103

VERBS.
unwilling

(continued. )
INFINITIVE.
(To liave been unwilling.)

I.Ml'EKATIVE.

PARTICIPLE.

Noluisse.

1

IRREGULAR VERBS.
Principal Parts
aiid volo,

Malo, Malui, Malle.

and has

tlie first sj-llable long.

(To be more willing.)

Malle.

— —

(To have been more
willing.)

Maln-isse.

104

ELEMENTARY LATIN GRAMMAR.

SECTION IX.—
FIO, /

am

made, or / become.
I

Principal
Fourth

Fio serves aa the passive voice oi facto,

make.

It is of the

fUham, flam,

&c.

But

it is

short in the third singular present

as, fiereni, fieri, &c.

INDICATIVE.

SUBJUNCTIVE.

PRES.—(l become,
S.

&c.)

(I

may become,

<fcc.')

Flo, Fis, Fit.

Fi-am,

-as, -at,
-atis, -ant.

P.

Fi-mus, Fi-tis, Fi-unt.

Fi-amus,

IMPERF.—{\ became, Ac)
S.

(I

might become, &c.)

Fi-ebam, -ebas, &c.

Fi-erem, -eres, &c.

FUT.—{\
S.

shall

become, &c.)

Fi-am,

-es, -et, &c.

PERF.—(l
S.

liave

become,

etc.)

(I

may have become,

&c.)

Factus sum, Factus

es, &c.

Factus sim, Factus

sis, &c.

PLUPERF.—(l had
S.

become, &c.)

(I

might have become,

<fec.)

Factus eram, Factus eras, &c.

Factus essem, Factus esses, &c.

FUT. PERF.S.

a

shall

have

become,

ifec.)

Factus ero, Factus

eris, &c.

IRREGULAR VERBS.

105

IRREGULAR VERBS.
I
Parts

Flo, Factus sum, Fieri.
The vowel
and
i

Conjugation.
indicative, /(J,

in fio is long even before another

vowel

:

as,

in those parts of the verb whicli contain tlie letter »•;

IMPERATIVE.

INFINITIVE.

PARTICIPLE.

(Become thou.)
Fi.
Fite.

(To become.)

Fieri.

(To be about to become.)

(Deserving, or roquirinc, to be made or to become.)

Factum

iri.

Faciend-us,

-i.

Faciend-a, -ae.

Faciend-um,

-i,

&c.

(To have become.)

(Having become.)

Fact-um
Fact-am

^

Fact-US,

-i.

> esse.
)

Fact-a, -ae.

Fact-um

Fact-um,

-i,

&c.

1

106

ELEMENTAKY LATIN ORAMMAH.

SECTION X.—
EDO, /
Edo
is

eat.

Principal Parts
;

a regular verb of

tlie

TliirJ Conjugation

but some of

its

INDICATIVE.

SUBJUNCTIVE.

I>RES.-\\
s.

cat.)

(I

may

cat.)

£do, Edis or

es,

Edit or

est.

Sdam

or £dim,
Edit.

Edas

or Edis,

Edat or
p.

Edimus, Editisoj-

estis,

Ednnt.

Edamus

or Edimus, Edatis or

Editis,

Edant
(I

or Edint.

I MPERF— (.1 was
s.

eating.)

might

eat.)

Edebam, Edebas, Edebat.
Edebamus, Edebatis, Edebant.
/"tT.— (Islialleat.)

Ederem or essem, Ederes or
Ederet or
esset.

esses,

p.

Ederemus, or essemus, &c.

(I

may

be about to

eat.)

s.

Edam, Edes, Edet.
Edemus, Edetis, Edent.

Esurus aim, Esurus
sit.

sis,

Esurus

p.

Esuri

simus,

Esuri

sitis,

Esuri sint.

PERF.—{1 have
s.

eaten.)

(I

may have

eaten.)

£di, Edisti, Edit.

Ederim, Ederis, Ederit,

p.

Edimus, Edistis, Ederunt.

Ederimus, Ederitis, Ederint.
might have
eaten.)

PLUPERF.-a
s.

had

eaten.)

(I

EJeram, EJeras, Ederat.

Kdissem, Edisses, Edisset.

p. EJeramus, Ederatis, Ederant

Edissemus, Edissetis, Edissent.

FUT. PERF.—{1
s.

shall

have eaten.)

Edero, Eiieris, Ederit.


Esu.

p.

Etlenmus, Ederitis, Ederint.

Supines

— Esum,

IRREGULAR VERBS.

107

IRREGULAR VERBS.

Edo, Edi, Esum, Edere, or Esse.
syncopated so as to be iJontical witli certain parts of sum.

('onus are

IMPERATIVE.

INFINITIVE.

rAUTICirLE.

(Kut thou.)

Cro cat.)

(Eating.)

£de

or es.

Edere or

esse.

£dens, &c.

Edite or esta.

(Thou shult

cat.)

(To be about to eat.)

(About

to cut.)

Edito or esto, Edito or Esur-us esse, kc.
esto.

Esiir-us, -a,

-um, &c.

Editote or estote, Edunto.

(To have

catoxj.)

Edisse.

Gkkund — EilciiJi,

Edeiulo, ic.

108

ELEMENTARY LATIN GRAMMAE.

SECTION

XI.

DEFECTIVE VERBS.
1.

Depectite Verbs
volo,

are those which

wnnt seme

of their parts.

Thus,
Verbs.

malo, &c., are not only
following, however, are

Irregiihir,

but also Defective

The

more

largely defective, since

they cither want the present and derived tenses, or have only a few
isolated
parts,

principally
I

of the present stem.
;

know, have only the /.K?/;/^^^ (preterite) tense and the forms derived from it from w'hich circumstance they are sometimes called Preteritive
;

begin

memini,

remember

odi,

I

hate

;

Tims, and novi,

coepi, I
I

:

Verbs.
2.

The

perfects are translated as presents, the pluperfects as per-

fects indefinite or imperfects,

The reason
I

of this change
I

ini literally means,

and the future perfects as futures. when we remember tliat memhave called to mind, i.e., I remember; odi,
is

evident

HAVE

conceived a hatred,

i.e.,

I hate,

&c.

INDICATIVE.
PERFECT.
CoepT.
Coep-isti.

Coep-it, &c.

Memin-i. Memin-isti. Memin-it, &c. Memin-erain.

Od-i.
Od-istl.
Od-it, &c.

N5v-i.
Nov-isti.

N6v-it, &c.

PLUPERFECT.
Coep-eram.

Od-eram.

Nov-eram.
Nov-ero.

FUTURE PERFECT.
Coep-ero.

Memin-ero.

Dd-ero.

SUBJUNCTIVE.
Coep-erlm.

PERFECT. Od-erim. Memin-erim.

Nov-erim.
Nov-issem.

Coep-issem.

PLUPERFECT. Od-issem. Memin-issem.

IMPERATIVE.
FUTURE.
S.

Memen-to.

|

P.

Memen-tote.

INFINITIVE.
Coep-isse.

Merain-isse.

Od-isse.

N5v-isse.


DEFECTIVE VERBS.

;

109

PARTICIPLES.
PERFECT.
Coep-tus.

0-SU6

[obsolete.)

(N6-tu3.)

FUTURE.
Coep-turus.
3.

0-8urus.

Ajo

or aio I say, I say yes, has only the following parts

PRESENT INDICATIVE.
S. Ajo, Ais, Ait.
S.

PRESENT SUBJUNCTIVE.
P.

P.

——
,

,

Aiunt.

— Aias, Aiat. — — Aiant.
, , ,

IMPERFECT INDICATIVE.
S.

PARTICIPLE PRESENT.
Aiens, affirming.

Aiebam, Aiebas, Aiebat. P. AiebamuS) Aiebatis, Aiebant.
say, is
(1)

4. Tnqnam, I must be noticed,

likewise very defective.
it is

Of inquani

it

that

only used

(lii^e

our, says I) in quotfirst
*

ing the words of a person; and (2) that

it

never stands as the

word

of a clause

:

INDICATIVE.
PRESENT.
S.

IMPERFECT.
S.
,

P.

Inquam, Inquis, Inquit. Inquimus, Inquitis, Inquiunt.
PERFECT.

,

Inquiebat.

FUTURE.
S.
,

S.

,

Inquisti, Inquit.

Inquies, Inquiet.

IMPERATIVE.
Pres. Sing. Inque.
5.
|

Put. SinR. Inquito,
:

FCiri, to speak, has the following parts


PARTICIPLE.

INDICATIVK.

SUBJUNCTIVE.

IMP.

INF.

PRES. ~ He Fatur.

speaks

Fare Fari

Failtis,&c.(nom.rare.)

Fur.Fabor, fabltur.


Fatus sim,
&c.


Fand-us,

-a,

-um, &c.

/ERF.—
Fatus sum,
kc.

— —

Fat-US, -a, -um, kz.

PLUPERF.—
Fatus eram,&c. Fatus essem&c.


1

Supine— Fatu.

Gerund— Fand-i,

-o, &.c.


]


KLEMKNTARY LATIN GRAMMAR.

;

10
6.

Quacso, I entreat, and quaesumus^ we entreat, are
Avere, to hail,
:

tlie

only parts

of this verb found.
7.

Quaeso is the old form for quaero. is found only in the infinitive and imperative;
infinitive, dvere.
witli.

thus
8. 9.

ave (or have), aveto, avtte;

Apdge, plur. apagete, begone, arc the only parts met Cido plur. cSdite, or cette, give nie.
;

10. Salve, salveto, plur. salvete, hail

infinitive, salvere; future,

salvcbis.
11.

Vale, plur. vdlcte, farewell

;

infinitive, valere.
,

12.

Atisim, ausis, ausit,

— —
,

aicsint, for

audeam,
I

&c., I

may
;

dare.
13.

Fax-im,

-is, -it, -Inius,

-ttis, -int, iox

faciam,

may do

or

fecerim, I

may have
-is,

done.

Also Fax-o,
or faciam, I

-it,

,

-itis, -int, for

fecero, I shall have done

sliall do.

SECTION

XII.

IMPERSONAL VERBS.
1. Impersonal Verbs are used only in the third person singular, and have no 2^e)-sonal subject i.e., have no substantive or substantive pronoun as their subject. They are like the English phrases,

it s)idn's, it

rains,

it ha2}pe)is,

&c.
is

2.

The
;

third singular of regular verbs
as, accidit,
it

sometimes used imperfall in

sonally

happens, from accldo, I

with, hap-

pen

on.

3. The mena
:

following refer to the weatlier and certain natural pheno-

Pluit,

it

rains.
it

Lucescit and illucescit,
Fulgiirat and fulminat,

it
it

dawns.
lightens.

Ningit,

snows.

Grandinat, it hails, Lapidat, or lapidatum

Tonat,
est, stones

it

thunders.*
it

Vesperascit and advesperascit,

faUfrom
4.

heaven.

grows dark.

The
Some

following six, referring to feelings of the mind, take the

*

of these are occasionally used as personal.
tonat.

Thus we

find Jupiter tonat;

and

in

a figarutive sense, orator


IMPEESONAL VERBS.
accusative of the person experiencing
till,

Ill

tlic

feeling; as, Miseret vie

I pity you, (literally, It pities nie of you)
perf. miserit-

:—
/ am ashamed;
perf.

Miseret (me), I pitij; Tim est, misertum
uit.

Piidet (me),

est, or

miser-

puduit, or puditum est.

Piget (me), I regret
or

;

perf. piguit,

Taedet (me), I am di.tgiisfed ; perf. pertaesum est, amd rarely taeduit.

pigitum

est.
Y>eT{.

Poenitet (me), T repent;
ituit.

poen-

Oportet (me),

it is

necessary for me,

I must; perf. oportuit. substantive as their subject, and are used in the
;

5.

Some have a

third plural, with a neuter plural as subject

as,

decent:

Parvum imrva
7

Decet (me),
decuit.

it

becomes

me;

perf.

Libet,

or

labet

(mihi),

like,

choose; perf. libuit, or libitum
il

Dedecet (me),
perf.

does not become me;

est.

dedecuit.
it is

Licet (mihi), / am permitted: perf.
;

Licjuet,

obvious

perf

licuit.

licuit, or

licitum

est.

6.

Some

personal verbs are used i7npersonaU^ in the i/u7-d person
less diflerent

singular,

and with a meaning more or
:

from that of the

personal forms

Interest and refert,
tance
to.

it is

of impor-

Delectat and jiivat (me),
me.
Fallit, fiigit,
it

it

delights

Accidit, evenit, contingit, or
it

fit,

and praeterit (me),

happens.
it is

escapes me.
it

Accedit,
tion
to.

added

to,

or in addi-

Placet,

pleases; perf placuit, or
est.

placitum
(ad), it con-

Attinet and pertinet
cerns or pertains
to.

Praestat,

it is better.

Restat,

it

remains.
scanting.
it

Conducit,

it is

conducive.

Vacat,

it is

Convenit,
Constat,

it suits.

Est, in the sense of licet,

is

per-

it is
it is

knoivn or estallished.
expedient.

m itted.

ExpSdit,
7.

Most verbs may be used impersonally

in the passive voice.

This usually happens in the case of intransitive verbs, which otherwise have no passive as, curritur, they run literally, it is run,
:

;

i.e.,

running

is

taking place.

T\\\\?,,pugnatur, they fight, (the battle
est,

is

carried on;)

pugnabatur, they were ^<^\i\ng\ 2nignatum

they

112
flight, &c.
est, 8.
:

ELEMENTARY LATIN ORAMMA R.
vii'itur, i^coi)]c: live, (/.c, life is

maintained:) ventum

they came, &c.

Impersonal verbs of

tlic

active form

have no passive

voice.

I\rost of

them have the tenses

of the indicative, subjunctive, ai\d
;

infinitive complete,

but no other parts

thus,—

OPORTET,
Indicative.
Present. Oportet,
it behoves.
it

il

bchorrs.

Subjunctive.
Oporteat,
Oporteret,
it it

may

behove.

Imperf.
Future.

Oportebat,
Oportebit,

behoved.
will behove.

might behove.

it

Perfect. Oportuit,

it

behoved.
it

Oportuerit,
be-

it

may
it

have behoved.
haf^e
be-

Pluperf. Oportuerat,
hoved,

had
will

Oportuisset,
hoved.

might

[behoved.
it

F. Per/. Oportuerit,

have
Infinitive.

Oportere,

to

behove; oportuisse, to have behoved.

O&s. —Wlien the person is to be expressed, it is sative: as, oportet me, it behoves me; oportet
Liui,

put in the accueum, it behoves

he ought, &c.

CHAPTER XL—ADVERBS.
1.

An Adverb

is

a word wliich

is

used with verbs, adjectives, and

adverbs, to modify their meaning in regard to time, place, manner,
degree, &c.: as,

Turn pracerat

exercitid; he at that time

commanded

the army: Acriter jpugnant ; they fight keenly.
2.

As

to form, adverbs are of three classes

:

Simple, Derivative,

and Compound.
3.

root
4.

:

Simple or primitive adverbs are such as cannot be traced to any as, saepe, often non, not nunc, now ; max, presently.
;
;

Derivative adverbs contain the stem of some adjective, substan-

tive, or other part of speech.
5.

Compound adverbs

are

made up

of two or

more words

:

as,

h6die for hoc die; tantummodo ior tantum onodo ; quamobre7n fur
oh
6.

quam rem ; magnopere for magna opere ; qiiamvis for quam vis. Many adverbs, especially those derived from adjectives, are sub-


ADYEKRS.
ject to comparison. Tlie coniparalivc of tlic advcrl)
is

:

113
generally the

nominative singular neuter of the adjectival comparative; thus, this ueulur, doctias, heing used as the dociior, doctior, doclius,

comparative of
is

tlie

adverb docte.

From

the superlative, dociissimus,

formed the adverb doctissime.

ADVERBS.
ADJECTIVES.
IMSITIVE.

COMPARATIVE.

SITEULATIVE.

Doctus,
learned.

Docte,
learnedly.

Doctius,

Doctissime,
most learnedly.
Felicissime.

more

learnedly.

Felix, fortunate.
Fortis, brave.

Feliciter.

Felicius.

Fortiter.

Fortius.

Fortissime.

Gravis, hcavii.
Similis,
like.

Graviter.
Similiter.

Gravius.
Similius. Liberius.

Gravissime.
Simillime.

Liber, free.

Libere.

Liberrime.

Pulcher, beautiful. Aeger, sick:

Pulchre.

Pulchrius.

Aegre.
Audacter. Ainanter.
Prudenter.

Aegrius.

Audax, bold. Amans, loving.
Prudens,
luine.

Audacius. Amantius.
Prudentius.

Pulcherrime. Aegerrime. Audacissime. Amantissime. Prudentissime.

7.

In comparison, adverlts follow the irregularities of the adjec-

tives

from which they are derived
Bene,
well.

:

as,
better.

Bonus, [lood. Male. Malua, bad. Mv.ltus,much,many. Multum.

Melius,
Pejus.
Plus.

Optime,
Pessime.

best.

Magnus,

great.

Magnum.

Magis.
Propius.
Prius.

Plurimum. Maxime.
Proxime.

(Propinquus, near.) Prope.
(Proo)-prae, 6c/yrf.)

Primum, or prime.
Validissime

Validus, strong.

Valde.

Validius.

8.

Only a few of the primitive adverbs
Diutius. Saepius.
Secius.

suffer

comparison
Diutissime.

Diu, long.
Saepe, often.
Secus, otherwise.

Saepissime.

Temper!, in time. Nuper, lately.
Satis, enough, or mfficienf.

Temperius.

Nuperrime.
Satius.


Ill

E7.EMENTARY LATIN GRAMMAR.

CHAPTER XIL— PREPOSITIONS.
1. A PuEPOsiTioN is a word wliich is placed before suhstantives to show in wliat relation a thing, an action, or an attribute, stands to some other thing: as, Fiscos cum pecunia, bags witli money; Venit in 7trhem, he came into the city. 2. Some prepositions govern tlie accusative case, some the ablative, and a few both the accusative and tlie ablative.

3.

The

following govern the accusative only

:

Ad, to, lip to, near, or nearly. Adversus, or adversum, opposite,
Ante, before.
[against.
with.

Juxta, near

to,

or beside.
of.

Ob, against, or on account

Pines, in the pouter
Per, through.

of.

Apud, near,

Circa or circum, around, about. Circiter, about (in regard to time
or number).

Pone, behind.
Post, after.

Praeter, besides, excepting.
of.

Cis or citra, on this side

Propter, on account

of, close by.

Contra, against.

Secundum, next
ance with.

after, in accord-

Erga, towards. Extra, without (opposite of within).
Infra, beJow, beneath. Inter, between, among.

Supra, above.
Trans, on the other side
Ultra, beyond.
of,

beyond.

Intra, within.
4.

Versus, toivards
:-

{apjlace).

The

following govern the ablative only

A, ab, or abs, from.
AbscLui, without (wanting).

Prae, before, in consequence
Pro, before, instead
of.

of.

Cdram, in

the presence of.

