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fREE JOURNAL OF QUANTCM
ELECTRONICS,
VOL. 24, NO.7,
JULY 1988
Hysteretic and Multiphoton Optical Resonances of a Single Cyclotron Electron
ALEXANDER E, KAPLAN
AI\'D
YU
1,
DING
AbstractDue to tiny relativistic effects, a host of nonlinear interactions of microwave or optical radiation with a single trapped electron in a strong magnetic field is feasible. This phenomenon, relativistic nonlinear optics uf a single electron, includes hysteretic and "isolas" resonances and various multiphoton excitations, in particular, stimulated cyeloRaman resonances and subharmonics of any order. In this paper, we develop a unified appruach to all these effects based on the theory developed by one of us earlier. This allowed us to obtain the results valid for arbitrary electron energy and for any order of interaction, and to predict higher order cycloRaman resonances. 1. bTRODUCTION
HE interaction of microwave and optical radiation with a slightly relativistic single electron can result in strong nonlinearoptical effects [1][6]. These relativisticbased effects constitute the most fundamental mechanism of nonlinear interaction of light with matter [3]. Recently it was predicted by one of us [11 that even a slight relativistic change of mass of a single free electron may result in large nonlinear effects such as hysteresis and bistability in cyclotron resonance of the electron precessing in a dc magnetic field under the action of an EM wave. The relativistic mass effect is one of the most fundamental physical phenomenon which consists of the increase of the effective mass of electron m as its speed v, or energy W, or momentum p increases: m f mi, = 'Y = (1  v2/c2rl/2 = (1 + p2/rn2c2)1/2
( 1.1 )
T
where m., is the electron rest mass, 'Y = W / rno c 2 is the dimensionless electron energy, and c is the speed oflight. Because of very low energy losses (which are due to synchrotron radiation), the relativistic change of mass to which the hysteretic resonance is attributed may be as strikingly small as 1010_106 Subsequently, consistent with the prediction [1], the hysteretic (bistable) cyclotron resonance of a free electron has been observed by Gabrielse et al. [2] in an experiment in which a single electron has been trapped in a Penning trap for a period of time as long as ten months. The electron was weakly confined in a Penning trap and oscillated
Manuscript received October 22, 1987; revised December 21, 1987. This work was supported by the U.S. Air Force Office of Scientific Research. The authors arc with the Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, The Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD 21218. IEEE Log Number X821249.
in a direction which was orthogonal to the cyclotron motion with a frequency that was measurably shifted in proportion to the electron's kinetic energy. The hysteretic cyclotron resonance [1][3] occurs at the main frequency, i.e., in the situation when the driving frequency 0 is in the close vicinity of the unperturbed cyclotron frequency 00; sec Fig. l(a) (for the presently available de magnetic fields, the maximum cyclotron frequency is in the millimeter or submillimeter ranges). It was most recently shown by us [41[61 that the strongly nonlinear cyclotron resonance can also be excited by optical pumping with a driving laser frequency (or frequencies) much higher than the cyclotron frequency. All the predicted optical excitations are, in fact, multi photon processes that can be described as relativistic nonlinear optics of a single electron. In particular, a strong cyclotron excitation can be obtained by biharmonic laser pumping when two laser frequencies WI and W2 differ by either 0 (e.g., WI  W2 = 0), see Fig. l(b), or20 (i.e., WI  W2 = 20) [4]. These effects may be regarded as a threephoton and fourphoton interaction, respectively, or more specifically, as stimulated cycloRaman scattering of first and second orders; for some particular propagation configuration, they can exhibit the socalled isolas. It was also shown recently [5] that a single electron can exhibit highorder cyclotron subharmonics, in which case the ratio of driving (single) laser frequency to the frequency of cyclotron excitation is an arbitrary integer n (this corresponds to nphoton process); see Fig. I(c). In this paper, we develop a unified approach to the entire host of these effects using general theory of nonlinear interaction of light with a single cyclotron electron [4]. This theory is based on the decomposition of electron motion into purely cyclotron component and noncyclotron components, the latter ones ineluding all the higher order oscillations with all possible frequency combinations. This approach allowed us to obtain general results which are valid for arbitrary energy of electron excitation and for arbitrary order of interaction. In particular, we obtain formulas for hysteresis at the main resonance for arbitrarily high excitation (not only for kinetic energy « rno c 2 , as in [1][3]); see Section VI below: we also develop a theory of cycloRaman resonance of arbitrary order n (i.e., WI  W2 = nO where n is not limited to n = 1,2) which is shown to exhibit multiple "jsolas " excitation and phase multistability; see Fig. 1(d), Section VIII below. To a © 1988 IEEE
00189197/88/07001470$01.00
KAPLAN AND DING: OPTICAL
RESONANCES
OF SINGLE CYCLOTRON
ELECTRON
1471
(a)
w
o
ir."
.12 ZSl
Jr ~dJ=:=L
2
o
USlO
.12
'U
(c)
II
W',
'U
'W2
w +Sl
n
w2
WI
Fig. I. Spectral arrangements of driving frequencies with respect to the unperturbed cyclotron frequency flo for: (a) the main resonance at the frequency fl = (l", (b) the optical subhannonic resonance at the fre4ucncy flo. (e) the firstorder cvcloRaman resonance with the driving frequencies w,  w, flu. (d) the arbitrary order cycloRaman resonance with the driving frequencies WI W2 = l1QO.
win =
=
certain extent, this paper is also to review our previous results on the subject and put them in the unified perspective. The nonlinear interactions of EM radiation with a single electron seem to be of fundamental interest and significance in many respects both in physics and applications. Indeed, since all of the characteristics of the phenomenon are directly related to fundamental constants, they can be used for measurement of these constants with greatly enhenced precision. The relativisticbased hysteretic excitation of a single electron can be viewed as an ultimate multi stable interaction of light with matter since it suggests bistable interaction of an EM wave with the single simplest microscopic physical object, an electron, and is based on the most fundamental physical effects such as a relativistic change of its mass. It also suggests optical bistability [7] based on the intrinsic property of a microscopic object rather than on macroscopic property in a nonlinear medium. In the future, it would be important to study hysteresis in the vicinity of its threshold which will provide the unique opportunity to explore a quantum limit of bistable oscillators. In the multi photon interaction of an optical laser with an electron, cycloRaman resonances offer a new method of excitation of the cyclotron motion which may prove more advantageous compared to conventional methods utilizing either MW or RF oscillators. Indeed, since the optical frequencies WI and W2 can be provided by two modes of the same laser, they allow for easily tunable control over the difference frequency (WI  W2). The power of laser light required to obtain the cyclotron excitation is sufficiently low to allow for the use of lasers in a CW or quasiCW regime. The proposed effects may also be used for particle acceleration [4], [6]; even in a simple Penning trap, the kinetic energy of an excited electron as high as a few MeV may be obtained. For the nthorder cycloRaman resonance, the excited electron can have n possible phases of cyclotron excitation (which differ by
7r / n); which phase is excited depends on the initial conditions. This may be regarded as a manifestation of a new type of optical bistability which we call phase multistability [4], [6], [8] (i.e., based on multi stability of the phase of oscillation rather than on multi stability of its amplitude). The highorder subharmonics l5J, [9] may provide coherent links between laser and RF or microwave frequency standards. In order to divide, for example, the frequency of a CO2 laser ( A "" 10 p,m) by a factor of 100 down to A "" I mm in one step, a CW laser power as low as lO6 W is sufficient [5]. It is worth noting that most nonlinear effects discuss cd above are also feasible [lO]' [11] in some narrowgap semiconductors which is attributed to pseudorelativistic behavior of thc effective mass of their conduction electrons [12][ 16]. This paper is structured as follows. In Section II, we discuss the classical Lorentz equation with radiation damping. In Section III, we briefly review the general approach developed in [41 whereby one derives hierarchical equations for relativistic nonlinear optics of a cyclotron electron in arbitrary order of interaction; we discuss trapping potential and wave propagation configurations in Sections IV and V, respectively. Hysteresis at the main cyclotron frequency and highorder optical subharmonics are discussed in Sections VI and VII, respectively, whereas the theory of highorder cycloRaman resonances is developed in Section VIII.
II.
