Volt-ohm meter .

improper ground connections etc. .Volt-ohm meter y Test target hardware y It has two leads marked red and black y One end of wire connected to the meter other to the ends of the component to be measured(resistance or voltage) y The meter set for volt for checking power supply voltage at source y The meter is set for ohm when checking broken connections.

Logic Probe .

Logic Probe y Hardware test device y Handheld pen like device y Green and red LEDs y Green glows when probe tip touches LOGIC 1 y Red when LOGIC 0 y It is used for studying long delay effects .

Oscilloscope .

Oscilloscope y Oscilloscope is scope with a screen to display voltage signals as a function of time (uses both AC and DC) y One end is connected to the ground other is used for either selection of AC or DC y DC means directly coupling the input to the scope input amplifier y AC means input to amplifier Advantages y as noise detection tool y Detect insudden transitions .

y Throughput measured as number of 1¶s multiplied by 16 which is bytes/second for 16 bits.Bit Rate Meter y Used for measuring number of 1¶s and 0¶s in preselected time spans. .

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