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4G Mobile technology - The mobile race to innovation.
it is estimated that it will be implemented by 2010.If 4G is implemented correctly. and if done correctly. It wont be just the phone networks that need to evolve. the increased traffic load on the internet will need to expand. it will truly harmonise global roaming. . with faster backbones and oceanic links requiring major upgrade.Welcome to the 4G The fourth generation of mobile networks will truly turn the current mobile phone networks. should take off rather quickly. in to end to end IP based networks . 4G wont happen over night.
lighter. Some people see 3G as a stop-gap. or wireless. and its disadvantages. The short fall of 3G networks is clear. it·s just not fast enough. . offering 384kbps doesn·t meet the requirements of what the end user has come to expect these days. some countries have even chosen to bypass 3G and head straight to 4G. be it wired. they have bigger screens and longer battery life. Bandwidth will always be the limiting factor in the development of applications and devices. more features and more capabilities. and more powerful. until a fully integrated IP network is created. a method which has its advantages.About 4G Mobile devices are getting smaller.
and will become second nature in the future. Technology Companies with 4G networks are knocking on the door and mobile operators are beginning to answer. as well as speed and reliability.About 4G 4G is set to be available around 2010. 4G networks and Next Generation Networks (NGNs) are becoming fast and very cost-effective solutions for those wanting an IP built high-speed data capacities in the mobile network. . something which is greatly needed. The end user can expect low cost per data bit. getting it right first time will make it a general winner with the one billion mobile users around the world.
The systems were called "cellular" because large coverage areas were split into smaller areas or "cells". or. . each cell is served by a low power transmitter and receiver. called IMTS. In the sixties.4G History At the end of the 1940·s. a system launched by Bell Systems. The very first analog systems were based upon IMTS and were created in the late 60s and early 70s. the first radio telephone service was introduced. and was designed to users in cars to the public land-line based telephone network. ´Improved Mobile Telephone Service". brought quite a few improvements such as direct dialing and more bandwidth.
Advance mobile phone system (AMPS) was first launched by the US and is a 1G mobile system. 1G analog system for mobile communications saw two key improvements during the 1970s: the invention of the microprocessor and the digitization of the control link between the mobile phone and the cell site. or First Generation.1G. this was the invention of the microprocessor. it allows users to make voice calls in 1 country . Based on FDMA. or First Generation The 1G. and was developed in the seventies. and the digital transform of the control link between the phone and the cell site. 1G had two major improvements. 1G was an analog system.
codedivision multiple access (CDMA).2G. and uses digital modulation for improved audio quality. digital AMPS (D-AMPS). short message. 2G cellular systems include GSM. . and personal digital communication (PDC). and data transmission is growing rapidly. GSM provides voice and limited data services. but the demand for fax. Multiple digital systems. and coverage Speech transmission still dominates the airways. system capacity. The development of 2G cellular systems was driven by the need to improve transmission quality. or Second Generation 2G phones using global system for mobile communications (GSM) were first used in the early 1990s in Europe.
or Second Generation The core network. The existing mobile network consists of the radio access network (comprising cells and backhaul communications) and the core network (comprising trunks. switches. and servers). coordinates resources to hand over your call from one cell to another as you move.2G. links to the fixed network so that you can reach fixed-line phones. discovers where you are so that you can receive incoming calls. The 2G architecture. and communicates with roaming partners. . using subscription and authentication information held in the home location register (HLR) and authentication centre (AuC). Mobile switching centres (MSCs) are intelligent servers and the whole network is datadriven. This network links together all the cells into a single network.
Data rates up to 2 Mbps (depending on mobility). and Asia. . Europe. and graphics applications. 4. 3. A single family of compatible standards that can be used worldwide for all mobile applications. The idea behind 3G is to have a single network standard instead of the different types adopted in the US. or Third Generation The 3G technology adds multimedia facilities to 2G phones by allowing video. High spectrum efficiency. you can watch streaming video or have video telephony. Over 3G phones. audio. 2. will sustain higher data rates and open the door to many Internet style applications. Telecommunications System (UMTS) or IMT-2000. The main characteristics of IMT-2000 3G systems are: 1.3G. Support for both packet-switched and circuit-switched data transmission.
and i-mode compatible Websites. up to 384 kbps when the device holder is walking. or Third Generation 3G promises increased bandwidth. FOMA·s secure access can be used for mobile banking and e-commerce. and 2 Mbps in fixed applications. . Its high-speed packet transmission network allows the i-mode structure to handle more multimedia content for 3G and 4G wireless Internet services. EDGE is a faster version of GSM wireless service. DoCoMo·s Freedom of Multimedia Access (FOMA) service provides fast. FOMA Launched in October 2001. 128 kbps in a car.3G. e-mail. high-quality voice and image transmission through packetbased networks. A new air interface called enhanced data GSM environment (EDGE) has been developed specifically to meet the bandwidth needs of 3G.
