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OFFSHORE DRILLING AND PRODUCTION EQUIPMENT
S. Tanaka Professor Emeritus, The University of Tokyo, Tokyo, Japan Y. Okada General Manager, Japan Oil Engineering Co., Ltd., Tokyo, Japan Y. Ichikawa General Manager, Japan Drilling Co., Ltd., Tokyo, Japan Keywords: Offshore, rotary drilling, offshore drilling rig, jack-up, semisubmersible, drillship, offshore oil and gas production, platform, FPSO, subsea production systems. Contents
1. Introduction 2. Outline of Rotary Drilling Method 3. Offshore Drilling Structures and Equipments 4. Offshore Oil/Gas Production Systems Glossary Bibliography Biographical Sketches To cite this chapter Summary
Oil and natural gas are brought to the surface from underground reservoirs through wells that have been drilled and completed to produce these fluids safely and economically. Fundamental technology of drilling, completion and production of oil and gas is common to onshore and offshore areas. But environmental conditions of a field affect facilities and engineering works of the field. This chapter covers the basics of rotary drilling technology, recent progress of drilling engineering, characteristics of various offshore drilling rigs, and types of offshore production systems. The offshore production system adopted to develop a field extends its influence on the drilling and completion method of the field. 1. Introduction The chapter describes mainly the present situation of offshore drilling and production of oil and natural gas. The first section is devoted for an outline of the rotary drilling method, as oil and gas wells onshore and offshore are drilled by the method. A hole made by a drilling bit is called a well. The objective of making the well is to
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World consumption of primary energy in 1999 was estimated at 8533.6 million tons oil equivalent. Oil and natural gas accounted for about 65％ of the world energy supply. Offshore areas produced 20-30 % of the oil and gas supply.
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CIVIL ENGINEERING – Offshore Drilling and Production Equipment - S. Tanaka, Y. Okada, Y. Ichikawa
produce underground fluids such as fresh water, brine, crude oil, natural gas and geothermal fluids, and to study properties of deeply situated formations. The Middle East area and China are said to have had wells producing water or natural gas even in the era before Christ. By the year 1200, wells 450 m deep were drilled in China by a spring-pole drilling method. The principle of the method is to generate percussion by dropping heavy tools on the bottom of the hole. The spring-pole drilling method was the predecessor of a cable drilling method that had been used till after 1970s. Hand-powered rotary devices were introduced to make geothermal wells in Italy and water wells in France in early 1800s. Machine-powered rotary devices and circulation systems were introduced by the late 1850’s. In 1901, the Lucas gusher at Spindletop oil field, the United States of America, was successfully drilled and completed by the rotary drilling method with circulation of fluid that consisted of water and clay. The first cementing job to shut off water was carried out in 1903. The use of bentonite as an ingredient of drilling fluid began in 1935 and has contributed to improve mud properties. Three-cutter rock bits equipped with jet nozzles were introduced to clean the bottom-hole of cuttings around 1950. The technology of directional drilling has made great progress to the level of extended reach drilling (ERD) and horizontal wells through the development of down-hole mud motors and measurement-while-drilling tools (MWD). Over-water drilling from a pier extended from seashore was carried out in the late 1890’s. Drilling and production of oil in the location where the land was out of sight was accomplished offshore Louisiana, the United States of America, in 6 m of water in 1947. The well was drilled from a tender-assisted platform system. Four basic types of mobile offshore drilling rigs were developed not long after drilling the first offshore well: the submersible rig in 1949, the ship-shaped rig in 1953, the jack-up rig in 1954, and the semisubmersible rig in 1962. Drill ships and semisubmersible rigs are called floaters. These structures float during operations. Floaters are equipped with unique facilities that are not used in onshore operations: the marine riser, the motion compensation, and the stationkeeping system. The dynamic positioning system (DPS) was introduced for deep-sea operations in 1961. The scientific research well “SG-3” in Russia reached the depth of 12 263 m in 1988, and has had the depth record ever since. The deepest exploration drilling for hydrocarbons was carried out to the depth of 9583 m in the United States of America in 1974. As for offshore wells, a hydrocarbon exploration well was drilled offshore Brazil in 2965 m of water in 2001. A production well was completed with a subsea completion system offshore Brazil in 1852 m of water in 1998. The offshore technology is steadily in progress toward deeper and deeper seas to search and produce subsea resources for the future welfare of the world. 2. Outline of Rotary Drilling Method The rotary drilling method is usually applied to make deep wells. In the rotary drilling a bit breaks down rocks at the bottom of the hole by scraping and crushing actions. The bit
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ES SA C M O PL -E E O C LS H AP S TE R
CIVIL ENGINEERING – Offshore Drilling and Production Equipment - S. Tanaka, Y. Okada, Y. Ichikawa
is rotated through a drill stem by a rotary table on a rig floor.
A diagrammatic view of the rotary drilling rig is shown in Figure 1. The left side of the figure shows main surface equipment. The substructure indicated by 3 is constructed on the ground as the foundation to support the derrick floor G on which the derrick 1, rotary table H, and drawworks M are placed. The monkey board (or platform) 2 is a working floor to handle pipes. The heavy materials such as the drill stem and casing are lowered into or lifted up from the hole by a hoisting system composed of the drawworks M, drilling line 4, crown block A, traveling block B, and the hook C. A circulation system of drilling fluid consists of the suction pits P, pumps Q, surface piping, standpipe, rotary hose (or kelly hose) F, and swivel D which is connected to the kelly E, and directed lines show the flow path of the drilling fluid. In the figure main power sources are the diesel engines N, and the power is transmitted to the rotary table, drawworks and pumps by the main transmission system O. The rotary table is driven by the drive J. Sometimes electric motors are used to drive the relevant machines. A driller controls the machines from the console by the drawworks and conducts the drilling operations. In the right side of the Figure 1 showing the cross-section of the derrick floor R and the hole, blowout preventers (BOPs) S and T are mounted on the top of the wellhead
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Figure 1: Diagrammatic View of Rotary Drilling Rig (Modified from Rabia H. (1985). Oilwell Drilling Engineering, Principles and Practice, Graham & Trotman)
or through. Intermediate strings of casing are set to case the long open section of the hole or the zones causing trouble. The drilling fluid is circulated down to the bit through the drill stem. The International Association of Drilling Contractors (IADC) classifies the bits used in the rotary drilling as follows: Roller bits (or roller-cone bits). PDC bits (PDC: polycrystalline diamond compacts) TSP bits (TSP: thermally stable polycrystalline) Natural diamond bits ©Encyclopedia of Life Support Systems (EOLSS) ES SA C M O PL -E E O C LS H AP S TE R The casing consists of lengths of steel pipe being joined to another. Preventing the formation fluids from entering into the wellbore and controlling them. The last string of casing is the production casing that is set immediately above. The fluid falls into the suction pit P to be circulated again The main functions of the rotary drilling rig are as follows: Penetrating operations. The casing is also handled by the hoisting system. and finally to provide a means of production of oil and gas if the well is productive. Its main function is to protect fresh-water zones. The purposes of casing are to protect fresh-water sands. The drill stem is composed of the kelly E. It is the primary function of the BOPs to safely confine fluids suddenly entering into the hole out of formations . the production formations U N . Conditioning and circulating the drilling fluids by the circulation system.S. Ichikawa connected to the surface casing V. the drill pipe X.CIVIL ENGINEERING – Offshore Drilling and Production Equipment . The next smaller-diameter casing is the surface casing V. The components of the drill stem are made of steel pipes. Tanaka. The bit breaks down rock at the bottom-hole by the rotation under the weight. and up to the surface through the annular space between the drill stem and the borehole or casing. and then to the shale shaker K to separate cuttings and fluid. Steel tooth bits. The drill stem with the bit is lowered and lifted by the hoisting system. A number of strings of casing are set in the well. The annular space between the casing and the borehole should be filled with cement W to support the casing and prevent the flow of underground fluids up to the surface and/or into the fresh-water zones. (b) Fixed cutter drill bits. The drilling fluid returned to the surface flows into the return line L. and drill collars Y. The rotating force of the rotary table is transmitted through the drill stem to the bit. to prevent drilling problems such as heaving formations and high-pressure zones. Y. and to bleed them off from the hole through the outlets U in a controlled manner. Y. Insert bits (or tungsten carbide insert bits). The bit Z is attached at the lower end of the drill collars. Conductor casing is the largest-diameter casing used to protect the surface soils. Some portion of the weight of drill collars is applied to the bit as the bit weight to push the bit against the rock. Hoisting operations. Okada.