Palam, with
Tenus, «p

the knoivledge of.
(i.e.,

Cum, with. De, down from,

Sine, ivithout

not with).

concerning.
of.

to,

cbsfar as.

E

or ex, out of,
5.

These

five

govern both the accusative and the ablative
is signified
;

;

—the
rest

accusative
or

when motion towards position in is meant as,
:

the ablative

when

With the Accusative.
In,
into, against,

With the
in.

At>lntivc.

Sub,
Super,
Subter,
L

under, about, toivards.
above, over.

under.
%ipon, concerning.

[under, beneath; generally witb the accusative in either
sense, rarely witb the ablative.

Clam,

without the knowledge

of.

!


CON JUNCTIONS

— INTERJECTIONS.

115

CHAPTER XIIL— CONJUNCTIONS.
1.

A

CoNJDXCTiox
kiinl
as,

is

that part of speccli which serves to connect

words, jihrascs, chinses, and sentences to one another, each to one of
its

own
I

:

Pater
I

et

mater, father and mother

;

Lego ut disas,

cam,
2.
et,

read that
io

may

learn.

As
As

/orm, conjunctions are
(2.)
:

of

two kinds:— (1.) Simple:

ac, ut, aut.
3.

to use,

Compound as, conjunctions may be
are

atque, quamvis, attamen.

divided into two classes

:

(1.)

Co-ordinative, which

employed to connect clauses i.e., either that are on an equality with one another
;

(a)

primary clauses, or

(5)

secondary clauses standing

in the
et,

same

relation to the governing clause.

Such

are,
vel,

ac, -que (always attached to

a word), atque, sed,

aut, nee, neque, &c.
(2.)

Subordinative

—which

connect

a secondary clause to a
are, ut, si,

primary or leading clause.
quo, uli, dura, &c.

These

quum,

ne,

CHAPTER XIV.— INTERJECTIONS.
1.

An

Interjection

is

a word which
grief,
!

is

used to express some emotion
:

of the

mind, such as joy,
!

astonishment, contempt, &c.
I

as,
!

eu

or euge, bravo
holla
2.

eheu, alas

ecce, lo

apage, away

!

begone

heus,

Interjections are throvm in between the parts of a sentence

without influencing the syntax.

Some

of them, however,
;

when used
:

in connection with a noun, prefer a special case

thus, 0, heu, proh,
as,

take a vocative of address, but an accusative of exclamation

formose 2>uer,

beautiful boy
!

!

Heu me

infelicem ! ah, luckless
tlie

me

I

Ileus tu, holla, you there

Vae, woe, prefers

dative (rarely

tlie

accusative): as, Vae mild, woe's
3.

me! Hei

mllti,

ah me!
:

Other parts of speech are frequently used as interjections
imsh
!

as,

j)ax, \>CAC<i\

— iiifandum,
!

monstrous! shame!
!

— miserunij

wrotchcd \—cito, quick

Mehercule, by Hercules

——
116

ELEMKNTARY LATIN GRAMMAR.

PART
1.

II.—

SYNTAX.

CHAPTER
Syntax
and
2.
.3.

I— SENTENCES.
words
in

treats of the use of

the formation of sentences,

of the relation of sentences or clauses to one another.
literally

The word

Si/ntax

means arrangement.

A thought expressed in words is called a Proposition or Sentence.
A
Sentences are of two kinds, Simple and Comi)onnd. Simple Sentence consists of a single projiositiun as,— Puer legit; the boy reads.
:

4.

5.

A
:

Compound Sentence
as,

is

one made up of two or more proposi-

tions

6.

Puer legit, et scribit ; the boy reads and writes. Puer legit, ut discat; the boy reads that he may learn. The sentences which go to make up a compound sentence

are

also called Clauses.

SUBJECT.
the definition of a sentence given above, it follows that every sentence must consist of two parts ; (1.) That which rei>resents the person or thing spoken about ; and, (2.) Tliat which is said about
7.

From

such person or thing.
S.

The Subject
and
is

is

the

name

of that about which something

is

generally a substantive, a pronoun, an adjective used substantively, or a phrase.
9.

asserted,

10.

A
A

Subjects are of three kinds,— Simple, Compound, and Comjilex. subject is called Simple when it consists of only one sub:

stantive

as,
flies.

Aquila volat; the eagle
11.

it consists of two or more substantives connected by conjunctions, or supposed to be connected: as,— Aquila et vultur volant; the eagle and the vulture fly. Pater, mater, filius in horto ambulant; the father, mother,

subject

is

called

Compound when

(and) son are walking in the garden.


SENTENCES.

;

117
it

12.

A

BultJGct is called
:

Complex when

consists of a iihrasc, or

quotation, or clause

as,
est

Qiiod lihrum lefjisti{m\)].)~gratum

mlhi; that you have
an
adjective,

read the
13.

book— is
is

gratifying to nic

The
its

subject

often enlarged by the addition of
it

substantive, or phrase, which serves to define
limit
signification
:

more

closely,

and

as,^
all

Gallia oMxis dlvisa est;

Gaid

is

divided.

Miltiades, Atiieniensih, filius Cniovis, JJorehat ; Mdtiadcs,

the Athenian, son of Cinion, was in good repute.
14.

The

subject to a verb in the indicative, sulijunctive, or imis

perative mood,

always

in

tlie

nominative case; to a verb

in t!ie

infinitive, it is in tiie accusative.

(See Art. 7 of following chapter.)

15.

Puer lS(jit; the boy reads. Equi curnint; the horses run. The Predicate is that which is asserted
{h)
tiie

of the subject

;

and

is

either («) a verb, or

a substantive, adjective, or participle con-

nected with

subject by part of one of the verbs to he, exist,
:

become, be named, he elected, and such like

as,—
flies.

Aguila (subj.)— zv}^rt^

(pred.)

;

the eagle

Miltiades eratfUius Cimonis; Miltiades was the son of Cimon.
Ols.

— In

subject and predicate
16.

the second example, the verb erat which connects the is called the Copula, or connecting link.
is

The

predicate

often enlarged by the addition of

an adjec-

tive, substantive, or

phrase

Cicero (subj.)— o'«i
great orator.

as,— summus orator
;

(pred.)

;

Cicero was a very

Miles

(subj.)

hostem gladio occidit (pred.)

;

the soldier slew

his foe with a sword.

COMPOUND SENTENCES.
17. Tlie clauses of

a

Compound Sentence

are either

(1.)

Principal

or independent
18.
its

;

or, (2.)

Subordinate or dependent.

A Principal Clause is one which makes a leading assertion constmction does not depend on any other clause. A
Subordinate Clause
of,
is

19.

one which makes a statement ex;

planatory

or contingent on, tlie principal clause

as,

Tlie priestess of Apollo advised

them {iirincipaVj—ihAi they
leader {subordinate).

should

iIioo.sc

Miltiades as

tlicir


118
20. Obs.

ELEMENTARY LATIN GRAMMAR.

— Hence

it

follows that a subordinate clause cannot staml hy

it-

selfjbut, to be understood,

must be accoinpauieJ by aprincipal clause.
:

21.

The clauses of a compound sentence are connected together as, et, atqne, ac, sal, aut, nam, &c. ((/) By conjunctions {li) By relative adverbs as, quare, unde, &c. (c) By the forms of the relative pronoun, qui, quae, quod.
;
;

22. Clauses wliioli arc connected by a co-ordinativo* conjunction,
et, ac,

atqne,
Obs.

&,c.,

arc called co-OKDrNATE.
it

23.

— Hence

follows that co-ordinate clauses

may

be either prin-

cipal or subordinate.

24. Subordinate or secondary clauses are connected with the prin-

cipal clauses

on which they depend by the forms of the relative proas, qui,

noun, or by conjunctions and relative adverbs;
ut, quo, quin,
2.').

quae, quod;

quominus, quare, q-mnn, quando, &c.

Subordinate clauses are generally introduced to express such

circumstances as time, cause, result, purpose, condition, &c.
26.

When
is

the subject or the verb of a clause
:

is

suppressed, the

clause

called a contracted one

as,
(i.e.,

Miltiades direxit cursuni, pervenitque, &c.
pe)'venit)
;

et

Miltiades

Miltiades steered

his course,

and (Miltiades)

reached, &c.

CHAPTER
1.

II.— AGREEMENT

OF SUBJECT AND
subject
in

PREDICATE.
Rule I.— A verb
agrees

with

its

number and

person; t as,—

£Jgot

sum pastor ;

I

am

a shepherd.

Tu

es latro;

thou art a robber.

Puer

currit ; the boy runs.

Saltant ; t they dance.

Currebam;
*

I Avas running.

See

p. 115,

chap.

Xiii.

'i.

t See Art. 14 of preceding cliapter.

of the Latin verb (see p. 59, Art. 20) are so distinctly marked that the personal pronouns are expressed only when particularly emphatic, as when
X

The person-endings

one individual

is to be put in strong contrast to another. The subject is very often omitted in the third person also, when it is easily supplied by the contest.

— —


110
the
plu-

AfJKEEMENT OF SUBJECT AND PREDICATE.
2.

Rule

II.

-A

compound

subject*

has

a

verb

in

ral: as,

Pater

et /liius

in horto amhidant ; the father and sou aro

walking
3.

in

the garden.
of a
first

If the
is

members

the verb

put in the

compound subject be of different persons, person t rather than in tiie second, and in
tiie

the second rather than in

third

:

as, I

£go
Si tu

et

tu

et

ille

sumus amici; you and ho and
erjo et

are

friends.
et

Tidlia valetis,
well, Cicero

Cicero valenms ;

il"

Tullia and

you are
4.

and

I are well.

Exc.

— The verb often agrees with that
is

member

of a

compound

subject which

nearest to
et

it

:

as,
;

Amat
5.

te

jMter,

mater, etfratres

your father loves you, and

your mother

(too),

and your brothers.

A

collective
:

noun, or a distributive pronoun, ma)/ have a verb

in tlie plural

as,—

Pars cedunt; a part (i.e., some) give way. Decimxis quisque ad SLq^plicium lecti sunt; every tenth man
was selected
6.

for punisliment.

Rule III.— A complex

subject

has

a

verb

in

the

singu-

lar: as,

llmnanum
gracefiJ.

est errare, ; it

is

natural for

man

to err.
is

Lii errore 2)<^rsecerare turpe est ; to persevere in error

dis-

7. Rule IV.— The subject put in the accusative: as,

to

a verb in the infinitive

mood

is

Nuntiatum
them
• .Sie .\rt. t
1 1

est

Caesari, eos conari iter facere ;

it

was reported

to Caesar that they are attempting to march, &c.,
to be

literally,

attempting to marcli.

of preceding chapter.
is 1st pers. if

That

is,

the verb

2nd

pers. if there are only

one of the inembcrs of the subject be ind and 3rcl persons in the subject

1st pers.;

and


120

ELEMENTARY LATIN GRAMMAR.

CHAPTER III— AGREEMENT OF ADJECTIVE

AND SUBSTANTIVE.
1.

gendei*,

Rule I.— An adjective* agrees with number, and case as,—
:

its

own

substantive t in

r^ier

est

sedulus;

tlie

boy

is

diligent,

Puella

est

sedula ; the

girl is diligent.
is

Ver

est

longum ; the spring
sisters.

long.

Sorores ticas; your
2.

If

an adjective
it

refers to a substantive in a different clause,
:

it

agrees with

in

gender and number only

as,

Amicus

adest, sed

I do not see him.

eum no7i video; my And thus,

friend

is

present, but

3. Rule II.— The relative pronoun J agrees with its antecedent snbstantive in gender and number, and also in person as,
:

Cares, qui turn incolehant

Lemnum ;

the Carians,

who

at

that time inhabited Lemnos.
4.

06a.

relative depends on the construction of the belongs, according as the relative is subject or object to the verb, or depends on a substantive or adjective.

— The case of the
it

clause to which

Rule III.—When an adjective § applies to two or more subwhether singular or plural, it is put in the plural number: as,—
5.

stantives,

Pater

etfilius sunt clari ; the father

Tu
6.

et

frater

tuns, qui estis clari; your brother

and the son are famous. and you, who

are famous.

When

difl'ereut

genders,
is

an adjective § applies to two or more substantives of it takes the gender of the masculine substantive
used
in its

Adjective
ciplcs.

widest sense, iucluUIng pronouns, numeniis, antl

[.rarti-

the

term " own subst.intive," is meant tlic sulistaiitive in (lie snnie clause ,as ami niodlficd by it. win be seen tliat the relative pi'onoun is simply an adjeetive in a subsequent clause vefcning to a substaiitlvu in a preceding one, and is therefore an example of
t l$y tlie
ailjective,

X It

the principle laid down in Art.
§ 'Ihe

'2,

term

aifjective In this

and the following

articles includes the

relative pro-

noun.

See Note * above.

——

— —
APPOSITION.


121

rather than that of the fcnuiiine, and of the feminine rather than
of the neuter
:

as,

Pater

et

mater j)uellae sunt morlui; the father and the motlicr
et

of the girl are dead.

Matres

parvuli Uheri, quorum aetas,

<S:c.

;

the mother and

little children,
7.

whose age, &c.
:

Exc. But an adjective* often agrees only with the substantive which is nearest to it as, Orgetorigis fllia, et unus e flUis captus est; the daughter of Orgetorix, and one of hia sons, was taken captive. Eae frugcs atque friictus, quos terra gignit ; those crops and fruits which the earth brings forth.
refers to a phrase or a clause it

8. Rule IV.— "When an adjective must be neuter as,
:

Humamim

est

errare;

it is

natural to

man
it

to err.
is

Dulce et decorinn est pro jJatria mori; coming to die for one's fatherland.
9.

sweet and be-

Adjectives are often used as
;

if

they were substantives
;

;

those

referring to males being masc.

to females, fern.

and

to things,

neut.

:

as,
et sapientes ex zirhe pulsisunt ; the good and wise {men) have been banished from the city.

Boni

CHAPTER IV.— APPOSITION.t
1,

Rule I.— Substantives that stand in apposition to one another
:

agree in case

as,

ifiltiades, films

Tullia, deliciae
2.

Cimonis; Miltiades, the son meae Tullia, my darling.
;

of Cimon.

Ohs.

The same rule applies when the second substantive is used as part of the predicate as, Caesar erat mwjnvs imperator ; Caesar was a most distinguished coram.inder, N.B. This kind of apposition occurs with (1.) Substantive verbs, (as, sum, existo, fio, &c,) (2.) Passive verbs of naming and choosing, (as, nominor, crcor.) (3.) Verbs of seeming or being thought, (as, vidcor, existimor.)
;

(4.)

Verbs of gesture,

(as, inccdo.)

See Note {. p. 120. 1 Two substantives are said to be in apposition, othur tu cxpluin ur limit it.

when

the one

la

appended to

tlio

——
122
3.

ELEMENTAUY LATIN GllAMMAR.
Rule II.— A substantive in apposition as,—
Cneius
{i.e.,

to

two

or

more substan-

tives is usually in tbe plural:
et

PuUms

Scipiones;

Ciieius

and

Publius Scipio

the Scipios, Cneius and Publius).

CHAPTER v.—THE NOMINATIVE AND
VOCATIVE CASES.
1.

TuE

Nominative

is

used to express the subject of the sentence,
(Seep. 117, Art. 14
;

or the substantival predicate. Art. 2.)
2.

and

p. 121, iv.,

The nominative
volo, nolo,

is

used after the infinitive with such verbs as
as,

possum,

mala, coepi, videor :

Miltiades non vldehatur j^osse esse j)rivdtus; Miltiades did

not appear to be able to remain a private
3.

citizen.
;

The Vocative is used in expressions of address son But the nominative often takes the place of the
!

as,

Fili !

vocative, even

in address.

CHAPTER VI.— THE ACCUSATIVE.
1.

The

Accusative expresses the direct object of an action indiIt

cated by a transitive verb.

answers to the questions,

Whom

\

What ?
2.

To
I.

wliat place

?

During what time ? &c.
verbs govern
*

ject:

Rule as,—

— Transitive

the accusative of tbe ob-

Fv.gat Iiostes; he

roiits

the enemy.
colonists.
dative, or

Mittunt colonos; they send
3.

Ohs.

— But

many

transitive verbs govern the genitive,
vii., viii.,

ablative.

(See chaps,

and

ix.)

• By the term " govern," it is simply meant that the practice of the Latins was to put an accusative case after a transitive verb; just as in English it is the practice to use that form of the substantive which we call th«," objective " (accusative) case after tr:insitive verbs and prepositions: as, "He struck me," not, "He struck I " "J walked with him,"— r<o(, " 1 walked with he."
;


THE ACCUSATIVE.
4.

— —
123
may
:

Any

verb, wliether

it

be transitive or intransitive,

govern,

in the accusative, a substantive of kindred signification

as,—

Vivere heatam vitam; to live a happy

life.

Fugnam pujnare ;
Hence,
5.

to fight a battle.

Rule II.— Many verbs

*

are followed by
:

two accusatives,— the
as,

one expressing a person, the other a thing f

Caesar flagitat frumenticm Aeduos ; Caesar demands from the Aedui.
Ptier

com

patrem nihil

celavit; the boy concealed

notiiing from

his father.
III. After verbs expressing or implying motion, the towns and small islands, with domus, rus, and such terms, are put in the accusative, to indicate the " point to which :" as,
C.

Rule
of

names

FervSiiit

Lemnum;

he reaches Lemnus.

Delecti missi sunt Delphos; chosen

men were

sent to Delphi.

Rediit

domum;
names

he returned home.

Rus
7.

iho ; I shall go to the country.
of countries and

Ohs.

— With

large islands a preposition is

generally used (but the poets often oiuit the prep.): as,

Revertitur in Asiam; he returns to Asia.

8.

tion of time

Rule IV.— The accusative expresses extent as,—
:

of space

and dura-

Perduxitfossam
feet deep.

sedecini pedes

altam; he ran a ditch sixteen
tenuit; he kept the ship out

Diem noctemque

iii

salo

navem

at sea for a day and a night.
9.

Rule v.— The Prepositions, ad, apud, ante,
:

&c.,

govern the

accusative t as,—

Ad eos ;
Apud
*

to them.

Helvetios;

among

the Helvetii.

licto,
t

Such ave verbs of asking, tcaclilnR, entreating, wartilnp:, concealing, <ftc. But postulo, and quaei'o taku the alilativu witli a pvt'p., f(6, rfp, fJ", <fec. It will be observed tliat tlie "accusative of tlie tliinj^ " is really an accusative of kindred signification, and therefore merely completes the meaning of the verb. X See p. lU, 3.


12i
10.

— —

!

ELEMENTARY LATIN GRAMMAR.
Bule VI.
accusative

The prepositions,

in, sub, super,

an

when "motion towards
city.

or

and subter, take throughout" is ex-

pressed:* as,

Ire in tirhem; to go into the

Navigat super
] 1.

seqefcs; he sails over (above) his corn-fields.

