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1 888.263.7591 (USA only) Callto orderFor Beginnerf booksand to receiveyour free catalog Uisitour websiteat www.writersandreaders.com!

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Pt/ /|4odonno, scFfi, cyberpunkBuddhist *d teledild'nics. ecology

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feotures the thoughts oripo*rrono ofFo.ucouft knowfedge, on Jomeson the mopping postmod Boudrillordmedio,jrrvev on the r1r,1;!ri9compresion,on Derrido deconsrruction ond ir,,

of"mops" help thot peopfe find their through woy ochonging world. Postmodernism Beginners@ for

people not whot , Yotr'resure Postmodernismthis is. if ,,ere And like subiecf, it probobly tell wouldn't you. few grumpy dernism isnot intellectuol trory, itis ffi ofound /, !d I crises ( ofthe [' Enlightenment. Jim Powell the tokes position thot Postmodernism isoseries
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Wrilers and Readera ?ublishing, lnc. gtation, New 7.O. box 461,Villaqe York,NY iOO14 salee@forbeqinn e.c er om Writers and Readers Ltd. 7 O b o x 2 9 5 2 2 , L o n d o nN 1B F D beqin@w rit er ea nd r ea d er s.c o m

Text Copyriqht@1998JameEN. Fowell llluelratione Copyriqht @1990Joe Lee conceVtand Deeiqn copyriqht@1998writers and Readers ?ubliehinq,lnc. Dookand Cover Deoiqn: Renbe Michaele CoverArt: Joe Lee Thie bookis eold oubjectto the conditionthat it ehall not,,W way of trade or oNherwise, lent, be re-eold,hired out, or ot'herwiee circulaled wihhoutIhe publioher'e consenl in any form of Vrior bindinq coverot'hert'han lhat in whichir ie Vubliohed or and wilhout a similarconditionbeinq imVoeed the eubeequent on purchaeer. All riqht's reeerved. Vart,of thie publicationmay be reproduced, No sNoredin a ref,rieval eyetem, or lransmilted, in any form or by any meano,elecf,ronic, mechanical, recording or VholocoVyinq, of,herwise, without,prior Vermieeion Lhe Tublisher. of AWrilere and KeadersDocumentary ComicOook Copyright@1990 t?bN )-86316-1BB-X 34567890 Manufacturedin NheUniled )tates of America 1eqinnereDocumenf,ary Comic Oooks are publiehedW Writere and Keadere ?ubliehinq, lnc. lLe t'rademark, coneiet'inq the worde"For geqinnere, ers and KeadersDocument Comic1ooke" of Writ ary and Writers and Keaders logo, ie re7iotrered lhe tJ.9. ?atent and Trademark Office and in in otrher countries.

?ublishing

FOR BEGINNER9*

books aontinuouely

sinae 1gT5

1975: Cuba . 1976: Marx , 1977: Lenin . 1978: Nuclear ?ower . 1979: Einstein . Freud . lgBO: Vao . TroLeky . 1981: CapiLaliem . 19b2: Darwin . Economiste . French Revolulion , Marx'e Kapital.FrenchRevolution.Food.Ecoloqy.lgBS:DNA.lreland.19b4:London.?eace.Medicine Orwell . Keaqan . Nicaraqua , Black Hietory , 19b5: Marx Diary . 1gb6: Zen . ?sychiatry Keich,Socialiem.Com?uLere.Orechf,,Elvis.lgbb:Archilechure.Sex.JFK.VirqiniaWoolf 1 9 9 0 : N i e t ' z e c h e . T l a l o , M a l c o l m X . J u d a i e m . l g g l : W W l l. E r o L i c a , A f r i c a n H i o L o r y , l g g 2 : T h i l o e o V h y .R a i n f o r e e t e . M i l e eD a v i e . l e l a m . ? a n A f r i c a n i e m . 1 9 9 3 : ? o y c h i a t r y. A b c k W o m e n Arabs & lerael . Freud . 1994: babiee . Foucaull . Heideqqer . Heminqway. Claeeical Mueic 1995: Jazz ' Jewjsh Holocauet . HealLh Care . DomeeLic Violence . garLre . United Na?ione Olack Holocauot . 1lack TanLhere . MarLial Arte . Hietory of Clowne . 1996: Opera . gioloqy Sauseure.UN|CEF.Kierkeqaard.Addiction&Recovery.lChinq,Ouddha,Derrida.Chomsky McLuhan,Jun7,1997:Lacan,ghakes?eare.glructuraliem.Che,lggB:Fanon.Adler .1999: Ariu. Oarch VArquez . Dantre, gukoweki. Kerouac . Tanao Gandhi 'U.5, Constritubion

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lntroduction... Postmodernese Whotls Modernism?. W h o tl s P o s t m o d e r n i s m ? fh o bH o s s o n . . . Lyotord Jeon-Froncois figure Discourse, Condition..... ThePostmodern Fredric Jomeson

1 6 8 ......17 ........17 ....19 ..........2o .....22 .....3+

or Postmodernism: the Cultural Logic of Late Capitalism.......31 J e o nB q u d r i l l a r d . . . . W Eorly ritings "TheOrders Simulocro". of ln the Shadowof the SilentMajorities ... On Seduction. America TheEcstasy Communication of Architecture . Modernist qnd Architecture Art Postmodern C h q r l eJ e n c k s s Poststructurolism (ond Boudrilord Foucqult) on Foucoult Michel Derridq Jocques deconstruction Guottori Deleuze Felix ond Gilles .......11 .........15 ......18 ..........61 ......65 .........67 ..........69 .......72 ........77 ......78 ........93 ......94 .....96 .-..-.99 ...1o8

D q v i dH o r v e y TheConditionof Postmodernity Artifocts.... Postmodern Blade Runner. Cyborgs Cyberpunk..... Neuromancer .. Poporazzi Nono-Rovers E Audioonimqtronic Teledidonics, Mqdonno lJntitled Film stills (cindy shermon) MTV. Borbie-Art..... B l u eV e l v e t . . . . . . Wingsof Desire Environmentolism Postmodern (ln Whotis Postmodernism? Retrospect) References..... lndex

......115 .......116 ......122

........128 .......131 .......132 .......131 ......139 ...1+2 ......113 .......1+1 ...145 ...115 ....117 ....118 .....158 .........16o

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differenl folkconlrary worldview, lf danceeor mytrho. Ihey Nalee,

or er Vriatelyfealure a Vhot'omont'aqe shouldencount an individual ils re?reoentinq seaeonof cult'ural a eociely lhatr wae different,f,hen trhestraleqy wae No conquerit, trom aroundthe world. offerinqo mighr feature a The monNaqe femaledancerwit'han Eaetrlndian head,a male Navaholeft' leq, the riqht,leqof an Afro' Americanmoderndancer, a Lorso halt'coveredby and t'he a suil and r,ie, obher half feet'ooned wibheaqlefealhers with a one arm dioplayinq an eacredTibet hand qeoture,anol'her arm muscled
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and economically eexualmililarily, ly; Io converLit tro one'eown reli' gion;or No kill it. Thevery exie' t enceof the )t'her, Ihe very
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of ?reeence the Olher, Voeeda Ihreal lo lhe er ou??oeed univ ealit'y of one'eown beliefe, ln the Tostmodern il aqe,however, ie difficultrlo qet' throuqh a ouI confronlin q d ay wit'h rnanydifferenl realities. gimVly t'urn on hhe'N and you miqhl hear a world mueicqrou? a oinqinq blendof lrieh loveeonq, anlhem, lndianraqa,heavy-metal Monqoli 9 ud dhiel chant'- and an all lo Nhef,uneof peyot'edrume, eo, os, qamelane, didqerido panVip gilaro alpenhorns, nooe ffuf,eg, And and hambourinee. all Nhese eounds may be producednotrby

ouf, poundinq a rhyl,hmon a drum, JaVaneee and Nwomorefemalearme in a lyricaldance ?ooefrom lndia. mixing Contraet lhis culNural of with Nheliveeof moeT, the ?eoVlewho havelivedon Ihe Vlanetfor mosl of iis hiotory. Cilizeneof the of MiddleAgee and membere pre' could live modern0ribaleocieNiee

inef'rumenf, elecbut outrNheiryearo wilhout encount'er- the oriqinal req7ae tronically,to a danceable inq anyonewif,hanot'hergod, a

or hiV-hoV beat,, broadcaet, and worldwide eaLellite millione via to of viewere-Nhe f,o profiIegoing eave the Drazilian rainforeet. ln
facf,, qo to a fundament aliet,lelamic wedding in an EqyVtian villaqe, and the bride,eurroundedby elern eldere, hoodedand veiled go that, no intruding male7aze willVollut here Aay oecretlybe lioleninq

I I I Nraditional skift,, and havea belly I full of Coca-Cola. I T i c ku ?a n y I New A7emaqazine, and you I will find the I Vyoleriouo I and Unknown I eold in a thoueand f orme-Vey chic channelinge I of dieemb died epirite, Dud dhist, o I Taoietr and Hindumedit atrion I Iechniques, alive Americ N an sweaf,baths, cryot alo and herbe, I elecNr nic medilatri n ma chinee o o I and exoticVotione.Your tyVical I NewA7er eeeeno conl,radiclion in aLt endinqa Quakermeetingin I f,hemorning, eabinq Zen macro- I a biotic breakfaet,sitting tor ChiI neeeTaoietr medihalion, eatinq I an IndianAyurvedic lunch, doinq a Chero-kee sweatrbeforeTai Chi, I munchinq downa eoyburger for I dinner, dancinqin a full-moon I wiNchinq ceremony with her neoI TaqanGoddee; 7rou?, I

to trheconcert,, benealh lhe hood, throuqh earVhones the of herminialurized radio. 7he may jeaneunderher bewearing

I and makinqlovewilh her I NewAqe boytriendaccordinq I to HinduTanlric princiVleo. All rhe world's culL,ureo, I rit,ualg, race6,dalabankg, I mylhe and musicalmot'ifs I are intermixinqlikea omorqaebordin an ea(chquake, I AndNhishodge-Vodqe of I hybridimaqeoio qlobal, I froodinqt he trradilional mao6 media,and also CyberI o?ace-a e?ace everI I I I I I I I I I I I I I I
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wilh blossoming newunivereee io and and realit'ieo, which beinq by Vrobed an ever-ex?andinq and of Vopularion cYberpunks wh er cyb oharnano o-l ike
electronic rat's burcowing a Nhrouqh eidewayo interconnecled vaef., series of elecNronic gewer6, cellarg,?aocaverne, eaqewayo, quttero, and lunnels-are capableof from cyber' naviqaNinq sil,e Io cyber'eite via an almosl infinit'elyint'erlinkedcaf'aloqueof codee. ln obherwords,we live inin creaoinqly a world of ind t erconnect'e difference9-

differenceo amVlifi and multiplied ed -{,F at,Ihe oVeedof eleclricity. No lonqeris there one moraliNy mph or

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or riNual dance dream philooophy or or or

or conceVlof eelf or qod or culNure eVyle or of ar| t hat, Vred omin aIee. TheexVlosion newcommunicahions of technoloqieo and lhe continuing fragmenlaf,ion culruresinro lhoueandeof of liwle culluree has torced us tro viewour worldas simultaneouelyexVandinq ehrinkinq. juer as the unexVlored and And Nawworld of earliercenluriee had ite exVlorerlwho set ouNon voyaqeo diecovery, of bringing back newma?e, whichwereconetanf,lybeinqre-drawnae ever new reqionewereVrobedand chaft,ed, tha Newyostmodern World-?o ef,mo ern Keality-h ao ite d mapmakers and explorero. The maVmakere Vaet cenf,urie; of euVerima qrid u?onthe qlobe-Nhe Voeed fictif,iouo meridians-trhelineeof latitude and lonqitude. Theychafr,ednarcowstraiNs,f arflunq exoNic archipela7oo, dark cont.inenle,?revailing winde, wavee and c ur renle. ?imila rly, 7oehmod ern intell ecf,u ale-Vhil oeophere and ih eorief,e-have att emVtedNo maV

te chnolo ee, economiee,cyberqi e?acee,mediaeca?ee. But not everyone lhinke inf,ellectruaabout,all Ily f,he chanqeef,haf,are 'r,akinq place.