and to contain formation fluids in the formations. Ichikawa Three types of bits are shown in Figure 2. B: insert bit. Main functions are as follows: Removal of cuttings from the bottom of the hole to the surface. and to find out the indication of oil and gas in the formations. The IADC bit classification system provides conventional methods for categorizing roller bits by three digits. Y. Okada. The choice of bits depends upon properties of the formations. Y. Controlling hydraulic pressure in the hole by adjusting the density of the mud to prevent collapse of the wall of the borehole. Tanaka. conventionally simply called as muds. and drilling techniques (see Drilling Machines). The drilling fluids. Cuttings are separated from the mud at the shale shaker. and C: fishtail PDC bit. ©Encyclopedia of Life Support Systems (EOLSS) ES SA C M O PL -E E O C LS H AP S TE R Figure 2: Three Types of Bits Used in Rotary Drilling A: steel tooth bit.CIVIL ENGINEERING – Offshore Drilling and Production Equipment . have lots of important functions in the rotary drilling. and fixed cutter drill bits by four characters. (From Drill Bit Catalog © 1995 – Hughes Christensen Reproduced Courtesy of Hughes Christensen Company) U N .S. These cuttings and samples of the mud are analyzed to study geological properties of the rocks penetrated.
Their base fluids classify them as follows: water-base muds. The technical advancement of the measurement-while-drilling tools (MWD) and the logging-while-drilling tools (LWD) has contributed to the almost real-time acquisition of the down-hole information. & Aarrestad T. Owing to these tools it has become easy to drill directional and horizontal wells.0. The adoption of the directional wells. Directional wells with long horizontal departure are called extended-reach-drilling (ERD) wells. or to improve operations in the vertical well drilling. but the down-hole mud motor and the top drive device are applied to rotate the bit in the directional and horizontal well drilling. clay minerals. is preferred to make up water-base muds. An ERD well in the united Kingdom drilled in 1999 to access offshore reserves from onshore had a record of a departure of 10 728 m with a measured depth of 11 287 m and approximately 1600 m true vertical depth. Y.E. extended-reach wells. A definition of a horizontal well is a well with a hole section exceeding an inclination of 85 degrees. chemicals. and the multilateral wells has a share in the economical development of oil and gas fields. Drevdal K. Okada.. air or gas drilling. Ichikawa Cooling and lubricating the bit and the drill stem. Extended Reach. horizontal wells.V.. and inert solids. Figure 3: Examples of Horizontal Wells in the North Sea (From Blikra H. (1994).CIVIL ENGINEERING – Offshore Drilling and Production Equipment . a kind of clay. oil-base muds. Inert solids such as barite are mixed in the mud to adjust the density. A small quantity of chemicals adds in the mud to control the viscosity and filtration properties. Bentonite. Horizontal and ©Encyclopedia of Life Support Systems (EOLSS) ES SA C M O PL -E E O C LS H AP S TE R U N . Figure3 is an example of horizontal wells in the North Sea. The drilling fluids are composed of base fluids. Figure 4 shows various types of multilateral wells. The definition of an extended reach well is a well with a measured depth to true vertical depth ratio greater than 2. Tanaka. In the conventional system of the rotary drilling. Y.S. the rotary table rotates the drill stem.
In the MWD and LWD systems. Production. Some sophisticated data transmission systems consist of electromagnetic wave propagation through the earth. The top drive drilling system is suspended from the swivel. one is a turbine type (turbodrill). but can also be used for straight-hole drilling. and the downhole weight and torque on the bit are included in a modified type of the tool. of the 15th World Petroleum Congress. Ichikawa Complex Design Wells: Challenges. In the LWD. and the other is a positive displacement type (PDM). moves up and down together with it. John Wiley & Sons. Tanaka.S. ©Encyclopedia of Life Support Systems (EOLSS) ES SA C M O PL -E E O C LS H AP S TE R U N . Y. Vol. Proc.. Reproduced Courtesy of World Petroleum Congress) There are two basic types of down-hole mud motors. The motor is designed primarily for the directional performance drilling motor. or sonic wave propagation through the drill stem. and Reserves. sensors are set within the drill collars just above the bit. In the MWD. and rotates directly the drill stem by electric or hydraulic motors. John Wiley & Sons. Vol. Complex Well Architecture､ IOR and Heavy Oils. Exploration. The term MWD is often used as a synonym for the term LWD. the formation resistivity and natural gamma ray are measured.2. Reproduced Courtesy of World Petroleum Congress) Figure 4: Various Types of Advanced Wells (From Renard G. Production. Okada. Achievements and Cost-benefits. (1998). Y. the hole direction and inclination are measured. of the 14th World Petroleum Congress. Proc. Figure 5 is an illustration of a multi-lobe (5/6) rotor/stator configuration type of the positive displacement motor.CIVIL ENGINEERING – Offshore Drilling and Production Equipment . Data measured at the downhole are transmitted to the surface in a real-time mode by coded mud pulses sending up inside of the drill stem or the annular space. & Delamaide E.