LORENTZ
EQUATiONS
WITH
RADIATION
DAMPING
Consider a single electron in a homogeneous magnetic field flo which gives rise to a cyclotron resonance with the unperturbed (nonrelativistic) frequency go = eHo/moc. The electron is illuminated by the optical field which may, in general, consist of any number of plane traveling waves Ej (Wj t  kj • r) where Wj and kj are, respectively, the frequency and wave vector of the jth traveling wave. We treat the problem classically; the motion of an electron with an arbitrary momentum jJ = moYv is governed then by the relaxationmodified Lorentz equation [17][23] djJ
dt
=
e
b Ii +
j )
_e_ jJ ymoc
X~
J
[k;
x
EJik 1
j
+ _e_
ymoc
ljJ xHol + eGtr+ F/
(2.1)
where e is the electron charge. The second term on the righthand side of (2.1) is the Lorentz radiation force of the incident EM waves; it is attrihuted to the magnetic field of the E~ wave = [kj X E; 1/ k/. A trapping de electric field Glr = Glr ( r) is provided by the Penning trap potential. The term F/ in (2.1) represents energy losses of the electron. Without these losses (i.e., if F/ = 0), (2.1) coincides with the exact relativistic (nonradiation) Lorentz equation (see, e.g., [22, eq. (17.5)]). In general, the energy losses can be attributed to various factors (e.g., to the averaged nonelastic collisions or interactions between
if;
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IEEE
JOURNAL
OF
QUANTUM
ELECTRONICS.
VOL.
24.
NO.7.
JULY
1988
an electron and other particles). Even if the damping due to these losses is a few orders of magnitude higher than the ultimate, radiation damping in vacuum (see below), one still should be able [1] to observe most of the effects discussed below, in particular, hysteresis based on tiny relativistic change of mass. For a single electron, though, these losses are attributed only to the radiation processes (the socalled radiation damping); in our case, this is basically due to the socalled synchrotron radiation [22] of the revolving cyclotron electron. In the nonrelativistic case (I v I « c), in which the dependence of radiation on the relativistic change of mass is negligible, this term can be written as [17]£19], [22] (see, e.g., [22, eq. (75.9)]) (2.2 ) If the electron oscillates [191, [22] at some frequency 00 (e.g., cyclotron frequency), with all other oscillations being negligibly small, then d2v/dt2 "'" 06v "'" :;06P /mo, and the damping term can be written then as F, "'"  roop where I' is the dimensionless bandwidth or damping parameter of cyclotron resonance:
VIII below). In such a situation, the nonlinear effects will still be contributed to "nondamping " terms of Lorentz equation; however, the radiation damping will also change, which imposes a new condition on the range and threshold of these effects, and therefore should also be taken into consideration. The nonrelativistic radiation damping, (2.2), is valid only in the reference frame in which the speed of particles is small (see, e.g., [22], [23]). In the beginning of this century, it was shown by Abraham that in an arbitrary reference frame, this force has the form [I8], L23J F
~
2e2r'
'3c3
1{32
if
+ '~
»t»:
if)
c2(1_{32)2
+
3~(v'~) 3v(v· +4 2(l c  {32)2 c ( 1  {32/
~)2J
(2.4 )
r = 2e200/3moc3
= 2reko/3 «<
13
1
(2.3)
where re = = 2.8 X 10 em is the socalled classical electron radius and ko = 00/ c is an unperturbed resonance wave number. The same parameter r determines the dimensional bandwidth of the cyclotron resonance r = LlO/200. For the presently available de magnetic field, the synchrotron radiation damping is extremely small, e.g., for Bo = 6 tesla [2], = 0.2 cm , and I' "'" 0.7 x 1011. It is precisely this fact that gives rise to strikingly low driving threshold for observation of the most relativisticrelated nonlinear effects discussed here. Indeed, for example, in order to observe a hysteretic cyclotron resonance at the main frequency (see Section VI below), the relativistic shift of mass Llm/mo "'" {32/2 where {3 = v / c must exceed, roughly speaking, the half width of the resonance, i.e., I', which corresponds to very low kinetic energy. In fact, the experimental conditions [21 (with typical kinetic energy 0.OSO.5eV, i.e., (3 2/2 == 107_106) correspond to the situation in which this threshold is exceeded by a few orders of magnitude. Under the same conditions, the change Llr of the damping parameter I' is determined as Llr "'" I'{32 /2 "'" 10  17_ 1018 (sec also the calculations for arbitrary {32 below) and is completely negligible compared to the relativistic change of frequency LlO/Oo "'" Llm/mo > r "'" 1011• This situation is typical for most anharmonic driven oscillators [24] in the case in which nonlinearity affects basically the oscillation frequency rather than the damping parameters; in these oscillators, the hysteretic resonances occur because of the intensitydependent frequency, while loss nonlinearity plays a secondary role. In this paper, we will consider a more general case assuming that the electron is excited to arbitrary energy (e.g., up to a few megaelectron volts, which may be conceivably achieved in a future experiment; sec Sections VI
e /moc2
2
where = = It was shown by von Laue [20] that (2.4) is obtained from (2.2) hy a Lorentz transformation; later Dirac [21] showed that this description is valid for a point particle under special assumptions as to the contribution of retarded and advanced fields produced as a result of its motion. In the classical electrodynamics limit, i.e., on the spacetime scale much greater than the characteristic scale of quantum electrodynamics, (2.4) was confirmed by great many researchers [23] to be the only correct radiation damping for~e. Using now (2.4) for cyclotron
v
P /mo'Y
pmol.J17.
"0
o and if
cyclotron "'" Ooh
== 
where Oc is now a relativistically shifted frequency (as shown below; see Section III), Oc + Ocr), we obtain [4] (2.5 )
°~v
motion in which case (v . v) =
One can notice that the force now becomes nonlinear with respect to p (since 'Y = ..; + p 2/ m 6 ('2). It is worth 1 emphasizing, though, that this nonlinearity changes only "averaged" damping (and therefore affects only thresholds and hysteretic jump points for nonlinear effects) and docs not give rise to the change of frequency or multiphoton resonances to any degree comparable to the effects attributed to the relativistic mass effect or all other nonlinear mechanisms discussed below (see Section IIl). Indeed, the additional frequency shift due to radiation damping is "",r2"(2 ("'" 102°) which is negligible compared to mass effect (Ll m / mo > 1010; in experimental conditions [2], Llm/ma "" 107_10°). For multi photon resonances, the fast modulation produced in (2.4) and (2.5), due to fast (but small) modulation of (32 or p 2, is an order of Ll F, "" F, p. where p. = 0 (I") (see Sections VII and VIII below), i.e., once again, these effects are negligible compared to the socalled relativistic, Doppler, and Lorentz mechanisms discussed in Section III below. The accuracy of (2.5) is LlF,/F, = O(r'Y). This provides an accuracy margin of about ten orders of magnitude better than that required for the effects considered
F,
F"
KAPI.AN AI'D DING: OPTICAL RESONAI'CES
OF SINGLE CYCLOTRON
ELECTRON
1473
here. Equation (2.5) can be checked directly using an example in which the electron energy decay with time is calculated for a nondriven radiating cyclotron electron. Using radiation damping FI in the form (2.5), assuming in (2.1) Ej = G; = 0, we obtain (2.1) in the form dp I dt =  r'Yoo p. Solving this equation for the magnitude p , we obtain pi mo c = 1 I sinh [rOo (t + C)]; calculating the total electron energy 'Y(t) = ..J1 + p21m6c2, we obtain 'Y = eoth [rOo (t + C)], which coincides with the exact result [22] (problem 1 at the end of Section 74, p. 202). It is worth emphasizing that with a force FI, (2.4) or (2.5), the Lorentz equation should be written in the form (2.1), i.e., with dpldt = ... (i.e., not with mdii I dt = ... ), which, if no damping is present, corresponds to the only correct Lorentz equation (see [22, eq. (17.50)]). It is well known [17][23] that relativistic covariance of the particle description is possible only if the particle is regarded as a point one. On the other hand, it is also well known that this assumption may result in such unphysical effects as "selfacceleration" and causality violation (sec, e.g., [22], [23]). These paradoxes and the underlying physics have been discussed by many authors; it is well understood by now that the consistent and correct description of this phenomenon can be done only in the framework of quantum electrodynamics (QED); recently, some efforts were made even beyond QED (see, e.g., [25]). It is also understood, however, that QED description becomes necessary only for the spatial scale smaller than the classical electron radius re = e 2 I mo c 2 = 2.8 x 10 13 ern and for the time scale smaller than re Ie"" 1023 s. In any particular situation, two conditions must be satisfied in order for the classical electrodynamics description (2.4) to be valid (see, e.g., l22, eqs. (75.11), (75.12)]):
netic field h and unit wave vectors g as follows:
qj,
and trapping field
P = plmoe;
i, = EjHo
=
=
eEjmocOo;
=
h = RoIHo;
(3.1 )
qj
f!ol~
=
kjkj; g
G,rl Ho
eG,rlmod20
after which wc rewrite (2. I) as
+ r'YP  g
~t, + 'Y }
I
P
X~
}
(q)
X
fj)
+
'Y I
P
x h.