High bandwidth requirement. Poor battery life.1G Poor voice quality. 2G The GSM is a circuit switched. This causes inefficiency in usage of bandwidth and resources. They are unable to handle complex data such as video. frequent call drops. 1. 3G . Limited capacity and poor handoff reliability. connection oriented technology. Large phone size. Huge capital. High spectrum licensing fees. where the end systems are dedicated for the entire call session. No security. The GSM-enabled systems do not support high data rates.
8kbps. data rates are 384 kbps (download) maximum. rates do drop dramatically. . and 64kbps upload. typically around 200kbps. Rates did increase by a factor of 3 with newer handsets to 28. or Forth Generation For 1 and 2G standards. This is approximately 6 times slower than an ISDN (Integrated services digital network). when the network is busy. Third generation mobile. This is rarely the speed though.4G. as in crowded areas. Fourth generation mobile communications will have higher data transmission rates than 3G. bandwidth maximum is 9. only comparable to the bandwidth workstations get connected directly to a LAN.6 kbit/sec. this is a phenomenal amount of bandwidth. 4G mobile data transmission rates are planned to be up to 100 megabits per second on the move and 1000gigbits per second stationary.
or it is passed on to another frequency TDMA-Time Division Multiple Access makes use of the whole available spectrum. the way it works means its highly encrypted. Instead of splitting the slots by frequency. Unlike FDMA. or Forth Generation Now we need to discuss the different access technologies. Each subscriber is given a time slot. as opposed to a frequency. so its no surprise it was developed and used by the military. It is a method where the spectrum is cut up into different frequencies and then this chunk given to the users. hence the term Code Division. CDMA allows the user to sit on all of the available frequencies at the same time. and have different time slots. it seems like the channel is permanently connected. CDMA-Code Division Multiple Access uses the spread spectrum method. TDMA and CDMA. over all of the frequency. At one time only one user is assigned to a frequency. and hop between then. Because of this the frequency is closed. it splits them by time. Therefore many uses can sit on one frequency. TDMA is used for 2G networks. . Each call is identified by its unique code. until the call is ended. because the time slots are switched so rapidly. these are FDMA. unlike FDMA.4G. FDMA-Frequency Division Multiple Access.
UMTS and future versions of UMTS and proprietary networks from ArrayComm Inc. China and Japan. WiMAX (802. HSDPA.20. . The design is that 4G will be based on OFDM (Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing). TDD UMTS. both of which will be used in 3G networks and enhance rates when used in with OFDM. Navini Networks. or Forth Generation Some possible standards for the 4G system are 802.4G. which is the key enabler of 4G technology.16). and 4G efforts in India.. Flarion Technologies. Other technological aspects of 4G are adaptive processing and smart antennas.
g. This was further reduced by the development of the fast Fourier transform (FFT). just placing up a whole lot of single carriers in parallel. e.g. and the multi-path distortion is lower. Since the various versions of the signal interfere with each other. . the signal that was sent arrives at the receiving end using multiple paths of different lengths). which greatly reduces the implementation complexity of OFDM systems. high resiliency to RF interference. it was by using banks of sinusoidal generators. This is handy because in a standard terrestrial broadcasting situation there are high amounts of multipath-channels (e. When OFDM was first implemented. The main benefit of OFDM is high spectral efficiency.4G. or Forth Generation How OFDM works Orthogonal FDM's spread spectrum technique spreads the data over a lot of carriers that are spaced apart at precise frequencies. The use of the discrete Fourier transform (DFT) was originally proposed in 1971 by Weinstein and Ebert. but with OFDM you also get. This spacing provides the "orthogonality" in this method which prevents the receivers/demodulators from seeing frequencies other than their own specific one. known as inter symbol interference (ISI) it becomes incredibly hard to extract the original information.
always-on connections to keep people on event). buildings. Crisis-management applications Education .Virtual Presence: 4G system gives mobile users a "virtual presence" (for example. in addition to temporal aspects have many applications. Virtual navigation: a remote database contains the graphical representation of streets. and physical characteristics of a large metropolis. Blocks of this database are transmitted i rapid sequence to a vehicle Tele-geoprocessing: Queries dependent on location information of several users.
4G has a significant potential for capacity improvements over 3G systems... While the impact of 3G is still uncertain! Employing the discussed techniques. The Japanese market and industries (NTT DoCoMo) seem to be leaders in mobile technologies. .. available after 2010 (?).4G is still at research stage. Therefore we should have a look on their innovations ..
1. 2.Advanced wireless networks.four-g. .net.savo Glisic.www.
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