Prepositions, wlicii

compounded with
tlic

otlier words, often
:

govern

the same case as they do in

simple form

as,

MlUtes ducem circumstcierunt; the
general.

sulJiors

surrounded their
carried over

Exercitus llhenum transducltur ; the army
the Rhine.
12.

is

Many

intransitive verbs of motion,

when compounded

witli

the pre})Ositions trans, circum, per, super, praeter, ad, cum, in, sul)ter, (and sometimes prae and oh,) become transitive, and thus
take an accusative
:

as,

Exercitus /lumen transiit; the army crossed the

river.

13.

Urhem ohsident ; tliey besiege the city, The accusative is used (along with tlic

genitive) after tlie

impersonal verbs miseret, poenitet, pudet, taedet, and piget.
p. 128, 10.)

(See

So d^cet and deddcet often take the accusative of the
accusative

pei-son.

14.

The

is

used

in

exclamations, either with or witliout

an interjection (but see

p. 12G, 16):

as,—
wretched
!

Me miseruin ! (or, me miserum f) Heu me infelicem ! ah, luckless me

me

CHAPTER VII.— THE DATIVE.
1.

The
The

or in reference to which, something
2.

Dative indicates the person or thing to which, for iohich,\ Hence, is done.
given or communicated

dative denotes the individual (person or thing) to which
is
:

anything

as,^

llonos Miltiadi trihutus est; honour was awarded to 3Iiltiades.

Legati nuntiant Caesari; the lieutenants report to Caesar.
*
t

See ti. 132, 25. " For," alKnlfying "In defence of,"

is

to

be translated by pro with the

abl.

;

as,

Propatria

tnori; to die for one's futlieiland.


TIIK PATIVK.
3.


125

Tlie dative imlicatcs

tlie

inilividiial

benefited or inj>ircd in any

way: a^;,— Pastor insidias liqw parat ; the sheplierd
wolf.

lays snares for the

Ohs.

— In this example insidias expresses the iinmediate object of the
;

action, the thing prepared

while hipo denotes

tlie

or the individual in I'egard to
4.

whom

the preparation

remote object, is made.

the dative

Eule I.—Verbs signifying advantage or disadvantage govern as,—
:

Bonis

nocet, qidsquis malis perjyercerit ;

he does harm to the

good,
5.

who

spares the bad.

'Ohs. 1.

— The principle of "advantage or disadvantage " laid down in
more
;

is a very cnmprchensive one, and to it may be referred by far the greater number of instances in which the dative occurs.

Arts. 3 and 4

It is
(a)

especially manifest in the following classes of verbs:
;

To

obey

consult for, help spare, indulge, &c. {b) To please; serve, hurt, &c. threaten {c) To trust, persuade, marry (of the
;

(d) Jlost verbs compounded with one female); command,* &c. of the ten prei)Ositions, ad, ante in, infer j)ost, prae sub, super con and ob; and many verbs compounded with other

piejiositious

Ohs. 2.

— The
;

— as,

ab, circiim, de, ex, re- (inseparable).

sonally
().

passives of verbs governing the dative are used imperas, Mihi invldelur; I am envied.

But the preposition is often repeated with its case, more particularly in verbs compounded with ad, con, in: as, Communicare aliquid cum (diquo; to make known to a person.
Inferre signa in
Ohs.
liostes ; to

advance against the enemy.
by an

— Many

of the verbs in the lists of Art. 5 are followed

For the peculiarities of each, the student accusative or ablative. must consult his Dictionary.
7.

Under one

or other of the heads in Art. 5 are included snin (when
its

used as equal to haheo) and

compounds, except possum: as,—

Est mihi liber;

I

have a book.

Frodest amicis; he benefits his friends.
8.

Eule

II.

— Adjectives,

signifying advantage or disadvantage
:

likeness or unlikeness, govern the dative

as,

Utilis reipuhlicae ; profitable to the state.

Similis patri ; like his father (in features, &c.)
* hatjuvo, sublefo, luedo. deleclo, offendo, re<jo.jubeo, and 'jidienio, govern the ucc., and some of the verbs noted In Ait. 6 tiiku the ucc. with tli-.- dat.

——
126
9.
O/'S.

ELEMENTARY LATIN GUAMMAIl.

— Such

adjectives are,
(6)

(a) Frienilly, useful, fit,* necessary,
(,iii

their opposites.
opposites.

Like

externals), equal, near to,

and and their

Adverbs of a meaning similar also take a dative as,—
10.
:

to tliat of tlie

above adjectives

Convenienter naturae
11.

;

agreeably to nature.
tiie

Two

datives are sometimes used after
;

verbs to be, give,

come, send, impute, t &c.

tlie

one indicating the ^)«'5ou benefited,
:

and the other the object, end, or result of the action as, Miserunt equituturn auxilio Caesari ;+ they sent the cavalry
for a help to Caesar.
12.

The

dative

is

often used after passive verbs and passive ad-

jectives, to denote the principal agent, instead of the ablative with

a or ab:

as,

Mihl susceptum est ; it was undertaken by nie. Minus probatus parentibus ; disapproved of by
06s.

his parents.
est
:

— So
III.

tlie

dative
est

is

regularly used after the gerundive with
all

as,

Moriendum

omnibus ;

must

die.

13.

Rule

— Some

impersonal verbs govern the dative;

e.g.,

contingit, expedit, libet, &c.;

as,—
state.

Expedit reipuhlicae ; it is profitable for the Licet nemini peccare; no man is permitted
14.
is

to sin.
est (there
is

The
as,

dative

is

used after the impersonal phrase Opus
for

need), to indicate the person
:

whom something

neces-

sary

Dux
15.

nobis opus est;

we need a commander.
which are usually

Ohs.—li

will be seen that in those constructions

placed under the common rule, " Verbs of comparing, giving, declaring, and taking away, govern the dative with the accusative," the dative is simply a dative of the remote object, as explained in one or other of the preceding articles ; and the accusative is an
accusative of the direct object.
16.

The

dative
Ilei

is used with some interjections: mihi! ah, me Vae vohis ! woe to you
! !

asy

liQt those denoting fitness or untiuicss more usually take tlie iicc. with aJ : as, Locus aptus ad insidias; a place fitted for an aiulnisli. t The verbs most commonly followed by a double dative are sum, do, dtico, tribuo,
*

verto, aciipio, relinquo, deligo. mitto, venio, /labeo.

J

But Caesari may depeml here on

aii.riUo.


THE GENITIVE.

127

CHAPTER
1.

YIII.— THE GENITIVE.

The
;

tive

and thus a substantive

Gonitive Case partakes largely of the nature of an adjecin the genitive is generally conjoined

with another suhstantive in such a way that the two
definite idea: as, Patris
;

make up one

domus, the father's iionse i.e., tiie paternal The genitive also depends on verbs, adjectives, and adverbs. house. It answers to the cpiestions. Whose ? Of whom \ Of what I
2. Rule I.— A substantive which limits the meaning of another substantive, denoting a different person or thing, is put in the

genitive: as,—

Lex naturae;
Obs.

the law of nature. the love of parents.

Amor 2'xirentum ;

— Lex and amor are rjcncral terins, .and miglit apjily to law and

But tlie genitives naturae and love in their widest acceptations. pai'entiun limit the application of the others, and confine theiu to one kind of law and one kind of love.
3.

Hence the

genitive denotes the author or possessor

:

as,—

Caesar is filius ; Caesar's son
Libri Ciceronis; the books of Cicero
or his property).
4.
{i.e.,

either his writings

Eule

II.

—The

genitive depending on part of the verb sum,

expresses the person to
tic: as,

whom

belongs a duty, part, or characteristhe king's duty to execute

Regis

est leges

administrare ;

it

is

the laws.
Stidti est consilium contemn&re
despise advice.
5.

;

it

is

the

mark

of a fool to

Exc.

— But the possessive pronouns are used
:

in tiie

nominative singuthat.

lar neuter

as,
est

Mtuin
6.

id procurare ;

it is

ray duty to

manage

Rule III.— The word expressing the whole, a part spoken of, is put in the genitive: as,—
'•

of

which

is

Magna vis liominum; a great number Multum pecuniae ; nuich money.
Quid novi?f what news
>•

of

men.

]

' Tilts is called tlie partitive genitive.

it

But if the adjective were of tlie third declension this would not be allowable, as would cause ambiguity. We could not say, quid utilis, or aliguid uiilis; but quid
utile.

Wile, or (iliiitiJ

— — —
128

— —

ELEMENTARY LATIN CIRAMMAR.
Satis pecuniae; enough of money.

Ubicunque terrarum; in wliatcvcr part of Quis vestnim ? wliich of you
/

llie

earth.

Doctissimus
7
Obs.

Romanorum;

tlic

most learned of

tlie

Romans.
(a)

— The wonls

wliich usually govern such genitives are,

The

nominative or accusative singular neuter of quantitative adjectives and ])ronouiis as, mullum, miims, nihil, id, quid, &c. (b) Adverbs of quantity satis, luniis; of place eo, ibi, uhl ; of time •posted, iiitcrca. (c) All partitive words, of whatever kind— substantives, adjectives, numerals, pronouus, the comparatives and
;

superlatives of adjectives.

Rule IV.— Substantives indicating quality, nature, extent, &c., are put in the genitive but in such cases they are accompanied by an adjective as,
S.
;
:

Piier
9.

magni ingenii; a boy

of great talent.

Eule V.

— The genitive

is

alFections after certain adjectives

used to express the object of mental and verbs as,
:

Jgnarus mali; ignorant of

evil.

Memor
10.

heneficii; mindful of a favour.

Avidus gloriae ; greedy
Ohs.

of fame.

— Such

are,

[a) Adjectives

denoting knowledge, memory, cer-

(6) Verbs Miserere scrvorum; have pity on the slaves, (c) Certain impersonal verbs, such as refeH and interest, "t* as, Refert regis, it concerns the king and miseref, poenitet, iiitdct, iaedet, and piget, to express the object which excites pity, shame, &.c. as, Miseret me tui; I pity you.

tainty, inclination to, patience,

and their opposites.

signifying to

remember,

pity, forget:* as.

;

:

11.

Eule VI.

— The
as,—

genitive expresses the object, after verbs and

adjectives denoting plenty, J power, participation, likeness, §
their opposites:

and

Indigehat

opum; he needed
full of anger.

resources.

Flemis irae ;

Similis patris ; like his father (in nature, disposition, &c.)
* Verbs siRnifying to remember or forget also take the ace. t But with tliese verbs the possessive pronouns are used in
tua, nostri, vestra: as, A'on

tlie

forms mca, tuu,
scliolai's

mea

refert, it

does not concern

nie.

Some

con(See

sider these forms as the ablative singular feminine, agreeing with re; while others

icgard the phrases as abbreviations for rem meamfert, and inter 7'emest meam. Key, Lat. Gr., §010.) J Adjectives of jilenty or want also take the abl. 5 Adjectives of likeness or uulikencss also take the dat.

— —


THE ABLATIVE.

——
1

L'9

12.

Price or value, wlien stated in an indefinite way,

is

put

in the
jjlus,

genitive, in the case of such adjectives as

magnus, piurimus,
tlie

minor, &c

:

as,

Avarus

divitias

magni aestimat;
haheo;
I
liold

avaricious

man

sets a

great value on wealth.

Pravum minimi
small esteem.
13.

tlie

wortliless nuin

in

very

N.B.

If a suJi.ttantive is used to imlicate the price, it is usually put in the ablative and even with the adjectives noted in Ait. 12
;

the ablative
] 4.

is ol'teii

used.
is

Rule VII.— The crime or ground of accusation

expressed in the

genitive after verbs of accusing, condemning, and acquitting; as,—

Miltladem proditionis acciisaverunt ; they accused Miltiades
of treason.

occur

The name of a place where an event is said to put in the genitive, if the substantive be of the first or second declension, and the singular number:* as,
15.

Rule VIII.
is

Mortuus Hahehat
16.

est

domum

Magnesiae; he died at Corinthi ; he had

]\Iagnesia.
iiis

home

at Corinth.

The

following phrases are also in the genitive :—Z)o»ii, at

home;

Belli or militiae, at war, (in the phrase,

Domi

lellique)

;

Humi, on

the ground.

CHAPTER IX.— THE ABLATIVE.
1.

TuE

Ablative

is

used in Latin to express those relations which
in,
h'j,

in English

we indicate by from, with,
or reason
I

at, &c.

Hence

it

denotes
2.

The cause

:

as,
(i.e.,

Ardeo studio;
3.

burn with

by reason
:

of) zeal.

The instrument, means,
Vivunt
lacte et
1, 2,

or material

as,

Interfecit hostem gladio ; he slew his

enemy

witli

a sword.

came;
9,

they live on milk and
be exjiressed in
tlie

tiesii.

4.

Articles

and
:

may

words of Rnddi-

nian's familiar rule

Sue

cliap. ix.

"21, p.

IS.'.


130

— — —

ELEMENTARY

LA.TIN

GRAMMAR.

Rule I.— The cause, manner, and instrument, are put in the
ablative.
0').<!.

— Otherwise,
tlie
it is

the
is

is (lone,

manner

word which in which

expresse.s the cause
it is

why a thing done, or the instrument hy

which
5.

done,

put in the ablative.

Under one
like

or

other of the two preceding lieads comes the

ablative, after the adjectives contentus, ndtus, sdtus, ortus, edltus,

and the

;

also

freins, pra^dUus ;

as,

Fretus numero copiarum; relying on the number of his Oi'tus regihus; descended from kings.
G.

forces.

But
is

if

the agent
:

for

instrument) be a person, the preposition a

or ah

used

as,—
est

Caesar certior factus by scouts.
7.

ah exploratorilMs ; Caesar

is

certified

potior,

Rule II. The deponent verbs, utor, abutor, fruor, and vescor, take the ablative of the object: as,—
Potlri imperio; to take possession of the sovereignty.

fungor,

N.B.
Exc.

— Ablatives
; to

after these verbs are simply

examples of the

"cause, manner, and instrument."
8.

— But potior often takes the genitive

:

as,

Potiri Galliae
9.

take possession of Gaul.
is

Rule III.— The mode or manner in which a thing
Fecit more majoruni; he did
cestors.

done

is

expressed by the ablative: as,—
it

after the

manner

of his an-

10. Allied to

the foregoing construction
to,

is

the ablative of limitation
as,

expressed in English by as

in regard to:
in the feet.

Aeger pedihus ; diseased Gaptus ocidis ; blind.

G alius
Major
11.

natione; a Gaul by birth.
iiatu; older.

Rule IV.— The ablative denotes supply, with verbs and adjec:

tives signifying plenty, want,* filling, emptying, &c.

as,

G er mania fluminibus
Plenus ira;
* Jiijai

ahundat; Germany abounds
tlie

in rivers.

Carehat nomine ; he was without
full of anger.

name.

and

indigi-o also

take

tliu guiiitive.

See

clliip. viii. 11, p.

128.


THE ABLATIVE.
12.

— — —
131

Opiis

est,

and usus

est,

one
or,

ha.s

need,

may
:

take the ablative of
a.s,

the tiling wanted (but see chap.

vii.

14, p. 12G)

Opus

est

mihi adjutore;

Adjutor ojms

est

mihi;

—I reed a
when

helper.
13. Rule V. The ablative expresses quality or property, conjoined with an adjective: * as,

I

Erat regia dignitate; he was

of royal dignity.

Staturafuit humili; he was of low stature.
14. Rule VI. Price or amount is put in the ablative with verbs of buying, selling, valuing, hiring, fining, &c.: t as,—

Patriam auro vendidit ; he
Obs. 1.

sold his country for gold.

Multatiis est peciciiia; he was fined in a
15.

sum

of money.

— But the

ablatives of certain words are used to express the
:

price in
for

au indefinite way
;

as,

Mininio, for very

little

;

mat/no,
iiidig-

much
as,

pai'vo, for little, &c.
this

Obs.

2.

— Under

nus:
16.

Dignus

latide,

head comes the ablative with dif/nus, worthy of praise.
is

Rule VII.— The ablative

latives to express excess or deficiency of

used with comparatives and supermeasure: as,

Multo major ; greater by
17.

far.

Rule Vin.

— The ablative is

to indicate the object

used with the comparative degree with which the comparison is instituted as,—
:

Filia jndchrior matre ; a daughter more beautiful than her
mother.
IS.
is

When quam

is

used in comparisons, the second substantive

coupled to the

first

by
est

it,

and takes the same case
(is).

:

as,
is

Filia pidchrior
fid

quam mater;

the daughter

more beauti-

than her mother

19. Rule IX. The ablative denotes separation from, after verbs of removing, freeing, delivering, depriving, abstaining, abandoning: as,

Caesar castra loco raovit; Caesar shifted his camp from the place.
Destiterunt hoc conatu; they abandoned this attempt.
20.

Rule

X.— Place-from-which
;

is

expressed in the ablative

:

as,—

Profectus est Athenis
* See cliap.
viii S, p. r28.

he started from Athens.
f

See

cliap. viiL 12, p. l-'D.


132
21. Kiile

ELEMENTARY LATIN GRAMMAR.
XI.— Place-where is expressed by the ablative, more names of towns or small islands, if the noun be of
est

especially in the

the third declension, or the plural number:* as,

Mortuus

Carthagine ; he died at Carthage.
(esse)

Videbat se non tutum
safe at Argos.
22.

Argis; he saw that he was not

Obs.

— Many words not proper names of places come under this priodomus, rus,
locus, dcxtra, lacva
:

ciple; e.g.,

as,—

Projiciscens

Eo

loco

domo; starting from home. manere; to remain in that place.

Dextra ; on the right hand.
23.

Kule XII.—Time-when

is

put in the ablative

:

as,—

Quinto die; ou the

fifth day.

Trecentesimo anno; in the three hundredth year.
24.

Rule XIII.—The ablative

is

used with the prepositions

a, ab,

aha, «kc.:+

as,—
the river.
super, govern the ablative

Aflumine; from
25.

Rule XIV.

— In, sub, and
is
:

when

rest

or position in or at

indicated; and subter, though rarely: % as,
;

Sacerdotes in arce invenit
26.

he found priests

in the citadel.

The "

ablative absolute " § as,
will play.

Opere peracto, ludemus ; our work being finished, we

CHAPTER X.—THE INFINITIVE MOOD.
1.

The

Infinitive

Mood

is

a verbal substantive having only two

cases, the nominative

and the accusative.

(The gerund supplies the

other cases.)
2.

Rule I.—One verb governs another in the
Scio plerosque scripsisse; I
corded.

infinitive.

know

that most writers have re-

Vetuit id fieri; he forbade this to be done.
* See p. 129, 15.
§ t

See

p. 114, 4.

t See chap.

vi. 10, p.

124.

usually called the Ablative Absolute— t.e., a phrase in a sentence, and yet not dependent on any part of that sentence; which is absurd. There is an inversion

This

Is

of the syntax,

it is

true, but all cases of the so called abl. absolute

either to " time

is

put

in the abl.," or to " cause,

may be referred manner, and instrument."


THE SUPINES
3.

!


133

— PAKTICIPLES,
;

06s.— After verbs signifying
infinitive is generally

promUe, the future used in Latin where our idiom requires a
to hnpe, threaten,

present: as,
Pollicitus est sc negotinm confectarum esse
finish the business.

he promised to

4.