In the right side of Figure 6. The binary data control movement of a valve actuator to produce positive pulses of the ©Encyclopedia of Life Support Systems (EOLSS) ES SA C M O PL -E E O C LS H AP S TE R Figure 5: Diagram of Multi-Lobe Mud Motor (From the General catalog. In the left side of the Figure 6. Y. Okada. Ichikawa Figure 6 is an illustration of a positive mud pulse system of the MWD system. positive mud pulses B move up through the drill stem to a pressure detector C at the surface. Y. In the MWD tool measured data are converted into binary signals by an electronics package. Eastman Christensen TM Reproduced Courtesy of Baker Hughes INTEQ) U N .S. a MWD tool A is enlarged. Tanaka.CIVIL ENGINEERING – Offshore Drilling and Production Equipment .
(1979). In addition. Accommodations and catering for crews working for 24 hours are required on the rig. geophysical logging.1.S. Developments in Drilling Technology.E. and therefore offshore drilling costs are higher than land drilling costs for similar depth wells. Production. Because of the location remote from infrastructure. Figure 6: Positive Mud Pulse System of MWD (Modified from Busking B. meteorological measurements. Vol. etc. Okada. Technical Features of Offshore Drilling ES SA C M O PL -E E O C LS H AP S TE R . Reproduced Courtesy of World Petroleum Congress) 3. Heyden & Son Ltd. offshore rigs also carry on board a number of service systems such as cementing.supported and floating rigs Stationary production structures used exclusively for development wells The first category of mobile structures includes the following rigs: U ©Encyclopedia of Life Support Systems (EOLSS) N 3. helicopter.CIVIL ENGINEERING – Offshore Drilling and Production Equipment . All these factors make offshore rigs complex and sophisticated. Proc. Ichikawa mud in the drill stem. There are two main categories of drilling rig structures used offshore: Mobile bottom. there are lots of specific services on board such as ROV. Y. of 10th World Petroleum Congress. Tanaka. divers. 3. and so on. Y. Offshore Drilling Structures Offshore drilling needs a floating or bottom-supported rig. Offshore drilling rigs have drilling equipment to conduct all the functions similar to the land drilling rigs and have facilities peculiar to offshore operations.
and is called as self-contained platform. During towing.CIVIL ENGINEERING – Offshore Drilling and Production Equipment . Jack-up Drilling Rigs (Jack-up Rigs.1. Y. A hull of the jack-up drilling rig is typically constructed in a triangular shape with 3 legs. A jack-up rig is moved by being towed by a tugboat or is transported by a heavy lift carrier from one drilling location to another. Self-elevating Drilling Rigs) Jack-up drilling rigs are used in water depth that typically ranges from 15 to 100 m with a maximum depth of 150 m. Okada.2. There is a guideline to choose roughly the type of offshore drilling rigs according to water depth and conditions of sea state and winds: Water depth less than 25 m: submersible rigs (swamp barges) Water depth less than 50 m and calm sea: tender or jack-up assisted platforms Water depth less than 400 m and mild sea: self-contained platforms Water depth from 15 m to 150 m: jack-up rigs Water depth from 20 m to 2000 m: anchored drillships or semisubmersible rigs Water depth from 500 m to 3000 m: drillships or semisubmersible rigs with dynamic positioning system Isolated area with icebergs: drillships with dynamic positioning system Severe sea conditions: semisubmersible rigs or new generation drillships U 3. ©Encyclopedia of Life Support Systems (EOLSS) ES SA C M O PL -E E O C LS H AP S TE R N . Mobile Bottom-supported Rigs 3.2. which is described later in the Section 4 of the chapter. When moving a jack-up rig. and then jacked above the sea surface on tubular or derrick legs. it is necessary to ensure that weather conditions (sea states and winds) do not exceed the allowable operating parameters established for each jack-up rig design. so a kind of tender assists the work. The small platform has a space only to accommodate derrick and drawworks. and in a few cases in rectangular or other shapes. the legs are raised so that just a few feet protrude below the hull.S. Y. Tanaka. A jack-up rig is moderately stable when floating on its hull with its legs up. which is described later in the section. Ichikawa Jack-up rigs Submersible rigs (swamp barges) Anchor-stationed or dynamically positioned semisubmersible rigs Anchor-stationed or dynamically positioned drillships Drilling structures used for developing offshore fields from stationary platforms are of two types: Self-contained platforms Tender or jack-up assisted platforms or well-protector jackets The large production platform equips a complete set of drilling equipment.
the legs are lowered to the sea floor and the hull is raised (jacked) out of the water. The type is used on flat sea-bottom in water depth of up to 50 m.e. The hull is jacked up (elevated) at a speed that ranges from 0. i. Okada. Tanaka. Y.3 to 1 m/min. Mat-supported type for soft seabed: Legs is connected with a mat. The vertical members (chords) are attached by cross members (k-braces) and form interconnected truss members.) There are two basic leg configurations of jack-up rigs: Independent-leg type for relatively firm seabed: Each independent leg has a spud can on the end. The penetration depends on the composition of the soil and the shape of spud can. ©Encyclopedia of Life Support Systems (EOLSS) ES SA C M O PL -E E O C LS H AP S TE R U N . The leg penetrates soil below the mud line. which drive a number of pinion gears attached to each of the leg chord gear racks. The penetration is slight. Legs of the independent-leg type of jack-up rigs are either vertical or tilted slightly outward to provide stability when the hull is raised out of the water.CIVIL ENGINEERING – Offshore Drilling and Production Equipment . Once the rig arrives at the drilling location. The mat rests on the seabed to stably support the rig. Y. The legs are raised and lowered with electric motors mounted to the main deck of the hull. Each of the chords has a gear rack that runs the full length of the leg. the sea bottom. Each leg typically consists of three to six vertical members called chords.S. Ichikawa Figure 7: Jack-Up Drilling Rig with Triangular Shape and 3 Legs (JDC Hakuryu 8) (Reproduced Courtesy of Japan Drilling Co.