(3.2 ) For most of the problems discussed in this paper, in particular, for all calculations of steady states of electron excitation, the trapping potential, and therefore g, can be excluded from the consideration (see Section IV below). In order to develop a procedure that will enable us to describe all the highorder nonlinear (including multiphoton) effects, we have to distinguish pure cyclotron motion of electron from all other motions of electron with noncyclotron frequencies. Assuming that the de magnetic field Ho is sufficiently strong in order for pure cyclotron motion to be dominant, we can regard all the noncyclotron motions as small perturbations. Therefore, the total momentum P can be written in the form
~_ ~ P  Pc ( t )
+
~(I) P nc
+
~(2) P ne
+ ... ',
I Pne I // I Pc I
<e;
(2.6)
The first of these equations is equivalent to the condition that 'Ar » r., which for the available de magnetic field is satisfied with a margin exceeding 1010 (i.e., ~rQED 1019 compared to ~mlmo  1010 and larger). Since some of the effects discussed here involve the radiation with optical frequencies, the second condition is more stringent and is satisfied with a margin exceeding 108• One can see, therefore, that in any conceivable situation with relativistically nonlinear cyclotron resonances (including optically induced resonances) of a single electron in available de magnetic fields, the classical electrodynamics description of radiation damping, (2.4) and (2.5), is applicable.
Ill.
RELATIVISTIC NONLINEAR OPTICS OF A SINGLE CYCLOTRON ELECTRON
(3.3 ) where Pc is a "cyclotron" component of momentum describing a pure revolution of the electron around some fixed center (r = 0) with the frequency 0 '" 001 'Yc; s, is orthogonal to it; The various orders •'noncyclotron' components p~~)include oscillations with all the other nonresonant frequencies and may have any orientation. The dynamics of the cyclotron component lie is governed then by the equation [4] 001 (dpc/dt)
 'Y,~I[Pe
X
hl + r'Ycpc
(3.4 )
where 'Yc = ..Jl + p~ is cyclotron motion energy. In (3.4), we introduce nonlinear forces F(s) of different orders" s,' each of which is related to the respective noncyclotron component P ~~); "c" in F ~s) labels the components of these forces that oscillate with the cyclotron frequency f! and are normal to Ro. Once the nonlinear force F~S) is determined, the respective noncyclotron component p~.:_) can be found from the equation [41 ''I(d~(")ld) t  'Y c P nc X h~J + 'Y r' P nc . o ; l[~(.n 3(~(s)~) '"0 P nc
. [Pc x
hJ
=
F(S)  F~\). F( is defined as ~ ~ I, Wjt  kj • rc(t)
I) }
(3.5 )
)
Using the Lorentz equation (2.1), we will develop the theory of arbitrary order nonlinear interaction of EM (in particular, optical) waves with a single cyclotron electron. At this point, we normalize (2.1) by introducing dimensionless momentum P, fields unit vector of mag
In particular, the force
F~(I)="'~(
i.
+'Y;IPcx~[qxll
}
.
}
}
(3.6)
1474
IEEE JOURNAL OF QUANTUM ELECTRONICS. VOL 24. NO, 7, JULY 1988
where ic = cy,:' J Pc dt = c(n'Yc)'[ Pc X h] is the "cyclotron" radius vector. All the higher order nonlinear forces F~,')can be written as
(s > 1)
where each of the sthorder forces
(3.7)
Fg), Ft>.
defined as a sum of all terms of sth order in originating, respectively, from the first, second, and third terms on the righthand side of (3.2), respectively, in which all the lower order terms of P in (3.2) (the highest of which is P ~~ 1 » are taken into account; notc that P ~~) is of the sth order in In particular, the force F(2) is given as follows [4]:
Jj
and
F}{_) is
t.
F
(2
)
= 1',:1
f [(qj'
•
I
p~~)dt)(a]jat)
•
+ ( P nc ~(l)
f~) ~.  ( ~(l) ) q) P nc
qj
~
)
f~ ]
j
~  'Yc 3{( ,Pc'
31','
~('») Pnc
P nc )
~II) Pnc
+ (~/2) p;
~
[( P ~(1»)2
nc
2 ( Pc' ~
~ II) 2]}
Xh
(3.8 )
where r;,~) = C'Y,:I p~~)dt, j In (3.7), we distinguish three main mechanisms of nonlinear interaction, each of which is related to the respective first three terms on the righthand side of (3.2). The spatial oscillations of the electron make it see the phases kj • r of the incident fields w) t k) . r) [the first term on the righthand side of (3.2)] rapidly modulated since r = C)' I J pdt. Essentially, this modulation is due to the Doppler effect; hence, we have the designation "Doppler" nonlinear mechanism, with the nonlinear force F D defined as
t,(
is worth emphasizing, though, that once the cyclotron motion is excited, it is only the relativistic mass effect [the term 1';: 1 on the lefthand side of (3 .4)J that acts to limit the excitation energy and to form steadystate regimes, in particular, hysteresises and isolas. This is a "slow" relativistic effect (i.e., that averaged over the cyclotron period) in contrast to the "fast" relativistic mechanism (3.11) which is formed by noncyclotron components of nonlinear force FR . We note that the hierarchical ranking in (3.3)(3.11) is tailored [4] in such a way as to emphasize the order of interactions in the driving amplitude i. but not in the excitation momentum Pc (since we assume fJ « 1, but not necessarily Pc « 1, i.e., this ranking is suitable for describing even significantly relativistic electron excitation). Due to this fact, the same order term pi') encompasses two (or more) nonlinear interactions that are usually regarded as different orders in conventional nonlinear optics where the polarization of the medium is expressed in powers of the applied field [26J. Such an "order mixing" is attributable to the finite size rc of the cyclotron orbit [27]. However, the number of the orders s contributing to any particular nonlinear interaction is ,!!ways limited and easily found. For example, the force F~l) is nonzero only for either the main resonance (w = 0) or for the generation of subharmonics (w = nO where n is integer); the force F~2) contributes to cycloRaman resonances (w,  W2 = nO where n is integer). In Sections VIVIII below, we will be focusing mostly on finding and solving the equations governing the dynamics of cyclotron momentum of electron Pc assuming Pc in the form
Fg)
=
lffJ(w/ 
kj
(3.9)
pc[ex sin (Ot + ¢) + ey cos (Ot + ¢)] (3.12) where Pc and 1> are (unknown) slowly varying amplitude
Pc
=
The Lorentz radiation force originated by magnetic field of incident waves [the second term on the righthand side of (3.2)] gives rise to the components with combination frequencies; hence, we have the designation "Lorentz" nonlinear mechanism, with the nonlinear force PL defined as (3.10 ) Finally, the slight modulation of relativistic mass m (t) = rno l' results from small noncycIotron modulation of the energy term l' 1 in the last, cyclotron term on the righthand side of (3.2); hence, we have designation "relativistic" nonlinear mechanism, with the force Fl;> defined as (3.11) Contributions from these three mechanisms can be of the same order of magnitude. In general, none of them can be neglected; however, for particular propagation and polarization configurations, some of them may dominate. It
and phase of the cyclotron momentum, respectively, Bearing in mind that in (3.4) the time derivative is
dpc!dt
= (pc!
Pc) (dPcldt)
+
(fl
+
d1>ldt)
(Pc
x
h)
(3.13 ) and multiplying (3.4) scalarly either by pel Pc or by ( Pc x h) 1 Pc> we arrive at the equations governing the dynamics of Pc and 1>, respectively: flo'dpeldt
+ r'Ycpc
defined as
= <I>p = P (: <I> <I> 1
(3.14) (3.15 )
00 1 (d1> 1dt)  ()'; 1  fl 1flo) with parameters <l>p and
<I>p =
<I>¢ <I>1>
[F',OWesl
~ o , I] o; (Pc x
0 = <I> P
(3.16) (3.17)
= [F~owest
h)1 Pc]o
where "0" labels zerofrequency components and F~owe'l is a nonzero cyclotron component of the lowest order. Since I' «< 1 (typically, r  lOIIIOIO)andp~» r (which is immediately attained once the threshold of excitation is exceeded), one may obtain that in a steady
KAPLAN
AND
DING:
OPTICAL
RESONANCES
OF
SINGLE
CYCLOTRON
ELECTRON
1475
state, one has "Ie '"
nO/o +
O(r), o;
.j(no/o)2  1 + O(r).
(3.18)
POTENTIAL
IV.
TRAPPING
The first experimental observation of hysteretic cyclotron resonance [2] at the main frequency (Q "" no) predicted earlier in [I] was done using an electron confined in a relatively weak quadrupole potential of a Penning trap to keep the electron from escaping. The Penning trap in [2] consists basically of a positive ring and two negative cap electrodes kept at liquid helium temperature in the core of a 60 kG supcrconducting magnet. The surface of the quadrupole system (the caps and the ring) is formed by a hyperboloid of revolution symmetric with respect to the axis z and can be described as z 2 = X 2 + Y 2 ± d 2 where d is the internal radius of the ring as well as a half distance between the caps. Electric potential U inside the trap is determined as 2U Uo = (Z2  x2  y2) d 2 where Uo is a voltage applied to the quadrupole (it is assumed that at the origin (z = r = 0), U = 0). In such a potential, which corresponds to the electric field in (2. I)
force of this wave acting upon the electron can force it to move away from its initial position unless a trapping potential is applied. In order to avoid this complication as well as the necessity to use trapping potential in our calculations, we will always use propagation configurations which involve only standing wave (i.e., couples of countcrpropagating traveling waves) for each driving frequency. V.