Eule

II.

— The

infinitive

mood has

its

subject in the accusa-

tive: as,-—

Pi/thia dixit, incejHa prospera futura esse; the priestess said

that their undertakings would be prosperous.
5.

Ohs.

— When
:

the adjective or substantive

is

joined with the infini-

tive to couipleto the predicate, it is put in the

same case as the

subject

as,

Petriis cupit esse rir doctus; Peter desires to be a learned man. Scio Petriim esse virum doctain ; I know Peter to be a learned man.

CHAPTER XL— THE SUPINES.
1. Rule I.— The supine in -uni is used after verbs expressing or implying motion, to indicate the design of the motion as,
:

Delecti DelpJios profecti sunt deliheratum
to Deli)hi to consult (the oracle).

;

chosen

men went

Misit legatos rogatum mixilium ; he sent ambassadors to ask
for lielp.

and

Rule II.— The supine in -u is simply an ablative of limitation,* used with adjectives, such as turpis, facilis, utilis, &c. and the substantives, fas, nefas, opus as,
2.

is

;

:

Mirahile dictu ! wonderful to

tell

CHAPTER XII.— PARTICIPLES.
1.

Participles are adjectives
iii.)

in

form, and, like adjectives, agree
(See

with their own substantives in gender, number, and case.
cliap.

Participles are very often
(p. 32, 26),

U!.;ed

in

the constniction called

the ablative absolute

and

in cases wliere the

English lan-

guage prefers a clause

witli

a finite verb.
cliiip. ix. 10, p.

Slc

loO.


l;^i

ELEMENTARY LATIN GKAMMAU.
But
;

2.

participles
(2.)

have

two

peculiarities

;— (1.)

Tliey

denote
as their

time

and,

When

transitive, they goveru tlie

same case

verbs.
3.

The nominative

or accusative neuter of the gerundive

is

very
of

often used impersonally with the parts of the verb sum, the

name

the person by
dative
:

whom
est

tlic

action

must be done being put must die,— i.e., dying
is

in the

* as,

Moriendum
4.

omnibus ;

all

(a neces-

sity) to all.

The gerundive

is

very often used in agreement with a noun

(in

all

cases except the nominative,
tlie

and
:

in all genders), instead of the

gerund followed by

accusative

as,

Ad eas

res conficiendas; to complete these matters.

Gen. Scrihendae epistdae, instead of scribendi epistolam; of writing a letter.
Dat. Scribendae epistolae,'miii&&(\. oi scribendo ejnstolam ; to or for writing a letter.
Ace.

Ad scribendam epistolam, instead of ad scribendum epistolam
;

to write a letter.
;

Abl. Scribenda epistola, instead of scribendo ejn.'itolam

by

writing a letter.

CHAPTER XIIL— THE GERUND.
1.

The Gerund
and
its

is

a regular noun, wanting the nominative and

vocative,

cases are treated accordingly.
:

In

use, the infinitive

and the gerund make up a perfect noun

thus,
useful.
is

Nom.
Gen.
Dat.
. <

Scrilere est utile; writing

is

Ars scribendi

est utilis;

the art of writing

useful.

Charta scribendo

est utilis;

paper

is

useful for writing.

Scribere disco; I learn writing.

(

Inter scribendum disco; I learn during(or while) writing.

Abl.
*

Scribendo discimus ; we learn by writing.
tlie

The

dative of

person

is

often omitted

:

as,

Utendum

est (scil. nobis) brevitale;

\ve sliould practise brevity.


THE IMPERATIVE MOOD.
2.

135

But o1)serve,—
((()

That

tlie

tives
(b)

genitive of tlie gerund is governed liy substanand adjectives, though rarely, if ever, by verbs.

That the dative and accusative are seldom used with an Thus we can say, Scribendo accusative case following. but rarely Charta (ablative) epistolas, by writing letters
;

eat v.tilis
ejristolas.

scribendo (dative) epistolas, or,

ad scribenduni
;

In such cases the gerundive should be emto agree with the substantive
as,

])loyed,

and be made

Cliarta est utilis scribendis ejiistoUs; or,
epistolas.
(c)

ad

scribendas

The
The

accusative gerund

is

only used with prepositions, and

usually with ad, inter, and ob.
(d)

ablative gerund

is

most commonly used as the ablative
si/ie.

of the instrument or manner, and after the prepositions
ab, de, ex, in; not with
3.

The gerund governs the same
Parcendo
victis;

case as

its

verb

:

as,—

Scribendi epistolas ; of writing

letters.

by sparing the contjuered.

CHAPTER XIV.— TPIE IMPEEATIVE MOOD.
1.

The
Obs.

Imperative

Mood

is

used in principal clauses to express a

conniuuid, a wish, an advice, or an exhortation.

— The imperative of nolo
verb, to give force to the

is

often used with the infinitive of a
:

command

as,

A'oU impiitare miki; don't think of imputing to me.
2.

In counsels, commands, exhortations, or requests, the sub-

junctive

mood
;

is

very often used in
in

the

third person for

the

imperative

indefinitely:

and also as,—

the second person, especially wiien

used

Aut

bihat aut abeat; let hiui either drink or be

oil'.


136

ELEMENTARY LATIN GEAMMAR.

COMPOUND SENTENCES*
CHAPTER XV.— PRINCIPAL CLAUSES.
1;

Since the

Iiulicative

Moodf
used,

is

employed

to represent a state

or an action simply as a fact, either in an affirmative, or a negative,
or an interrogative form,
{a)
it is

In principal clauses stating what
lie

is

a

fact, or

assumed
{h)

to

a fact

:

as,

Tnm

Thraces eas regiones tenehant; the

Thracians at that time possessed those parts,
:

In direct
?

questions J as, Quid agis? what are you doing hora est? what o'clock is it?
2.

Quota

Since the subjunctive

mood

is

an action in a doubtful or contingent manner, principal clauses which pnrtake of this character.
wish,

employed to represent a state or it is found in tliose
Valeas;
us

command,
:

or exhortation

:

as, !

may you
I
(2.)

These are,— (1.) A be in good
were able
!

health

(farewell.)

Utinam possim

would that
live.

Bwm
:

vivimus vivamus; whilst we
Aliquis dicat; some one
as,
(4.)

live, let

may
(1

(possibly) say.

A possibility as, (3.) A supposition:
fail

IHes

deficiat, si;

the time

suppose) would
(I

A
A
On

concession: as, Sint haec falsa;

grant) this

me were I, &c. may be false.

(5.)

question expressed doubtfully
?

:

as.

Quid agamus ? what can

we do
*

the

iifttuve of

+
is

With regard

to the

the Compouiul Sentence ami its clauses, sec cliap. i., p. 117. Tenses of the indicative mood observe, (1.) Tliat the imperfect

sometimes used as a peifect (perf. Aorist); (2.) Tliat the future is occasionally employed as an imperative; (3.) That the pluperfect is often found where we miglit expect tlie same tense of the subjunctive: as, Truncus iUupsus cerebro sustulerat; the triinlc of a tree fallinE on my cranium 7C0ii!d have killed me, (had not, <fec.) t Direct questions (i.e., questions not dependent on any word or clause going before) are asked by interrogative particles (adverbs or conjunctions) tie, nonne, man, ulrum, an; quure, cin; guando, quomodo, vbi, &c. Or, secondly, by pronouns; as,
guis, gui, gualis, gnantvs, ecquis, &c.
1.

Inten'Ogative particlts: (a) iVe simply asks for information: Scribitne ptierf is the boy writing? (Yes.) (b) A'o'i^ie expects the answer, Yes: Nonne pittas? don't you think?
(c)
(rf)

Nitm expects the
Utriim
(liter,

answei'.

No:

Nmn

wliieh of two)

is u.sed in

putat? do you think? (No.) double questions, followed by an;

as,

Utrum nosinet moenibus defendemvs, an obviam hostibus ibimusf Whether shall we defend ourselves by our fortifications, or shall we go to meet the enemy? 2. Interrogative pronouns; as, Quis hoc fecit? who did this? — Quid agis? what are you doing?
For indirect questions, see chap,
xxiii.


SUBORDINATE CLAUSES.


137

3. The Imperative Mood is used in principal clauses to express a command, a wish, an advice, or an exhortation as, Aeqxiam memento ser rare mentem; remember to maintain an
:

even mind.

Pasce capellas,

et

potum

pastas age,

et

inter

aqendum

occur-

sare capro caveto: feed the she-goats; and drive them,

when
4.

fed, to

water; and whilst driving them, beware of

meeting the he-goat.

The

infinitive is

sometimes used
is

in principal clauses, instead of

the indicative.

This

called the Historical Infinitive.

CHAPTER XVI.— SUBORDINATE CLAUSES.
1.

The

first

step to be taken in analysing a Latin sentence, or in
is

turning an English sentence into Latin,
of each clause of the sentence.

to decide the character

This

by examining the

first

word*

of the clause,

tion, a relative adverb, or a relative

most cases, easily done whether it be a conjuncpronoun but the learner must
is,

in

;

remember that the same conjunctive word may express
ideas,

different

and therefore introduce

different kinds of clauses: thus

qutim
but

may

introduce either a temporal or a causal clause.

Hence con;

junctive words play an important part in subordinate clauses

the student nuist carefully guard against the too connnon error of

supposing that the conjunctive word governs the mood.
cases
it is is

mood

In all nature of the statement which decides not only what to be used, but also what conjunctive word must introduce
the
It

the clause.

may

be laid down, then, as a general rule that,

2. In all subordinate clauses, in whicli the statement is represented as dependent on another statement, either as purpose, aim, consequence, condition, or imaginary comparison, the verb will be in the subjunctive mood.

3. It often happens tliat a fact is stated in a subordinate clause by a verb in the subjunctive mood. In such cases the secondary
• Tlio characteristic word is, in Latin, sometimes projecti'il into very seldom further than the third place: as, Illi, <Jesperatit rebus,
tlie

clause, but

quum

solvmenl

naves;

(ox

quum

illi,

Ac.


138

ELKMENTARy LATIN GRAMMAK.
is

nature of the clause, wliich
as to be necessary to
defiuiteness over
it
:

connected with the leading clause, so
iii-

its

completeness, seems to throw a shade of

as,

Accidit ut, dec,

quum

Miltiades Jloreret ;

it

happened

that, &c.,

when Miltiades
4.

flourished.

Subordinate clauses

may be

divided

mto final,

conditional, con-

cessive, temporal, causal, relative, interrorjative.

CHAPTER XVII.— FINAL CLAUSES.
1. Final. Clauses, exi)ressing the purpose or result, are introduced by the conjunctions ut, ne, quin, quo, quominus, and the relative qui; and have their verbs in the subjunctive mood.

2.

Ut or ne expresses a.pu7yose
Misit servuin
king, to

:*

as,—
purpose of
telling).

ad regem,
him
{i.e.,

ut ei nuntiaret; he sent a slave to the
for the

tell

Themistocles

angustias

quaerehat,

ne multitudine

circui-

retur; Themistocles sought the straits, that he might cot be

surrounded by the large number

(of ships).

0?>s.— Hence verbs signifying to a&k, persuade, command, advise, strive, wish, &c.,areusuallyfollowed hyuturnea,nd thesubjunctive.
3.

Ut or ne expresses a consequence or a result: as, Adeo angusto mari confiixit, ut multitudo navium explicari
oion potuerit ; he engaged in so narrow a sea, that (as a con-

sequence) his multitude of ships could not be drawn out.
Ohs.

Hence verbs oi fearing are followed by ut or ne with tlie subjunctive; ut, to express the fear that a thing will not happen; oic, that it will.
purpose, especially

4. Quo is sometimes used for ut to express a when the sentence contains a comparative {quo
;

= lU

eo)

:

as,

Caesar castella communit, quo facilius Helvetios pi'ohihere
possit; Caesar erects forts in order that he
easily be able to

may

the more

keep

off

the Ilelvetii.

* A purpose is not expressed in Latin by the infinitive, but either (a) by qui, with the subjunctive; or (6) by lit, with the subjunctive; or (c) by the supine; or (rf) by tlie future participle; or (e) by the gerund or (/) by the gerundive; or (g) by causa or gratia, with tlic genitive.
;

— — —
CONDITIONAL CLAUSES.
5.
is

— —
139

Quin ("in

wliat

manner

not,"
as,
is

"but

that," "but," "without,")

used after negative clauses :*

Nemo Nemo

est quin.

jmtet; there

no one but thinks.
jiroposal of peace

dubitahat, quia ((liquid de jmce esset scri2'>tum; no one
tliat

doubted but made.
Ohs.

some written

had been

is used, (1.) After verbs of hindering, as prohibeo; After negative phrases, as nan est dubium, nemo dubitat, kc. (3.) After clauses expressing or implying a negative.

— Quin
;

(2.)

6.

Quoynimisf

is

used (rather
:

tlian ne) after verbs of liindering,

preventing, opposing, &c.
NiJiil impedit

as,

quomimis hoc faciamus ;

notliing hinders us

from doing

tliis.

Obs.— Quin and quominus are sometimes interchangeable.
7.

The relative pronoun expresses a purpose as, Sermim misit ad regem, qui ei mnitiaret; he sent a the king to tell {i.e., who should tell) him.
:

slave to

8. Ut and ne are sometimes used in elliptical expressions, where in English we might supply " granting tliat," or some such phrase as,—
:

Nam,

ut

omiltam Philipjmm;

for,

not to mention Philip.

CHAPTER XVIII.— CONDITIONAL CLAUSES.
1.

Conditional Clauses, expressing a condition or contingency,
si, nisi,

are introduced by
2.

dum, dummodo,
:

niodo, &c.
tiie

Conditional clauses have the verb in
is

indicative if the con-

dition

represented as certain
vis,

as,

Si
3.

daho

tibi testes; if {i.e., since)

you wish,

I will give

you
the

evidence.

Conditional clauses have the verb in the subjunctive
is

if

condition
ISi

represented as uncertain
habeat, dabit ;
it.

:[:

or doubtful
to)

:

as,

(p.iid

if

he {chance

have anything, he

will give

When

9Min asks a (direct) question,

it

is

JDined with

tlio

indicative: as, Q.uin

conscendirnus eg'tosf wliy don't
t

t

we mount our horses? Quominus, literally, "in what manner the leas; " i.e., "so tliat not," "from." Tills will always be the case when dum, dummodo, and modo mean "provided

that"


140

ELEMENTARY LATIN GRAMMAR.

CHAPTER
1.

XIX. -CONCESSIVE CLAUSES.

Concessive Clauses, expressing a concession or admission, are
etsi,
is

introduced by such conjunctions as

(which

is

quanquam, tatnetsi, licet quum. 2. Concessive clauses have the verb in the indicative when a fact stated etsi, quanquam, and tametsi are most common in this
properly a verb), quamvis, and sometimes
;
:

sense

as,

Eripuit telum, etsi gladms erat subductus ; he drew forth a weapon, though his sword had been abstracted. 3. Concessive clauses have the verb in the subjunctive when a mere possibility is expressed licet and quamvis almost always, and
;

etiamsi very often in this sense

:

as,
(&c.
;

Quamvis
4.
si,

ille

felix

sit,

tamen,

though

he be happy,

yet, &c.

&c.,

The comparative conjunctions, vehit, ac, si, quasi, tanqtiam when used concessively (" as if," "as though,") take the
:

subjunctive, because necessarily implying a doubt

as,

Quid

testibus %itor, quasi res

dubia sit? why do I employ

witnesses, as though the matter were doubtful.

CHAPTER XX.— TEMPORAL CLAUSES.
1.

Temporal Clauses {i.e.,

clauses expressing time) are introduced

by such conjunctions as quum,, postquavfi, simulac, quando, dwn, donee, ubi; and when indicating time, and nothing else, generally
take the indicative
:

as,

Eo fostquam

Caesar j^ervenit;

when

(after

that)

Caesar

arrived there.

Quum

Caesar in Galliam venit ; when Caesar came into

Gaul.

Ipse quoad potuit, restitit; he himself resisted as long as he
could.
2.

Temporal clauses take the subjunctive when the idea
is

of con:

cession

implied, or

when time

is

expressed in a general way
so.

as,

Quum

haec ita sint; since these things are

— — —

CAUSAL CLAUSES
3.

— RELATIVE CLAUSES.
is

141

Temporal clauses

also take the sulijuiictive when, in historical

narrative, an event or circumstance

regarded as the cause or occa-

sion of a subsequent one

:

as,


quum
imdti jyeterent societatem,
sent to Delphi,

Delecti Delplios missi simt,
<£:c.
;

cliosen

men were

when

{i.e.,

because)

many

were seeking a share, &c.

CHAPTER XXL— CAUSAL CLAUSES.
1.

Causal Clauses

(assigning a cause, or reason, or ground) are
qi(,od,

introduced by such conjunctive words as

quia, quoniam,

quum, quifpe, and
2.

occasionally quando.

states his

These conjunctions are joined with the indicative when the writer own opinion, and represents it as tlie right one as,
:

Quoniam
Quippe
3.

7ion est genus

unum;
it is

since there

is

nut one kind(only).

leve est; since
is

a small matter.
is

Ois.

— Quippe
:

used with the indicative when a reason

given

ironically

as,

Quijype vetor Falls: since, forsooth, I
Fates.
4.

am

forbidden by the

The subjunctive
Accusatus
est

is

used when the writer repeats the opinion of
is

another, or hints that the reason

not the right one

:

as,

proditionis, quod discessisset ; he was accused of

treason, because (they said) he
5.

had

retired.
:

Quum, when

expressing the cause, takes the subjunctive
{i.e.,

as,
is

Qmim
Obs.

sit

in nobis p?'udentia; since
in us.

because) there

wisdom

— But quum
7.)

may take the indicative when the reason very strongly as a fact.

is

stated

6.

Causal clauses are also introduced by the relative pronoun.

(See chap. xxii.

CHAPTER XXIL— RELATIVE CLAUSES.
1.

Relative Clauses

are introduced by the relative pronouns,

relative adverbs, or relative conjunctions.
2.

Relative clauses take the indicative
:

when a

fact is stated dis-

tinctly

as,

Nuntius, qui missus est; the messenger who was

sent.


142
3.

— — —

— —
when


stating the senti-

ELEMENTARY LATIX GUAMMAR.
Relative clauses take the subjunctive
:

uoents of another
Ilelvctii

as,

nerent; the Helvetii prepared
necessary (as they thought) for

comparaverunt ea quae ad projiciscendum j)ertithose things which were
tlieir

departure.

pronoun clause expresses a purpose
4.