These Tostmodern sim?ly arbieLlor architecf,s lake oymbole, cullureo nof,e the newnix of meeeaqee, of 6onq, and andmedia, thencrealea video, Vaintinq
thal reflecle lhe Toetmodern condiNion, or buildinq

WewillbeexVlorinq lhouqhto some theee lhe of of " ma?m TogNmodern akere" and"explorero," Nhege inLellecNuals arNieNe,lhe ?aqee in and trhal follow,

Thie Male eublecL-Voeilione," is derneoe, becauee,in Tosf'mo quye no lonqerexiet.TheY have become" eubject'-oeiV lion6,"Thesame qoeefor Therefore Nhe women. ohraee"ThirdWorld women"needeto be queoifred t'o "pool'uV e c o l o n i afle m a l e u b A major reaoonie t.haI Toet' ie modernese eucha difficull lanquaqelo underofand-and moef, on are booke Toelmoderniem in wrif,f,en lhie parlicularlyob6cureLonque. you For inelance-lel'e eu??oee livein Lhe 197Oe, and you want to eay "Theway while guys Nreal ThirdWorldwomenae 6ex objecteio s h a l l o w n dd i e q u e l i n q . " a Thefire| thinq you havelo do The 1ecN-poeif,ione." way" phraoe"T,he couldproVerly be rendered ae "lhe hegemonic (mie)reVreeenLaIionand delval' orizaLion As of." you can eee,7ogl,' moderneee reliee u ? o nu e i n g e m a n y a

But woit o minute! lf Postmodernthinkershqve some reolly new ideosmopping the contoursof our times, why hoven't I heord of these ideos before?

elaehee nd hyphene a lo lranelaf,eil into Tostmodeneee and oarentheseg and gentenceet op mak' is f,o makef,he other kindeof whal,ever inq eenee.You f,hieby eubsf,ido er marksyour comput can ous IuLinq myetreri ?oetmod ern for or buzzworde Vhraeee ordinary For wordsthat do makeeenee. "whif,e ingf,ance 0uy6"can profby ilably be reVlaced the Vhraoe "VhallocraLic VanoVIic Lhe (in and Fouc ian eenee)Oead-Whire' ault Thuelhe makeae ?oe6ible. ehouldcorword"ohallow" ao recLlybe rendered "a ecribedpraxie texLually(ra)in ale diee emin d, (counI'er) of pree' eubv r eiv d eothle6one6o,"' e

your frnal infinile bewildermenf'. you look Tobe pertecllycorcecf', Then soundsome- Nhemin Nheeye,cornpaooionaf'elY, should t ranelat'ion like Nhinq t'his:"Thehegemonic and Nell trhemlhat' Ihe Vlurivocal
ent (mie)reVreo alion and inmeaninq of ambiquitiee (non) delvalorizalionof t'he alwaye- herent in their queeLion obviouely d subvefrt'he a alre dy multi-(de)/ gend ere of Voooibility your c o plurivcalitiee and (de) en' deliverinq NhemNhekind of lo Iered delconstrruct'ed and dialoqically Vrob' ,l l,/. -z-.2 /ra--_---, \

cheaVand low-down Vhallocrat'ic, hoqand loqocenlric Vatrriarchal wallow an anewerwhichthey are of caVableof underet'andinq,

ludiceimulematized
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wellt'mnot sosureI understond whot Postmodernism is. And is it POSTmodernlSM, PoStmOdErN' postMODERNism, ism, post-modernismor Postmodernism? in Itrhae beenwriT'Ien all

Iions,by hyVerand erof,icized
orienNalized phallocralic and VanoVIic (in lhe Fou-

eenoe) Nho e wayo. 7oet'mo caulhian dernism- as s )ead-Whit'e-Male Lhe "pool"' i6 ace imVlieS, Vref Ihat, followemodern' eomelhinq ig discourse, a Nex- ism, However, who Lhink peoVle tually (re)inetibed about,euchthinqo ae Tost'of aqreewhet,her don'tr Vraxie Vre-dieeemi- moderniom (counter)eubnaL,ed, is Toetmodernism a breakfrom versive d eplhleesneoe," moderniam a continualion or eubjecl-Vooitrion

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you juel whaNall lhal meane, wilh a qaze ot beholdT,hem

of modernism-or bot'h.ln fact, they don'f,evenaqreeas t'o Toetmodernism.

you whal moderniem muchlese if aoke And anyone is,

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Well,whot is modernism?

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ie Lerm H lvloderniem a blanket, for an exploeion neweLylee of and trende in the arLe in the firet half of the zolh cenlury.lf lhe modern era had a cenlral imaqe-it wae LhaT, a kindof non-imaqe-a of Void-and if the era had a quoIation that, eummedit,all up,il was lriehVoet, m Willia SuIlerYeaLs's linee:

But whot things fell oport in the modern ero? What center could not hold?

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Whatfellapart in Lhemodern were values the ltth era xhe of

century,the Aqe of Enligh;f,enment,, known bhe Aqe of Keaeon. aleo ae Trobably the mainvalueof lhe aqe, beeides reaoon, wae lhe idea of Vrogreoe.

ln f,hel9th cenlurybhinkere became oVlimisticIhat by ueinqNhe valueeof ocience, univereal reaaonand loqic, they couldqet rid of all Ihe myihs and holyideasf,hat keVf humanityfrom ?roqreoeinq, They felt this wouldevenLually humanilyfrom mieery, free religion, euperotif,ion, ircational all behavior, unfounded and belief. Humanilywouldthue ?roqreeeLo a elaf,e of freedom,happineeeand proqreee. Francishacon eaw ?roqreee akinqI,heform of a wiee, t elhicaland ecience-minded whowouldbe Nhe eliLe guardiane knowledge who, of and t h o u q hl i v i n q u f , e i d L h ec o m m u n i o e l,y,wouldneverthelese inffuence il. Marx aleo believed in and a ?roqreee, envieioned Ulopia,7ul Marx'eUloVian vieionwae of a ?erect,world brouqhtr aboul by a maLerialiet, ecience,

Otherbhinkere, however, were nol, Eo oVtimietic.Edmund 9urke wae diequetedwilh Nheexceooeo the French of Revolution. And lhe Marquie de 1ade, lhe qreaf,-qranddaddy 3/M, of exVlored the pervereitiee eexualfreeof dom-Vainting a dark Victrure hurnanliberof Theeociologiet al,ion. Max WeberVroVheeied lha| lhe future wouldbe an iron Vrieonof reaeon and bureaucracy,

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Well, moybeYeots ond oll the

were right. lt look os if things skeptics did foll oport. Whot did Science, get Reason ond Progress us, ofter oll? ThezOthcenturyhos beennothing if nightmoreof not o dork, Kofkoesque rqtion-olly odministered deqth comps, WorldWqrs deoth squods,Auschwitz, I ond ll, Hiroshimo, Nogosoki, ecologiof col disqster-ond vorious systems And oll in the nome totolitorionism. ,,)), /,'), \s

vqluesof Science, of the Enlightenment Liberotion, Reoson, Freedom ond Progress !
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7uI I haven'|, evenlold vou the biggeet, ekepticof abouf, a e e a l l - I h e Ge r m n ? h i l oo V h r for had no lolerance Enlighlvalues. Keason? Unienmenf, vereality? Mo raliry?7roqreee? Alltheee Enlight enmenf, pre' nolhinqtro him. leneee meanf,

He eawthe worldae the dance of the deolructively crealive god deef,ructive and creatively Willto Tower-and Dionyouo wae hie modelof howlo acL in Ihe chaotic eLormof life.Any man who acf,edin euch a way w o u l db e a S u p e r m a n .

FriedrichNietzsche.Nief,zeche Dionyeue-the danceof the

411 lv

And Nietzeche hit the head. nail right on t,.he

notrdrill holeein lhe walleof our housesand hallow lhese hollowe,

Afr,er many all,
ZOt h-century IuV ermenhave ?rovenlhaf, you haveto deotroy in order f,o create: Hitler, Vao, 1halin,etc. Nief,zeche aleo ?ro' Ihe "Oeabh God" as claimed of wellas trhedealh of Chrietian - moralilyand metaphyoico. With

t worohiVpinqhemearneolly with lhe worde"O rmyHoly Hole, oave mel),l" No.We livein a cull,ure lhat, esNeems over ?reeence icon overnon-existence, absence, voluVNuoue virqinovervacant,

vacuum, wholesover holesl And one waveof his VhiloeoVhical wand, ye|,,wherewe Vreviouely had a the central oymbols, insNilutions center-wheNher in Christrian reliand beliefeof Weslern cullure, qionor in f,he whichhad alreadyeuffereda IS NOTI{IN6 idealeof ecilremendousblowby lhe Aqe of enceand Keaeon,diea??eared-?OOF?roqreoo likea maqician's rabbiT, into the -euddenly dark folds of a cloak. we had nothinq, What remained wereonly dark waveoof Nothin7neee-a Void. Nature, however, abhorga vacuurr, and we Wegf,ernerg, unlike Ouddhie|,e Taoietre, nol and do toleraie voids very well.We do

$nmtD?

)ome modernjof'g, euch as Heminqway, creaf,edworkeof arr f,hatr ex?reeeed kind of Vaeeive a recoqnitrion this lack of a center. ln hie of

ehofr, eIory "A Clean, Well-lighted?lace," oneof hiecharacf,ere, a waitrer, reworksf,he Lord'e Trayer andthe Hail Mary-eubetritrutinq "nada"(or "nolhing"in gVanieh) atr oiqnificanf, Vlacee:
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lf modern thinkerecouldno lonqerbelieve a in Chrielian God, Chrislian moralif,y, scienlifc ?ro7reoo-if Ihere wao or no lonqera cenlerlo\Neetern culture-it was neceooary find a new Xo one for, aft,erall, we don'I likevoids. And il wae Nief,zsche-whohad t'he proclaimed deabhof Enliqhlenmenl valuee, God and Chrislian moraliby-Ihat, ehowed the way. Alf,houqh had deVrived he Weetern

he culture of a centrer, only did so by Vuttinq eomething eleein ils guVerman qood and evil who ie beyond place-nof, onlythe idea of a qood and evil.Thue,amonq allNhefraqment buNaleo ar| beyond alion and chaoe,amidel everythinq fallinqaVafi,,modernarAists beqantro lookfor oomeet ernalvaluetrhat wae beyond the chaos, all Theee arlieNeadoVtedIhe heroic, almosl )uVerhumanrole of rediscovering eeeence humanily,of findinqan eNernal lhe of value beyond lhe chaoe,of fillinqin NheVoot-NielzecheanVoid various all in wayo.ln a world withoul a cenf,er, aeslhelicsatb-became centrral, Afr for arL'o sakel Modern q Vaint,in wa s abo uNVaintinq- eelf abeorbed, eelf exVlorinq own VrimaryVoeeibiliite ?oeee6eed, |/ tiee: all pooeible inheractione bef,ween memory,idenlify. VerceVt.ion, q Oohemi avanf,- arde, exV an, erim enlinq wilh Iraditional qenreeand otyleemoderna(bisf,e, who brouqht modern arDto ite fullesl bloeeoming eomeIime be|,ween 1910

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and the 193Oe,

ralliedaround poet

Ezra Tound'e ballle

cry "Make it new," eeeinqNhemgelvee a6 creators of the newralher than as of forme, ?reoervere old cultrural )uch aft becamea way t o reVreoenl Ihe eNernal Ihe mideVof chaos.Cubiem in drew ineViration qeometries from lhe eimVle of Af rican oc ulVhur d emaleri alize obje e, d cte, bre aki q lh em n down into trheirbaeicgeomelricforme,Cubistr afrieT,s Vainted, ag TicagooVut,il,, "nof,what,you oee,but what you knowis fhere."

youlh seeksensilive the inqtroeecape confineeof hie in CatholicuVbrinqing ie Dublin, baeedon Greek trheancient, mfih of the hero

aro6ewar machines ao ?owefiulae Ihey were effrcient ln ltaly, of Ihe war machine lhe )u?erman ltAussolini. Germany, ln )uVer-

and ated AuechwiLz AndNhere Hiroehima. wereolher Vrob' leme-aftietic oneo.

af,tremVtinq m a n Oaedelue Hitler's the LabyNoeecaVe rinIh. Thue,it, has a at rnyDh it s cenler. OneoymbolIhaI atlem?f,ed f,o fill in Ihe Voidlhal had been left by Ihe "deal,hof God" wao the oymbolof the Toel Ezra machine. Toundeaw wordeae machines. Voet The WilliamCarlos said Nhat Williams the wholeVoemie a machine madeuV of worde,Modernarchitecle f,houqhl ot housesae machinee for livinqin. ln facl, all of society wae becominqmoremachinelike:bureaucraNic, raf,ional, Nechnical, Fromthie kindof Nazi Nrainsran on f,ime, deliverinq theirhuman carqo lo deabh campe like Auschwitz and These buchenwald. cam?oNhemselves drew u?onmoderniet planninandarchiq NecturalVrincipleo. And lhe Nazl war machine had iIs own center-Nhe myth of Ihe SuVerRace-f,he euVeriority blueof eyed,blondmembers of the Aryanrace. 9o one Vroblem Modern arL and lit eraf,urebecame increaeingly difficulf No underetand. Moderniam Hiqhmodbecame e r n i e m H i q hm o d . in ernismpeaked