PROPAGATION CONFIGURATION
I
I
(4.1 )
with a de magnetic fio applied along the axis z, the confined electron exhibits, in general, quite a complicated behavior. Its motion may consist of the (dominant) cyclotron motion, which is the fastest one ('" 164 GHz in [2]), much slower magnetron motion ("" 60 MHz), and even much more slower axial oscillations along the axis z ( "" 1.6 KHz). The latter oscillations were used [2] to measure a relativistic mass increase through the axial frequency shift. Since we will concentrate on the steady states, both magnetron and axial oscillations can be neglected. (We note, though [11, that both of them could form a significant component in the transient behavior of electrons if either driving frequency or amplitude is swept too fast.) However, the trapping field (4.1) still attributes to a small shift of the cyclotron frequency even for strictly cyclotron motion with the center of orbit located at the origin. This shift, ~OO Osh  no, could readily be estimated as
The type of nonlinear interaction of EM radiation with a synchrotron electron as well as nonlinear mechanisms involved depend critically on the direction of propagation and polarization of driving waves with respect to the de magnetic field fio. Although almost all of the interactions discussed here are feasible for quite a general propagation configuration, there are a few propagation arrangements, each of which can be regarded as the most optimal geometry for some particular nonlinear interaction. It is convenient to introduce a twoletter classification of propagation configuration, using the first letter to describe the wave propagation direction and the second one to describe the wave polarization with respect to fio. The "pure" excitation of hysteretic cyclotron resonance [1] at the main frequency (with no other "side" nonlinear effects) corresponds to the "PC" propagation configuration in which driving waves propagate parallel ("P") to flo (i .e., rL = ± h) and are circularly ("C") polarized in such a way that the polarization vector precesses in the same direction as the electron does. The highorder subharmonics are most efficiently excited by the "NN" propagation configuration when driving waves propagate normally (" N") to and are linearly polarized in the direction also normal to fio, whereas cycloRaman excitations are stimulated by driving waves in the "NP" propagation configuration i. e., by linearly polarized waves incident normally to Ho with their polarization parallel to
Ho
i
Ho).
VI.
RELATIVISTICALLY
HYSTERETIC
CYCLOTRON
RESONANCE
eUo rnoc2
1 (kod)2
(4.2 )
which can essentially he regarded as a small excitationindependent correction to the de magnetic field. For the experimental conditions [2], this correction could be 109 _108. The excitationdependent correction can be shown to be many orders of magnitude smaller. Therefore, this effect can also be neglected when considering nonlinear optical effects with a single electron in a Penning trap. In fact, all the steadystate hysteretic and nonlinear effects with a single electron can be obtained in a de magnetic field without any electric static trapping potential. However, when the electron is subjected to the action of only one traveling wave, the Lorentz radiation
The hysteretic resonance at the main cyclotron frequency, see Fig. lea) (i.e., when 0 z Dc where 0 is the driving frequency and is the cyclotron frequency of excited electron), is perhaps the most simple and fundamental relativistic nonlinear effect based strictly on the "slow" (i.e., averaged over the period of cyclotron motion) relativistic change of electron mass [1][3]; see term 'Y; I on the lefthand side of (3.15). This is a firstorder effect; (3.6) shows that for the PC propagation configuration (sec insert in Fig. 2), none of the other nonlinear mechanisms is engaged. Indeed, assuming the driving waves in the form
nc
f
where j 2eE
j
=
(j12) [ex
sin (Dt
+ kqj'
k=
+
=
I, 2,
ey cos
qj =
1
(Ot
+ k qj .
n1
T)
(6.1 )
and
12/ rno cOo (with
(1))
12
h,
n/c,
f
=
E
being the intensity
of each of
1476
IEEE JOURKAL OF QUANTUM ELECTRONICS.
VOL, 24. NO, 7. JULY 198M
12
12
4
Fig, 2. The plot of normalized kinetic energy of the electron (3;/2 versus normalized resonant detunning Il./r for various driving amplitudes of incident EM field. Curves: (1) J < hh' (2) J = J", (3) J » hh' Inset depicts propagation configuration of driving radiation.
the waves), assuming located at the origin
p~1)
=
p(l)(t)
=
II + J2
r
also that the electron = 0, we obtain
orbit center is
=f[ex
sin Ot
+ evcosOt],
(6,2 )
then by (3, 14)
The dynamics of o and ¢ are governed and (3, IS) with
q,p =fcos
The steadystate by solution
=
1[
¢, q,¢ = fsin
d».
(6,3)
(d / dt = 0) is thus determined 
the kinetic threshold energy which corresponds to (6.7) is of order 105 eV. The actual excitation used in the experiment [2] was a few orders of magnitude higher than this threshold, i.e., the experimental data obviously represent the classical limit. The further improvement of the stability and bandwidth of the source of the driving radiation may hopefully bring the experiment to the threshold measurements, and therefore to the quantum limit of the hysteresis effect. In the case of the threevalued solution, the examination of (3.14), (3.15), and (6.3) linearized in the close vicinity of the steadystate solutions (6.4) and (6.5) shows that only those states are stable which satisfy the energy criterion [1] d ( (3 ~) / d (j2) > 0 (solid branches of the curves in Fig. 2); otherwise, they are unstable (dashed branches in Fig. 2). This results in the hysteretic excitation of an electron with two hysteretic jumps. The smallest of them, the up jump from the lower excitation branch to the higher one, occurs in the close vicinity of the unperturbed resonance, whereas the much stronger down jump may occur considerably far from this point (curve 3 in Fig. 2). When the driving is sufficiently strong but the motion is still lowrelativistic (i .e., f2 » f~, but (3 ~ « 1), the detunning 611 and the kinetic energy of the excited electron "Ih  I "" 61,/2 that correspond to that second jump follow from (6.6) as 611
""
_f2/21';
{3h = }'jr.
(6.8)
f2
o; r 2"Ie2 + (1 "Ie

0 / 00 )2] ;
(6.4 ) (6.5 )
tan ¢ = ("IeO/OO
I)/r"l~'
Since r «< 1, the hysteretic (bistable) resonance can be achieved at very low excitation, i, e., o; ee {3(' « I, "Ie "" I + {3~/2, in which case (6.4) reduces to [1]
In such a case, the upper branch of the function (3~ (~) in the range ~h < ~ < 0 with a great accuracy is a linear one: (6.9 ) Although the experimental data [2] are insufficient to confirm (6.8) (since the driving field intensity at the location of the electron was not reported), they are in good agreement with (6.9). Indeed, using [2, Fig. 2], one estimates 12~ / (321 '" 0.92 which is quite close to 1.0 suggested by (6.9). This confirms that the nonlinearity of the system is attributed to the relativistic mass effect. In terms of nonlinear oscillations theory, the hysteresis in a nonlinear oscillator based on a lowrelativistic electron resembles the socalled vibration hysteresis in the driven anharmonic oscillators [24] (in particular, the socalled Duffing oscillator, e.g., pendulum) or in the socalled nonlinear parametric systems [28]. It is interesting to note that it is feasible to obtain electron excitation with quite a relativistic energy in a standing wave configuration (i.e., without concentration of the driving field at a small portion of electron orbit), even with modest driving power. Consider an example with Ho = 100 kG (Ao '" I mm). In order to excite an electron up to I'e = 188 (i.e., to the energy"" 95 MeY with the orbit diarneter w 6 em), one needs a driving source at A 18.8 em with the intensity still as low as 0.07 W /crn2• YII.
HIGHORDER OPTICAL SUBHARMONICS
f2
=
(3nr2
+ (6 + (3~/2)2]
(6.6)
where 6 = 0/00  I « 1 is a dimensionless resonant detunning; see Fig. 2. Under the threshold conditions,
f2 >f~h == (16/3·J3)r3,6
<
6th
== rJ3,
(6.7)
(6.6) yields a threevalued solution for (3e with two of the values being stable solutions and one unstable solution (Fig. ~. At the threshold point, the excitation is (3~h = 2r / /3 (curve 2 in Fig. 2), and the orbit radius is r = {3th/ k « l\. For the experimental conditions [2], r "" 0.66 x 10 II, and (6.7) yields E, "" 2.65 x tolOY/em which corresponds to the classical threshold intensity as strikingly low as "= 10 18 W / crrr'. It must be noted though that the classical estimate (6.7), in fact, yields the unexpectedly low critical energy of excitation for the electron which is nearly a I times smaller than a quantum limit hO (a = e2 / he = 1/137 is the finestructure constant). Therefore, in the close vicinity of the threshold (6.7), only the quantum approach can give an adequate description of the phenomenon (we are not talking here about QEDrelated paradoxes; see Section II above), whereas for a sufficiently strong driving field (E2 » E~r), the classical results (in particularly, hysteretic jumps) remain valid. For the experimental situation [2],
The highorder 1(b), in nonlinear
subharmonics with t» = nO, see Fig. cyclotron resonance are very interesting
KAPLAN AND DING
OPTICAl.