Okada. drilling process is carried out in a way similar to land operations after the outer casing and surface BOP is installed. Ichikawa Prior to raising the hull to the safe working height above the ocean waves. thus jeopardizing the safety of the rig. The air gap depends on the expected height of the waves and also the height of the production platform if drilling a well on a production platform.2.CIVIL ENGINEERING – Offshore Drilling and Production Equipment . Tanaka. Depending on the design of the rig. Swamp Barges) ©Encyclopedia of Life Support Systems (EOLSS) ES SA C M O PL -E E O C LS H AP S TE R Figure 8: Submersible Drilling Rig (Noble FriRodli) (Reproduced Courtesy of Noble Drilling Corporation) U N . If the sediments are not dense enough to support these loads. or the rig floor and support structure (substructure) can be extended/slid-out (cantilevered) from the side of the hull to the desired drilling position. It is necessary for the sediments that the legs are pushing against to support the weight of the jack-up hull and also the additional drilling equipment placed on the rig during drilling operations and certain drilling loads. A leg punch through can severely damage the legs and hull. The height of the hull above the sea surface is called the air gap. there is a slot either in the hull to allow the wellhead to be positioned under the rig floor. the hull can be raised to the desired height above the ocean waves. one or more of the jack-up legs may suddenly/rapidly push (punch) through the sea floor sediments. Y. Submersible Drilling Rigs (Submersible Rigs.S. Once the preloading operation is complete. Y.2. Once the rig is placed in operating position. 3. it is required to preload the legs that penetrate the ocean sediments.
and the southern part of United States of America.3. Swamp barges have operated in swamp and marsh areas in Nigeria. The lower hull has the buoyancy capacity to float and support the upper hull and equipment. Tanaka. Most submerged rigs are used only shallow waters of 8 to 10 meters. Ichikawa Submersible drilling rigs consist of upper and lower hulls connected by a network of posts or beams.) If weather conditions (wind. The tender anchored alongside the platform contains drilling equipment such as pumps and tubular goods. and accommodation for personnel.2. 3. The tender platforms are used in Gulf of Guinea and the Persian Gulf waters where good weather conditions prevail.S. Y. Inc. Movement and drilling operations proceed as that of the jack-up rig. The drilling equipment and living quarters are installed on the upper hull deck. Y.CIVIL ENGINEERING – Offshore Drilling and Production Equipment . and current) become too harsh. which are called swamp barges. An arctic mobile drilling unit having conical. Tender-Assisted Platforms and Tenders In regions where the weather conditions are not harsh. the rig submerges and rests on the seabed to provide a working place for the drilling. Ship-shaped submersible rigs are also used. Okada. A catwalk connects the platform and the tender. the drilling operations must be shut down due to excessive motion of the tender. Figure 9: Platform (left) and Semisubmersible Tender (right) (Atwood Oceanics SEAHAWK) (Reproduced Courtesy of Atwood Oceanics. When water is pumped into the lower hull. it is possible to use lower cost fixed platforms that are designed to support only the derrick and the drawworks. swell. Indonesia. sloping-side structure belongs to the submersible type. ©Encyclopedia of Life Support Systems (EOLSS) ES SA C M O PL -E E O C LS H AP S TE R U N .
Floating Offshore Drilling Rigs (Floaters) 3. 3. Reproduced Courtesy of Japan Petroleum Development Association) U N . Okada. Drillships and semisubmersible rigs are classified as floaters.CIVIL ENGINEERING – Offshore Drilling and Production Equipment . floaters are commonly used. They are stationkeeping system.1. ©Encyclopedia of Life Support Systems (EOLSS) ES SA C M O PL -E E O C LS H AP S TE R Figure 10: Outline of Drilling System of Semisubmersible Rig (Modified from Sekiyukaihatsu Gijutsu no Shiori (1st edition). marine riser system.S. Y. Ichikawa resulting in low downtime less than 2% of total operation time. These systems are shown in Figure 10 in a case of semisubmersible rig with an anchor-mooring system. Drilling operations with floaters require peculiar technologies that are not used in the operations of mobile bottom-supported drilling rigs.3. Technologies Required by Floaters In water depths greater than 100 m. Tanaka. and drillstring motion compensator.3. Y.
and send the signals to the vessel. and as a guide for running drill stem and casing from the floater to the hole under the seafloor. The computers analyze the signals. The vessel has several thrusters under the bottom of it. wire ropes or a combination of chains and wire ropes) and anchors that is shown in Figure 10.CIVIL ENGINEERING – Offshore Drilling and Production Equipment . and ancillaries. One of the methods is an anchor mooring system consisting of mooring lines (chains. Acoustic positioning beacons are located around the subsea wellhead. An adequate stationkeeping system is necessary to keep a floater within acceptable limits above the subsea wellhead. The riser pipe is connected to the top of subsea BOP. riser tensioners. Y. The marine riser system consists of riser pipe. and command movement of the thrusters to keep the vessel's position within acceptable limits.S. Ichikawa Wind and current forces push a floater away from the location directly above the subsea wellhead. Okada. And/or the vessel receives position signals from satellites. The other is DPS. and is pulled up by the riser tensioner system onboard to keep vertical configuration. ©Encyclopedia of Life Support Systems (EOLSS) ES SA C M O PL -E E O C LS H AP S TE R Figure 11: Crown Mounted Type of Heave Compensator U N . Computers onboard manipulate the thrusters automatically. Tanaka. It is important to arrange the mooring-system according to environmental conditions prevailing at the location. The riser pipe serves as a conduit for returning mud to the surface from the hole. Y. which is the acronym of dynamic positioning system. Waves raise and fall the floater. The technology has developed to overcome these effects caused by weather conditions.
CIVIL ENGINEERING – Offshore Drilling and Production Equipment . One is a crown mounted heave compensator shown in Figure 11.2. Drillships are shown in Figure 12. (Reproduced Courtesy of Transocean Inc. Tanaka. 3. ©Encyclopedia of Life Support Systems (EOLSS) ES SA C M O PL -E E O C LS H AP S TE R U N . The heave compensator is placed in the derrick. riser pipe. An opening called a moon pool is equipped in the center of the ship from the main deck to the water.Kristiansand) The motion compensator is a device to maintain constant weight on the bit during drilling operation in spite of oscillation of the floater due to wave motion. and so forth are lowered through the moon pool to the sea floor. as the rig heaves up and down. and is placed near the top of the drill collars. and the dynamic positioning system was equipped in drillships in 1961. A mandrel composing an upper portion of the bumper sub slides in and out of a body of the bumper sub like a telescope in response to the heave of the rig. Figure 12: The Larger is a Drillship with Dual-Activity Drilling System (TSF Discoverer Enterprise). and the Smaller is a Previous Generation Drillship (TSF Discoverer 534) Alongside with a Supply Boat. Drilling assembly.S. and allow the top of the drill stem to remain stationary. There are two types of the heave compensator. Both systems use either hydraulic or pneumatic cylinders that act as springs supporting the drill stem load. The bumper sub is used as a component of a drill string.3. Ichikawa (Reproduced Courtesy of National Oilwell . Y. and the other is an in-line compensator that is hung below the traveling block in the derrick shown in Figure 10. Okada. One of the devices is a bumper sub. Y.) Drillships contain all of the equipment and material needed to drill and complete the well. Other device is a heave compensator. and this telescopic action of the bumper sub keeps the bit stable on the bottom-hole. Drillships The first drillship was introduced in offshore services in 1953. wellhead equipment. The bumper sub is able to transmit the torque from the drill stem to the drill collars to rotate the bit.