1922, wilh the with moderniem is of Vublication thal science and rea- JameeJoyce'o
eon didn't juel create Ulyeeeeand

machine4ike efficiency ?roqre6e-Nhey cre-

"The Wastelandl' T,9. ElioN'o ln bolh Ulyeeeeand Finneganb Wake, Joyce exVerimenled with a sNream- conscioueneee ofelyle, plunqin7 the reader within Ihe fluid,ehiftrinq free-flow hie of characNere' ?oychee. g E]iol' "Waeteland" exV erimenNed with a fraqmenied poetry full of literary,hieNorical and mytholoqical tidbire from around the world-depiclinq a soul and a eocietyin fraqmenNalion and deeV eeekinq air, reinleqraf,ion, a new cenf,er.1of,h Joyce and Eliof, rejected lhe etraiqhttorward, and ralional ffowof the et ory or lheme. Theyaleo rejecLed Nraditi onal characT,er elo Vm dev enl, f avoringinetead a fraqmenled otyle. Dul Ihis dislikeof conventional characlerdeveloVment and the celebration insf,ead, Vrv of vaf,e, eubjecNive ex?erience added trothe t endency moderniem'e of arf,iels,assembled emall in qrou?ein ?aris,Oerlin, Kome, Vienna, London, NewYork, Chicaqo, CoVenha7en, Munichor Moscow, o viewlhemselvee an t as exiled, alienahed cultural eliLe. ln "The Metamorphoeie" lhe wrif,erFranz Kafka eymbolized Nhiealienation the arl,jet wilh of Nheimaqeof a huqehuman-eized buqNraVVed an abeurdhuman in environmenl. Such afrieIs creaf,ed workseo challenqing weird and tha| Nheycouldonly be appreciated by a narrowaudience. This onlyfufi,heraddedtrolheir elitiet imaqe. Modernafr,, in fac|,, wao eo far-ouI thal it, dividedculture into "Hiqhbrow" and "Lowbrow." Il, excluded middleclass,who the could not,underelandiI, and qave riee No a kind of "Vrieolhood"of echolarsand crif,ice. Theirjob wa6 and ie f,o explain moderniem'e myof,eries, read James Joyce'o To "Waeteland" Ulyeeea,T.9. ElioN'e "Cantoo" ie an or Ezra Tound'o advenf,ure,You needa quide, you wereexplorinq ae Nhough the Amazon.

E

differ rhen how doesPostmodernism
from Modernism?

E

there ie lirrleaqreemenr Nhe eubjecl, on becaue Varf,ly
an aNIemVINo

"TooT,modernism"whaleveril is-is

of what ie qoingon now-and we can oeeIhe Vreeenl only in retrosVect,,

theorieL,lhabHassan,offere a Nable differenceo )ne Toetmodern of the beT,ween Nwomovemenf,g;

Modernism
Form (,coniuncf,ivel cloged) <" " " " " " ">
{ . . . . a a . . . o o o o o }

Tostmodernism
Antiform (digjuncbivel o?en)

{ . . o o . . . . . . o o o o }

Hierarchy

{ o o e . . . . . . o o o r o }

Anarchv
Ha

AfL Obieet/FinighedWork {oooo......o..o} TrocegglTertormance/

Tresence Cenlerin
{ o o o o a a a . . a o . . o }

Abeence Diepereal

{ o o . . . . . . . o o o o o }

TexIllnt efreKY
Rhizome/7ufiace
(T?L 267-0)

KootlDephh

{ o o o o . . . . . . o o o o }

,' ,g:
7

Thue,where and Joyce reoLore deep new a

Yeaf,e, Eliot eouqhrf,o
cenT,er. new a

eenoeof Vur?oee, newl eenee deeign, a form of ' and deVth,a neweenee of grimordial oriqinin m$h,ToetmodernieLe for oflen eee no reaoon a lnelead Lheyf avor a decenLering-a ?lay cenLer, of chance, Lo anT,iform, eufiace.Accordinq and lasean, whereae f,heimaginaLions mod' of euchae Joyce,Ticaoeo ernieLe and Eliol were conslellatring aroundnewcentere,newcoherenl gf,ruclureg, 7ogT,mo dernieIg often create, comy o ? o 6 e o r ? a i n I e n t r i r e lb y c h a n c e - e p i l l i n q r , randomly deter' throwinqpainl on canva;eee, mining the qiLchand duraLion mueical of Io arf,noLeein a melody, eeeking de-define
l:tr
f' .t

.p'.1

;

For lo create non-arf, anf,i-arf,. Haegan, or who compoeer John Cageie a Toelmodern advocaleecomp oeition by chance-by an L e i m V l y u r n i n g n L h em i c r o V h o n e e d o random,everyday oounds, recordinq

7

E

pretty chootic.lt's no wonderthqt we need lt oll sounds
"mop'mokers," intellectuols chort the depthless to new world q center. Who ore someof these"mop-mqkers"? without

THE

MA?- MAKERg
7oetmodern Thi nkers

l^?ortant

Lyof,ard bornin wae E Jean-Francois France 1924andtrauqht Alqeria, in in
Braziland California, beforebecoming of profeeeor philoeophy Ihe UniaN veroityof Taris in 1968. ln 1985 he became director of the Colleqe ernalnt Iional de Thilooophie. For some 15 yeare he wae associa|,ed with a leflieNqrou? called goaialism or Barbariem,which, amonqother trhinqe, criNicized 3 ovieI- elyl e communiem.AlNhuqh Lyotard o became djsillueioned socialiem with and

Marxiem early 1964,Vhe ao as
evente of the studenL revolt in ?arie,in May of 1968, confirmedhis unregf,.

Discouroe, figure
ln 1971 we find him b e g i n n i na q Ionq,VoeIMaxist, periodin
@

and drippingwilh deeire.Like muchmodernpainNinq, dreame are fragmenf,ed. lheir attempV ln to makeunconocioue matrerial vieual, dreamedierupt Lhe kindof linearawareneee NhaN lanquaqe requiree. visu fiqure- akinq The al, m

G
o
o o

of whichhe is qiven nabure the unconecioug,Ihou7h dioruVte N ot h i n k i n q at workwithin lanquaqe, about, languaqe, dieruptrs rational trhe

ft
\

,!i/ttt,

:\ =^-\\

orderof lanquaqe,Thie becauee ie the fiquralnaf,ure Nheunconof and VhiloooVhy,lanquaqe Nhearts. His book Diecouree, figure,ar7uee with Ihe conceVt, Vut,forAh by JacqueoLacanIhaI lhe unconeciousmind is likea language, lnstead, Lyohardeu4qeotstha| Ihe unconscious not so much is likea lan7uaqe it ie visualand ae fiqural,like fiqureo 6he one draws eciousie difficultr reVreeent Io in lanquage, ThefiquralreeieNe reVreeentration in T,he same oenoef,haN lhe Holocausl reeisto reVreeentrabion. At,AuschwiNz lhe Nazis would drownouf,the ocreamgof the vic' time in the death cam?oby playinq muoicloudly. t 7imilarly, o

atlemptr t o reVreeentAuechwif,z or Vainte.Languaqe, after all, ie ll flat, Lwodimensional. reVreeeeo in lanquaqe-t o reducethe deaf,hand et ench degradaf,ion, on desire.Dreamo, Nheolher hand,are vieual, fi7ural, alivewilh three-dimeneion dream fiqureo, al lo a conceVN-drowne outrthe ecreame,AccordinqLo Lyotard, itr

thal f,he is thereforeneceeaary alaine imm emori Holo ausf,rem c remainebeinqlhal which Ihat, iN, cannot be remembered-but aleo be Ihal whichcannot, forgotten, Thus,any art, af,lemVlingto reV' ehouldconreeenlthe Holocauet

feelinq trhaI there ie eomelhinq t alion. Of,her han re?reoent of offers Ihe examVle LyoNard on Vaeaccio'eTrinity,painf,ed Ihe in walleof 1anf,a Varia Novella, Florence, whichdieplayeboth elemedieval and Kenaieeance

t i n u et o h a u n l u e w i l h i t e i n a b r l i N ymenle, 3y alt.emVtinqlo preoenN differenl eras,Lhe T,he entable, trwoimVoooibly No reVreeenN unreVree lf, to oay f,he uneayable. should No conf,inue haunt ue with the 6eemeT,o eay Ihal f,here paintrinq whichcannol io alwayl an Otrher be truly reVreeented. Another examVleLyotrard Mont offers is Cezanne'e an 9 a int-Victo i rr- a eimulf, eou6aI,IemVI Io preoenL modeeof NwodifferenT, vieion: vieionwif,ha distinct, focal cenler and vieionwhich i e V e r i p h e r a l i,f f u s e i n d i e d , tincN.Aqain,f,woheteroqeneoueelemenf,g.

I

The Tostmodern Heterogeneous?Condition trl T ln 1974,the year Helero' n Yes.
trtl

The 7overnment,. repo(Deurveyothe sf,atrus scienceand of f,echnolo6,y, hae and oomethinq become

qeneoue rneano "rnadeup of dissimilar elementra," ToeLic melaVhor ta a c c o m ? l i e h eh e eame.WhenI eay "my loveig a roge" I am invoking hef,eroqea neou6difference. Aft,erall, a rose and my love may havevery liVllein common. Oecauee f,hese all worksof arfi bring our attention Eo f,he to Ohher, a radieal they are difference,

Toetmodern noveliel ThomaeTynchon'e Gravityb Rainbow, wonLhe Naf,ional SookAward,"sfreak' inq"became fad in a Ihe UniLed SIalee, lrAama Caeeof the

thal for lhe past few decadeeeciencehae increasN ((n

languaqe, linquie-i l il,

ingtyinveoNiqaLed N

K

ff

polirical.

Lo deaf,h

etoraqe,daf,a banks, of and Vrobleme tranelationfrom one T,o computer languaqe He anof,her. Vrof,'hese claimedNhat, chan7eo Nechnoloqical would havea major imVacX knowledqe. on fhus, in 1974 he

on a eandwich, and a )oviet down probef,ouched on Mare, Lyof,ard qainedinternaf,ional fame for The Poatmodern Condition: a report on knowledge, a n a c c o u n lc o m m i g -

ed sionedby lhe Council Vredict that, no will of Univereities knowledge eurvive of lhe Quebec Ihat cannol be

and etoraqeof informationwillno longer

iN int,ereot, Iurno ouf', is nof,so much in oci-

and o d e p e n d n i n d i v i d u a l e ,enlific knowledqe Ihe scientificmet'hod, bul on compuT,ere. lnformalion will be and eold. produced Nalione will fight for lhe way Ihey ueed to fight,for Lerri?er oe, but,in howsciand knawledge enNific melhod leryibimize lhemeelves-how and believable selvee f,rusNworIhy,And al

informaf,ion they makethem-

this Voint,Lyotard fory. lnformaf,ion makesa disf,inctrion willzip aroundf,he globeaL f,heepeedof and electriciNy, Veo' ple willtry No et eal it. The role of the sf,af,ewill grow weaklhe placeof er.Taking corporaNione Nional willdominaNe. 7ul havinq eaid tranelated into comallthie about, Vuter lanquaqe-inf,o Lhedirection quanlitiee of informa- of ecienf,ific will Eion. Learning no knowledqe, lon7erbe aseociaf,ed wihhhhe lraining of minde-wiNhleachFor f,hetranemieeion Lyolard adde lhat, scienhific knowledge noN ie Hie knowledqe. betweenecienlific talk and narcaT,ive t alk.Of couree he doeen'N uge f.,he He word"Nalk," u6eoocienlifrc "digcouroe" and

e eLalee,huqemulf,ina- na r raf,iv "diI caurga."

ere f,raininqeluden|,s. lhe onlykindof

El Norrotive? I n Yee.I willqiveyou eome examplee IhaI LyoLard doeenol uee, which buL helV exVlain hie f,heory. When membere the of
Winnebaqo tribe ei|,arounda fire and hear a chanl of how Ihe world was created by thought,or Nheboshon0o, a 1anf,uIribe, chanl howNheqod Dumbavomiled fofDh lhe Moon and ?lare, or when the early JaVaneoe hearda chanN about f,he formatrion of Heaven and EarAh from a : atr NheeameT,ime bheyleqitrimize lhe eocietyin whichIhey are lold. Theteller of trhemfih doee not, haveI,o argue or ?rove,like scia entiet, whenhe chanNe Ihe otory of Oumbavomitinqf,he Voon and the 1f,ars, Verely in Vefiorminq Lhe myth, in lhe vibrationsof 6he the chanT,, beat,, the rhyT,hm-lhe 6en6eof naf,ural time is dieeolved and Ihe awareneoo oVene o t mythic lime: No narcalive time. Accordinqto Lyotard, nureery rhymeoand eome repetitiveforme of contem?orarymusicaNIempI t o enNer Nhesame o?aceof mylhic f,ime. Thechanter of the mfih leqilimizesiNeimVlyby etatinq: ':.,

tltt

Trimordial S\ Eqq-they
are lisf,en-

inq to narcative, poVularst oto riee,mythe,legendo and t ales. And euch mylhe leqitimize ih ems elv e-m ake Nh eelv e e em e believable-juot, the t ellinq.And in
24