The

relative

is

followed by the subjunctive
:

when the
tell tlie

(see chap. xvii. 7)

as,

Misit servum, qui
king.
5.

recji

nuntiaret; he sent a slave to

Tiie relative pronoun

is

followed by the subjunctive

when the

clause expresses a result, and
is,
(&c.,
:

when qui

is

equal to ut ego, ut tu, ut

after

is, talis,

tantus, di(j/nus, indigiius, idoneus, tarn, ita,

<&c.

as,

JVo7i is

sum, qui
{i.e.,

(=:?<^ ego) hoc
I

do

this,
est,

am

not sucli [a one]
is

faciam; I am not the man who can do this.)
worthy to be praised.

to

Digm(s
6.

qui laudetur; he

pronoun is followed by the sulijiinctive when the clause expresses tlie ground, reason, or cause, qui being equal to as, cur, quod, or quum and a pronoun

The

relative

:

Erras, qui censeas; you err, who think (i.e., because you tliink.) Male fecit Hannibal, qui Capiiae hiemarit; Hannibal did

wrong
Obs.
7.

in
is

wintering (because he wintered) at Capua.
often strengthened by quippe, ut, utpote.

— Qui

The
est,

relative is also followed by the subjunctive
is

when an

inde-

finite

statement

made, especially with such phrases as sunt qui,

nemo

nescio quis; as,

Sunt qui putent; there are persons who think. Fuere qui crederent; there were persons who believed.
Ohs.

But the indicative is often used after sunt qui, ti-c. (1.) Wlien persons or things are spoken of in a very distinct way as, Fuere complures, qui profecti sunt; there were many persons who (actually) started. (2.) In all senses by the poets and later prose writers: as, Sunt quos juvat (HoR.); there are persons whom it
:

delights.
8.

The

relative

pronoun
is

is

followed by the subjunctive
:

when a

condition or supposition

implied

as,

Nihil lonum
thing
is

est,

good, unless

quod hominem non meliorem faciat; noit makes {i.e., wliich does not make) a

man

better.


INTERROGATIVE CLAUSES

— —
143

— SEQUENCE OF TENSES.

CHAPTER
1.

XXIII. -INTERROGATIVE CLAUSES.
to principal clauses.

Direct questions belong

(See

p.

1.3G,

note X.)
2.

Indirect questions are those which depend on
;

some word
:

or sen-

tence going before

they have the verb in the subjunctive
tell

as,

Die, quid agas;

me what you

are doing.

Magna

fuit contentio, v.trum moenihus se defenderent,

an

ohviam irent hostibus; there was an earnest discussion
wliether they should defend themselves by their walls, or

whether
3.

tliey

should go to meet the enemy.

Ohs. 1.

— In indirect questions num does not necessarily imply a negative. — When more than one alternative suggested in indirect Obs.
2. is

questions, the forms are as follows
1

:

2

3
aii

utrum
nS

an
nS nS

nS nS

CHAPTER XXIV.— SEQUENCE OF TENSES IN THE CLAUSES OF A COMPOUND SENTENCE.
1.

When

co-ordinate clauses are connected by any of the co-ordi{et,

native conjunctions
generally in the

ac, atque, sed, aut, nee, £c.), the verbs are
;

same tense

but they often vary in tense when some
is

peculiarity of time or of action

to be represented

by one or more

of

them

:

as,—
accessisset

Quum

Lemnum,

et vellet

redigere incolas sub potes-

tatem, et postulasset;

when he had approached Leranus,
to submission,

and ^^•as wishing to reduce the inhabitants and had demanded, &c.
2.

When

subordinate clauses are added to principal clauses, the
is,

general rule
(a)

That a primary tense
Present
"J

in the princi[ial clause

is

followed by a

primary tense in the subordinate clause.
are
/•

In other words,
completed

Present subjunctive, or

>foIlowed<; Perfect sulijunctive (for a Present-perfect) by action). \

Future

— —
144
{b)

— —
is

ELEMENTARY LATIN GRAMMAR.
That a
a
historical tense in the iniiiciijal clause

followed hy

historical

tense in

the subordinate clause.

In other

words,
Imperfect
Perfect-aorist
^
/

are

rimperfect subjunctive, or
v

> followed s Pluperfect subjunctive (for an action

Pluperfect

by

completed at a prior time).

Thus,—
(a)

PRINCIPAL.

SUBORDINATE.

rRINCIPAL.

SUBORDINATE.

{Scio
Scio

{Cognoscam
Cognoscam

{Cognovi
Cognovi
(b)
(

Scicham
Sciebavi

I
(

( ( I

Cognovi Cognovi

Cognoveram Cognoveram

= I know what you are doing. egcris = I know wliat you have done. agas = I shall discover what you are doing. egeris = I shall discover what you have done. agas = I have discovered wh.at you are doing. egeris = I have discovered what you have done. quid ageres = I knew what you were doing. quid egisses = I knew what you had done. quid ageres = I discovered what you were doing. = I discovered quid egisses what you had done. quid ageres = I had discovered what you were doing. quid egisses = I had discovered what you had done.
quid quid quid quid quid quid
agas
is

3.

When
its

a subordinate clause depends on an infinitive inood, the
verb
regulated, not by the infinitive, but by the verb
hifiuitive

tense of

on which the

depends

:

as,

Dimicare

utile arbitratur,
it

priusquam Lacedaemonii subsidio
advantageous to fight before the
them.

ve7uant;

he thinks Lacedemonians come

to help

Diinicare utile arbitrahatur, friusqucmi Lacedaemonii subsidio venirent; he thought
it

advantageous to fight before

the Lacedemonians should come to help them.
4. The above rules when some specialty

for the

sequence of tenses are often violated
is

of time or of action
:

to be indicated

by the

verb of the subordinate clause

as,

Renuntiat

societateni nisi

Alcibiadem tradidisset; he threatens
Alcibiades.
is

to break off friendly relations unless he should have (at an
after time) delivered
5.

up

Historical Present.

—A present tense
;

often used by historians

where we should expect a past
the subjunctive
as,

and as such presents are virtually

past tenses, they are often followed by a verb in the past tense of
:

Decern praetores creant, qui exercitui praeessent ; they elect
ten generals to

command

the army.


The present subjunctive


SEQUENCE OF TENSES.


145

6.

is

used in

tlie

subordinate clause after
:

a past tense when the action

is

represented as continuing

as,

JIujus vitia emendata sunt adeo virUUibus, ut

nemo

ante-

feratur; his vices were to such an extent counterbalanced by merits, that no one is up to this day preferred to him.
7.

The

perfect subjunctive
if

is

often used (w'here

we might expect

the imperfect),
tinctly:

the subordinate clause states a historical fact dis-

as,—
hostium profligarint ; the Athenians excelled so much that
they put to
the enemy.
flight ten

Tanto phis valuerunt Athenienses, nt decemplicem numerum
times the
(i.e.,

their own)

number of

Avould be
8.

[Nepos often uses the perfect subjunctive where the imperfect more regular.]

When

the action or state indicated by the verb of the subordiis

nate clause
perfect*

represented as over before the action of the principal

verb begins, the verb of the subordinate clause must be in the plu:

as,

Putavit

se

Graecos sub sua retenturum

esse 'potestnte, si

amicis

suis oppida tuenda tradidisset ; he thought that he would
keej) the
allij.

Greeks

in his

power

if

he were to hand over

{liter-

should have handed over) the towns to their friends

to

guard them.
venisset, dixit;

Quum
9.

when he came
is

{i.e.,

had come), he

said.

The

future perfect (indicative)

often used in the subordinate

clause to indicate that the action of the dei^eudent verb must be over
before that of the principal verb begins
:

as,
if

Faciam,
alhj,

mihifidem dederis; I shall do it, shaU have given) me your promise.
si

you give

{liter-

In English we usually employ a present or a perfect in such
cases.

"

This must be carefully attended

to,

since in Englisli

we do not commonly

use a

pluperfect in such cases.

10


14G

KLEMENTARY LATIN GRAMMAH.

CHAPTER XXV.
RUDDIMAN'S RULES.
Tk addition to tlie foreKoing summary of Syntax, it lias been judged advisable to append Ruddlman's excellent Rules, which for very many years have been deservedly among Scottish teachers; and which, though defective in several points, liave the very great merit of being easily committed to memory. The notes to the Rules have been given only in part, as the most important facts which they state have already been laid down in the Syntax.

popular

PART
I.— An adjective agrees number, and case as,—
:

I.— CONCORD.

witli its

own

substantive

in

gender,

FerrCina

Vir bonus ; a good man. pukhra; a beautiful woman. Dulce pomum ; a sweet apple.

IT.

— A verb

agrees with

its subject in

number and person

;

as,

Ugo lego; I read. Tu scrihis; you write.
Praeceptor docet ; the master teaches.
Note.

A collective noun, though singulav, may have a verb MuUitudo convenerant ; the multitude had assembled.
infinitive
te

in the plural: as,

III.

—The

mood has an accusative
I

before it:

as,—

Oaudeo

valere;

am

glad that you are well.
it

IV.—Esse has
Petrus aipit
Scio

the same case after
esse vir doctus.;
esse

that

it

has before

it: as,

Pctrum

Peter desires to be a learned man. virum doctum ; I know that Peter is a learned

man.

v.— The

relative qui, quae, quod, agrees with its antecedent in
:

gender, number, and person
JUgo qui scribo
I

as,

Vir sapit qui pauca loquUur; the man
;

is

wise

who speaks

little.

who

write.

VI. Two or more substantives singular, connected by the conjunctions et, ac, atque, &c., generally have a verb, adjective, or relative plural as,—
:

Petrus

ct

Joannes qui sunt docti; Peter and John who are learned.

——


147
as,

RUDDIMAX'S RULES.

VII.— Substantives signifying the same thing agree in case: Cicero onVor ; Cicero the or.ator. Ui'bs Edinhurgum ; the city Edinburgh.
:

N.B.—lha same occurs even when a substantive or passive verb Is used as, Ego sum discipulus; I am a sclioiar. Tu vocaris Joannes; you are called
John.

PART
(1.)

II.— GOVERNMENT.

GOVERNMENT OF SUBSTANTIVES.
sig-

VIII.— One substantive governs, in the genitive, another nifying a different thing: as,—

Amor

Lrx naturae;

Dei; the love of God. the law of nature.
if

IX.— But

the latter substantive have an adjective signifying

praise, dispraise, or

any

sort of distinction, joined

with

it,

it

may

be put in the genitive or ablative: as,
Vir summac prudcntiae, or summd prudentid ; a man of great wisdom. Puer probae indolis, or probd indole; a boy of a good disposition.

X. An adjective in the neuter gender, without a substantive, governs the genitive: as, MuHuin pecuniae; much money. Quid rei est? what is the matter 1

XI.— Opus and usus
the thing wanted: as,

signifying "need," govern the ablative of
is

Celeri opus est auxilio; there
J^'^uvc

need of speedy help.
of strength.

virlbus usus est {vobis);

now you have need

(2.)

GOVERNMENT OF ADJECTIVES.
an
affection of the

XII.— Verbal

adjectives, or such as signify

mind, govern the genitive: as, Avldus gloriac ; desirous of glory. Igndrns fraudis ; ignorant of fraud.

Memor

beneficiorum

;

mindful of favours.

Xni.— Partitives, and words
superlatives, interrogatives,
tive plural: as,

placed

partitively,

comparatives,

and some numerals, govern the geni-

Aliquis philosophorum ; some one of the philosophers. Senior frat rum; the elder of the brothers. Quis nostrum ; which of us. Una Musarum; one of the Muses.

— —
148

— —

ELEMENTARY LATIN GRAMMAR.
Bignifying profit or disprofit, likeness or nn* as,
:

XIV.— Adjectives
Uniis
bcllo
;

likeness, govern the dative

profitable for war.

Sitritlis

patri ; like his father. adjectives in -bilis
or amahllis onintbus
;

XV.—Verbal
Amandus,

and -dus govern the dative;
to be beloved

as,

by

all

men.

XVI.— Substantives denoting measure
tive:

are put in the accusa-

as,— Columna sexaginta pedes

alta; a pillar sixty feet

h'v^h.

XVII. The comparative degree governs the ablative of the object with which comparison is instituted: as,—
Diilclor melle; sweeter than honey.

Pracstantior auro; better than gold.

XVIII.— The

adjectives,

dignus, indignus, contentus, praeditus,

captus, and fretus; also natus, satus, ortus, editus,

and the

like,

govern the ablative: Dignus

as,

honore, ; worthy of honour. Praeditus virtute ; endued with virtue. Contentus parvo ; content with little. Captus ocuHs ; blind. Fretus vlribus ; trusting to bis strength.

XIX.— Adjectives
tive: as,

of plenty or

want govern the genitive

or abla-

Plenus irae, or ird ; full of anger. Inops rationis, or ratione; void of reason.

(3.)

GOVERNMENT OF VERBS
it

(PERSONAL).
property,
or

XX.— Sum, when
governs the genitive:
Est regis punire

signifies

possession,

duty,

as,

MUitum
XXI.

est

rehelles ; it belongs to the king to punish rebels. suo duel parere; it is the duty of soldiers to obey their

general.

—A

possessive adjective, as

meum, tuum, suum, nostrum,
be substituted for the geni-

vestrum, regium,
tive: as,

humanum,

&c.,

may

Tuum,

est

Humanum

idprocfirare; it is your duty to manage that. est errare; it is natural to man tD err.
* See Syntax, cliap.
vii. 8., p.

125.


ruddiman's rules.
XXII.— Misereor,
]\[ixcrere


149
:

miseresco, and satago, govern the genitive

as,

civium tuuimni; take pity on your couiitryjiien. Satagit rerum sudrum; lie is busy with liis own affairs.

XXIII.— Est taken
person: as,

for

habeo

(to

have) governs the dative of a

Est mihi lihcr ; I have a book. Sunt mihi libri ; I have books.

XXIV.— Sum taken for afiero (to bring) governs two datives, the one of a person, and the other of a thing: as,

Eat mihi voluptdti;

it is (i.e., it

brings) a pleasure to me.

XXV.— Verbs
dative: as,

signifying advantage or disadvantage govern the

FortUiia favct fortllus ; Fortune favours the brave. Nem'ini nuceas; do hurt to no man.

Under this rule are comprehended verbs signifying, 1. To jirofit and hurt: as, commvdo, placeo, noceo,
2.

officio, d'c.

But

To

laedo and offcndo govern the accusative. favour or help, and the contrary: as, /az'co, gratulor, ignosco, auxiUor, inviden, 2'xtrco, &<•. But yiC!'o governs the accusative.
serve,

S.

To command, obey,

and
:

resist

:

as,

impero, pareo, obedio,
accusative.

scrvio, rcsisto, d-c.
4.
5.

Bat jubeo governs the

6.

To threat'm or to be angry with as, minor, indignor, irascor, <tc. To trust: visfido, confldo, credo; also, diffido, despHro. Verbs compounded with satis, bene, and male: as, satisfacio, benefacio, maledlco,
<lr.

7.

8.

compounds, except possum: as, adsum, prosum, A-c. Many verbs compounded with these ten prepositions : ad, antein, inter post, prae—sub, super cum [Cun), and ob: as, adsto,

Sum, and

its

aitteccllo, const 0, die.

XXVI.— Transitive

verbs govern the accusative: as,—

Ama Deum;

love God,

Revcrere parentes ; reverence your parents.

XXVII.— Recorder, memini,
Recordor
lectionis, or

reminiscor,

and

oblivisoor,

govern

the accusative, or genitive: as,—
lectionem; I

remember
I forget

my

lesson.

Obliviscor injuriae, or

injuriam;

an injury.

XXVIII.— Verbs of accusing, condemning, acquitting, and admonishing, govern the accusative of a person, with the genitive of the crime or thing: as,

Arguit mefurti; he accuses me of theft. Monet me officii he puts me in mind of my duty.
;

— —
150

— —

ELEMENTARY LATIN GRAMMAR,

XXIX.-Verbs of comparing, giving, declaring, and taking away, govern the accusative and dative: as,— Comparo Virgilium IlMicro; I compare Virgil to Homer.
Ei-ipuit meirwrti; he rescued

me from

death.

XXX.— Verbs
the
first

and teaching govern two accusatives, of a person, and the second of a thing: as,—

of asking

Posce Dcum veniam; beg pardon of (jod. Docait me (jrammat'icam ; he taught me grammar.

XXXI.— Verbs
and some

of filling, loading, binding,

depriving, clothing,

others, govern the accusative

and ablative: as,—

Jmplct pateram mero; he

fills the bowl with wine. Onerat navan auro; he loads the ship with gold.

XXXII.— The passives of such active verbs as govern two cases retain the latter case: as,
Accitsor farii ; I am accused of tlieft. Doceor (jrammat'tcam; I am taught grammar. Patera impletur mero; the bowl is tilled with wine.

XXXIII.— Substantives denoting price are put in the ablative as, Emi librum duobus asslbus; I bought a book for two asses (i.e., coins). Vendldit hie auro pair iam; this man sold his country for gold.
:

XXXIV.— These (adjectival) minor is, are excepted: as,

genitives,

tanti,

quanti,

pluris,

Quanti eonstUit? bow much cost Asse ct pluris; an as and more.

it?

XXXV.—Verbs
Aestlmo
te

of valuing

govern the accusative with such geni-

tives as these: magni, parvi, nihili, &c.: as,

magni;

I

value you much.

XXXVI.—Verbs
ablative:

and scarceness generally govern the as,— Abundat divitiis; he abounds in riches. Caret omni culpd; he is free from every fault.
of plenty
abiitor,

XXXVII.— Utor,
the ablative: as,

fruor,

fungor,

potior,

vescor,

govern

Abutltur

Utltur fraude ; he uses deceit. libris; he abuses books.
Note 1.— Also the verbs
victito, beo, fido,

nitor,

gaudeo,

mulo, dono, munfro, eommunico,

impertior, dignor, nascor, creor, ajicio, coiulo, laboro, (I
etc.;

am
Kole

ill),

prosiqiior,

but the ablative after most of these

may be

referred to Kule LV.
2.

Potior, fungor, vescor, epUlor,
as,

accusative:

Potiri

summam

governs the genitive:

as, I'otiri

imperii.— N Br. rcgiU.—Cic.

and pafcor, sometimes Rovern the Potior sometimes

ruddiman's rules.

151

(4.)

GOVERNMENT OF VERBS (IMPERSONAL).
verbs govern the dative: as,—
profitable for the slate.
is

XXXVIII.— Impersonal
ExpSdU
Licet

fcipuUicae;

it is

nemlni jpeccdre ; no man

allowed to
tlie

sin.

I

XXXIX.— Refert and
licfertpatris;
Interest
it

interest govern

genitive: as,

concerns
it is

my

father.
all.

omnium;

the interest of

mea, tua, sua, nostra, vestra, are used instead of the genitives of the personal pronouns: as,

XL.

— But

yon mca

rtfcrt;

it

does not concern me.

XLI. These five — miseret, poenitet, pudet, taedet, and piget— govern the accusative of a person, with the genitive of the object: as,—
MisSret
Foenilct

me tiii; I pity me peccdti; 1

you. repent of

my

sin.

XLII.— These four— decet,
Delectat vie sludere;
it
it

delectat, juvat,

and oportet— govern

the accusative of a person, with the infinitive: as,
delights

me

to study.

Xon decet
ablative,

te

rixdri;

does not become you to scold.

XLni. — The
with
dative:

principal agent, after a passive verb, is put in the

the preposition a or

ab;

and sometimes in the

as,—
alii; iior is

Mundus guLerndtur a Deo;
Neque cernltar

the world is governed by (ioJ. he seen by any.