Although the dual-activity system in the deepwater drillship is in the early stage of deployment. the open area between the ©Encyclopedia of Life Support Systems (EOLSS) ES SA C M O PL -E E O C LS H AP S TE R Figure 13: Semisubmersible Drilling Rig (JDC Hakuryu 3) (Reproduced Courtesy of Japan Drilling Co. Semisubmersible Drilling Rig U N . and mud treatment system. drawworks. jointed in the drilling fleet in 1962. Okada. Also. Semisubmersible drilling rigs. These ships have production test facilities and oil storage tanks in addition to the usual drilling equipment. The lower hulls provide improved stability for the vessel.3. Tanaka. the second drilling system is used for making up casing and tubing strings in advance. the PROPRIETARY dual-activity drilling system OF TRANSOCEAN INC. When a hole is drilled by the first drilling system. The dual-activity rigs have two sets of drilling equipment such as mud pumps. is shown in the larger drillship in Figure 12. top drives. and so on. Y.S. it is readily recognized that the system can save significant time and cost of drilling operations.) 3.3. Y. which are simply called as semisubmersibles. Semisubmersibles have submerged pontoons (lower hulls) that are interconnected to the drilling deck by vertical columns as shown in Figure 10 and Figure 13.CIVIL ENGINEERING – Offshore Drilling and Production Equipment . Ichikawa New generation drillships built in 1990s have the capacity to drill wells in the waters up to 3000 meters. To improve the efficiency of deepwater operations with the aim of economic advantages.
the lower hulls are submerged in the water about half-length of the column. and some rigs have self-propelled capacity. living quarters and so forth are placed on the deck. Y. Semisubmersibles have minimum structures exposed to wave actions. sea water pumps are equipped in the lower hulls. topography of the sea bottom. sub-bottom profilers.S. side-scan sonars. the drilling operation capability of semisubmersibles increased to over 1800 meters water depth. Okada. Hoisting capacity and variable deck loading capacity are factors restricting the water depth capability of semisubmersibles. but the dynamic positioning systems are used by new generation semisubmersibles.CIVIL ENGINEERING – Offshore Drilling and Production Equipment . Location Surveys for Offshore Drilling The offshore environment has a much more significant influence on drilling operations than the onshore environment. In the late 1990s. properties of the sea bottom soil. Y. Ichikawa vertical columns of semisubmersibles provides a reduced area on which the environment can act. On drilling site to keep the position. semisubmersibles had the capability to operate in 500 m water depth using an anchor system. but do not rest on the seabed. Semisubmersible rigs are towed by boats. the anchors usually moor semisubmersibles. and so forth. and gravity corers. Geologically continental shelf is considered to be the extension of continental land and it was quite natural to pursue the extension of onshore oil accumulation down to sea bottom. and ballast tanks.4. mud systems. surveys in consideration of the culture. In critical areas. It is necessary to carry out a suite of location surveys before starting drilling operations in order to obtain data such as weather forecast during drilling operations. In the late 1970s. 3. When a semisubmersible moves to a new location. The main disadvantage of semisubmersibles is that variable deck loading capacity required for storing drilling materials is limited by the structure. Brief History of Offshore Production Systems History of offshore petroleum production dates back to the end of the 19th century. the archaeological and biological background are required. 4. Drilling equipments. the lower hulls float on the sea surface. thrusters. Tanaka. So semisubmersibles provide more stable station for the drilling operations. The survey companies analyze and evaluate the data to present reports that are used to prepare the mooring plan and the casing design for a top hole. and shallow geological hazards. and are able to operate in harsher environmental conditions as compared with drillships. The minimum requirement of the survey includes following instruments: sparkers. bathymetric map around the location. Offshore Oil/Gas Production Systems 4. fathometers.1. current profiles. The surveys will cover at least area a kilometer square centered on the proposed location. Wind and current measurements for several months would be carried out at a proposed location about one year ago before operations. These Californian wells were the first attempt of this ©Encyclopedia of Life Support Systems (EOLSS) ES SA C M O PL -E E O C LS H AP S TE R U N . In drilling operations. when oil wells were drilled from piers constructed along the Californian coast of the United States of America.
piles and deck. research and development still continue to tap oil and gas in still deeper water and still harsher environment. Ichikawa hunt. If hunt for petroleum. These include semisubmersibles. namely. These platforms. In the majority of offshore fields these pieces of equipment used are essentially the same as those used in onshore fields. one designed specifically for subsea application was subsequently developed. oil and natural gas. all with associated controls equipment. multi-phase pumps that can boost the pressure of the mixture of gas and liquid and gas/liquid separators. separation equipment to separate gas. a subsea production system.e. The advancement of subsea technology meanwhile has led to development of other kinds of equipment tailored for subsea application. whilst good in that they can provide working environment probably closest to that onshore. manifolds to collect/divert produced and service fluids to desired flow paths.CIVIL ENGINEERING – Offshore Drilling and Production Equipment . a natural functional extension of their sisters in the MODU fleet. In order to bring the equipment to offshore environment. though material to build them changed from wood to steel and concrete. Tanaka. have problems of sharply increasing cost with increasing water depth and long lead time for construction. However.2. Okada. Bottom-supported Platforms The most widely used platforms are so-called template platforms. To counter these problems. If these platforms are one way of coping with the offshore environment. was extended from onshore to offshore. The above Californian piers were in this sense the first offshore platforms for petroleum production. Although this well used completion equipment for onshore use without modification. the petroleum industry came up with floating platforms in the 1970s. that is. some means of transporting the products to market such as pressure booster (pump/compressor) and pipelines. Bottom-supported platforms have been in use ever since. offshore platforms. oil and associated water. the other way is to make the equipment capable of functioning in underwater environment and put it on the seabed. These are offering the petroleum industry many options to choose from for production systems. Petroleum production and field processing equipment typically includes wells to safely bring oil and gas from underground formation to surface. Figure14. 4. usually consists of jacket. ship-shaped floating production storage and offloading systems (FPSOs) and tension leg platforms (TLPs). Y. More variations were added in later years. a gas well completed on the bottom of Lake Erie in United States of America in 1943.S. Various Types of Offshore Platforms 4.2. i. The jacket is fixed to sea bottom by ©Encyclopedia of Life Support Systems (EOLSS) ES SA C M O PL -E E O C LS H AP S TE R U N . This type of platform. To date there have been more than 1000 wells worldwide drilled and completed subsea. enabling equipment intended for onshore application to be used there more or less as it is. so was the use of equipment employed for its production. Today these platforms and subsea systems are applied in various combinations.1. The first production equipment that was put completely underwater was a well. namely. Y. some sort of supporting structure is needed to keep them above water. each aimed at best suiting the particular environment in which they operate.