RESONANCES
OF SINGLE CYCLOTRON
ELECTRON
1477
examples of a multiphoton, highly nonlinear process which is still due to the firstorder nonlinear force F( I), (3.6). The most efficient generation of these subharmonics occurs with the NN propagation configuration, in which case the Doppler and Lorentz nonlinear mechanisms, (3.9) and (3.10), are attributed to the nonlinear interaction. It should be remembered, though, that once the cyclotron motion is excited, it is only the "slow" relativistic mass effect [i. e., term 'Y ;: I on the lefthand side of (3.15)] that acts to limit the excitation energy and to form steadystate regimes. The electron is driven by two counterpropagating plane waves
t = eJ cos [wt
j
+ (
1) j
(Iu: 
0/)];
(7.1 )
= L 2; k =
wlc
(with the same frequency wand amplitude!) both of them propagating along the axis x normal to Ro, polarized along the axis y, also normal to tt; (see inset in Fig. 4) and forming a standing wave pattern. When the subharmonic of the nth order is excited, the momentum of electron is assumed in the form of (3.12) where n = win (n is the order of the subharmonics). In our further calculation, we assume that the center of orbit is located in the center of a tr~ and coincides with a maximum of the total field + h [which corresponds to 0/ = 0 in (7.1)] when n is odd, and with a node of the total field (i.e., 0/ = 7r 12) when n is even. Separating the cyclotron component ~(I ~(I Fe) out of F ), and using (3.16) and (3.17), we obtain
[5]
Fig. 3. Kinetic energy of the cyclotron motion y  1 versus the dimensionless frequency of" driving field w/{l" for various orders of subharmonies n (n = I is the main resonance. n = 2 is second subharmonic, etc.) and for the fixed amplitude parameter I' ~ f /r = E! 1:.0 of a driving field. (3) I' = 0.9, (b) I' = 3.5. (c) I' = 16. The thick solid branches correspond to stable states, thick broken branches to unstable states. All the branches are stretched out along lines determined by the formula y = n{lo/ w for each order n.
II
1>p

/
sin (nr/>  if) [JII
I
(n{3e)  JII + I (n{3c) ] (7.2)
(7.3 )
Fig. 4. Extremum kinetic energy 'Y  1 of the cyclotron motion versus driving parameter I' for various orders of subharmonics n .)nset: incident light configuration with respect to the de magnetic field H".
where J, is an ordinary Bessel function of the vth order. In the steady state (d I dt = 0), the energy of the excitation is 'Ye = nOolw + ~'Ye with fl.'Yc = OCr) «< 1. A small dctunning L\'Y, for II ~ 2 is determined by (3.14), (3.15), (7.2), and (7.3) as ~'Yc r
=
For any order n > 2, there are both upper and lower limits of the energy of excited subharmonic for any fixed driving amplitude / (or p..); see Figs. 3 and 4. These extremes of energy are determined by the relationship
p, =
±
2J (n{3e) {32.
1I
~
e'Y,
p..
2

{3~'Y~
(1111 ({3,)  J,,+ I (n{3c)]
(Jcl(I
 (3~) [InI
(n{3c)  JI/+ 1 (n(Jc)]
(7.5)
2
(7.4 )
where we introduced a driving parameter p.. = /Ir = 3Ec2/2erl6; see Fig. 3. The frequency of subharmonic n = w I II follows closely to the effective cyclotron frequency n, = nol 'Y, determined by the relativistic mass effect mlmo = 'Ye; see Fig. 3. The stahility analysis using (3.14) and (3.15) shows that the upper sign in (7.4) corresponds to stable states, and negative to unstable states. It is obvious from (7.2) and (7.3) that for each stable magnitude of the energy 'Ye' the cyclotron motion can have II equally possible different equidistant states of the phase r/>, cp = cp,(n,f, w) + 27rsln, s being an integer, 0 s s < 11, and cp, determined, e.g., by (7.2) with d I dt = O. This property is common for any subharmonic oscillations 0/ the nth order regardless of their origin [28], [29].
which gives rise to the formation of isolated branches of excitation for each individual subharmonic with II > 2. The initial' 'jump start" required for the electron to reach the desirable subharmonic can be provided either by injecting electrons with proper energy, or by triggering the system with the microwave oscillator having its cyclotron frequency as in Section V (or some of its higher harmonics) near the cyclotron frequency, or with optical biharmonic pumping [3], [6] by a laser having WI  W2 = rl; see Section VIII below. It also follows from (7.5) that for any n ~ 2, there is a minimum (threshold) driving amplitude p..th which is an increasing function of n with IIlh (11 = 2) = 1. The threshold amplitude p..,h (n) corrcsponds to some certain energy of excitation which increases (although very slowly) as 11 increases. The intensity of driving laser radiation required to excite even very highorder subharmonics is very low. In
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IEEE JOURNAL OF QUANTUM
ELECTRONICS.
VOL. 24. NO, 7. JUI.Y 1988
deed, the threshold amplitude subharmonic (J.Lth = 1) is
to excite the secondorder
Eo
=
2e06/3c2
=
(2/3)(moc2/e)k6re'
(7.6)
For Ac "" 1 mm, Eo corresponds to as low intensity as "" 2 . 1010 W / em". Consider now an example when the laser wavelength is A = 10 J.Lm (C02 laser), whereas Ae = I rnm, and therefore n = 100, i.e., the laser frequency is divided by a factor 100 in one step. The calculations based on (7.5) [5] give J.Lth "" 560 such that even if J.L "" 4J.Lth, the resulting intensity is still very low, "" 102 W / ern". With the area of the beam A X Ae "" 104 ern", this translates into the total driving power as low as 106 W. Highorder subharmonics have been observed in many resonant nonlinear systems (both mechanical and electrical ones). For example, in a simple nonlinear circuit using a biased diode as a nonlinear capacitor, a onestep frequency division by a factor up to 5001000 in the ultrahigh RF range has been observed and studied [29]. The subharrnonics in [29] were attributable to the selfsynchronization of parametric oscillations induced by a driving force. The same principle has later been proposed [301 to obtain a loworder subharmonics in the optical range using an optical parametric oscillator. The subharmonic excitation of cyclotron motion by radiofrequency or microwave driving sources is well known; in fact, the synchrotron [31] and synchrocyclotron [32] principles of particles acceleration are based on driving a particle beam at the frequency equal to the multiplied cycling frequency of accelerated particles. A similar principle was recently proposed [9] to obtain MW subharmonic radiation of electrons using a laser as a driving source. In both MW accelerators and laser schemes, the important condition is that the driving field must be highly inhomogeneous in space and act upon particles at the distance much shorter than the orbit circumference. On the other hand, the subhannonic described here can be obtained with homogeneous plane standing (or traveling) waves acting upon a particle along its entire cyclotron orbit. The laser power required for such a subharmonic excitation is so low that virtually any CW infrared laser can be used for this purpose. The quest for optical onestep multiple transformation of frequency (by either multiplication or division) stems from the need to cover a gap between optical and microwave time and frequency standards. The conventional techniques are based on the frequency multipliers [33], complex frequency synthesis chains [34], frequency division based on locking both a laser and an RF source to a cavity [35], etc. The highorder cyclotron subharmonics discussed here have the potential to provide a promising alternative method for obtaining a direct coherent link between lasers and microwave frequency standards. VIII.