*'He"e fhe is
r^tylh o0 Bvtvv} )a, Vot tifirtg fhe l.{oon
avr| Sfatrg, atS l'Ve

claimed IhaI the chanl hae been chanled forever, thal gumba Himeelf wae Ihe firel one t o chanV r , h e h a n t .T h em f u h , l h ec h a n L e r , c lhe audience, form a kindof all socialbond-a socialqrouplhal leqitimizee ileelf f,hrouqh the chantring lhe of mfih.The myf,h requiree no authorizaf,ion or Ieqitimizatrion "v" other /lhan iloelf. The

atlwatyshecrA if

charrfe,A. lwill char'rf if fo yoh irr
r,try fr4vrr. LiSf er\."
He then chants the myth. When he is finiehed he eaya:

*'He"eenAs fhe
I

u'ryfh o* Butr,"rbat. definee The u^athwho hats what hae ttluilWr\ the righl \ cl"l*anfed if lo ro be eaid and \ yoh iS Pontgo." donein Nhecullure.
7 u f ,a c c o r d i n q t o The narrator has authority f,o chant f,hechanl becauoe hao he heardit chanted himeelf,Anyone l i e l e n i n g a i n et h e o a m ea u t h o r i q ly merelyby lietening, ie even lt

mwh

'( \ t

Lyotard,ecientificdiecouroeie a differenl kind of lanquaqe qameI,hannarral,iv diecouree-th an myth. e 5 cientific diecouree annol c legitimize iteelf.

t*o
and

)r
^{ g

Lwo
i(

T;;*
,6;1J
I

J
Ihe work of the Vhilooopher Ludwiq WiVLqenef,ein.hie early workWittrgenstidn ln looked f,hepertecf,,loqical for languaqe that could of,ale everylhinqwilh clarif,y and Vrecieion. of,heru6e of lanAny quaqe-euch ae tellinga joke,reciting lhe poetry,or chanf,inq mfih of Sumba-he wouldhave6eenae

meaninqleee. 7 u I l h e n h e c h a n g e d i e m i n d .H e h be6anLo eee LhaLLhereare many qame6thaN we languaqe differenL e-?r ayinq, ?lay, For inetanc jokee, qoeeiVinq, oinqinq, Iellinq makinq promiee, awearinq, a taking f,ellinq a vow,Wonouncinq coupleman and wife, a qamefrom thaV of mylh, ie kindof lanquaqe a lie.Science a differenf, ll cannot, legilimize ileelf or validat if,eelfby ile own ?roceduree. e qameof ecience f,hescientiel makeedenola' ln the lanquaqe rather than myT,hical ones. Livegf,af,emenl,g
tl\t

El Denototivestotements? I ig A denotativesLaf,ement one ouch as "'Moon' n ie a f,ermtrhatr denof,es material body (oafellife) a ' whichrolaleo and orbita aroundlhe planel and at' EarIh wilh a uniformand knowneVeed f,o a defrniledislance,according knownNewlaw6." f,onian(or Eineteinian)

qeneralized cribical Do you meqn to soy thot NASA scientists,in order to legitimize the moon-shot, chont the myth of how Bumbq vomited the Moon? I No.Accordinq to n Lyolard,ecience has deVended upontwo The ot.hernarcaNives. firet ie polif,ical, the eecond, Vhil ooVhi al. o c Thefirst, narrative reliee ecience u?on in orderNo leqif,imize itself ie because lhe qreat thinkere of the
e?4,

inNellct-in f act, f,he e veryideaof an intellectual-was a Vroductof lhe Enliqht enmenl,lnlellectualswere
called

"'VhiJoooVhers In France lhey werecalled ' philoeophee, where they enjoyed6reaf, celebrityand and Vreotiqe, do to thio day.

men , such ,onf
a9

wilh the associat'ed l9rh century,trhe and Enliqhtenment the The Revolution. French l9th centurywas also calledthe Aqe of Rea' 6on,-in FranceLe Sibcledee Lumibre*

Volr,aire, Rougseau, buffon, Condillac and DideroV, appliedreason to everyarea of qion,moralitry, life: reli eociallife, politice, Theideaof a place in oocietyfor a kind of

Reject rellgiouo authorlt'yl Downwith old lhinge like metaphyoice,ignorance, ouperotit ion, int oleranaeand paroahialism! Let,t'lheratlional faculties of t,lhemind,

weddedto ecience, advance knowledgeto everexpandingviotasl Let reason unloakthe laws of nature and usher in an ofiimletic agel Let the praaliaal allow men and women to get, on with t,he ?ro?er busineeeof eeekinghapplneeel And happineee meano p olitlical freedo ml Let, lhe happinessof humanity on earth mean the libert'ythe liberation of humanity! All this meano ?rogreesl Let scienceand reaoon bring ?rogrese and treedoml Joinedto f,his French polilicalnarrative of freedom is a Germannarrative: Heqel'o of VhiloooVhy Ihe Unityof all Knowledqe. Heqel, For knowledqe played an essenlialVarLin the gradual evolution of Nhehuman

mindfrom iqnorance to f,olal being. both NheFrench Enliqht narraenmenf, live and the German knowledqe narcabive are what,Lyotardcalls grand narrativeo, biq gtories,glorieg of mythic proVorLionethal claimtro be able

to accountfor, exVlain and eubordinate all lesser, little, localnarratives.)ome other melanarralives are lhe philoooVhiee of Marxigm t,henarraor tive of Chrisliansalvation. Thusf,henarraf,iveof a successful Mare exVedition in which 3" x 3" nanoa roverlandeon the

disaoverlee eoience metanarcatives of or

-11O Celsius surfaceof lhe Vlanet qenerate to and tranemit backNo Earth diqital imaqee of the Mare-oca?e,ie a litlle narcalive Nhat io Vaft of the biq ot ory-Nhe metanarraiive-of f,hefreedom,trheliberalion of humanity(French), and the af,tainmentof a ?ure,self-conscious eViril-the Unityof all Knowledqe (German).

-J./

Soporodoxicolly, science octuolly depends uponthese two grond norrotives for legitimizotion.
4fY'

That'e right,. buI lhe Vroblem-accordinq to no Lyotard-ie thal einceWorldWar ll, peoVle lonqer in AfLerall, believe Lhesetwo grand meNanarratrivee. scienceand reaeonIo Lhe conelruclion of qae aVplying Lhe and efficienlrailroadschedules, chambere Did Nazieexterminaled millione humanbeinqe. of freedomand liberaLion? exVerience theee VeoVle Anddid ocience fulfillAegel'e narcaNive increaeing ol has led ue NoNherealizabion No. knowledqe? For Vhyeice can f,ravelI,wodifferenf,palho Nhrouqh lhaf, elec|,rono 6?aceeimullaneouely-or ?aeefrom one orbil No A f,heeVacein beNween. Varadoxl anolher withoul croeoinq if And howcan we unfoldthe Unity of all Knowledqe our are Nhoughtproceeeee notrevenabletro comVrehend Ihinqe haVVen? howLheee in of Oecause disbelief NhemeNanarcascience ecience, lives trhat had leqilimized no lonqerplayeNherole of a herolhat, wouldlead us elowlyloward full freedom e and abeolut knowledqe.

reseorch no longerobout finding Truth-then is @ ,u* if scientific
whqt is it obout?

E

,r,hat, When ecience encount ?aradoxes, er6 suchas the elechron qoe6oVVooihe directione eimu\,aneouoly, it,abandone search iNe for ' decidable truths and eeeks legitrimize through Io itself
performativity. Scienceotopo aokinq,"Whatkind of research will unfold the lawe of nature? " and be7ino iaekinq,"What kind of reeearchwill work best?" And t o "work be6t" meano"What kind of research can qenerate more of the eame kind of reaearch?Can it perform? Can it produce more of the oame kind of research?"9o ecience ie no lonqerconcerned witrhtruth but,wiT,h ?erf or mativiNy-V erto r minq-V rod ucinq mo re of th e oame kind of research,becauee the more research you Vroduce,Ihemore Vrootyou Vroduce and the

moreyou are oeen beinq ao riqht,the moremoney and power getr. you
9o whenVeople lon7erbelieve lhe metranarcano in lives trhat,legitrimize ecience, scienceie then forced No leqilimizeiloelf-juef, as Ihe myth of Dumba vomitinqthe Moonand 7trars leqilimizeo itoelf by itself. bolh science and VeoVle chantinqthe bumba chant,can then oay,

\e

Ao whatf we Ao,

becarhse fhatf's fhe

warywe A,oit"

Thenwhot'sthe difference between two, qfter qll? the
I The difference, LyoIard,ie for n LhaNwhere tradilional eocietiee are underthe eVell one domiof nanNnarraf,ive, ouch as the mfuh of Dumba,TosNmodern oociely ie a oocief,y whichno one narcain tive-biq or litlle-no one lanquaqeqamedominaf,ee, Toslln modernsocietrieo many micronarralives jammed are toqether.And bhis carnival narof raNivee reVlacee monolilhic the of ?regence one metanarratrive.

legitimized by Ihe q r a n dH i n d u Nheliberalion of the human eoulIhrouqh Enliqhlenment. ln conf,ragf,,

',,;r ', .-/

otory-tellerat,your localbookslore, or vieiting children the
atryour local echool, may tell a t raditional Eskimo or

Hlqtr

But doesn'tthis meon the disoppeoronceof our universql systemof meoning? Doesn't this just creqteq void? Yes,Dut,thie void ie filledin by ewirlingqalaxieeof little etoriee-lit t le micronarcaf,iv s. The e void ie filled in by a kind of et oryIellingIhaf, doee noL seekt o |eqitimizeitself Nhrouqh erenc ref e qrandnarcative t o a eingle out For instance,a f,ellerof side if,self. talee in ancientr lndia,eitrtrinq underhie banyantree, wouldhave Iold Nhousands etrories-buI of wouldhavebeen all Ihese e|,oriee

'f

,/i

h

Naf,ive Ameri' can TrickgT,er t a l e ,o r the eNory lettinq down her lonq, of RaVunzel younq qolden hair for a handeome or Vrince, the otory of bumba vomiNinq Moonand 9t arsf,he and f,ellNhem in one oiltinq. all

eloriee eeekeleqilimizaf,ion Noneof Nheee or Vrooflhrough oomeqrand narcalive. Each

ffi"
I n !'t

isn't E But
[yotord's storyobout
disbelief in metonorrotives

just qnother metonorrotive? lsn't he being outhoritorion obout how there cqn be no quthorities?

Yee. Lyot has been ard attracked Nhoee on grounde. facL,hienotion ln trhatr VeoVle

haveetoVVedbelievinq qrand narcativesbein caueeeuch narrativee marqinalize minoriliee
7-

tilffi;

definitionof ?oef,moderniem ae incre dulity tow ard metan a rrativ ee conlinueef,o havegreat inffuence.

Whoore some othermopmokersof the Postmodern world?