The jacket is fabricated from steel tubulars at a yard. lowered to the sea bottom and piled. Attractiveness of less number of heavier lifts in terms of cost and other aspects has encouraged construction of heavy lifting vessels and those with twin cranes with several thousand ton lifting capacity are available. because there was no barge large enough to transport it in one piece at that time.) U N . Ichikawa means of piles and they together support the deck load. Y. Function of this type of platform can vary from simple well protection to combined drilling and production with all the necessary equipment to drill wells and process and transport the ©Encyclopedia of Life Support Systems (EOLSS) ES SA C M O PL -E E O C LS H AP S TE R Figure 14: Template Platform (Reproduced Courtesy of Offshore Iwaki Petroleum Company. transported on and launched at the site from a barge. Size of the individual deck module is greatly influenced by the lifting capacity of the crane vessel available. transported on a barge to the site where the jacket is already installed. Ltd.CIVIL ENGINEERING – Offshore Drilling and Production Equipment . lifted and fixed onto the jacket. The deck is usually divided into several modules. The deck is the topside structure of the platform and houses most of the equipment. Tanaka.S. upended. which are individually fabricated at a yard or shipyard. Y. Yard space and launch barge size available at the time of the project limit the jacket size. Cognac platform jacket installed in 312 m of water in the Gulf of Mexico in 1977 to 1978 was fabricated in three pieces and they were sequentially lowered to and connected together on the seabed. Okada.
Tanaka.S. This type is inevitably massive and suitable for self-contained drilling and production role. Proc. ©Encyclopedia of Life Support Systems (EOLSS) ES SA C M O PL -E E O C LS H AP S TE R U N . Storage function is not normally provided. Y. As the water depth increases. Figure 15: Gravity Platform (From Ager-Hanssen H. Figure15. Deck is usually built in one piece. geographical locations to which this type is applicable are limited. Y. avoiding resonance of structures with these waves. protected water near shore such as fjord and firth.J (1979): Main Considerations in Development of StatfJord Field.CIVIL ENGINEERING – Offshore Drilling and Production Equipment . Okada. The substructure is usually built from concrete in deep. brought on a barge or barges over to and then mated with almost completely submerged substructure. The completely assembled platform is then towed to the installation site and ballasted down to seafloor. They derive required stability from their own weight. Storage capability can be easily incorporated. Volume of Production. Because of this unique way of construction.. This type of platforms is called compliant towers and has been applied in water depths in excess of 500 m. & Medley E. of the 10th World Petroleum Congress. This type has found application in water as deep as 411 m in the Gulf of Mexico. Only a few applications can be found in the world except in the North Sea. Ichikawa produced fluid. maintaining stiffness to rigidly resist the overturning moment as the template platforms do becomes prohibitively expensive. The alternative is structures that have much longer sway period than that of high-energy storm waves. where Norwegian fjords and Scottish firths provide ideal construction sites. making this type suitable for situations where pipeline transportation is not readily available. Another type of bottom-supported structure is the gravity platforms.
Ichikawa Reproduced Courtesy of World Petroleum Congress) 4.CIVIL ENGINEERING – Offshore Drilling and Production Equipment . Floating Platforms Though the bottom-founded platforms provide stable working environment.2. Riser is one of the technical focal points and flexible pipes are widely used for this application.S. they typically have the drawbacks of long lead time and cost tendency quite sensitive to water depth. So they are usually completed subsea and produced fluid is brought to the processing equipment aboard the platform by means of pipeline and riser. Quite a number of conversions were made particularly in the early days of this type of platforms so that fields could be brought into production quickly. Y. Mooring is usually by eight to twelve point catenaries. An additional advantage is seen in ease of relocating and reusing them after a field is depleted. Units intended for deep-water applications are mostly purpose-built so that they can satisfy the demanding conditions of such applications. Tanaka. Okada. This type was pioneered by a semisubmersible platform converted from an MODU in the mid 1970s. Figure 16. improving project economics. Y. A solution to these problems has been the floating platforms moored to the seafloor. Another type of floating platform having relatively long history of application is the ©Encyclopedia of Life Support Systems (EOLSS) ES SA C M O PL -E E O C LS H AP S TE R Figure 16: Semisubmersible Platform (Reproduced Courtesy of Norsk Hydro ASA) U N . Disadvantages of this type can be summarized as limited payload capacity and lack of storage capability.2. Motion of the platform does not allow wells to be completed on the deck.
a big advantage because wells are one of the most important and expensive components of a petroleum production system and ease of access to them is a matter of prime concern in field development planning. ©Encyclopedia of Life Support Systems (EOLSS) ES SA C M O PL -E E O C LS H AP S TE R Figure 17: Floating Production Storage and Offloading System (Reproduced Courtesy of Norske Stats Oljeselskap a. platforms of this type are in water depths in excess of 500 m and the deepest application is in more than 1200 m of water. Tanaka. Y. either subsea or on separate platforms. They are ship-shaped platform either with or without propulsion capability. (STATOIL)) U N . TLP is essentially a semisubmersible attached to the seabed by vertical members called tendons. Ichikawa floating production storage and offloading system (FPSO). One of the floating platforms specifically developed for deep-water application is the tension leg platform (TLP). Converted or purpose-built. Motion characteristics of the TLP allows wells to be completed on its deck. Multi-point moorings have been applied in relatively benign environment such as West Africa and the Gulf of Suez. which are usually made of steel tubulars and tensioned by excess buoyancy of the platform hull. First application was made in the late 1970s and it was a converted ocean-going tanker. Tendons are pinned to the seabed directly or indirectly by piles. Except for the very first application that appeared in the mid 1980s. where the platform is allowed to weathervane around the mooring mechanism.S. Figure 17. Y. Like semisubmersibles wells are completed at separate locations. Okada. Figure 18. FPSOs have a large payload and storage capacity making them suitable for application in isolated locations where pipeline transportation cannot be an option. Single point mooring is the most widely used station-keeping means.CIVIL ENGINEERING – Offshore Drilling and Production Equipment .s.