CYCLo~RAMAN OPTICAL RESONANCES
[4], [6] [see Fig. l(c)] is essentially threephoton processes that can naturally be regarded as stimulated cycloRaman scattering (of the lowest order). We show here that much more general stimulated cycleRaman scattering of arbitrary order n is feasible with
(8.1)
[see Fig. l(d)]. The cycleRaman scattering with lowest orders (n = 1,2) was considered earlier [4] for the PC propagation configuration at low excitation energy, and in [6] for the NP propagation configuration and n = 1 at arbitrary excitation energy. For any order n, the cycloRaman resonances exhibit "prohibited" and "allowed" cyclotron orbits (which results in multiple isolated branches of solutions [6], the socalled isolas) , n possible equidistant phase states (which results in phase multistability for n > 1), the optical Stark shift (i.e., an intensitydependent shift of the eigenfrequency), and multiwave mixing effects. In this section, we assume that neither ratio (WI + W2)/Q nor wl,2/Q is an integer (i.e., higher order subharmonics, Section VII, are excluded from consideration by proper frequency tuning). Because of such a choice, the first order force in the expansion (3.4) does not contribute to these nonlinear interactions, i.e., F;I) = O. Therefore, cycloRaman scatterings are examples of nonlinear interactions attributed to the secondorder nonlinear force F121, (3.8). We also choose the NP configuration (see Section V) in which all the optical travcling waves propagate in th~ plane normal to with their polarizations parallel to Ho (see inset in Fig. 5). For this configuration, FI21, (3.8), is reduced to
l,
fio
I'" ( F~121= 'Y C L.J q; ;
i, . Pile ~!I,)) ;
_
Pc2', h >C
'Y ,
[~!I)]2
P
IIC
(8.2 )
mo
where the first noncyclotron component mentum p~p, (3.5), is reduced now to
of electron
p~~) = 00
J [Fill
001

F;.II]
dt = 00
J Fill
at
dt.
(8.3)
It can be directly verified using (3.6) that p ;,~ is analytiI cally found and expressed in the particularly simple form
P;,~) =
J f;(w;t

i .re)

2: (Oo/w)) f;(w;t
)
kj
•
rc  11"/2)
(8.4 )
The electron excitation at the cyclotron frequency Oc by an optical biharmonic laser with two frequencies WI and W2 (WI > w2) such that each one of them is much higher than Qe and their difference equals Q "" On WI  W2 = Q
where we used notation "at" in order to designate "partial integration" whereby the integral in (8.4) is taken only over explicit dependence of on time t (i.e., at this point, re (t) is treated as time independent). The nonlinear forces here [the first and second terms on the righthand side of (8.2)] are attributed to the nonlinear Lorentz (3.10) and "fast" relativistic mechanisms (3. II), respecti vely. The Lorentz mechanism is originated by magnetic fields of in
i;
KAPLAN AND DING: OPTICAL
RESONANCES
OF SINGLE CYCLOTRON
ELECTRON
1479
where
en ""
n (f/J 
11'/2) and Q + is defined as
. [111
10
I (n(3c)
± 111 + I (n(3,,) ].
( 8.8 )
_c~
I 10 100 10' 10'
c
_
I [W/cm2l
}~~:__i=::_~_:::___=~:_O~~~~~.r~~
Fig. 5. The maximal and minimal values of excitation characteristic a versus the intensity of driving waves I. Curve I (broken line with dots) and the lower branch of curves 2 (solid lines) correspond to the maximum of the main hysteresis for the cyclo Raman scattering with n = I and n = 2, respectively, next above the lower branch of curves 2 to the first isola, etc, Curve 3 (broken line) corresponds to the maximal and minimal excitation of the first isola for n = 3, Areas surrounded by each curve correspond to allowed excitation; areas between them to prohibited excitation, Curve 2' (dots) corresponds to the maximal excitation for a different configuration of the cycloRaman scattering with n = 2 [4], The inset depicts the propagation configuration,
In (8.6)(8,8), 1v(z) is the vthorder Bessel function of first kind, au "" wuPe/OO, (X  al + a2, B; = u / c = Pc/l'c, the term S is defined as 1 LJfi S "" 8 ~
,=1
2
[0
2
2
t» ,
+ (1) +
n"ln 2
2 .Wi
JO(2ai)
+
and
jJ
2JO(2ai)
2J2(2ai)
IJ,
(8.9 ) (8.10)
is a driving parameter defined as
jJ =
fJ2(OO/WI
+ no/(2)/8,
cidcnt optical waves, which arc usually neglected, The "fast" relativistic mechanism is due to slight modulation of relativistic electron mass m (t) = mo l' (t) caused by noncyclotron (optical) perturbations of microwave cyclotron electron motion, (However, as was noted above, once the cyclotron motion is excited, it is only the "slow" relativistic mass effect, see term 'Y,:t on the lefthand side of (3,15), that acts to limit the excitation energy and to form hysteresises or isolas.) We assume that the driving radiation at both the frequencies WI and W2 forms standing wave patterns with all the waves propagating along the same axis x, i.e., qi+ = =F 12" such that th~ elect!}c fields of these standing waves are expressed as f wi = f,+ + fi (i = 1, 2) with
The term S in (8.9) was identified in f6] as the optical (i.e. intensitydependent) Stark shift of the relativistic cyclotron frequency nc (also see (8.11) below). This shift may become an important factor in future research on the measurement of fundamental constants; it does not cause, though, any significant changes in the structure of "jsolas" discussed below. It should be noted that the signs in front of the terms with ( I )11' i in (8.9) must be changed if the location of the center of orbit with respect to both of the standing waves is chosen in such a way that 1/11 = 0, 1/;1+ = (n  1) 11',1/12 = 0, and 1/;2+ = 11'. In the steadystate regime, the small detuning 'Yen/Do 1 is determined as 'Y,O/Oo  1 = S
± p,:I[Q_(a)
 (3~Q+(a)/n] (8.11)
. .JjJ2  p~r21':/Q~.
fi± = fe,
sin (w;t
±
k.x
+ 1/;i±)/2;
i
= 1,2
(8.5 )
where are counterpropagating traveling waves with the same amplitude f /2 and frequency Wi; their phases 1/;,± in general could be different. The steadystate cyclotron motion in this configuration is achieved when the center of cyclotron orbit coincides with a node of one of the standing waves and simultaneously with the maximum of the other one if n is odd, or when the number of cyclotron orbit coincides with either nodes or maxima of both standing waves if n is even. At such a point, the average radiation forces of all the waves acting upon the electron cancel each other; one of the choices for the phases in (8.5) is then 1/11+ = n.x , 1/;1 = 0, and 1/;2+ = 0, Substituting p;,~) in the form of (8.4) into (8.2), assuming Pc in the form of (3,12), separating the cyclotron component F~2) out of F(2) in the form of (8,2), and substituting it into (3.16)(3.17), we obtain the dynamic equations (3.14)(3.15) with <Pp = jJQ~ sin <P"
=
t..
The stability analysis of (3,14) and (3.15) with <P p and <P ¢ determined by (8.6) and (8.8) shows that the upper sign in (8.11) corresponds to stable states, and the lower to unstable ones. In Figs. 6 and 7, stable branches are shown by solid lines and unstable ones by broken lines. It is interesting to note that the nthorder cycloRaman resonances (with n > 1) exhibit phase multistability essentially similar to phase multi stability in the nthorder subharmonics (Section VII). Indeed, it is readily seen from (8.6) and (8.7) that there are n equally possible different equidistant states of the phase f/J;;'.I (m = 0, I, . . . , n  1) for both the stable and unstable branches by f/JZ:I = f/J~,I + 27rm/n. Which of the n stable phase states is excited depends on the initial condition of excitation. Consider first the lowest order resonance (n = 1) with sufficiently low excitation energy (i.e., (Xu « 1, and therefore Pc "" (3c « no/ W1,2 and r, « "'1.2). In such a case, (8,11) is reduced to
en
cos
(8.6)
S(3, + jJ'Y;I(Q
 (3~Q+/n)
en
(8.7)
which is an exact analog of (6.6) for the main resonance, the only difference being that instead of the amplitude f of the resonant driving wave, one has now an "effective"
1480
IEEE
JOURNAL
or
QUA"ITUM
ELECTRONICS.
VOL.
24.
NO.7.
JULY
t9~~
Fig. 6. The firstorder eye loRaman (n = I) excitation characteristic 0: versus its frequency detunning parameter ~ (see explanation in the text) for the fixed driving parameter 1'. Curves: II' < 1"". (1'", is a critical magnitude of I' for the first selfcrossing to occur); 21' '" 71',,. (the first selfcrossing appears in the main "mother"' curve): 31' '" 2.61'u (I',.,a critical magnitude of I' for the first isola formation); 41' 41'cn the formation of the second isola. The solid branches in curves 14 correspond to stable states, the broken ones to unstable states.
=
.
n= I a '" 5 ~ 5
"·~:iJ:;1
n =~ ., : ]
,5 0 5 0 0 5 T) 5 T)
r 5.,., ./
Fig. 7. The excitation characteristic (X versus frequency detunning parameter ~ (as defined in the text) for the cycloRaman excitation of different orders (n  1,2,3), with the fixed driving amplitude. The solid branches in the curves correspond to stable states. the broken ones to unstable states.
amplitude of a threephoton interaction J.L Therefore, in order to obtain a hysteresis, see curve 1 in Fig. 6, one has to have I" exceed a threshold I"cr "" 1.7Sr3(2. In the example with Ao = 2 mm and Au = 271' t•2 = 0.69/tm Ik (HeNe laser), with j] = f2, we obtain a critical amplitude Ecr = 6 V I ern which corresponds to a 48 mW I crrr' intensity. If the beam is focused to a spot of  2 /tm diameter, this amounts to a total power of only 1.S x 106
W.