A eecond infruential Toslmodern Ihinker is Fredric As Jameeon. a Marxigf,,Jamegon ie int eresf,edin trhe relationehiV rhe of individual the to world of objecNe, whetherNhoee objectre be cans ot o o u ?o r m u l t i n a lional corVoratione. Like mostr Marxietrs, his refreclionson Ihie relationehip alwayelead backto hielorical reality. For instance, leminqway'e?roee olyle-hie bare, een' Vared-down f,enceg-can degcribe movemenf, through naf,ure and ouqqeoltension and resent ment belweenhie machocharactrere. The ekillof a bullfiqhter or t roul fisherman Hemin inqwayreffectrs the American admiratrionof trechnical skill-buf, rejecte Ihe way in which induetrialoociety alienaleoVeoVle. Thue skillis disin Vlayed leieure acbivilies,far from indueNry, uoually by exVatriateewho havealienat ed from themselves

American induslrial eociety, u?oetmodernlem, or ihe Cultural Logic of Late Capitalism" Lyotardcelebratee the multiVle, incomheteroqenVatrible, eoue, fraqmenled, conf,radict ahd ory nabure ambivalenf, of Tostmodern 6ociety while Jameson distrusls anddielikes ln hiefal it,. "?opl,moueeegay moderniem: or Loy'ic LheCultural CaViIal' of Latre ieml'Jameeon doesnot,seeNhe

-:,{ff
S E C ON D : Late Capitaliem, whichbrokedown Toetmodern ae era Voetinduef,rial-ae an ebb in the Lide of caVitraliom, Ka|,her, sees iL he ae an intensificaNionand lat eel of Vhaoe a caVifalietrworldeyetem, wae Jameeon heavily infuenced by Erneel Vandel'e rhe 19lh and ZONh centuriesinto definitre hietorical periodo. F I R 9 T :f r o m 17OO 1&5O, r,o the periodof marketr caVitraliom. Durinq Lhis era induetrial caVihal aocumulatred moetly in n ahi,bAl rnarket s. r, :1, m o n o V o lc a V i a l y t i e m ,d u r i n ql h e a g e of imVerialiem. National marketre ex?anded inI,oworld markat"s.Thou1h f,haoe mar\els were baeedin Vafricular imVerial nationgNateg, they deu?onoutVended lyingareao for raw materiale and cheaplabor,

THIKD-i'.heToslmodern Vhaee wilh the unreeruVled Ihe worldecene on strictedgrowVh multinalional of corVoraform Thieis Ihe Vureot, lione-euch ae Coca-Cola. of caVilaliomyeI f,o emerqe-invading nature by forme of agriculluredeetroyinqthe ?re-capilaliet, the mindby advefiieinq. and invadinq unconecioue hiot,ory inepired Mandell'o Jamesonlo proclaim Ihree culNural Veriodo-in each of whicha unique af,es; cu\ur al logic domin

is Fiv51- fhe ^ge o0 Reatlisr,"r
hietoricalnovel. Theera of Ihe bourqeoie,

SeconrA is fhe ^ge o+ Hoaevhisu
culf,ure modernieN because Jamesonadmiresmoderniem wilh I'he world.TakeEdvard ite ex?reoaed dieeaNistact'ion The Munch'eVainT,in7 gcream. For Jameeonit' ie a deeVerate of Nhemee alienaf,ion, Nhe cry ex?reeeinq qreaf,modernieV eolilude,and eocialfraqof roolleeeneae,lack identrily, menf,alion. gimilarly,Van Peaoantthoee critrOoqh'oVaint'inq and mieery. icizesan enfire world of peaeanl poverLy "qreat euchae Le Corbueier'e Modernielbuildinqe, beaconsin Vilolio"etrandouf,ae grand ut'oVian city our' lo briqhl conf,rastr the deqraded a them. Theyex?reee Volirically roundinq visionof Ut'oVia. Vaeeionat'e

Thiv/' is fhe ^ge oP PosfuroAevnisu,t
and ?oelmoderncultural f orme reflecIlhe dielocatrion fraqmeninlo smallqrouVecommunities-eVlinlered t alion of lanquaqe

"a each o?eakinq curiousVrivale languaqe itreown,each profeeof

neeewith no linkt o any realily: the collaVee Nhedistinction of

eiondeveloVinq Vrivat code or between iIo e hiqhcullureand lowculdialect,and frnally each individual lure; maeeeeof oVechaf,,ore abancominqNo be a kindof linguistic ieland,oeVaraXed from everyone
el6e" (co 114).

donedf,o a qazeof imaqe addictrion:'N imaqee etripVedof reality, leavinq onlya 6urface,a gimulacrum, schlock, kitsch, O movies, adver?ul? fic|,ion, Nioing, motrele, KeadersDiqeef, cul-

Thue,accordinq Jameeon, tro ?oslmodern y -dwellers cit are alienahed,liviinan hallucinanq f,ion, exhilaraNinq a reality an blur, evaporatinq inlo mereimageo, oVect acles,elranqe newwarVein time and oVace,fixal,edon com-

moditieg, Vroducf,o, imaqee, f,ure:Nhemerelydecoon on likethe exVloeion Andy Warhol'e ralive, euV cial, qraof erfi poVa(0, on floweof imaqeeet olen t uitous eclecbicism of from conoumer cultrure and re?ro- 7oslm od ern architeclure ducedwilh induetrialreVebiIion, CamVbell'e )oup cane,Srillo boxee, botllee of Coca-Cola, collaqeeof idenf,ical imaqesof Hollywood eNareeuch as Marilyn Monroe,all eamenees, surtace-all all deVthleoaneee. ComVared Van to Gogh'e Peaaant thoes, whichex?re6eeea real worldof rural mieery, Warhol'e Diamond Duet thoee ex?ree6eo a depthleooc a n n i b a l i z i n gl N h ea r c h i al leclural eNylee the of Vaet+f,he Donavenlure lotel in Los Anqelee, mona umenl of Toef,modern archif,eclural eVace.

lile a[ac[doon! entens lle apostmodenn [ypers[ace!nides lfe eleuatonsescalatons and etennally up ilown 0iant gondolloating and lile
'-')t-

:.-- 1 diny, dnonlnin0[euuildenin0 ina emptire$$. lleuuants s0 he map way extennal uuonldl * r- Ii amal tlrat can ftis tothe
=:l :1i ,;ameeonf eelet'hat, hie dizzineet when aced wirh ?oetf ) our incaVacily ma? our relato rcrld of vael comVut nef,worke er >ns. Toetmodern theory, too, offere ,m of the centerleespoelmodern ,wellknown hie dieT,inclion for Onethinq trhal ToeLmodernily hae
' I

I

, worldthan a cure. I

4o. In the aqe of modernitywe sLill L^ti ^. ,^ ) t believed, ^ the eubject-the - eqo. in , - - r ^^ - . . t ^ ! ^ ^ L L t Afr,ieteeuch ae Heminqway ?ooeeeeed unifiede4o and idenlia f,y-even if it wae an alienatedone,
1:-1151 : i l : l*\J -n.'
-\.r-'.

t',tbtl

f-'{tis1

#

And an Nhey ?oeoeaeinq identity, ?oeeeeseda otyle f,hat could be the oubject of Varody-you could make fun of iI by imit atrinqil. Everyyear,for instance,f,hereis a lilerary conteel in whichwritere imitrale tt Heminqway's otyle in a humorou; way,
,\lF-.1-

i:tH-.

Everyyear we met at Harryb bar. Wedrank there. And everyyear was a good year. And we sat and drank and imitated Hemingwayb
i.,

etyle. And we were good there.

',,4> ('oK

f.t t-

:A

(,) N+

,<,J

7f

but Toetmodernityhao fraqmented lanquaqe and T,he oubject-bolh havebecome echizoid. Jameaonfeelethat, parodyand ealire are only in Voeoible an era af healthylinquieticnormaliNy. You meon like in Gulliver'sTrqvels,Jonothqn Swift wds oble to sotirize the qbnormql longuoge of scientific reoson becouseeveryone knew what normol speechwqs like?

r

It\t

lll

I Dut,in ToeNmodern the ie aqe,rhere nolinquiot.ic normaliLy. lfl Yee,
Thuewe can only Vroduce paotiche-lke an impereonaNor ranwho domlyet,arls ouNimVersonaling boqarr, and Nhenswirchee, the in middleof hie line,f,oMarilynMonroe, and rhen No Doy Georqeor and f'hento KonaldKeagan.lnVaetiche Jamee Dean, Lhereio onlyIhie omorqaebord quotarione-like a dozendifferent,movieand M'W of videoeand televieion ehoweeVliced randomly toqether.

As a Varxisl who believee trhat, the world is run by hielorical forces,Jameson'e bigqeet7ripeaboul the ?oslmodern era is lhal it eignalo Lhe end of a qenuine awareneoe hiehory. of bu| Jameson feels that an awarenee;of history i6 Vrecieely what we now needto Viece Ioqether our ehaf,Nered ?oef,modernlanqua7e and eelvee, which,like HumVly

I

DumVLy, havebecome ' fragmented,Itrie whal we needto unifylhe paoI- Vreeenl-fulureof trheeenNence-t o unifyour ?oychee and our lives. What we needis whal Jameeon callean "aesthetia of cognitive mapping"No repreeent our imaqinary relationehip realiLy, Lo What we need,accordinq Jameeon, Marxism-a ecii6 to encef,haf,can f,,ell whaVie imaqinary and what ie real-Nhal can recover lrue historicalconecioueneol and normalcy.

7't JP

pl rut wouldn't Lyotordsoythqt Morxism is
q metonorrotive? I l) Yeo. And 60 you can oee Ihat nol all Tostmodernists aqree.ln fact,,Jameson ffow of imaqee eeemeovercome T,he by media-but, in the Toetmodern our nexL"ma?-maker," Jean gaudrillard, oeemsIo euqqeet,a kind of paooive f,o eurrender this ffow.

(t

and the Deathof vhe Real
-I1ne gatssivevichu'r oS You arve wiveA. -fl.1,cou,rgullv, auA 42Y4vtiSirrg. Yoq awe hygrrofizeA by the lhbe, by fhe obsce\e
€low oP iu,ratges. )orr ratise You{v eYelias. A Varu,rgirs53

is krreelirrg ovev yoq-volugh^ously-fhe muscles oP he"

rrecl., fhe ivory cqwe o€ he" shoql/ets, illramirre/ as i€ by cool moonlight She lic\cs he' scar"let ligs liLe
ath arhiu arl, gla:ilng fhem with at shee\ forrgrae glistertirrg 45 if laqs fhe whife o€ u,roisft^v€,hev eugovgeA feefh. She leatrrs close",

o* €eel her cool breo*h, fherr the shat"Phess ihcisors Pehetvarlirrg yotar treck. Yoq close yoqv eyes ih at latrrgtrotor,ts ecsfatsy atrrA watiFwatif wifh beatfirtg heatrt

t'heoristJean of tro This, accordinq t'heimaqery ToeNmodern gaudrillard, eimilar eociely'e world No relaNionehiptrhe to is newo?a?ero, Lelevieion, adve(bisinq, of maeemedia,
The maqazines. era of maoe communicat'ione ue invades our darkenedroome,embracinq with if,scool,lunarliqhl, ?enetrabinA We inNoour mooT, ?rivale receggeo, auccumbto the fatal af,Nracl.,ion, in ^urrenderinq ourselvee an ecelaoy of communication.

Thetrhoughtof Jean Daudrillard ie parl of a New Wave of French theory lhat brokeon American ehoresin the'7O9,'BOs '9Oe-replacinq and Nhetrenry over former waveo dominaledW poet-WorldWar ll fiqureesuch as )a(Dre. Just ae Nietzeche once the Vroelaimed Oeabhof God, baudrillard's Nhouqht declares I,he death of modernity, the death of the real, and the death of eex. Oaudrillard underminee deep foundationsof thouqhi in diecisuch as Vlinee Marxism, eemiotice, polit,ical ecience,economice, reliqiouo eNudies, anthropoloqy, liher alure, film and mediaetudies-to namejuol a few.

ln Vay of 1968-while miniskirt-cladAmerican womenwerecelebralinq No 7ra Day by burninq Nheir undies, whileAmerican , hi?Vieo weretriVVinq " TurVleHazel"' V ellow No Yellow," and "Mrg. Kobinoonn-Tarieian youlh, backedby Communiste and other Marxiste,took f,o Ihe etreets in a defianI and jubilant, mood, creat inq oomelhinq betrween carnivaland a a revoluNion. Tariei univ an erei f,ies wereeventually ohut down by the studenl eNrike, and factory workerefollowed suit. Troduction and educabion camelo a hall, Underthe threatr of a radical overthrow of the oyoNem, Gaulle de left,fhe countrry. Oy June, however, wag oummer if, vacabion lime, turning the wouldbe studenl revolul,ionaries inlo beachqoers. workers, The encour-

a7ed by de Gaulle, relurned Notrheir jobe-and thinqe wereeoon back No normal. Nevet'Vhelees, the mags conlagion of Nhemovement left deep imVreeeione on oomeof the participanT,o. of theee One
I

Semiotics? lEl Structurolism? T AN timeae fil Yee, the eame
the etrudenf, uVrieinq, revolu).
;
NL^
IITL'

Iionary evenf,s werelaking placein Lhe eLudyof lan-

)
g

o o
O

de )aueeure arquedthat meaninq in lanquaqe nof,Vroduced ie by a colleclionof sounds

gauwae Jean drillard, for who,
manyyeareto come,would ei'ill

I
iI I

#
1ausgure, there is
) )

no natural correeVondence betrween "oound"horge, Nhe lhe

continue be tro inffuenced by Marxiet, thouqhl, but,would feel
increaeinqly that Marxisf,Vhiloeophy ie ineuffrcienl No exVlain in life lat e caVitaliet societiee. he 9o beqanlookinq also gf,ructuraligm to and eemiolicet o ouVVIemenL Marxiem,

concept"hor6e"and a horee.Katrher, Nheorized, he Ianguage a eyelem of differie

't\N
".t\

).\\\ . \ ',\ \

encee,eomebhing Ihe red, like yellowand qreen liqhtoin a traffic eignal.