(5.)

GOVERNMEXT OF THE INFINITIVE, PARTICIPLES, GERUNDS, AND SUPINES.

XLIV.

— One

verb governs another in the infinitive: as,
adjectives.

Cupio discere; I desire to learn. The infinitive is sometimes governed by Note.

XLV.— Participles,
Amans virtHtem; XXVI.

gerunds, and
loving virtue.

the

first

supine, govorn

the

case of their verbs: as,—
Jiy

Rule

Carens fraude ; wanting

guile.

By Rule XXXYI.


152

— —
-dum
I


with

ELEMENTAllY LATIN GRAMMAR.
in of

XLVI.— The gerundive
Vircndum
est

the

nominative case

the verb est governs the dative: as,

Moricndum

est

mihi rcctc; omnibus;

all

must live well. must die.

XLVII.— The gerund
jectives
:

in -di is governed

by substantives and ad-

as,

Temples hfjendi; time of reading.

Cupidus discendl; desirous See Rules VIII. and XII.

to learn.

XLVIII.— The gerund
Charta
See Rule

in -do of the dative case is governed by

adjectives signifying usefulness or fitness: as,
ui'dis scribendo;

paper useful for writing.

XIV.
is

XLIX.— The gerund in -dum of the accusative case by the preposition ad, or inter: as, Promptus ad audicndum ; ready to hear. Attcntus inter docendum ; attentive in time of teaching. See Rule LXIX.
Note.— It is sometimes governed by ViKG.
ante,
circa,

governed

or 06: as, Ante

domandum.

L.

—The

gerund in -do of the ablative case
e,

is

governed by the

prepositions a, ab, de,

ex, or in

:

as,

Poena apcccando
See Rules

ahsterret;

punishment frightens from sinning.

LXX.

and LXXI.
in -do of the ablative case is used without a

LI.— The gerund
Memoria
cising
it.

preposition, as the ablative of manner, or cause: as,
excolendo auffStur; the
I

memory

is

improved by exer-

Defessus sum ambulando; See Rule LV.

am

wearied with walking.

LIT.— Gerunds governing the accusative are varied by the partiwhich agree with their substantives in gender, number, and case: as,
ciples in -dus,

GERUNDS.

PARTICIPLES.

Petendum est pacem. Tempus petendi pacem. A d petendum pacem.

Petenda

est

pax.

Tempus petendae pads,

A d petendam pacem.

A

petendo pacem.

A

petenda

ptace.

Note.—I'he, gerunds of verbs which do not govern the accusative are never changed into the participles, except those of utor, abator, fruor, fungor, and

potior: as,

Ad

ttaec

utenda idonea est.—TzB.

,


kuddbian's kules.
LIII.— The supine in -um plying motion: as,
is

153

used after verbs expressing or im-

Aliit dcamhulCitum ; he has gone to walk.

LIV.

—The

supine in -u

is

put after an adjective; as,—
be
told.

Facile dictu; easy to

tell, or, to

I.— THE CAUSE,

MANNER, AND INSTRUMENT.
and instrument are put in the
abla-

LV.— The
tive
:

as,

cause, manner,

Pallco mctu; I
Fecit

am

mo

more ; he did

pale for fear. it after his

own way.

Sc7'ibo calHtno; I write

with a pen.

11.— PLACE.

LVI.— In
Vixit

or at a place is put in the genitive if the

of the first or second declension,

noun be and singular number: as,—

Romae; he
est

lived at

Rome.
are also used in the genitive:
as, Iliimi

ifortuus

Londini; he died at London.
belli,

A'ote.—ffumi, militiae, and
centia fraga,

ncu-

— ViRO.
noun be
number: as,—

LVII.— In

or at a place is put in the ablative if the

of the third declension, or of the plural

Hahltat C'lirthnr/ine; he dwells at Carthage. Siuduit Parisiis; he studied at Paris.

liVIII.— To a place
Venit

is

put in the accusative: as,—

Romam;
est

Profcctus

he came to Rom€. Athenas; he went to Athens.

LIX.— From

or

by (through) a place

is

put in the ablative

:

as,

Discessit Corintho; he departed from Corinth.' Laodiced iter faciehat ; he went by Laodicea.

LX.— Domus, way as names

rus, of

and some other words, are construed the same towns: as,

Manet domi; he stays at iiorae. Jjomum revertitur ; he i-eturns
Vivit rure, or ruri
;

liome.

he lives in the country. Rcdiit rure; he has returned from the country.


164


ELEMENTARY LATIN GRAMMAR.
of countries,
is

— —

LXI.— To names

provinces, and all other places,

except towns, the preposition

generally added

:

as,

^'atus in Italid, in Latio, in urbc, etc.; born iu Italy, iu Laliuin, in a city, he. Ahiit in Italiam, in Latiwm, in urbem, dr.; he Las gone to Italy, to Latium, to a city, &c. See Rules LXIX., LXX., LXXL, and LXXII.

accusative,

LXII.— Substantives denoting space or distance and sometimes in the ablative as,
:

are put in the

Urbs distat

tri<jinta

milUa

(or millibus)

passuum; the

city is thirty

Uiiles distant.

III.-TIME.

LXm.— Substantives
ablative:

denoting a point of time are put in the

as,—

Venit hord tertidj he came at the third hour.

LXIV.— Substantives denoting continuance of time are put in the accusative or ablative, but oftener in the accusative: as,
Mansit paucos dies ; he stayed a few days. .Sex menslhus abfuit ; he was absent six months.

LXV. A substantive and a participle, whose case depends upon no other word, are put in the ablative absolute:* as,
Sole oriente, fugiunt tenebrae;
rises,

the sun rising, or, when the sun away. Opeix peracto, ludemus; our work being finished, or, when our work

darkness

flies

is finished,

we

will play.

CONSTRUCTION OF INDECLINABLE WORDS.
L-AD VERBS.
LXVI.— Adverbs
adverbs
:

are joined

to

verbs,

adjectives,

and

other

as,

Bene scribit; he writes well. FortUer pugnans ; fighting bravely.
Satis bene; well enough.
* See

Note

§, p.

132.

——— —
euddiman's rules.
LXVII.— Some adverbs
genitive
:


155

of time, place,

and quantity, govern the

as,

Pndic

illius diei; the day before that day. Uhlque gentium; everywhere. Satis est verbOrum; there is enough of words.

LXVIII.— Some
tives: as,

derivative adverbs govern the case of their primi-

Omnium

elegantisslme loquitur ; he speaks the most elegantly of
to
live

all.

By Kule XIII.
Vivere convenicnter naturae; agreeably
to

nature.

By

Rule XIV.

II.-PREPUSITIONS.

LXIX.— The
sative: as,

prepositions ad, apud, ante,

&c.,

govern the accu-

Adpatrcm;

to the father.

LXX. — The
tive: as,

prepositions

a,

ab,

abs,

&c.,

govern

the

abla-

A

patre ; from the father.

Note.

— Tenus sometimes governs the genitive:
when motion
;

as,

Crurum

tenus.

LXXI. — The
accusative

prepositions in, sub, super, and subter, govern the
to

a place

is

signified: as,

£o

go into the school. Sub moenia tendit ; he goes under the walls. Incldit super ar/mlna; it fell upon the troops.
in scholam
I

LXXII,— When motion or rest in a place is signified, in and super and subter either the accusative Bub govern the ablative
;

or ablative:

as,—
I
sit,

Sedeo or discurro in schold;
school.

or,

run up and down,

in the

Sedens super arma; sitting above the arms. Subter liture; beueatli the shore.

LXXm.— A

preposition often governs
it:

the

same case in com-

position that it does out of

as,—
the school.
of the school.

Adedmus scholam; let us go to Exedmus schold; let us go out

156

ELEMENTARY LATIN GEAMMAR.
III.— INTERJECTIONS.

LXXIV.— The
tive,

interjections 0, heu,

and proh, govern the vocaas,

and sometimes the accusative;
formOse puer 1
Hie


!

Ilm

mish-um !

boy ah, wretch that
fair
!

I

am

LXXV.— Hei and
Jlei

vae govern the dative; a»,—
!

mihif ah

me

Vae vobis/ woe

to

you

!

IV.— CONJUNCTIONS.

I

LXXVI.— The
some

conjunctions

et, ac,

atque, nee, neque, aut, vel, and

others, couple independent words or clauses, and co-ordinate dependencies of the same word: as,

Honora patrem
Nee

et

scribit nee legit ;

matrem. ; he neither writes nor reads.

honour your father and mother.

IXXVII.— Ut, quo, licet, ne, utinam, and dummodo, are generally joined to the subjunctive; as,

Aceldit ut terga vertSrent; it happened that they turned their backs. Utmain sapevcs; I wish you were wise.

APPEI^DIX.

GENDEE OF NOUNS.
NoTK.—The
folIowiiiK Rules will guide the pupil to the principal classes of words and of terminations belonKiMg to the different Genders. The more common Kxccptions are also c'*'en; but the limits of the book forbid an exhaustive chapter on this subject For more complete lists consult the Larger Grammar

belonging to this Scries.

I.

GENERAL RULES.-GEXDER DECIDED BT THE ME,\N[XG.
as, PdtSr, father;

I.

—The

Vlr,

names of male beings are masculine: man; Caesar, Caesar; Taunts, bull.

II.— The names of rivers, winds, and months are masc. ffluvius, ventus, and mensis being masc.); as, Tihtr'is, tlie Tiber; Garuiatia, the Garouiie Jqu'lo, the north wind; Aprllis, April.
;

£xc.

— The following
and
Lithe.

river-names are feminine:

AUki, AlhSlii, MCUrSna, Styx,

in.— The names
masc):
as,

of

Othrys.

many mountains are masc. (mons being But they generally follow the gender of the
;

termination: as. Atlas, m.

Ida,

f.

;

SOructe, n.
as,

IV.— The names
S6ror, sister
;

of female beings are fem.:

MCUcr, mother;

Midler, woman.

v.— Most of the names of countries, islands, towns, trees, and precious stones are fem.: as, Aegypttis; tSdlamls; Jihtjdus; Jyras; Quercus, an oak Smaraijdiis, an emerald.
;

Exc.

1.

E.rc. 2.

Exc.

3.

Lalium; —Names of countries ending in -urn or -a (plur.) arc neut. liactra. -drum. — Names of towns in -orum, are masc. -orum are neut.: and —Those in -urn, (gen. -ur,
:

as,

-i,

:

as, PliXlipp-i,

-e

-is,)

-on,

-a,

(plur.),

Tlbur; /lion; Leuctr-H, -drum. Exc. 4.— Several in -o are masc.: as, Sulino, Vesontio, Xarbo, Hippo,
as,

Tdrentum;

C'aer-e,-is;

<kc.

VI.— Nouns which may denote either the male or the female are said to be of common gender: as, <Jtv\s, a citizen; i'arcns, a parent;
L'onjux, a wife or hu.sband;

Dux, a

leader.

158
11.

APPENDIX.
SPECIAL RULES.— OKNDEK DECIDICD BT THE TERMINATION.
FIRST

DECLENSION.

in -a and -e are fern.; in -as and -es, masc: as, Mcnsd, a table; Spitvme, an abriilgment; Aencds; Anchlscs. Those in -e, -as, and -es, are Greek.
I.

— Nouns
Ere.
1.

— Names

of

men, and their designations, are masc.:
in

as,

Cinna, Cinna;

P6ela, a poet; AiirVja, a coach driver; Jfauta, a sailor.

Exc.2.

— Names

of rivers
II.,

-a are miisc.

:

as,

Sequana, the Seine.

But see

above, Rule

with Exception,

p. 157.

SECOND DECLENSION.
II.— Nouns ending in
garden
;

-us, -er,

and

-ir

are

masc:

as,

ITortus, a

Jg^r, a
1.

field
of

;

Vlr, a man.
as, Curinthiis,

Exc.

in -vs are cenerally fern, (see above, Corinth; PopSIus, a poplar tree. Exc. 2. The following words are fem., viz.: Alciis, the belly; COias, a distaff (rarely m.); HOmiis, the ground; Vannus, a corn fan. Exc. 3. Greek words in -us retain their Greek fem. gender: as, iUthUJus. a method Carbasiis, (in the sing.), fine flax. Exc. 4. Three nouns in -?/i are neut., viz. Fj/Vis, poison ; Pefapus, the sea; and Tulgus (also m.), the common peop}e.

— Names

towns and of trees
:

Rule v.,

p. 157)

;

:

III.— Nouns ending in -um are neut.:

as,

Malum, an

apple.

THIRD
A.

DECLENSION.
Vmvel.
:

— Words Ending in a
:

— Nouns in -a and -e are neut. as, Poemd, a poem Mare, the sea. V. —Nouns ending in -o are masc: as, Sermo, conversation;
rV.

Ordo, order; Cardo, a h'mge

;

Margo, a margin.
in -do

Exc

\.

— Abstract

nouns ending

and

-io

are fem.; also those in -go: as,

Magmtudo, greatness; Cupido,
gilio,

desire, (also m., as

bribery; Legto, a legion

Virgo, a maiden.
;

Also, Ratio, reason;

a proper name); LarOratio, speech;
(See
p. 157,

Rigio, a district
-o,

;

Caro,

tiesli.

Exc. 2.— Some nouns in Exc. 4.)

though names of towns, are masc.

V.,

VI. — Nouns
misyos), vitriol.

ending in -y are neut.:

as,

Mlsy

(gen.

m/sijis,

or

B.

Vn. —ER. Nouns ending
the belly
;

— Words Ending in a Consonant. — MASCULINE TERMINATIONS.
I.

in -er are generally masc: as, Venter,
as.

Career, a prison.

Exc.l.
Exc.

—Many

in

-er are neut.:
(see

Cadaver, a
p. 157)

corpse;

Pdpaver, poppy;

Ver, spring; Jl&, a journey.

2.—These are fern,
Mater, a mother.

Rule IV.,

Linter, a boat; Miilier, a

woman;

;

GENDER OF NOUNS.

159

VIII.— ES. Nouns in -es, whicli have a syllable more in the gen. than in the nam. (i.e., "increasing nouns,") are masc: as, I'cs, ped-U, a foot Panes, parittis, a wall.
;

Exc—The
crop;

fnUowing are fem.
SfercC's,

:

(Compes), comp^Jis, a fetter; Sfg^s,

s^ijeiis,

a

merceJis, a reward; QuiSs, quietis, rest,

and some others.

IX. OR. Nouns in -or are generally masc: as, Honor, honour; Labor, toil.
Exc. 1.— Several In -or, fven. -Sri% are neut. as, AJor, (-Oris,) spelt; AequSr, the sea-plain MarmOr, marble. So also, COr, cord-is, the heart. Arbur, a tree; SdrOr, i^xc. 2.— These are fern, by Rules V. and IV., p. Vu sister; Uxdr, wife.
: ; :

X.

— OS.
;

Nouns

custora

Flo.'!,

Jldrti,

in -os are generally a flower.
cotis,

masc:

as,

Mds,

gen.

maris,

Exc. 1.— Tliese are fern.: Cos, Exc. 2. These are neut.: Os,

Oris,

a whetstone; and Dos, dotis, a dowry. the moutli; and Os, ossis, a bone.

XI.— ON. Greek words
Babi/lon, Babi)l6n-iK.

in -on are

masc

(but a few are

fern.): as,

ir.— FEMININE TERMINATi:.NS.
XII.
state.

— AS.

Nouns

in -as are fem.: as, Actds, aetdtis, age;

Cmtas, a

are masc.: as. As, assis, an as (a Roman coin); Slfphds, an elephant; Glgas, a K'ant; Afas, maris, a male; Vas, vddis, a surety. Anas, a duck, is common. Exe. 2. The following are neut.: Viis, vdsis, a vessel; Fas, and NS/as.

Exc 1.— Some

XIII. AITS. Nouns in -aus are fem. and Fraus, fraudi.s, deceit.

They

are, Laus, laudis, praise

XIV.— ES. Nouns
Exc. Exc.
1. 1. is

in -es,

which do not
:

increase,

are fem.: as,

Caed('s, cacdi.i, slaughter; Chides, dad's, defeat.

— One word common, viz. —The names of rivers in

Pdlumbes, a wood-pigeon.
are masc. by Rule
II., p.

-es

157: also, Verres, a

boar.

XV. IS. Nouns in -is are fem.: as, Xdvls, a ship; Cuxpis, cusp'idis, a point; L'lS, litis, a law-suit.
Exc\. — Many
Crin'is,

Vallls,

a valley;

are

masc:

a.s,

Amnh, a

river; Axis,

an axle;

ColUs, a hill;
f.

hair; EiisU, a sword; Fascis, a bundle; f^nls, an end, (also

in

sing.;) Funis, a rope; Fustts,
ifensls,

J?xc.

a stone; a month; Ortft, a circle; /'a/ifc, bread; /'iscis, a fish Ptilvls, pulv^ris, dust; Posits, a post; Sanguis, sanguinis, blood; Unguis, a nail. Also a few otliers of rare occurrence. 2.— Some are common: as, Cunis, a dog; Anguis, a snake; CorbU, a basket; Clfinls, a buttock.
Ignis, fire; Lapis, lapidls,
;

a club;

XVI. X. Nouns in -x are generally fern.: as. Pax, pdcis, peace; Aex, nec's, death Radix, rddlcis, a root; Aox, 7ioctis, night; Lex, lUgis, a law Vox, vocis, a voice; Arx, arcis, a citadel.
;

;

Exc. 1.— Jlost of tliose in -ex are masc: as, Grex, gr^gis, a flock. Exc. 2. The following, with a few others, are masc: Ccilix, a cup; Fornix, an arch; Trddux, a vine-brancli.

]

GO

APPENDIX.

XVII.—Nouns ending in -s, preceded by a consonant, are generally fern.; as, Vrbs, a c\ly llkms, winter; Daps, dapis, ![.ina,&i\ (lens, a race; Metis, the iiiiiul; Frons, frontis, the forehead Frons, frondis, a leaf; Glans, glandis, an aoorn Ars, artis, art, skill.
;

;

;

£xc.—T\n; following, with a few ofliers, are masc. Pons, a bridge; Fons, a fountain; J/oHi, amuuntaiu; /A'«s, a tootli; Orft'ni, the cast; Torrens, a. toncnt.
:

111.

— NKDTER
in
-1

TERMINATIONS.
are ueut.: as, Lew,
lactis,

XVin.— C. Nouns
Alec, dlecis, pickle.

ending in

-c

milk;

XIX.— L. Nouns ending
Animal, an animal. /I'i-c— The following
^[ugil, a mullet;

are neut.: as, Mel, mdlis, honey;
Consul,

are

masc:

a consul;

SOI,

tlie

sun; Sal,

salt;

I'iigil,

a bdxcr.

XX. — N. Nouns
£fc.— These
are

in -n are neut.: as, CarmHn, carmlMs, a poem. masc: Peclin, pecUfnis, a comb; Fldmen, a priest; Tihxren, a

flute-player; Cornlcen, a horn-blower, <&c

XXI. AR. Nouns in -ar are neut.: as, Calcar, a Exc—Owt word is masc, viz.: LCir, a household god.
XXII.

spur.