When the driving intensity, and therefore the excitation electron energy increases, a new feature appears, which consists of formation of isolated branches of excitation (the socalled "isolas" [6] known in other areas of nonlinear physics [36]). This feature is peculiar only for the configuration in which the waves propagate normally to the de magnetic field, and therefore form a spatially oscillating pattern in the plane of cyclotron motion. The isolas in consideration can still be obtained at low excitation P~ « 1 (but with sufficiently large parameter a). In such a case, the expression in the square root in (8. 11) can be rewritten as I" 2  r 2 P ~ a 2 14n 2 a ); therefore, the steadystate excitation is allowed only if this expression is nonnegative, i.c., if
J; (
(8.13)
This condition determines the maximal possible momentum ( Pc) max for any given driving amplitude u Equation (8.13) shows, on the other hand, that when /t exceeds some level, there are ranges of momentum o; (such that Pc < (Pc) max) in which the steadystate excitation does not exist, i.e., some orbits are "prohibited" (note that rc = Pelko = f3clko where ko = nolc). Equation (8.13) predicts the radii of prohibited orbit rprolt in the vicinity of zeros of the function ill(a). For sufficiently large a, one obtains r"rolt = (2l + 1) I ~ where I is an integer 18 and A = 471'c I (W t + W2); see Fig. 5. Prohibited orbits correspond to the destructive interaction of both of the waves with respect to the electron, as opposed to the constructive interaction pertinent to "allowed" orbits. The latter orbits have their different branches separated by Ppmlt = r"roltkO' As the intensity of driving waves increases, the first isola is formed, then the second, and so on. The critical magnitude of the driving parameter I" required to observe the mth isola of nthorder cycleRaman excitation is determined by (8.13) (with the equality sign), in which instead of a, one has to substitute the mth positive root of the equation (11  2) ill _ 1 ( a)  (n + 2) ill + t ( a) = O. The formation of isolas in the case n = I is illustrated in Fig. 6, in which the excitation characteristic a is depicted versus the frequency detuning pararneter n = sign (Ll.) , ~ (WI + w2)/no(A = nino I, and "sign" is the sign function) for various driving amplitudes 1". The first isola (see curve 3 in Fig. 6) appears [6] at a "" S; the CO2 laser intensity as low as ~ 77 WI crrr' (Ao "" 2 mrn, A12 ee 10 /tm.!1 = f2) is required to observe it. In the cycleRaman scattering with n = 2, a cyclotron oscillation cannot be excited at all (see Fig. S) unless driving amplitude exceeds the threshold 1"0 "" 2rnol (Wt + W2), which corresponds to the laser intensity "" 6.6 W Icm2; see the lower branch of curves 2 in Fig. S. As the laser intensity increases, in addition to the hysteretic resonance, one can observe formation of isolas. Equations (8, II) and (8.13) show that for any II '> 3. cycleRaman scattering with arbitrary low cannot be excited, i.e., there is some minimal level of possible kinetic energy of electron excitation; this corresponds to the socalled hard excitation. Therefore, resonances with 11 '> 3 do not have a hysteretic branch; only isolas excitation is possible, although the critical laser intensity remains relatively low (e.g., the intensity  9.7 W I cnr' is needed to observe the first isola for n = 3). Fig. 7 illustrates the difference among the excitation patterns for cycleRaman excitations of the first (n = I), second (n = 2), and third (n = 3) orders, respectively, at the fixed driving amplitude 11 = sornol (WI + W2)' Figs. 6 and 7 show a curious feature of all these regimes, the selfcrossing of steadystate amplitude that occurs both in the isolas and in the main "mother" curve. It is unlikely, though, that this feature can be seen in the experiment since one of the sel fcrossing branches is unstable. To illustrate the fact that the isolas are peculiar for the configuration with the waves propagating normally to Ho, it is instructive to compare the respective results to the excitation pattern for different propagation configura
p;
KAPLAN ANO 01l'.0:
OPTICAL RESONANCES
OF SINGLE CYCLOTRON
ELECTRON
1481
tions. It was shown [4] for instance, that fourphoton resonance (i.e., essentially, the cycloRaman scattering with n = 2) san be excited with two waves propagating parallel to Ho. In such a case, the only contributing components are circularly polarized waves with the polarization of the higher frequency (WI) wave precessing around lIo in the same direction as the electron, and the lower frequency (W2) wave precessing in the opposite direction. This propagation configuration, which does not form a spatially oscillating wave pattern in the plane of cyclotron motion, was shown [4] not to give rise to isolas. It is worth noting that for the NP propagation configuration, the critical laser intensity for a cyclotron excitation is about three to five orders of magnitude lower compared to that for the PC propagation configuration. However, once the cyclotron oscillation is excited, the maximal kinetic energy of the electron in the PC propagation configuration [4] rapidly increases as the driving laser intensity I increases, the maximal kinetic energy of the electron being 'Ymax  I = (1/10)'/4  I where 10 = 0.66 X 105 W /cm2, see curve 2' in Fig. 5, whereas the energy of the first isola in the NP propagation configuration is saturated at a relatively low level. The total power P; of the synchrotron radiation at the cyclotron frequency nc in the lowrelativistic case (p~ « I) can be written as [22] P; = rp~nomoc2. One can see from (8.4) that due to Doppler phase modulation, the noncyclotron momentum P ~,~)(parallel to lIo) oscillates at combination frequencies WI.2 ± m where I is an integer, and therefore gives rise to the stimulated dipole radiaUon at these frequencies with its polarization parallel to Ro. In nonlinear optics, such a process is sometimes referred to as multi wave mixing whereby a few waves with different frequencies and wavevectors are coupled via the nonlinear interaction. At low excitation, the power PI absorbed from the higher laser frequency w, and the power P2 radiated at the lower frequency W2 obey the ManleyRowe relationships P, = Pcw,/nn, P2 = PcwdnfJ, which reflect a quantum balance of optical emission and absorption in the system and suggest a stimulated emission at the frequency W2 analogous to stimulated Raman scattering. The radiation at multiwave optical frequencies W1,2 ± If! and at MW cyclotron frequency n may provide an experimental method for the observation of cycloRaman scattering of any order. IX. CONCLUSION We developed a unified approach to the nonlinear interaction of EM (in particular, optical) radiation with a single cyclotron electron, and demonstrated the feasibility of many strongly nonlinear effects. They include hysteresis and bisrability at the main cyclotron resonance and various multiphoton processes (in particular, subharmonics and stimulated cyclo Raman scattering of arbitrary order) which exhibit isolas, prohibited and allowed orbits, phase multistability , and Stark shift. All of these effects are based on the most fundamental relativistic properties of both electron and radiation such as excitationdependent mass effect, the Doppler effect, and the Lorentz ra
diation force. The critical power of driving radiation required to observe most of these effects is very low and can be obtained by using the CW regime of any conventional laser. Aside from their fundamental significance, some of these nonlinear effects have the potential for applications (e.g., cyclotron MW excitation of electrons by lasers via cycleRaman resonance, coherent links between the MW, millimeter, and optical ranges via highorder subharmonics, etc.). Further research should involve "nonensemble" quantum theory of the phenomenon.