',\\ \..

t1,o fu

ct?z?p-

4for"ab-.* 6tern f"t

(uooh,

re

^"a(f.*

ootae'Ff,'ho.'
The red,yellowand qreenliqhle qaintheir meaninqe onlyin relatrionA ehiVNo each oNher. eyelem of purple, blueand qold liqhtowouldworkjueL ae well. exf,ended aue3 9 emioNics intro ic eure' linguiet et rucNuraliem e f'he mfuh,faehion, obherrealme: reliqion, elc, TheIerm media,Volitrice, "Devil" inghance, no meaninq hag for by ileelf. lI onlylakes on meaninq ol ag an elemenlin a eyet'em an e qy Chrieli Nh olo / myth, where"devil"ig relaied lo other conceptssuch as
"Godr" "Anqel," eIc, ,

ri.

',

*Q.r',,et

Earfy Writinge
)emiotice ie the slrucluraliet eNudy variousoyetemeof of like f,rafficoiqnalo, meaning, myT,he, lanquaqe, fashion,eNc.Daudrillard's workscombine eemioNic, eNrucburalisl, etrudy cullure a of with a neo-Marxistanalyoio.For insNance, his early works-The in )yetem of )bjects, The )ociety of Consumption and For a Critique of the ToliticalEconomyof the )ign-Saudrillard arque; that, juot, a6 a younqboy who qroweu? amonqwolvee
t(

{\ . \ t\\\

D

.

becomeowolflike, qrowinq Veoplein ToetmoderneocieLy, up in a world of objects-become more objecllike. .i ThouqhTostrmodern oocietry basedon Nheconie oumpbion commodities-on buyinq of and uoinq thinqo-Ihis coneumVtion can nevermakeuo happy.

'(\t

\-/-'

lEl But don't commoditiessotisfy our noturol needs? This ie not,what,Marx believed. Varx, an For objectr, beforeif, ie a commodity, hae a natural

usevalue. car is ueeful A because io VleaiN
eurableto drive-becauee it lete you feel Nhevoluptuoue curvalureof the earthand becauee traneVoflo you to variif, oue Vlacee.

\

ltrlarx However, aleo believed T,hat, eocietyan objec| in a caViLaliet a and I,akes becomee commodivy value. Thecar an an exchange for Dul can be exchan4ed money. eaw Ihie Marxiel Saudrillard of aeoeoementr an object ae too i l i m i t i n ya n d e u V V l e m e n t erd , wilh a semiotic analyeioof an analyeie Lhe o meaninq f the F

he examVle, ie buyingint o a wholesyef'emof needelhaL ie homoqeneouo, aT, once rat'ional, The eyef,emalic and hierarchical. of difpurchaoe f'he Mercedee terenliateo Lhe buyereocially who driveVolkswafrom VeoVle 6 e n e a n d L h i e? u r , -- '-r) chase helVe --1--i-; inLegrale ! hinr,oyef,em-

/gn

^$,nffiY'4 . . -

..' jtRf>*-

For, f,raf- j objecl. like

,.',.,.i
\H

Vf\(

lM y

and arically

ficlishre,commoditieehave l, m e a n i n a en l h i e

ffi-Wfigtffibffit'
Z

rafionallv,

''*i;..;.-y I,N, into a homo\ qeneoue level

donr moditiee

i'2ilh,' *ffi (

of bvet eociery

1ueIea|iefynaf'ur.,4/','lt','..'lso.ffitW.'N.-inwhichevery ','N\ a al needs-rathe. $ ,, ,ir*dffiffiffillii I \ __ onedriveo our crear,ee dtNi,: eocietry ffifllii;1i,, $i$'- Mercedee. r.\,, for Thue, \aulluman neede. ffi *NN$ffi.
beinqo, afLer all, '\\lrr \-*6-' ffi did drillard, lxrlarx the not,recoqnize eymbolic, objeclaopect'of f,'he eemiof.,ic Ihe factrthal whenyou buy a eomet,hinq, if, Mercedee eiqnifiee havinq a beeidee The Merc&des, gerveo a eiqn of ae use value, rank, lhe consumer';Vreoliqe, Thueconand eocialelandin7. ie eumVtion noLiuet conoum7coneum?f,ionbut'conoVicuoue lion, We dieplaywhaLwe buy, havea deeVdesireLo dietrinfrom oLher guiehthemeelvee throuqhoyotemo humanbeinqe For of oocialdifrerent'iat'ion. of members tribal cultures miqhtr oigbe differenceo Nheee naledby rhe uee of certain f,at,toog or f eat'herg. whena Oul in our eocief,y, buyoa Mercedes conourner tor inetead of a Volkowagen,

in cona?icuouoly, orderIo differee entiatreourselv oocially. Andyou can'trbuyjuol one a object in ordert o enNer eocial you needNo buy into an level, entire eyolem of objecte. Thue \:::---\-

buyby ceaoeleoely ing inlo f,he lalest' fads and trends. Theeecodeeare juot likethe

ruleeof --.-----:>.-

whenyou are Vickinq your out, you Mercedeo, also needtro ohop for a T,ennig club,an egt,af,e an in exclueive neiqhborhood, qood a e a Vrivat echoolfor your children, faehionable vacaT,ion epof,,etc, A go mucha need,lhen, not, ig needfor a Vafticular object,as it is a need Io disl"linguiehoneeelf eocially, needfor social differa enceand meaning, NeiLher coneumption is for Vrimarily pleaoure-for il requireo immense reaourcee and enerqy. VereonmuoT, A earn trhe moneyand leieure trimetro obtain the Mercedee and ehow it off, The effoft requiredt o do lhie of-f,en demandeNhedenialof ConeumVNion, lhen, ie Vleaeure. not natural-somelhinq we aut,omaticallyinheritfrom naturebutrcullural,TheconeumVtion, dioVlay and uee of objectetakee placeon Nhebaeieof cullural codesthaN demandwe conform 4rammar that, underlie a lanquaqemakinq communicalion The Voeeible. codeeorganize commoditriee hierintro archicaleyelemo of meaning baeedon Vriceand preotiqe, This Iiring feedinq frenzyof coneumplion, this searchfor beinq, meaninq and Vreetiqe trhrough coneumVtion, cauoeofatique and alienation the heroee conin of eumVbion. Alwayslatentrin cone u m V t i o n , I h e n , l u r k se V i r i to f a rebellion. Coneumers reacha Voint,of refusal-they qeI fed uVand end up burninq their brae or eruVtinqinlo more radical forme of eocialchange.

a IttNKt, fi€REFoRr L rMl

'The Ordere of 9imulacra" rhe 197Oe Ourinq and 19BOebauem' drillardet oVVed hio Vhaoizinq Marxist and was leaninqo as heralded the themoef,advanced orief,of mediaand eociety in f,he ?oetrmodernera, sociTostrmodern elies, dominaled by ers comVut and f,ele' vision,havemoved

inNoa new realif,y, whichhe outlinee in "The Orders of jimulacra." Simulqcrq?

howNherelaNionehiV be|,ween trhe real and hae lhe simulacrum hioNhrouqh chanqed tory.Durin7Nhefeudal era,whenGuinevere; blewkisses from the ramVafie to of castrlee Lance' armor, lote in ehininq whenthe feudal lord wae Nheoymbolof eafthly auNhorily, and trheVirqinMary the illumined etained qlaeewindowe and

Isimulocro, plurol;
simulocrum, singulorl Yee.For Dauare drillardsimulacra coViee real obof jecto or eventg.ln "TheOrdereof Simulacral' he deecribee

the hearf,sof her oociely devof,eee, wae orqanizedby to a relaf,ionehiV a eyetrem fixed of eiqne, which werelimited in n u m b ea n d e u ? r divine. Voeedly For insLance, we can read in Lancelol's coal of arms h i e e o c i a lr a n ka n d elalus. The eocial
elalue

of trhe
blowinq Vrinceee kiseeefrom trhe ram?arLe, eiqie nifiedby her dreeeand by her adherence f,he to convenNione of love.And,of courT,ly c o u r 6 ea l l t h e g e , codeeof behavior and dreeeare divineIy eancLioned f,he by eymboleof lv1ary and o f J e e u ee h i n i n a eerenely the Iop aI of the hierarchy of eymbole-throuqh o l a i n e dg l a e o windowe. ln eucheocieLiee o n e i e a e e i q n e do t a fixed social e?ace,
\t

likea caeLe,and mobilitybelween eocialclaeeee or caef,es imoooeible. is A serf, Iaboring in the fielda, could not become a knight.

@

ffi'
w@ ":0

Then, Nhe in Veriodof early modernily,from f,o trhebeqinninq of Ihe lndueNrial RavoluNion,Ihe riqidorderof lhe feudalera brokedown due t o Lhe rise of the bourgeoieie. the medieval Durinq periodNheworld wae creaf,ed in f,he imaqeof God. but, in lhe era of early modernif,y, imaqeo, oigneand eymbols werenot divinebuI atificial in and Vroliferaled the fieldeof

ruled like a qod over hio pertect, world made Voeoible conby cref,e-which for him wae like a in a6 emerqed Ihis Veriod a medium of baroqueaft,, and qave riee eu?reme lo gaudrillard'e examVle of thie aqe-Nhe 7Iucco Anqel.lt

lhe Renaieeance mental substance,7lucco aleo

wasorllyone more oteV to Vlaolic.
simulacramoldedof etuc' DUN co, concrele(and latrerVlaelic), Ihouqh counf,erteif,, a Vroduced newworld of torms made of a e, d ealhl es s, frexibl ind es|'ruclible eeeeIhis mat erial.1audrillard as olaqe of the simulacrum f,he

otraqe of fashion,aft and Voli- beqinninq theaf,er, lhe simulacrumtriceae lhe newrieinqclaee ed af,NemVt No creahef'he world in iNeown image. a For baudrillard, "o eymbolof thie aqe Kenault, old an wae Camille who eculVNor, livedin cook,Nurned lhe and discovered the Ardenneo f ducing pertecf,subsNanceor repro lhe world in hie own imaqe-Kein' forced Concrete.From thie he chaire,drawero, fashioned an machineo, ent'ire oewinq violine, est orch ra, includinq Accorda oheeV, hoq,Nrees. Renault' ing to Daudrillard, NheFireLOrder of jimulacra,

6d,

TheSecondOrderof Simulacra a??earewiLhf,headvenl of ulacra now becomeinfinitely re?rol d u c i b l eh r o u q hi n d u e l r i a m a e z l produclion. Whereao Camille Kenaull molded arlificialworldby hie hand,in the induef,rial mecnera anizedmeaneof maeeaoeembly and producf,ion enable Kenault a aulomobile facf,oryto Nurnouf, maeoeeof exacf,replicae care. of WhengholograVhy cinema and arriveon trheocene, evenarl ouccumbet o the force of mechanical reprod ucLion, Kep ducti on ie ro governed markel forcee,which by

nowbecome dominanf, lhe Vrin' Lhe ciVle-reVlacinq worldof nat7uL,accordinq Saudrillard, to we are now in lhe Third)rder of )imulacra-the era of ToeImodernity-lhe era of models.No l o n q e r s t r h es i m u l a c r u m c o u n i a LertdL likeCamille KanaulL'o hog,or an i$finiteeeriee, concreLe

I h e l n d u e l r i aR a v o l u l i o n ,h ee i m - ural objecle. l T

Iike aulomobilee rollirlq the off line-bul aeoembly i

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TheVreoidinq in ?ower trhis m e n f .a c o m m o d i era is Nhe modelor the code. t y , a V o l l , a t , e l e v i "Diqilalityie iVemef,aVhyei- s i o n ?roqram, a
c a l V r i n c i p l e . . . a n d n e w o s s u eo r a ? o i DNA ie its l i t i c a l c a n d i d a l e ,

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El You meon like: " A r e y o u w o t c hi n g erned by Ihe doytime TV or not? "code" of qrammar Areyou buyingPepsi or and our bioloqical Coke? you for con' Are ?roce?oeo are conX didqte or Y? Are you trolled by the DNA code, weqring ColvinKlein our cu\ural life ie baeed or Jordoche?' on a variety of codee; T we have oex videos, n Exactly. And such yoqa videos, how't o LesIs nof, only regtrricL
quaqe ie qovmanualg, cookbookg, our reg?oneeoto "yeo" videog,?arexercige manuale, entrinq t a n d n e w e ? a ? e r sr o provideNhesecodes. Theeecodes not,

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algodetermine or"no" buN o u r o p l i o n e ,l i m i l i n qt h e and lhin7e we may choose from, Thus our liveeare cont rolled by a oyotem of

q, adv efi,isin t elevieion very eco?e of the issuee

o n l y V r o v i d em od ' binary requla|ion-where oVf els buf,also conf,in- trhe queof,ionlanewer ion uallylest' ue. Every o f t h e I e s t ' h a s b e e n r e -

time we reepond duced No an eilherlor binary "yeo" or "no" t'o code: a fashion,an adverlise-

of This oyoT'em binarychoicesacf'g ao a "deherradical chanqe' rence modell'whicheu??reoses pl w.tl, I con see how thqt would hoppen. After qll, if we feel we hove o choicebetween Pepsiond Chon' Coke,betweenthe Soopsqnd the Discovery nel, between o Republicon ond q Democrot, ond Copitolism-oll ruled by betweenSociolism whqt more o binory, either/ot4l1-logic-then do we need? ; For baudrillard t'he Nwinf,owereof Ihe H t'his eymbolize NewYork WorldTradeCent,er the olher ekyecra?ere, While binaryeyeNem. and comearlier, oinqular are buill decades for af,tent'ion,Nhe t'wo pele aqqreaoively t owerestrandlor lhe "clo6ureof Ihe oygof Lem in a verhiqo duVlicalion"lotutb6-T). Thue, everylhing becomes reduced to cybernetice-t o a binarycode thaL geeme f,o reVreeenN differencee but, which, in realiNy,only perpetuateo binary eyolem, Ihie oelf-requlalinq, which only minimizes differenceoae iN Noqqlesback and fofth belween "yeo"or "nol' TeVei Coke, KeVubor licanor Democral.