— TJR.
;

Nouns

in -ur are neut.: as, Fidyiir, lightning; Robur,
are

rohiiris, strength.

Exc—lhii following a hawk Turtilr,

a turtle-dove;

masc: FUr, furis, a thief; VuUUr, a and Furfur, bran.

vulture; Aslur,

XXIII.

— US.

Nouns

Corpws, corpSviS, a body

in -us are neut.; as, Vulnus, vidneris, a Jus, juris, law. ;
:

wound;

Exc. 1. Two are masc LfpHs, lepSris, a hare; and Mus, muris, a mouse. Etc. 2.— These are common: Sus, a pig; and Oriis, a crane. £xc. 3. The following are fern.: JSrenlus, juventutis, j'outh; I'alus, paludis, a

marsh; Ffciis, pecudis, cattle; Salus,salutis, safety; S^nectus, sencclutis, old age; Servltus,'bonia.gt; TtUus, teHfiris,the unvlh; and Virti/s,viriiUis, virtue.

XXIV.

— T.

Nouns

in -t are neut.: as, Caput, capitis, the head.

FOURTH DECLENSION. XXV. — IIS. Nouns in -us are masc. as, Fr actus,
:

fruit

;

Grddus, a step.

Exc.

—The following are fern.:

a needle; Anus, an old woman; DSmils, a house; Idils, (pi.), the ides of a month; Manus, the hand; Porticu-s, a porch; Tnbus, a tribe; and (by Rule IV., p. 157), Nurus, a daughter-inlaw; and Socriis, a mother-in-law.
Aciis,

XXVI.

TJ.

Nouns

in -u are neut.: as, GelU, frost; Cornu, a horn.

FIFTH

DECLENSION.
Dies (plur.), m.;

XXVII.
Exc.

— ES.

Nouns

in -es are fem.: as, Res, a matter.
f. ;

—The following

are excepted, viz.: Dies (sing.), m. or

ilertdies, raid-day,

m.

IRKEGULAR VERBS.

161

CONJUGATION* OF VERBS
MOKE OR LESS IRREGULAR
1—THE
ftm-are, to love.

IN

THE PERFECT AND SUPINE.

FIRST CONJUGATION.
like

Ther€(gular forms are -avi and -atum,
Crepo,
crepui,
dedi,

imo, am-avi, amat-um,
to creak.

crepitum,

crepare.
dare,

Co,

Domo,
Juvo,
Lavo,
Praesto,
Seco,
,

domui,
juvi.
lavi,

praeatiti,

datum, domitum, jutum. lavatum,t praestitum
sectum, sonitum,

to give.
to tame.
to assist.

domare,
juvare.
lavare.

to to

wash.

praestare,
secare,

perform
sound.
thunder.

secui,

to cut.
to

Sono,
Sto,

sonui,
steti,

sonare,
stare.

Tono,
Veto,

tonui,
vetui,

statum, tonitum, vetitum,

to stand.
to

tonare. vetare,

to forbid.

II.—

THE SECOND CONJUGATION.

The
ueep.

regular forms are -evi and -etum: as, Fleo, flevi, fletam, flere, to

Verbs of

this formation are few.
1.

Perfect in -ui] Supine

iyi -turn..

Doceo,
Misceo,

docui,

doctum,

docere,

to teach. to

miscui,
tenui,
torrui,

mixtum, X
tentum, tostum,

miscere,
tenere,
torrere,

mix.

Teneo,
Torreo,

to hold. to roast.

2.

Perfect in

-i

Hi); Supine in -sum.
sedere,
to sit.
to see.

Sedeo,

sedi, vidi,

sessum,

Video,

visum,

videre,

Mordeo, Pendeo, Tondeo,
*

momordi.J
pependi,
totondi,

morsum.
(pensum),

mordere,
pendere,
tondere,

to bite.
to

hang.

tonsum.

to sliear.

A

fuller list is

given in the Larger

lautum and latum. X These three reduplicate. pel feet and derived tenses the
t Also

simple stem.

Thus, the peif.

Grammar belonging to this Series. X Also mistum. verb is said to reduplicate when it repeats in the first consonant and first vowel of the stem before the of mordeo should be iiwrdi, but it is ino-mo rJi.

A

11

'

162
3.

APPENDIX.
Perfect in
-i (vi);

Supine in -turn.
cavere,
favere,
fovere,
to take care.
to favour.

CS.veo,

cavi,
favi,
fovi,

Faveo,
Foveo,

cautum, fautum,
fotum,

to cherish.
to
to

Moveo
Voveo, Paveo,

m5vi,
vovi,

motum,
votum,

movere,
vovere,

move.
vow.

pavi,

pavere,

to fear.

4.

Perfect in -si; Supine in -turn or -sum.

Ardeo,

arsi,

Augeo, Haereo,
Jiibeo,

auxi,
haesi,
jussi,

arsum, auctum, haesum, jussum,

ardere,

to blaze.

augere,
haerere,
jubere,
lucere.

to increase.
to stick.

to order. to shine.
to

Luceo,

luzi,

Uaneo,
Eideo,

mansi,
risi,

mansum,
risum,

manere,
ridere,

remain.

to lauyh.
to advise.

Suadeo,

suasi,
torsi
ursi,

suasum,
tortum,

suadere,
torquere,

Torqueo, Urgeo,

to twist.
to press.

urgere,

5.

Semi- Deponents.
audere,
to venture.
to rejoice.
to be

Audeo, Gaudeo,
Soleo,

ausus sum, gavisus sum,
solitus

gaudere,
solere,

sum

'

wont.

Ill.-THE

THIRD CONJUGATION.
-tum, or
-si,

The regular forms are
Bcrip-tum, scrib-ere,

-i,

-turn

:

as,

Scribo, scrip-si,

to write.

A.
1.

— Labial
;

Stems.

Perfect in -si

Supine in -tum.
carpere,
to to

Carpo,

carpsi,

carptum,

pluck,

N&bo,
Scribo,

nupsi,
scripsi,

nuptum,
scriptum,

nubere,
scrlbere,

marry,

to write.

2,

Perfect in
bibi,

-i

;

Supine in -tum, -itum, or wanting.
(bibitum),
bibere,
to

Bibo,

drink.

Lambo,

Iambi,
rfipi,

lambere,

to lick. to burst.

Eumpo,
Incumbo,

ruptum,
incubitum,

incubui.

rumpere, incumbere,

to lie

upon.

;

IRREGULAR VERBS.
B.— GoTTURAL
1.

163

Stems.

Perfect in -si
afllictum,

Supine in -turn,
affligere,
(0 strike

Affligo,*

afllixi,

down.

Cingo,
Dico,

cinxi,
dixi,

cine turn,

cingere,
dicere,

to

surround.

dictum,

to say.
to lead.

Duco,
Fingo,

duxi,
finxi,

ductum,
fictum,

ducere,
fingere,

to invent.
to Join.

Jungo, Kego,
Stringo,

junxi,
rexi, strinxi,
texi,

junctum,
rectum,
strictum,

jungere,
regere.
stringere, tegere,

to direct, rule.
to

grasp.

lego,

tectum,

to cover.

Traho,

traxi,

tractum.

trahere,

to
to to

drag.
anoint.

Unguo,
Veho,

unxi,
vexi,

unctum, vectum,

unguere.
vehere.

carry.

2.

Perfect in -si

;

Supine in -sum or -sum.
figere,
flectere,
to fix. to bend.
to sink.

Figo,
Flecto,

fixi,

fixum,

flexi,

flexum,

Mergo,
Spargo,

mersi,
sparsi,

mersum,
sparsum,

mergere,
spargere,

to scatter.

3.

Perfect in
didici,

-i,

(reduplicated;) Supine in
discere.

-sum or

-turn.

Disco,

to learn. to spare.

Parco, Posco,

peperci.t
poposci,
tetigi,

parsum,J
tactum,

pareere.

poscere.

to

demand.

Tango,

tangere,

to touch.

4.

Perfect in
egi,

-i,

(stem vowel len gthened;) Supi ne in -turn.

Ago, Frango,
Lego, Linquo,
Vinco,
Fluo,
Struo,

actum,
fractum.

agere,

to do. to break.
to choose. to leave.
to

fregi.
legi.

frangere.
legere,

lectum.
(lie turn).

liqui,
vici.

linquere,

victum.
fluctum,§

vincere,
fluere.

conquer.

fluxi,

to flow.
to pile

struxi,
vixi,
* Fligo, t i

structum.

struere,

up.

Vivo,

victum,
is

vivere.

to live.

" to strike,"

not used in the simple fomi.

Also parsi. Aiso JIurum.

% Also parcltum. In these thiee the guttural stem is disguised.

;

164

APPENDIX.

C— Dental
1.

Stems.

Perfect in -si; Supine in -sum.

Cedo,

cessi.

Claudo,
Divide,

clausi,
divisi,

cessum, clausum, divisum,
invasuni,

cedere,

to yield. to shut. to divide. to

claudere,
dividere,

Invado,
Laedo,

invasi,
laesi.
lusi.

invadere.
laedere,

go agaimt.
play.

Ludo,
Mitto,

laesum. lusum,

to injure.
to

ludere,

misi,
rasi,
rosi,

Rado, R5do,

missum, rasum, rosum,

mittere,
radere,
rodere.

to send.

to scrape.
to

gnaw.

2.

Perfect Reduplicated.

Cado,

cecidi. cecldi,

Caedo,

Fendo, Tendo, Tnndo,

pependi,
tetendi,

casum, caesum, pensum, tensum,*

cadere,

to fall.

caedere.

to strike, to cut.
to weigh.

pendere.
tendere,

to stretch. to beat. to hide.
to

tutudi,
abdidi.

tunsum,t
abditum. additum. conditum, creditum, deditum, editum. inditum, perditum. proditum. redditum. subditum, traditum. venditum,

tundere,
abdere,

Abdo,t Addo,
Condo,
Credo,

addidi,

addere.
condere,
credere.

add.

condidi.
credidi.

tofoutid.
to believe.

Dedo, £do,
Indo,

dedidi,
edidi,

dedere,
edere.

to give

up.

to give forth.

indidi.

indere,

to
to

put

on.
to lose.

Perdo,

perdidi.

perdere.

ruin,

Prodo,

prodidi.
reddidi, subdidi,
tradidi,

prodere. reddere,

to betray.
to restore. to substitute. to

Beddo,
Subdo,
Trado,

subdere.
tradere,

hand

over.

vendidi, Vendo, So also,—
Sisto,
stiti,

vendere.
sistere,

to sell.

Btatum,

to cause to stand.

3.

Perfect in

-i

Supine in -sum.
accendere.
defendere,
oiFendere,
to set

Accendo,
(

accendi.
defendi,
offendi,
*

Defendo,

accensum. defensum,
offensum,

on fire.

to

defend.

1 Offendo,

to assault.

Also tentum. \ Also tusum. X The following are compounds otdo, to put, give.

,

IRREGULAR VERBS.
fido,

165
to eat.
to cleave.

edi, fidi,

esum,
fissum.

edere,
findere,
funder e,

Findo,

Fundo,
Incendo,

fudi,

incendi.

Prehendo, Scando,
Scindo,
Strido,

prehendi,
scandi,
scidi.

fusum. incensum. prehensum, scansum,
scissum,

to

pour.
grasp.

incendere,

to burn.
to

prehendere
scandere.
scindere,
stridere,

to climb.
to tear. to creak.

stridi,

Verto,

verti.

versum,

vertere,

to turn.

4

.

Miscellaneous Forms.
fidere,
to trust.
to seek.

Fido, Peto,

fisus

sum,
petitum,

petivi,

petere,

D.- Stems Ending
1.

IN L,
J

M, N.
-turn.
to nourish. to
till.

Perfect in -ui

;

Supin in -itum or
alere, colere,

Alo,
Colo,

alui, colui,

allium,*

Consulo,

consului.

Fremo, Gemo,
Gigno, Tremo,
Volo,

fremui.

cultum, consultum, fremitum,

consulere.

to consult.
to

fremere.

roar.

gemui,
genui.

gemitum,
genitum,

gemere,
gignere,

to
to

groan.
produce.

tremui,
volui,

tremere,
velle,

to tremble.

to wish.
to

Vomo,
Cano,
Fallo,
Pello,

vomui,
ceciiii,+
fefelli.

vomitnm, cantum,
(falsum)

vomere,
canere,
fallere,

vomit.

to sing.

to deceive.
to drive.

pepuli,

pulsum,

pellere,

2.

Various 1

Sumo, Temno, £mo, Premo,
Sino,

sumpsi.
(tempsi).

sumptum,
(temptum),

sumere, temnere,
emere, premere,
sinere,

to

take up.

to despise.

emi,
pressi,
sivi,

emptum,
pressum,
situm,

to buy.
to press.

to

permit.

ToUo,

Bustuli,

sublatnm,
t

toUere,

to raise up.

Also altum

With

reduplicBtion.

— —
166
APPENDIX.

E.— Stems Ending
Cerno,
Curro,
Fero,
ocevi,

in

R.
to divide. to

cucurri,
tuli,

cretum, cursum,
latum,

cernere,
currere,
ferre,

run.

to bear, carri

Gero,

gessi,

Quaero,
Sero,

quaesivi,
serui,
sevi,

Sero,

Sperno,
Sterno,

sprevi,
stravi,
trivi,

gestum, quaesitum, sertum, satum, spretum, stratum,
tritum,

gerere,

to carry.
to seek. to entwine. to sow.
to despise.

quaerere,
serere,
serere,

spernere,
sternere.
terere,

to strew. to rub.
to

Tero,

Cro,

ussi,

ustum.

urere,

burn.

F.— Stems Ending
LS.ces80,

in S,

X.
to

lacessivi,

lacessitum,

lacessere,

provoke,

Pono,
Viso,

posui,
visi.

positum,

ponere,
visere,

to place, to visit.

G.

Stems Ending in
-i;

TJ,

V.

Perfect in

Supine in -tum.
acuere.
to to to to

Acuo,

acui,

Exuo,
Induo,
Lavo,
Luo,

exui,
indui,
lavi,
lui,

acutum, exutum, indutum.
latum,*

sharpen.

exuere, induere,
lavere,
luere,

put

off.

put

on.

wash.

to atone.

Metuo, Miuuo, Ruo,
Solvo,

metui,

metuere.

to fear.
to lessen.
to

minui,
rui,
solvi,

minutum,
riitum.t

minuere.
ruere,
solvere,

rush.

solutum,

to loosen. to set

Statuo,
TriTjuo,

statui,
tribui,

Btatutum,
tributum,

statuere,
tribuere,

up.

to distribute.

Volvo,

volvi,

volutum.

volvere,

to roll.

H.
Verbs whicb end
Abolesco, Adolescd,

Verbs Ending in -SCO.
is,

in -SCO are called inceptive or inchoative; tbat

they

denote the beginning of an action.
abolevi, adolevi,

abolitum,

abolescere, adolescere,

to

Convalesce, convalui,

adultum, convalitum,
Seep. 161.

to

convalescere,
t

grow out of use. grow tip. to grow strong.

Also ?au<um and MrSium.

Also ruitum.

IRREGULAR VERBS.
Cresco,
crevi,

167
to to
to

cretum,

crescere,

grow.

Nosco,
Pasco,
Quiesco,
Suesco,

novi, pavi,
quievi,
suevi,

notum, pastum,
quietum,

noscere,
pascere,
quiescere.

know.
feed.

to

become quiet.

suetum.

Buescere,

tohe accustomed.

IV.

—THIRD AND FOURTH CONJUGATIONS COMBINED.
cepi,

Capio,

Cupio,
Facio, Fodio,

cupivi,
feci,

captum, cupitum,
factum,
fossum,

capere.

to take.

cupere,
facere.

to desire.

to

make.

fodi,
ffigi,

fodere,

to dig.

Fugio,
Jacio,

jeci,

Pario,

peperi,
(quassi),

Quatio,

Bapio,

rapui.

fugitum. jactum. partum. quassum. raptum,

fugere.
jacere.

to flee. to throw.
to

parere,

bring forth.

quatere,
rapere,

to shake. to seize.

v.— THE

FOURTH
and -itum

CONJUGATION
:

The regular forms are
Aperio,
Eo,
aperui,
ivi,

-ivi

as,

aud-io, -Ivi, -itum, -ire.
to open. to go.

apertum, itum,

aperire,
ire,

Haurio,
Salio,

hausi,
salui,*
sensi,
sepelivi,

haustum,
saltum, sensum,

haurire,
salire.

to

draw (water).

to leap.

Sentio,
Sepelio,

sentire,
sepelire,

to feel, to think.
to to

sepultum.

bury. come.

Venio,
Vincio,

veni,

ventum,
vinctum.

venire,
vincire,

vinxi,

to hind.

VI.— DEPONENT

VERBS.t

Second Conjugation.
Fateor,
fassus sum,

^teri,
mereri,
poUiceri,
reri,

to confess. to earn, to deserve.
to

Mereor,
PoUiceor,
Eeor,

Tueor,
Vereor,

meritus sum, pollicitus sum, ratus sum, tuitus sum, veritus sum.
*

promise.

to think.
to xtrotcct.

tueri,

vereri,
t

to fear.

Also

3ti!ii.

See

p. 84.

1G8

APPENDIX.
Third Conjugation.

Amplector,
Adipiscor,

Fruor, fungor,
Gradior.
Irascor,

amplexus sum, adeptus sum, fruitus sum, * functus sum. gressus sum.
lapsus sum,

amplecti,
adipisci.
frui,

to

embrace.

to obtain.
to CDJoy.

fungi,

to

perform.

gradi.
irasci,
labi,

to step. to be

angry.

Lator,

to slip. to speak. to die. to obtain

Loquor,
Morior.

locutus sum,

loqui,

Nanciscor,

Nascor,
Obliviscor,

mortuus sum, nactus sum. natus sum, oblitus sum.
passus sum, profectus sum. questus sum, secutus sum, ultus sum.

mori.
nancisci,
nasci.
oblivisci.

by chance.

to be born.

to forget.

Patior,
Proficiscor,

pati, proflcisci.

to suffer.
to set out. to

Queror,
Sequor,
TJlciscor,

queri,
sequi,
ulcisci, uti,

complain.

to follow.

to avenge.

ttor,

usus sum.

to use.

Fourth Conjugation.
Experior,

expertus sum,

experiri.
,

to try.

Mentior,
Metier,
Molior,
Ordior,
Orior,

Partior,

Potior,

mentitus sum mensus sum. molitus sum. orsus sum, ortus sum. partitus sum. potitus sum,

mentiri,
metiri.
moliri,
ordiri.
oriri.

to lie.

to measure.
to labour.
to begin. to rise. to divide. to obtain possession of.

partiri.
potiri,

* Also /ructus.


GREEK NOUNS.
169

GREEK NOUNS.
The subjoined table sots forth at one view the most important of Greek nouns as declined in Latin:
1

varieties

NOMINATn-E.

GENITIVE.

DATIVE.

ACCUSATIVE.

VOCATIVE.