REFERENCES [I] A. E. Kaplan, "Hysteresis in cyclotron resonance based on weak relativisticmass effects of the electron," Phys. Rev. Lett.: vol. 48, pp 138141, Jan. 1982. [2] G. Gabrielse, H. Dehrnelt, and W. Kells. "Observation of a relativistic bistable hysteresis in the cyclotron motion of a single electron." Phys. Rev. Leu., vol. 54, pp. 537539. Feb. 1985. [3] A. E. Kaplan. "Hysteretic relativistic resonance of a single electron." Nature, vol. 317, pp. 476477. Oct. 1985; see also A. E. Kaplan. "Ultimate bistability: Hysteretic resonance of a slightlyrelativistic electron," IEEE J. Quantum Electron .. vol. QE·21, pp. 15441549. Sept. 1985. [4] . "Relativistic nonlinear optics of a single cyclotron electron." Phys. Rev. Lett .. vol. 56, pp. 456459, Fcb. 1986. [5] . "Optical highorder subharmonics excitation of free cyclotron electrons," Opt. Lett., vol. 12, pp. 489491, July 1987. [61 Y. J. Ding and A. E. Kaplan. "Isolas in the threephoton optical excitation of a single cyclotron electron." Opt. Lett .. vol. 12, pp 69970 I. Sept. 1987. [7] H. M. Gibbs, Optical Bistabilitv New York: Academic, 1985 [8] A. E. Kaplan. "Multiphoton excitation of relativistic cyclotron resonance and phase bistability." in Optical Bistability Ill. H. M. Gibbs. P. Mandel, N. Peyghambarian. and S. D. Smith. Eds. New York: Springer, 1985. pp. 240243. [9] D. 1. Wineland. "Lasertomicrowave frequency division using synchrotron radiation," J. Appl. Phvs.; vol. 50. pp. 25282532. Apr. 1979; see also J. C. Bergquist and D. J. Wineland, "Laser to microwave frequency division using synchrotron radiation ]1." in Proc. 33rd Annu. Svmp. Frequency Con" .. 1979. pp. 494497. [10] A. E. Kaplan and A. Elci, "Hysteresis (bistable) cyclotron resonance in semiconductors," Ph.ys, Rev. B, vol. 29, pp. 820825, Jan. 1984. [I I] A. E. Kaplan and Y. J. Ding, "Hysteretic threephoton cyclotron resonance in semiconductors." Opt. Lett .• vol. 12, pp. 687689. Sept. 1987. [I2] E. O. Kane, "Band structure of indium antimonide," I Phys. Chem. Solids, vol. I, pp. 249261. Jan. 1957. [13] B. Lax, in Proc . 7th Int. Con! Phvs. Semiconductors, Paris, France. 1964 p. 253; see also A. G. Aronov, "Oscillations of the opncal absorption coefficient in crossed electric and magnetic fields." SOl. Phys. Solid State, vol. 5, pp. 402404. Aug. 1963; sec also H. C. Praddaude," Bloch electrons in external electric and magnetic fields." Phys. Rev" vol , 140, pp. AI292AI296. Nov. 1965: see also W. Zawadzki and B. Lax." Two band model for Bloch electrons in crossed electric and magnetic fields." Phys. ReI'. Lett .. vol. 16. pp. 10011003, May 1966. ll4J P. A. Wolff, "Matrix elements + selection rules for 2·hand model of bismuth," J. Phvs. Chem. Solids. vol. 25. pp. 1057 1068. Oct. 1964. [15] E. Yablonovitch, N. Bloembergen. and J. J. Wynne. "Dispersion of the nonlinear optical susceptibility in nInsb." Ph)", Rev. B, vol. 3, pp. 20602062. 1971; see also J. J. Wynne ... Dispersion of the nonlinear optical susceptibility X (.1) in nIrrSb in a magnetic field." Phvs. Rev. B. vol. 6. pp. 534545. 1972. [16] W. Zawadzki, S. Klahn, and U. Merkt, "Semi relativistic bahaviorof electrons in [nSb in crossed magnetic and electric fields." Phys. Rev. Lett.; vol. 55. pp. 983986. Aug. 1985. [17] H. A. Lorentz, The Theory of Electrons. Leipzig: Teubner. 1909. pp. 49, 253. [18] M. Abraham. Theone der Strahlung, Leipzig: Teubner. 1905. vol. 2, sect. 1315. [19] M. Planck, Vorlesungen uber die Theorie der Warmestrahlung. Lcipzig: Barth, 1906. sect. 10411 I .
1482 [20[ M. von Laue. Ann. Phys. (l.eiprig); vol. 28. p. 436, 1909. [21] P. A. M. Dirac, Proc. Roy. Soc. London, vol. 167, p. 148,1938. [22] L. D. Landau and E. M. Lifshitz, The Classical Theory of Fields. Cambridge, MA: AddisonWesley, 1971. [23] The most recent (and detailed) review on classical theory of radiation damping can be found in a paper by N. P. Klepikov "Radiation damping forces and radiation from charged particles." Usp Fiz: Nauk , vol. 146, pp. 317339, June 1985 (Sov. Phvs. Usp.: vol. 28, pp. 506520, JUlie 1985). [24] J. 1. Stoker, Nonlinear Vibrations in Mechanical and Electrical Systems. New York: Interscience , 1950, sect. 4.4: see also N. N. Bogoliubov and Yu. A. Mitropolskii, Asymptotic Methods ill the Theory of Nonlinear Oscillations. New York: Gordon and Breach, 1961; see also N. Minorsky, Nonlinear Oscillation.". Princeton. '<J: Van Nostrand, 1962; see also L. D. Landau and E. M. Lifshitz, Mechanics. New York: Pergamon. 1~7('. [25] A. O. Barut "What is an electron? Relativistic electron theory and radiative processes, ,. in Quantum Optics, Experimental Gravity, and Measurement Theory, P. Meystre and M. O. Scully, Eds. New York and London: Plenum, 1983. [26] N. Bloembergen, Nonlinear Optics. New York: Benjamin. 1965. [27J The role of the finite orbit size of bounded atomic electrons in application to the secondorder nonlinear effects in media with thirdnonlinearity was discussed, e.g., in ch. I, sect. 8.2 written by Yu. L. Klimontovich for the book by S. A. Akhmanov and R. V. Khokhlov, Problems of Nonlineur Optics. New York: Gordon and Breach, 1972. 128] A. E. Kaplan, Yu. A. Kravtsov , and V. A. Ry lov, Parametric Oscillators and Frequency Uividers (in Russian). Moscow, U.S.S.R.: Soviet Radio, 1966. [29] A. E. Kaplan. "Subharmonic oscillations in a parametric generator with nonlinear capacitance," Radio Eng. Electron. Phvs.; vol. 8, pp. 13401347, 1963; see also A. E. Kaplan, "Anomalous nth order resonance in singlecircuit having a pn junction with nonlinear capacitance," Radio Eng. Electron. Ph ..,'. , vol. 9. pp. 14241425, 1964: see also A. E. Kaplan, "Contribution to the theory of parametric generator of subharrnonics up to nth order, transient processes." Radio Eng. Electron. Phys.; vol. 11. pp. 12141221, 1966; see also A. E. Kaplan, .. Phase fluctuations in a twocircuit parametric generator of subharmonics." Radio Eng. Electron. Phys., vol. 11, pp. 13541359, 1966. [30] . "On generation of highorder subharmonics in the optical range," Radiophvs. Quantum Electron.; vol. II, p. 900, 1968. [31] E. M. MacMillan, "The synchrotronA proposed high energy par
IEEE JOURNAL OF QLANTUM
ELECTRONICS.
VOL. 24. NO.7.
JULY 1988
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[34]
[35] [36]
tiele accelerator," Phvs. Rev., vol. 68, pp. 143144, Sept. 1945: see also V. Veksler, J. Phys. U.S.S.R., vol. 9, P 153.1945. D. Bohm and L. L. Foldy. "Theory of synchrocyclotron," Phvs. Rev., vol. 72, pp. 649661, Oct. 1947. K. M. Evenson, D. A. Jennings, F. R. Peterson. and 1. S. Wells, in Proc. 3rd Int. Con]. Laser Spectroscopy, 1. L. Hall and J. L. Carlsten. Eds. Heidelberg: SpringerVerlag. 1977, vol. 7, p. 56; see also D. 1. E. Knight and P. T. Woods, "Application of nonlinear devices to optical frequency measurements." J. Phvs. E., vol. 9. pp. 898916, Nov. 1976. D. A. Jennings, C. R. Pollack. F. R. Peterson, R. E. Drullinger. K. M. Evenson, and J. S. Wells, "Direct frequency measurement of tile I,stabilized HeNe 437 THz 1633nm]laser_" Opt. t.ett., vol. 8. pp. 136138, Mar. 1983. R. G. DeVoe and R. G. Brewer, "Laserfrequency division and stabilization," Phys. Rev. A, vol. 30, pp. 28272829, Nov. 1984. See, for example, M. Kubicek, I. Stuchl , and M. Marek, "Tsolas in solution diagrams," J. Comput . Phys., vol. 48, pp. 106116, June 1982; see also T. Emeux and E. Reiss. "Brussellator isolas," SIAM 1. ApI'/. Math., vol. 43. pp. 12401246. Dec. 1983: see also 1. C. Englund and W. C. Schieve , "Laser isolas," 1. Opt. Soc. Atner B. vol. 2, pp. glg3. Jan. 1985; see also A. E. Kaplan and C. T. Law, "Isolas in fourwave mixing optical bistabilily.·' IEEE 1. Quantum Electron., vol. QE21, pp. 15291537. Sept. 1985.
Alexander K Kaplan, for a photograph
p. 1313.
and biography.
see this issue.
Yu_ J. Ding was born in Jilin, China, on November 2, 1962. He received the R.S. degree from Jilin University, Changchun, China, in 1984 and the M.S.E.E. degree from Purdue University. West Lafayette. IN, in 1987. Since 1987 he has been working towards the Ph.D. degrce at The Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD, under Prof. A. E. Kaplan's guidance. His interests include nonlinear optics of electrons in vacuum and in semiconductors. Mr. Ding is a member of Thc American Physical Society.
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