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oeemoNo leaVNowardhim.He slams on the brakes. ekide. He CrashlTheNwovehiclee up in a go burst of flame. A eecond laNer the craeh evaporalee. Joe Tlayer'e

Becouse Jurassic Park is obout people either possively occepting refusing or to buy into beingpossiveobservers o of spectocufor, monstrous worldof simulocro, copies, of generoted infinitumby od meons codes. of

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Thal'e brilliantlbutr you muet, aleo realize NhaI your veryexample,lhe film Juraeeic Fark,ie it self a monetrouosimulacra qeneraNed infinif,um a ad via code.buI accordinq 7auto drillard, inculburat ed VeoVle int o Toslmoderneociety are 60 surrounded simulacra by Nheyno lonqerhavea choice, Consider the caoe of Joe Tlayer, 17-year-old an behind the wheelof a car, He is on a narrowmounLain road. He is anothercar on a curve. Vaeeing He is doinq22O, too f ast to evadeNheoncominq truck thal

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He unecathed, car rea??eare Foore it,,racinglo Vaeo anothercar juetrahead of him,Joe Tlayeris ?layinq a videoqame.Whenhe

he runeouI of qua(bers qoeo ]
lof',into hio gx out,into Ihe Varkinq realcar, buI, ae he pulleout'inf,o\ Lraffic, iI doesn'L, eeemreal. Nor do Nhecare on lhe road, He feels IhaI if he ran into them he would juel ea| them likeMe. Tacman eaNsdobs.Joe ?layer is eurfinq the simulacrum. ei accordOriqinally rnulac?urn, ie inq tro ?laNo, Nhefalse copU that overshadowsour expertence of bhe essential and ldeal Forme. a A cockeropaniel, Germanohepfor herd,or a collie, ineNance, wouldbe,in ?latro'e VhiloeoVhy, imVure coVieo a univereal of and ldealEeeence Doqgineea, of view,Toel7ut in Saudrillard'a Nhe modernity hae ovefr,,hrown very concepl of true co?y. And in Ihis hao hapVened ef,aqee. f,heexVerience a lmagine of Chrietiannun in medieval EuroVe. the worehipo icon of the an Madonna.The icon reffecle a The feminine realiNy. icon is divine it a qood,Lrue copy because is so closetrothe original lhat, in her meditationeNhenun awakene l,o NheeViritual?reoence behind the form, the couldbe calledan idolater-a worohiVer an idol. of

1uT' trheiconoclasN seeethinqo differenNly. doeo not,feel NhaN )he imaqeerevealdivinily,but mask and perve(D Nhedivine. Therefore, euch imageoare evil,bad coVies, and ehouldbe deslroyed. A f'hird ?ero?ect.ive that of the ekeVIic.He feels Nhat the whole is t'hinqie a farce.The icon of Ihe Madonnaonly hidestrhefactrlhat t.hereie no divinebeing-hidee bhe abeence a divinebeinq. of Finally, t'hereie a foufth pereVective, NheToeNmodern icone, ln era, imaqee, copiee-simulabione-bear no reaemblance any realiry,ln f,o factr, the eimulation, the simulacrum, the oopy, beoomee the real! You meon like thereore o million copiesnot of the Modonno-but of Modonno-which becomemore reol thon Mqdonno the person?

Holy Writ which they, like, wrote down, were only the outer expressions of a, like, deep fntcrcou?le they were having with the mystical Word that illumined their, like, players. But of course, all these, like, prayers wete, fike domfnatcd, by a single image-that of the Holy, like, Virgin, the, like, Madonna. Today, of course, it is not like, the Madonna who dominates, but, like, Madonna.like.flc! Today it is like, my image that undulates forevetmore, leploducing, like, infinitely, like, there are millions of me and like, and mil. lions of my like belly buttons, like, bouncing back and forth before everyone's vision as if trying to like, decide between am I like a like Virgin or like a like Whore, in a like, erotic stream of images that MTV viewers, like, edit with like, Beavis and Butthead binary brains: they like think that my image, the image ol my like, belly button, is either like, "cool" or like "sucks." It is the image of my belly button, not my belly button, which has become the reaa.,

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nol wilh hio bellybuIIon bul wit'hI h e

tale in whicht'he cart'o7raphero frorqeo draw u? a ma? eo of an emVire det ailedbhat it, ende uV coverinq f,heNerritory.ln coverinqu? f'he beril ri|,ory, is t akenfor f,he real. For baueocie|y ie drillard one of lhe characteriet'iceof Tost'modern Nhat we are all similarlyentrancedby ourfingthe eimulacra. and Top ArL,'N, cyberbliNz, of ln lhe universe Hollywood, and of eVecLacle t'he mediaecaVe-siqne the dazzlinq lo imaqeono lonqerbear any corceeVondence t'he "real" world-bul creale Iheir own
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lhat hVperrealiNy-an orderof represenrafion is and haoroplaced'realiLy' is noI lhe unreal,buN
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more than real, more real than real,
For Daudrillard, ente(bainment'

suchas Varko

EnchanledVillage

M n M a g i c o u ta i n ,M a r i Disn and World, eoVecially

ite land,wilh iNeTirat',ee, Fron f,ier,its Fulure World,its Tom gawyer'eleland,are the pertect exa

hyVerrea of Vlee rhe hyVerceal.Theee ae worlde ?reeented imaqinary only are
Ihat, the lAOf, of Loe Anq lead ue to believe are (a21. gut lhey are nol. Theytoo and America a hyVerred-p ure eimul crum.

Los Angeles is enoircled by theoe "imaginary stations" which feed reality, reality energy,to a town

io whoee myot,ery precisely / that it, is nothingmorethan a networkof endleso, unrealcirculation,-a town of fabulous?ro?ortiono, As but,withoute?aceor dimensione, much and nuclear as eleatrical ?owergtationg,ao muaha film etudlos,this town, whichis nothing morethan an immenae ocript, and a ?er?etual molion machine, needsthie old imaginary makeup oignalsand faked phantasmsfor its of childhood sympalhet'icnervouooyetem (?lM 26).
What Saudrillard callelhe Oeath of the Real arouaes noelalgic aNtempteNo reaurrect the real, SaudrillardeeesWahergale ao one such attemVt, For paradinqNheecandalouo illeqalities of home.Here, accordinq the Io qovernffient'o ethnologigt f,he o, tribe could liveuncorcup\ed civby ilizaf,ion, audrill 3 ard ar6u how ee, ever, that in removing Taeaday the f rom mod ern civilizaNi et hnol qy on, o

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n NheNixo adminiehraf,ian imVlieo, eimulT,aneouely ignoreothe real f aloely,f,hat NhesaaffronNef,o Taeaday-who wanf,No remain demacracyre?reeenV deviation a from lhe norm-and lhal t:he eyeLemof governmenlin general reeVecls law and morality. The Death of the Real also ineVireea VroliferaT,ion mytho of of origin.Thus,in 1971, the qovernmenf, the ThiliVVines of re-siluat ed a emall tribe of Taeaday junqle lndians their ori7inal l.,o living amonq'Ws and care-and creaf,ea mere model,a simulacrumof whal an "ori4inal" pre-civilizedt ribe " ehould" looklikebefore ethnologyl

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In other words, this representotion of whqt q tribe should look like wos ceqted only by ethnology?

No @ rru. AndrhisaT,NemVN
regurrect, real,the oriqinal, the has also t akenVlace lhe at caveoof Lascauxin soulhern France, wae here,durinqthe lt, clooinq millennia the laetr of GlacialAqe,lhatrteeminqherde qrazinq of maqnificenl animals Vaeeedin wavesacroee trhe qlaciallandeca?e, vastrVoetfallin7?reyto Nhe occaeionally huntinqtrribee IhaI deVended u?onIhe herdefor Nheir eubeielence.And iI wae here,in thaT, Ihe subtrercanean caveo, ma7art,iste Vainf,ed primitive nificenlformg,bison,marnmof,hg, rhinoceroeeo. Yet f,oday 5OO mef,erefrom f,he oriqinalcave6-an exacl reVlicaof the caveehae been created in order to Vreoerve lhe lt, oriqinal. hae become more real than the real cave. And in the oameway,modernscience recently hao gearedup Lo eave trhemumrryof Rameeell. Thus,with the Death of f,he Keal,the hypercealtrakeeover* The Dieneyland, Taoaday, Wafer' qaf,e, the Lascauxgimulacrummore real f,hanthe real ibeelf. And wilh hy?erreality all Nhe 6iv ally VoNentri Volitical, exVlo e, Ihat had Volaranlaqonisme inhabiled and animaledLhe int RealcollaVee o one anot'her-implod* eci eoV ally in f,he realml Volitical

E con yougiveme on exomple?
E ' somewhere-Vilnius, Poris, AdisAbobo. BOng!! smoke oboveon ort blossoming
' museum,o grovernment building, or perhopson oir terminol. Ripplingwoves of the explosionsuffocoting deoth screqms. Splotsof humon flesh,flying in concertwith frogmentsof recliningnudesond peocefulttolion londscopes, or governmentdocuments, perhopsoirline tickets-cohor vulsingsposmodicolly omid floweringsof brick or morble dust ond spent plostique,bits of eyeballs,somewhot bloodshot,chosingshredsof newspoperor otom-

suppose bombgoes o off

izeddroplets espresso, frogments on of of Elvis oll whirligiging qbsurd, CD, in
blind circles,perverse orbits, surging kqleidoscopi-

E whodidit?