Like TLP it is possible to put Christmas trees of wells on the platform deck. making this type attractive at isolated deep water locations. Okada. Tanaka. 4. they have found increasing use even in the water depth range of bottom-supported platforms. Ichikawa The most recent species of floating platform is the spar platform. This type of structure was first applied as a storage and loading buoy in the North Sea in the mid 1970s. spar-shaped hull and a deck structure. Application for the drilling and production role came into reality in the latter half of the 1990s in the Gulf of Mexico. Subsea Production Systems Subsea-completed wells were initially envisaged by many as an unavoidable evil for deep-water production. and like FPSO.CIVIL ENGINEERING – Offshore Drilling and Production Equipment . As its name indicates. Y. it has a deeply submerged. oil storage capability can be incorporated in the hull. and three spar production systems are operated there as of 2000. A platform of this type has been built in 1463 m of water. Reservoirs discovered close to existing infrastructures or parts of producing ©Encyclopedia of Life Support Systems (EOLSS) ES SA C M O PL -E E O C LS H AP S TE R Figure 18: Tension Leg Platform (Reproduced Courtesy of ConocoPhillips Norge) U N . The platform is moored to the seabed by means of catenary or taut mooring. As their reliability improved and confidence was gained on them. Y. or deep-draft caisson vessel (DDCV).S.3.
Second Edition. 4. valves and chokes by means of hydraulics are used extensively.3. Figure19: Subsea Christmas Tree (From API RP 17A “Recommended Practice for Design and Operation of Subsea Production Systems”. For deep waters where use of guidelines is not practical. like land trees. providing valuable reservoir data for subsequent field development planning. Y. Also exploratory wells.S. primary means of flow control for subsea wells and consist of series of valves and sometimes a flow control device (choke) along the flow path of produced fluid with associated controls equipment. Y.) ©Encyclopedia of Life Support Systems (EOLSS) ES SA C M O PL -E E O C LS H AP S TE R U N . providing economical means of field development. Reproduced Courtesy of the American Petroleum Institute. Okada. Subsea Christmas Trees Subsea trees are. Although trees in early days of subsea development relied heavily on diver assistance in installation and operation. the trend is toward less reliance and remotely operated connectors. are completed subsea and put into production for some months using drilling vessels equipped with temporary production facilities or purpose-built well test vessels. Tanaka. guidelineless system is available. Figure 19. typically plugged and abandoned after a short period of test not so long ago.CIVIL ENGINEERING – Offshore Drilling and Production Equipment . Ichikawa reservoirs too far away to reach from existing platforms are typically developed utilizing subsea wells tied back to the host platforms. 1996. They are installed by drilling rigs using guidelines established between a pre-installed guide base structure and a rig for positioning and orientating.1.
A template is a steel structure that provides structural support and appropriate spacing to wells. As the drilling rig can move from one well position to another only by adjusting anchor lines.S.3.) 4. Y.2. Y. Figure 20.CIVIL ENGINEERING – Offshore Drilling and Production Equipment . Second Edition. a well template is sometimes used. It allows produced fluid to be commingled or diverted and injection fluids to be distributed to desired flow paths. Figure 20: Well Template (From API RP 17A “Recommended Practice for Design and Operation of Subsea Production Systems”. Subsea Manifolds A manifold consists of appropriately arranged valves and pipings with associated controls equipment and a structure to support these components. 1996. Tanaka. Reproduced Courtesy of the American Petroleum Institute. use of template can bring savings in drilling cost. With a ©Encyclopedia of Life Support Systems (EOLSS) ES SA C M O PL -E E O C LS H AP S TE R U N . Ichikawa Where it is desirable to drill a number of wells from one location. Okada.
Disadvantage is added complexity in not-easily-accessible subsea environment with implications on maintenance cost. produced fluid could be sent directly onshore. is that if pressure boosting can be done at the subsea wells. Figure 21: Subsea Manifold Mounted on Well Template (From API RP 17A “Recommended Practice for Design and Operation of Subsea Production Systems”.3. Y. A manifold can be a stand-alone component or built into a well template. Difficulties in boosting pressure of multi-phase fluid with widely fluctuating void fraction have prompted some to take a different approach. to separate produced fluid into different phases and then boost the pressure. The idea behind the multi-phase pressure booster. templates and manifolds have been successfully applied subsea.) 4. Subsea Boosting and Processing Wells. a platform long distance away can be their host. Second Edition. The next candidates for subsea application are multi-phase pressure boosters and fluid separators. Another application of the subsea ©Encyclopedia of Life Support Systems (EOLSS) ES SA C M O PL -E E O C LS H AP S TE R U N . eliminating the need for host platform altogether. Ichikawa subsea manifold. number of flowlines and injection lines between wells and host platform can be reduced substantially.CIVIL ENGINEERING – Offshore Drilling and Production Equipment .3. Y. More ambitiously. Tanaka.S. Okada. that is. Reproduced Courtesy of the American Petroleum Institute. 1996. saving large amount of investment. Figure 21. widening the possible range of step-out development. or multi-phase pump.
The system requires hydraulic power supplied from the host platform to actuate control devices. but are yet to be applied on commercial basis. Ichikawa separation technology being considered is to separate produced water at the wells and re-inject it underground for disposal. leading to further cost reduction. environmental considerations has never been forgotten. The North Sea-type platforms with huge payload capacity to accommodate all required functions on a single structure. 4. Both technologies have come to the stage of field-testing prototype equipment. Okada. In pursuing this goal. The subsea boosting concept has been considered since the early 1980s and the subsea separation concept a little later. Research is underway for developing an all-electric control system. sometimes with built-in or separate storage capacity. their various components such as valves. increasingly. 4.CIVIL ENGINEERING – Offshore Drilling and Production Equipment .4. economics and. Control systems currently employed utilize hydraulics and often electronics to differing degrees. Of these most commonly used is the electro-hydraulic multiplexed system. chokes and connectors must be properly controlled. Implications of the advancement of deep-water technology are obvious. at probably a slow but steady pace. the balance between safety. Also it is often desirable to have feedback from these components and other instrumentation indicating various process parameters such as downhole/wellhead pressures and temperatures and fluid flow rate and diagnostic parameters of the control system itself.3. which will eliminate the need for hydraulic link between the subsea system and host platform altogether. reliability. Coded signals for operating these field devices and data signals from field instruments to the host platform are transmitted through an electrical cable. Every time oil was found in such an environment where the offshore petroleum industry had had no previous experience. isolated areas. Subsea Control System In order to ensure safe and efficient operation of the subsea production systems. Prospect of Offshore Production System The technology for offshore development has been commercial technology all along. but superposition of data signals on the power cable has been successfully tried. Also somewhat specialty technology ©Encyclopedia of Life Support Systems (EOLSS) ES SA C M O PL -E E O C LS H AP S TE R U N . The North Sea activities have already spread to the Atlantic Frontier (west of Shetland) to the west and the Norwegian Sea to the north. Y. The twenty first century will see this process continuing. Y. Tanaka. made it possible to develop fields in remote. The water depth record of both subsea completion and platform installation has exceeded 1800 m and developments in more than 2000 m water depths are being planned.S. saving energy to transport unnecessary water to surface. The North Sea developments of the 1970s and the deep-water developments in the Gulf of Mexico and Brazil of the 1990s were probably the two epoch-making eras in the history of this industry.4. new technology was developed to cope with it and commercially produce oil there. Electric power is usually supplied through a separate cable.