ABLATIVE.

Cramb-E
Aene-as
Anchls-es
PI.

es or ae

ae ae ae
is

en

e

e

''

M
CD O

ae

am
en,

or an

a

a
e a or e
is
> l-l

ae

em or am

aor
ae

-ae

arum
i i

as

Del-OS
Ili-on (n.)

on or urn

e

on
ati
atls {or

on
a
ata

a
ate
atis (or
>

Dogm-a
PI.

(n.)

atis

a

Dogm-ata.

atura

i
atlbus)

I ata
ani
anti

atibus)

Mel-as
Atl-as
Pall-as

anos or anis
aiitis

ana
anta or

as

ane
a,

em

as or

ante

ados or adis
enis
is

adi
eiii

ada or adem ena
ei

as

ade
ene
e or
i

Troez-en
Neocl-es
Orph-eus.
Tiber-is

en

or

i

i

or

era or

ea

es or e

eos or ei
is

ei

or eo

ea or

eum
in

eu
is
1

eo
i

3
O)

or id03

idi

im or

or

ide
ide

Tyrann-is
Par-is

ido8 or idis
idis

idi
idi

idem or ida

o

or idos

idem or
ona
oiita

in

Isori
on on

ide

Sol-on

onis
ontis

oni
onti yi

one
onte

Pliaeth-on

Erinn-ys
Clilam-ys

yos or yis
ydls or ydos
untis
entis

yra or

yn
or yda

y or ys
ys
us
is

ye(ory)

ydi
unti
enti

ydem
unta
enta

yde
unte
ente

My-us
SiraS-is

/

Obs.

1.— Many nouns of Declension
Declension) to
tliat in -is;

III.

piei'er

the gen. in

(as of tlie

Second

as, Pericles,

gen. PericU (rather than Periclis).

Obs.

2.— The Greek gen.

in -os, the aec. in- a, and the ace plur. in &$, are often preferred to the Latin terminations of these cases.


170
APPENDIX.

)

;: ;

THE CALENDAR.
According to the reformed Calendar of Julius Caesar (b.o. 45), the Our names for year was regulated almost as at present with ourselves. the mouths are merely adaptations from the Roman names, Januarius,
1.

Februarius, Martius, &c.
2.

3.

1.— The Roman year originally began on the 1st of March; hence the fifth month was called Quinctilis, the sixth Sextilis, the seventh Septembris, &c. Obs. 2. — But in the time of Augustus the names of the fifth and sixth months
Obs.

were changed to Julius and Augustus, in honour of the two great Caesars who had made so important alterations on the Calendar.
4. The Romans did not count the days of the month right on, as we do but selecting three fixed periods in each month, subdivided their months into three portions, and computed the days in each portion as so many

before the first of the succeeding portion.
5.

These periods were as follows (a) The Calends, or 1st day of the month.
:

(6)

The Nones,
the Ides.

or 5th day of the month;

i.e.,

nine days before

(See Art. 6.)
of the

(c)

The Ides, or 13th day

month: which divided the
(See Art.
6.

month
6.

into nearly equal parts.

06s.— In the four months, March, May, July, and Octol)er, which were originally two days longer, the Nones fell on the 7th, and, consequently, the Ides on the ISth, as expressed in the following rhyme:

"In March, Jul}', October, May, The Nones fall on the seventh day."
7.

The day
(a)

In the ablative

in two ways :— Kalendis Januariis, the 1st of January Quinto die ante Kalendas Januarias, the 28th December or shortly, V. Kal. Jan.

of the

month was expressed
:

as,

(6)

By

the phrase Ante diem quintum Kalendas

Januanas ;

or

shortly, a. d. V. Kal.

Jan.*

Januariis, or 8. The 1st of January, then, was expressed by Kalendis Kal. Jan.; the 2nd by quarto ante Nonas Januarias, or JV. Non. Jan., Non. or a. d. IV. Non. Jan.; the 3rd by terlio ante Non. Jan., or ///. Jan., &c. the 4th by pridie Nonas (i.e., pridie ante Non. Jan.); the 5th by Nonis Jan.; the 6tU by octavo ante Idus Januarias, or VI 11. The 13th was exthe 7th by VII. Id. Jan., and so on. Id. Jan., &c.
; ;

XIX. pressed by Idibus Januariis; the 14th by XIX. Kal. Feb., i.e., by ante Kal^endas Fibruariasj the 31st by pridie Kal. Feb.; the SOth
///. Kal. Feb.
*

This phrasf seems to have been originally, Ante Kalendas Januarias, die quinlo.

.

;


1

1

THE CALENDAR.
9.
(yfri.— It will

7

be observed, by reference to the following tuble, p. 172, that there occurs no "second day before the Nones, Ides, or Calends" of any month. This arises from the circumstance that the Romans counted inclusively; i.e., both the day /rem which they started and the day which they reached. Tims in the above example the 5th of January (the Nones) is counted one, the 4tli (piidie) two, and the Srd three.

10.

To reduce an English
found useful
If the date
:

date to a

Roman

one, the

two foUowiug rules

will be

(1.)

fall

between the Calends and the Nones, or between

the Nones and the Ides,

Rule I.— Subtract the number of the given day from the number of the day on which the Nones or Ides occur, and add one (for the inclusive reckoning).
Ex.

—Thus In
I,

how
add
(2.)

to express the L'nd,

January the Nones are on the 5th; and if we wish to know we subtract 2 from 5, which leaves 3; to this we

and write 1 V. Non. Jan.

If the date fall between the Ides

and the Calends,

Rule II.— Subtract the number of the given day from the number of days in the month, and add two (for inclusive reckoning).
See Art. 11. £'j-.— Thus
11.
Obs.
if

we wish

to express the 20tli

January,
i.e.,

leaving 11; to which

we add

2,

making 13;

we subtract 20 from 31, XIII. ante Kal. Feb.

12.

1.— As we count to the Calends of February, this forms an extra day beyond the month (January) in which our date lies, and so it becomes necessary to add another day besides the one for inclusive reckoning. Obs. 2.— These rules may be briefly expressed in the rhyme,
" In

Nones and Ides add only But in all Calends tico

one,

And

then subtract the number given; You'll find the date quite true."
{i.e.,

13.

In leap year the 24th February was counted twice
a.

a day was

intercalated between the 24th and 25th February,) and the added day

expressed thus:
bisse.Ttilis,

d. lissextum Kal.
bissextile.

Mart.

was Hence the phrase Annul

and our term

14.

Obs.

—This added day did not affect the earlier days of February, for the 23rd
called, as before, VII. Kal. Mart.,

was
15.

the 22nd VISI., and so on.

The days

2. 3.

of the

week were,
f Dies Sol is {oT

Dies Dominicus), the Lord's

X
Monday
Tuesday

day; (French, Z>imanc/ie).
Dies

Lunae

{Lundi).

Dies

Mar tis

{Mardi).

4
5.

Wednesday Thursday
Friday

Dies Mercur ii {Mercredi).
Dies Jovis (Jeudi).

6. 7.

Dies Veneris

(

Vendredi).

Saturday

Dies Saturni, or Dies Sabbati (Samedi).

172

APPENDIX.

THE ROMAN YEAE.
DftTS of the

Month.

Apr., Jun., Sept., Nov., 30 days.

Jan., Aiig., Dec, 31 days.

Mar., Mai., Jut., Oct. 31 days.
,

Feb., 28 days.

In Leap Year

29.

I

Ciilendis.

Calendis.

Calendis.

Calendis.

2 3

IV.

1

f>

IV.
III.

1

?>

HI.
Prid.

fil
Non.
"(

/is
^

4
6 7 8 9

Prid. Non.

VI. V. IV.
III.

->

IV.
III.

>

«!

Nonis.

Nonis.

J

I?> fil

;g|
Non.

Prid.

VIII. VII. VI.

>

VIII. VII. VI.

Prid. Non.

o
M
)

Nnnls. VIII. ^

Nonis. VIII. > VII.

10 11 12 13 14
15

V. IV.
III.

V.

"l
)

IV.
III.

Prid. Id.

Prid. Id.

VII. VI. V. IV.
III.
,

& yS S
s

VI. V. IV.
III.
,

c

Prid. Id.
Idibus.

Idibus.

Idibus.
s

XVIII. XVII.

XIX.
XVIII. XVII.

\

Prid. Id.

XVI.

>

Idibus.

XV.
XIV.
XIII. XII. XI. X. IX. VIII. VII. VI. V. IV.
III.

16
17

XVI.

18 19 20
21

XV. XIV.
XIII. XII. XI.

>
w -I
S

XVI. XV. XIV.
XIII.

XVII. \ XVI.

XV.
to-

> 3
n

XIV.
XIII.

1

>

XII.

XII.

22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30
31

X.
IX. VIII. VII. VI. V. IV.
III.
'>

XI. X.
IX. VIII. VII. VI. Y. IV.
III.

XL
X.
y

1
i

"g
s
•?

s
"?

1

IX. VIII.

vn.
VI. V. IV.
)
III.

J

Pr.
>

CaL Mar.

Pr. Cal.

M.

seq.

Pr. Cal.

M. seq.

Pr. Cal.

M.

seq.

MONEY.
1.

The unit of value in the
mixed metal,
aes.

Roman
It

coinage was the As,

made

of copper,

or of the

was

at first equivalent to a

pound of 12

ounces.
2.

The

as was ultimately (in the time of Augustus) reduced to a small

coin (of copper), equal to about three farthings of our money.
3.

The Denarius was a

silver coin,

and originally contained 10
25 denarii, or 100

asses,

afterwards 18.
4.

The Aureus was a gold

coin, containing

sesterces.

,

MONEY,

173
EnglUh Moncf.
1.

ROMAN
1
2.^

COINS.
"

d.

q-

As, or Llbella
Asses,
Sestertii,

3tV
1 Sestertius,
1 1 1

1
(5 asses),

H
3i

2 2

Quinarius

3

Quinarii,

25
5.

Denarii,

Denarius (10 Aureus,

asses),

7
16
1

3 3

But

in the later Jays of the Commonwealth, the sestertius
It

unit of calculation.

was equal

to 2h asses,

was the great or about 2d. of our money.

ROMAN COMPUTATION OP MONEY.
SESTERTII NUMMI.
Sestertius, or

numraus,
1

1

Decern

sestertii,

Mille sestertii (equal to a sestertium),

8

15 15

7

3J li 2

SESTERTIA.
Sestertium (equal to mille
sestertii),

8
mlllia sestertitim,

2

Decern

sestertia,

Centum, centum

sestertia, or

centum

80 14 7 807 5 10

DECIE3 SESTERTIUM, ETC., CENTIE3 BEING. UNDERSTOOD. e, i. Decies sestertiClm, or Decies centena niillia nummflm, 8,072 18 80,729 3 ... Centies, or Centies HS., 807,291 13 Millies HS., 888,020 16 Millies centies IIS.,
6.

d.

4 4
4 8

Obs.— Sestertius,
or IIS.

i.e.,

It literally

and
7.

this

was

semis tertius, was often expressed by the sign IIS., or LLS., means " tlie tliird is a half;" i.e., the third is not a whole; counted only one halt Hence it was called two and a half.

Below one thousand the sesterces were expressed
sestertii,

in the ordinary waj',

Quingenti

Mille

sestertii,

&c.

But when

several thousands were
;

spoken

of,

the neut. plur. sestertia was often used

as,

Tria

sestertia, or

Tria millia sestertium. 8. When the sum amounted to or exceeded a million sesterces, the multiplicative adverbs were joined with sestertium, or HS., centena millia
being omitted
;

as,

Decies sestertium

(i.e.,

Lecies centena millia sestertium,

ten times a hundred thousand sesterces)

means one million sesterces. ThtS words millia sestertium are sometimes omitted, and decies {octies, &c.)
centena only expressed. The word sestertium, reckoned neut., was originally a gen. plur. for 9. Obs. 1. scstertiorum; but in course of time its primary form and nature were forgotten, and it was ranked as a neut. sing. noun. 10. Ois. 2. — When rt line was placed over the numbers, centena millia was under-

stood
Is

thus, HS. Mc; is equal to millies centies HS., 100 millions; but US. MC. only 1100 sesterces.
;

11.
1

The Romans paid

interest

on money monthly, the highest rate being
i.e.,

per cent, (centesima) a

month

;

12 per cent, per annum.

174

APPENDIX.

ROMAN MEASURES OF LENGTH.
English.

Talds.

Feet.

In«h«9.

1 Pes, 1

...

11-604
1 Passus, 1 Stadium, 1 Milliare,
is
.

Gracilis,
...

2 Gradus, 125 Passus,

...
... ...

2 4 201 1611
1

5-01

10-02
2 4

...

8 Stadia (1000 passus),

.

Obs.

— An English mile

1700 yards.

For Weights, Measures,

d'c, see Text

Book of Antiquities.

ROxMAN NAMES.
1.

Most Roman

citizens

had three names, one
;

to distinguish the indi-

vidual, another the gens, and a third the family
Scipio,
2.

thus, Publius Cornelius

Marcus Tullius

Cicero.

third

the nomen proper, and indicated thegeus; the was the cognomen, and indicated the family (familia) and the first was the praenomen, pointing out the individual, and corresponding to our " Christian name." 3. When a family increased very largely, and sent out many branches, distinctive names were added to the subfamilies; as, Lucius Cornelius Lentulus Crus, Lucius Cornelius Lentulus Niger,— both of which families belonged to the gens Cornelia, and the familia of the Lentuli. 4. When a person was adopted into another gens, he usually took the full name of his adopted father, but added the name of his own gens : thus the son of L. Aemilius Paulus, being adopted by P. Cornelius Scipio, became P. Cornelius Scipio Aemilianus, still showing his descent from

The middle name was

;

the gens Aemilia.
5.

A

complimentary

citizens, to

title was sometimes bestowed by the army or the commemorate some great service to the State, as Africanus
;

added to Scipio 's name, from his conquest of the Carthaginians

his full

name then being
6.

P. Cornelius Scipio Africanus.

Freed slaves took their liberator's name, adding some agnomen ap-

propriate to themselves; thus Terence, the comic poet, was called Publius Terentius Afer.
7.

Women

had, generally, neither praenomen nor cognomen, but simply

the gentile name.

Thus Caesar's daughter was

siofply Julia, Cicero's Tullia,

ABBREVIATIONS.

175

ABBREVIATIONS.
I.— PRAENOMINA,
A.,

OR FIRST NAMES.
Mam., Mamercus.
N. or Num., Numerias. P., Publius. Q., Quintus. S. or Sex., Sextus.
Ser., Servius.
Sp., Spurius.
T., Titus.
Ti.,

Anius. App., Appius. C. or G., Caius or Gaius. Cn. (Gn.), Cnaeus, or Gnaeus, D., Decimus. K., Eaeso. L., Lucius.
M., Marcus.
M'.,

Manias.

Tiberius.

II.— ANCIENT TITLES, ETC.
Cos., Consul.

P.R., Populus

Romanus.

Cos. des., Consul designatus.
Coss., Consules.*
F., Filius.

Praet., Praetor.
Praett., Praetores,*
Quir., Quirites.

Imp., Imperator. N., Nepos, (grandson).
O.M., Optimus Maximus. P.C, Patres Conscripti.

Resp., Respublica.
S.P.Q.R.,

Senatus

Populusque

Romanus.
X.V., Decemvir.

III.— EPISTOLARY.
D.,
S.,

data (est epistola).

S.V.B.E.E.V., Si vales, bene est,

Salutem (sell, dicit). S.D.. Salutem dicit. S.P.D., Salutem plurimam

ego valeo.
S.V.G.V., Si vales gaudeo.
dicit.

Valeo.

v., Vale.

IV.— MISCELLANEOUS.
A.U.C.,

Anno

urbis conditae, or

Ab urbe
D.D.,

condita.
dedit.

H.M.H.N.S.,(a)Hocmonumentum beredes non sequitur.
Libertas. M.P., Mille passuum.
L.,

Bono

DD., Dederunt. D.D.D., Dat, dicat, dedicat. D.M., Dis Manibus.
D.O.M., Deo Optimo
F.C., (a)

Ob., (a) Obiit.
P.O., (a)

Maximo.
curavit.
est.
(a)

Q.B.F.F.Q.S.,

Ponendum curavit. Quod bonum
sit.

felix

Faciendum
(a)

faustumque
v., (a) Vixit.

H.C.E., (a) Hie conditus est.
H.S.E.,

S.C, Senatus consultum.

Hie situs

Used on tombs.
(6), p.
17ii.

See Note

176

APPENDIX.

V.-MODERN ABBREVIATIONS.
A.B. or B.A., Artium Baccalaureus, Bachelor of Arts. A.C., (a) Ante Christum, Before
Christ.

L.B.,

Lectori benevolo, indulgent reader.

To

the

A.D.,

Anno Domini,

In the year of

Legum Baccalaureus, Bachelor of Laivs. LL.D., Legum Doctor, Doctor of
LL.B.,
Laivs.

our Lord.

A.M. or M.A., Artium Magister, Master of Arts.
Cet., Cetera,
Cf.,

M.B.,

Medicinae

Baccalaureus,

The

rest.

Bachelor of Medicine. M.D., Medicinae Doctor, Doctor
of Medicine. MS., Manuscriptus
(scil.,

Confer, Compare.
Codices, Copies.

Cod., Codex, Copy.

liber) or

Codd.,

(6)

Manuscriptum,
N.B.,
N.T.,

A

manuscript.

D., Doctor, Doctor.

MSS., plur.. Manuscripts.

D.D., Doctor of Divinity.
Del., Dele, Blot out.

Nota bene. Observe carefully. Novum Testamentum, The
Testament.

Ed., Editio, Edition. Edd., (6) Editiones, Editions.
E.g., Exempli gratia.

New
P.S.,

Postscriptum,

Postscript

For example.
the rest.
is.

(written after).
Q.V.,

Etc., H.e.,
I.e.,

Et cetera.

And

Quod

vide.

Which
wit.

see.

Hoc

est,

That

{this)

Sc, Scilicet, To
Sq.,

Jesus Christ.

(quod) Sequitur, The following.

I.H.S., Jesus

hominum

Salvator,

Sqq., (plur.,) The folloiving.
S.T.B.,

Jesus the Saviour of mankind.
lb. or Ibid., Ibidem, In the
place.
J.TJ.D., Juris TJtriusque Doctor,

Sanctae Tbeologiae Bacca-

same

laureus, Bachelor of Divinity. S.T.D., Doctor of Divinity.
S.T.P., Professor of Divinity.

Doctor of Laws. Id., Idem, The sam£. I.e., Id est, That is.
I.q.,

V.D.M., Verbi Divini Minister, Minister of the Gospel.
Viz., Videlicet,

Id quod. That which. Leg., Lege, Read.
(a)

V.T.,

Vetus

Namely. Testamentum, The

Old Testament.

" Before Christ" is very often Indicated by the English initials, B.C. (6) In abbreviations like Edd., LL.D., MSS., the second of the doubled letters {d, L, or S) does not stand for a separate word, but indicates the plural number; hence there should be no point between the doubled letters.

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