Glossary Casing: Christmas tree: Drill stem: Riser: Well completion: API: BOP: DDCV: DPS: ERD: FPSO: IADC: LWD: MODU: MWD: PDC: PDM: ROV: TLP: ©Encyclopedia of Life Support Systems (EOLSS) ES SA C M O PL -E E O C LS H AP S TE R Steel pipe lowered into a hole drilled and bonded to formation by cement to keep the well safe. production riser systems extend from the seabed to the deck of the production platform. it typically involves installing the production (deepest) casing. An assemblage of valves installed at the top of a well to control the flow of oil and gas after the well has been completion. for example. Although the biggest problem is seen in maintaining the dissociation rate high enough to sustain commercially viable rate of gas production. perforating the casing and installing tubing (flow path for produced fluid) and the Christmas tree. Any pipe with the fluid flow upward in it. in maintaining integrity of wells and preventing or coping with potential sea floor instability such as subsidence. A major challenge may come. however. Ichikawa is enabling oil production in such ice-infected areas as offshore Newfoundland and offshore Sakhalin Island. Methane hydrate is a solid compound of water and methane where methane molecules are taken in to the cage-like structure formed by water molecules. that is. A drilling assemblage of tubular goods. Y. In offshore petroleum production. and drill collars. up to its Christmas tree. A subsea completion or subsea-completed well is a well that sits entirely. Tanaka.S. American Petroleum Institute Blowout Preventer Deep-Draft Caisson Vessel Dynamic Positioning System Extended Reach Drilling Floating Production Storage and Offloading system International Association of Drilling Contractors Logging-While-Drilling tools Mobile Offshore Drilling Unit Measurement-While-Drilling tools Polycrystalline Diamond Compacts Positive Displacement Motor Remotely Operated Vehicle Tension Leg Platform U N . In offshore drilling a marine riser system is used to establish a connection between the rig and the seabed.CIVIL ENGINEERING – Offshore Drilling and Production Equipment . humans will have obtained another important source of precious energy. the drill pipe. Production of methane from hydrate is considered to involve its dissociation. when the industry moves to tap methane hydrate deposits under the ocean floor. Although there are wide variations. Y. generally in waters more than 500 m deep. to rotate a bit at the bottom of the hole from the surface. When it is successfully met. A series of work to make a well ready for production after it has been drilled and tested. which comprises of the kelly. The attempts to meet the challenge have already begun. Okada. problems are also foreseen. on the seabed.
particularly the bottom-supported platforms. TX 75083-3836.. are constructed. He holds a Doctor of Engineering in mining engineering from the University of Tokyo. Areas of engineering expertise . [This book gives details of how offshore structures. Richardson. Kiyoshi Horikawa.E.] Gerwick. Hydrate Drilling. 18-1 – 18-52. [The proceedings published yearly provide up-to-date information on offshore engineering and operations. Information Management.S. He holds a BSc in petroleum engineering from the University of Tokyo. Safety Management. USA. Tanaka.B. (1989). A.R. Logistics Support and Deepwater Offshore Drilling. (1991). (JOE) in Tokyo and heads a pool of engineers and scientists. Society of Petroleum Engineers. Richardson. Y. Richardson.B. American Petroleum Institute. Okada. in Civil Engineering. and Young Jr. with Japan Oil Engineering Co. Applied Drilling Engineering.] Proceedings of SPE/IADC Drilling Conference.Deepwater Drilling Rig Design.] Biographical Sketches Shoichi Tanaka is professor emeritus of the University of Tokyo in Tokyo. He majors in drilling engineering and petroleum engineering. in Encyclopedia of Life Support Systems (EOLSS). 20005-4070. [This work provides a good overview of offshore drilling and production systems and operations.S.C.A. Chichester.. [This is a good textbook on rotary drilling engineering.C.] Silcox W.CIVIL ENGINEERING – Offshore Drilling and Production Equipment . B. TX 75083-3836. Burns G. [http://www.. Bodine J..T. [The proceedings published yearly provide up-to-date information on drilling engineering.] API Standards and Publications. He is responsible for drilling operations.] OTC Proceedings. Y. UK: John Wiley & Sons. Okada. Developed under the Auspices of the UNESCO. Chapter 18 Offshore Operations. Yuichiro Ichikawa is currently working concurrently as general manager of Methane Hydrate Development Division of Tokyo head office of Japan Drilling Co. Eolss Publishers. Tanaka. Chenevert M. [Eds. drilling engineering and offshore engineering services to the drilling industry and governmental bodies. Tennessee. USA. USA: Society of Petroleum Engineers. OFFSHORE DRILLING AND PRODUCTION EQUIPMENT. He joined JOE in 1975 and has worked in numerous projects in varying capacities since then. financial institutions and investors. He holds a BSc in mining engineering from the University of Tokyo and an MA in economics from Vanderbilt University. He joined JDC in 1977 and has worked in numerous projects in varying capacities since then.L. Coring Technology. Deepwater Well Planning. Deepwater Subsea Well Control. USA: Society of Petroleum Engineers. Nashville. and Qizhong Guo]. Japan.H. pp.. field development project coordination and management.UK. (1986). Oxford .. TX 75083-3836. technology surveys and technical seminars. USA. (2005). Typical projects include offshore field construction and maintenance. and Sauve E.K. Jr. Reeds C. Millheim K. Downhole Tools Development. Society of Petroleum Engineers. Baffins Lane. Ichikawa.E. Deepwater Location Surveys. field facility technical assessment. TX 75083-3836. D. (JDC). Richardson.eolss. Northwest Washington. Sussex PO19 1UD. Y. F. Petroleum Engineering Handbook (editor-in-chief H. 1220 L Street. He was with the University of Tokyo from 1960 to 1995. To cite this chapter S. Bladley). Wilson D. Yo Okada is general manager of Petroleum Engineering & Consulting Dept. [The series contain detail standards and information on rotary drilling method of onland and offshore operations. Y. field development feasibility studies including economic evaluation.net] ©Encyclopedia of Life Support Systems (EOLSS) ES SA C M O PL -E E O C LS H AP S TE R U N . Ichikawa TSP: Bibliography Thermally Stable Polycrystalline Bourgoyne Jr. providing a range of technical services to various clients in the petroleum industry. Construction of Offshore Structures.
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