I# Saudrillard aeke.LeftieI ex1remisld H Thatlejuetthe queetion
lo Nhe ekinheade? Cenlriste seekinq diecredit, exf,remee? KiqhI-winq 3 Lo aVVealinq the publicneedfor eecurily?The answer(e), Corrupt Volice eaye Daudrillard,have nothing t'o do wiih the facts. All Ihe media and ree?onoes are and inlerVreNalione alreadypreVroqrammed all in naueeoue circleo, orbit'ing whirliqiqing, absurd,?erverge, orbit,, f codeeor modele. aroundtrhemereeVacV-accordin7 No eelabliehed

"9imulation ie charact'erized a W of the model,of all mod' ?receooion ele around the meregt fact'-t'he models comefirst, and t'heir orbital (like the bomb) circulation the genuinemagnetia field of evente. aonetit'utes Facte no longer have anytrajectory of t'heir own,they ariee at the intereectionof the models;a einglefact' may by evenbe engendered all the modelsat onae.Thie anticipation, this ?receesion,thie short-circuit (no more diverno genceof meaning, more dlalectical polarity,no more negative electricity or implosion of polee) ie what each time allowsfor all lhe poooibleinterpretatione, even the most contradictory-all are true, in the oenee
that their truth is exchangeable,in the image of modele from whiah t"hey proaeed, ln a

generalizedcycle"(alu 32),

Thus, f ormer antaqonisyrlo, Volarif,ies, intrermincurveback u?ontheir oVVoeif,ee, q l i n q l i k et r h ec u r v i n q V i r a l o f a M o b i u s o e cuf,in half aqain et rip cut,in half and trhen g o a a n da q a i n n da q a i n - e p i n n i no u f , V i r a l i n g galaxiee f re?reeent,alion; f evenf,e, o o real and Voeitive neqalive, and eimulacrum, t inwarde o a Voint, abeolute of imVloding
abeorVtion-where trhe difference belween r e a l a n d e i m u l a t i o n i s a ? ?e a r s - i m V l o d e e d inf,onothinq. trhereis no realiry behind ln the hyVerceal Ihis qeneralized, neulralizedand neutered frowof codeo,aimulatione ln and eimulacra, hyVerceallty the model, the code come6 fireV. AuI it is invisible-one eeeo only its e i m u l a l i o n s - i d e n f ,ac e h o V V i n m a l l ef i l l e d il q with idenT,ical televisionimaqeo,medicinee, liVotrick,brae, condoffie,foods, furniture, imaqeeof Madonna'e bellybutlon,

tL,&;

Likethe Deaviaand 'tT AuIIhead epieodein which :'i'*1 the two, watchinq TV, watch '.,'r Lhe cope breakin trhedoor and bust them-live!-but lr,hey Loo'"", are qluedNolhe tube No realize Ihat, iI io Ihey,lhemselvee, that are being the whole trhinqie takinq Vlacelive-IhaV the cope and Nhecamera havebueNed inhoIheir livinq room. Life has become TV and W, life. W watchea us, and we watch TV watching over us, It watrchee over us like whirliqiqs DNA,orbitingaroundu6,yovof erningthe mutaNione Nhereal into trhe of hyperreal. and life,realand hyperceal, ry conT,r cL, c oll Vs e, T,eleco e, imVl d e into a a e o ? eimulabion. ^ Volar . dichot'omiee dieeolve. 7eneralized A deterrenceis qeneraled.A1omic war willneverhaVVen. hyVerceal The mediaeVectracle the nuclear of arm6 raceand the e?acerace imploded ant agonieme the lhe of In hyVerreality antraqonisme and euper?owero toward a ?eacefulco-exislence. And in orbit',loaling freelyabove allanlagoniomo,Iheul1imaLe end vroduct of Nheevace race ie trhecool,lunar,hyver-eimulation: t h e L u n a rm o d u l e , bueted-that

ln The Shadowof The Oilent Majorities
tltr

ghadowof the gilent Majoritiee(ogv In H ln anorherbook, the 1970)'Daudrillard conhends thaL whaN had been oocietyhae imVloded inlo a hyVerconformieT' obeeeeed much body eo wilh epectacle Nhatil

r

hqs s| Butwhot othereffects this hqd on society?

wouldrather walch'N Lhan NakeVolilicalaclion. lt becomee electrifiedonly by compuler nelworkeand electronic media-by whichif, ie eo polled, teeted, and hyVedby modelelhal itr hae become ine(Yand bored,Dut,atr trheeamelime it, io hyVer, resigtanf,,demanding ?aogive, g, evenmoremoonghot rock eVecf,aculare, mago entrerXainmenf,e-yet euoVicioue eceVlical, and if, aValhetic becauee realizee IhaN any atrIemVItro chanqeNheeyetrem eimVlybe will co-oVtedby lhe oyetem for if,eown ende, All thie hae oiqnaled dealh of the social, trhe

On 5eduction
ln his nexl book,On 5eduction, Daudrillard Nalkeaboul love. love, the medieval in Couraly courte of eouthernFrancein Nhe 11Nh cenNury, wa6 an involved and elaborat riNual e requiring the exchanqe love?oemo, of blushee behind fforalfane, eyeeeuddenly downcael aft,ercaolinq a oly eidelonq qlance, kisses blownfrom lhe ramVar2eof caef,lee, implic alione,half unveilingo, double enf,en e, Nitillabione, whi pere, o dre jealoueies, adroiNevaeione, feiqnedrefusale, feint e, - eurren erin .. f ainlinq, half d 0o.

juch moveo Nhe dielincl et rucin qame of court,lylove werearielocraNic, ic-deliqhf,ingin Nhe Lurewhichie diecriminaf,.inq, caef,ralion, Vhallue, lhe nameof Ihe Thereion'I any other. lf, gervegno to ?ur?o6e dream of somenon-

afbificial and oymbol- cenT,ered the on ?lay of r,heqame it eelf Thegame relied faf,her,repreooion. , u?oninfinitedeferral-in Nheputlinq off of acf,ualsex-in

Ihe Vrolonqing art, and arAifice eeduc- Vhallic of eexuality tion. Andfor 1authat, is neither drillard,eeducbion ie feminine. )ex, on Nheolher hand,baudrillardrebarcednor

markedeED16). )ince seduclion ie composed the of

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gardeae a maeculine a(Difice eiqneand of mode-alwaye cengeeburee, ie a form il Nered the Vhalluo, of mast ery overT,he on na0ural, non-a rlifi cial. oymbolic universe. Freudwao riqhb: f,hereio onlyone einqle eexuality, one einqle libidomaeculine. Sexuali|yio Ihis )exualiNy, the on of,herhand,io not culturalbul naturala form of maetrery overIhe real univeree.Feminine eeductionrelies on aflificemakeup,aehion, f the dieplay of

a ehoulder or breaeN beneathblack lace,And it ie onlylhrouqh euchseduclion that the maeculine can be eubvefredl Thieie hoI seduclion. butrthere ie aleo,for Daudrillard, a cool eeduclion-the eeduclion eimuof

lacra-of filme, radio, lhe idols of Nhesilver or Technicolor ecreen-a selfin seducf,ion which we geduceoureelveg our' by immeroing eelvesin a Vlayof simulalions, eiqno, that eoca?e imaqeo male eexualit'y. ln hie nexl,book n ard cont'i uee b a udrill on his medilaT,ione culture, Toetmodern by taking a road f,riVIo f,he mosf' of Toshmodern Tost'modernculNuresAmerica. America ln the early 19rh cenlury NheFrench count Alexiede Iook a IriV Tocqueville lo the NewWorld, Americarich in but,?oor democracy, in civilization. l n t r h e1 9 7 O e n d a 19bOs Oaudrillard

ard' a ccounf'.b a udrill s also contravelogue forms trothe more recenl Frenchfixations on such Ameri' cana as NhedeeerA', the AmericanWlld Wesf,,Le Jazz-myevariousaeNifyinq Vecte of Americaas e ally eeeenf,i VrimiNiv and oavaqe. road Oaudrillard's IriV, oVeeding VaoI vietas of endlees road eiqne,neon liqhto, empty deserx mof,ele, landgcaVeo, reveale Americaof an van' surtace qlit'Ner, iohinqinlo emVf,'ineee. ln factr,Lhe Iille of an imVorLanI chapter is "Vaniehing ?oint,," referringtothe Death of Meaning,

the Death of Reality, maf,er- followedin de TocquewhichVrovided t,lheDeath of the e ial for one of hie besl- ville' f oolst e?6,?ro' 1ocial, the Death of knownworks:Democ' vidinq,in America,a the ?olitical, and the Tostrmodern simularacy in Amenca, He tion of de Tocqueville'e Oealh of Sexuality in wrole Ihat he found

trheTostmodern univerge- thege"realitieg" recede into a vanishin7 point in Daudrillard's rearview mircoron hie drivelhrouqh Death Valley, ln facf', Daudrillard'e lraveloque beqino wilh the warninq onefinds on oomerearview mircors; Cauf,ion:Objecrein thie mirror may be cloeerLhanthey aVVear! 1ae1 The realitieeof NheVre-oimulacrumera vanishing miraqee like in a rearview mircoris an a?ocalyVricvieion-a vieionof the end of the world,For baudrillard rhie visionof Americais rhe model for t'he resl of Nheworldlhe code for an emerqinq r? *t hyperreal and eimur^+ ^ )

world, oecauee thie America of ie "the cenT,er the world."And of
Americais a deeerf,-esVecially in ite citiee-a Vlacewhere"real life" hae vanishedinto a kindof qlirLerinq,empNynon-culhure, And rhie emVty, dry, ot erile, lunar deserD astral America,trhe of deeerbof meaninqfut oocief,y, emVtya6 a'N f,unedto a dead channel-wheNher if,elandin oca?e6or cirysca?eo, whetherin lhe insanemovemenf, joqqere, of rraffic and Vedeetriansin Loe Angelee, bodiescirculatinqon freewayo Vluqged o com?uror int er circuirs,whetherin the uloVia of California, Sanha Barbara or of of )antra Cruz,Nheparadiee of
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of like Vlumee smoke
"girlswrinqinq oul Lheirhair

afLer balhinq,"with ils "beaufy of the blackand 7uefro Kicowomen" wilh ibs allurinq"Tigmenlation of lhe dark racee"wibhiIe Nribes and gangeand Mafia,with itrevioIenc e-3 audrill d'6 America ie t urbulent,,VrimiNiv ar e, eleclrifyinq, anim eNi viN pof,enl,, per real. ali c, al, hy It seemsos if Boudrillord hqs surrenderedto Postmodern Americq in q kind of possiveecstosy. T H Actually,Ihisie one of the main criticismsof Saudrillard: only ree?onoe offere f,o the The he ffowof mediaimaqeoie paeeive eurrender-an eceT,aoy communicaf,ion-which, facI, is of in the title of hie nexLbook. The Eastaoyof Communicaiion Accordinqto baudrillardin TheEcstaey of in Communication, the new Toetmodern univeree of int erconnecT,iviLy-of Lelevision and compuler nef,works-we are all likeechizophrenics. For f,heechizophrenic, huddled hie cell,is no|,rein movedfrom realily-butr realily preeeesin u?onhim,lI is too cloee.ltr ie abeolulely close, He doee not mirror realily buf,becomeo ?ure a 6creen. 1imilarly, haveall become we like

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9Creen6E h o e el u n r i -

noue eyee illuminatinq nd a even Venetraf,inq our moof,privaf,e e?aceewith an obecene ?reooure. And thie Vromiocuou; invaeion our former of Vrivacyie bolh ecotatic and obecene. The obeceniLy not of the hidden but of the allf,oo-vieual. The that no obeceniT,y lonqer harboreany gecret,. obgcene An eceNaey-a coollun seducT,ivelece, ar trricVornoqraVhy of imaqeeand excessive informalionfeeding u?onue, ?enelratinq all our private o?ace6, the obscenif,y like of faecinaf,ion, a

fft

?ornoqraVhic clooe-up, a Vroducinq et aie of giddiness lo which eurcender we in
an Ecef,aey Comof municalion. 7ul1audrillard informeue in hie introduclionlhal Ecataoy ie only a eimulation modelof oomeof hie earlier booke-a simulation in whichSaudrillard him' out-tsaudrillards eelf-becominq more

forgeLthaf, in trhe French cullural6cene theoriee are juet, like commodiliee-trhey are in comVetriLion with other theorieein f,he Frenchcullural marketplace, And 1audrillard underet ands thal trhebeel way t o makehie lheoriee competrilive t o is Iransform them inNohyVerceal eimula-

Oaudrillard Lhan Oau- tione of theory, To drillard, musf,not, eVinoul Juraeeic We

sincethe imPoct Tark monsl'ersof baudrillard's Nheory. ' of undersf,andinq the mediahas madehim an eftective comVet'iIor-a kind of celebriNy-because hie atf,acks on hie fellow made famous,by hYVerrealst'af,emenle guchae "TheGulf War neverhappened!' ln facL, oomecritice c l a i mt h a l O a u d r i l lard, in hie later work, of technologies on culturesis so intense.

lrue. ln Thatr's
facl, eome Toetmodern f,hinkersoaYlhaN e cerlain s cienc ficf,ion writ ers do a bet'ter the job al deocribinq impactrof cybefi'echthan doee noloqiee at, Daudrillard, b ut,frh
:l

is actuallydoinqoci' Frenchintellect'uals ence ficlion inst'ead eVectraare hyVerreal theory. of Toet'modern cleemean| for Vublic lendinq con6urn\,ion, l$l Butit seems moreand more thot Postmodern t oward a kind of van' iehingVoinLFor inehe f,ance, hag been criticized,but aleo theory would hove to be similur fiction, to science

we is a Eop,tc can ref,urnNo laf'er.

l$l Well, it's oll rother dizzyingqnd oll thesehyperreolities whirligigingsimulocro.tt remindsme of Jomesonbecoming so disorientedin the BonoventureHotel.Whqt is it qrchitecobout Postmodern ture thot is so dizzying?

Oauhaue echool, foundedin Weimar, Germany,in 1919by Walter GroViue. HerearXiete euch ae TaulKIee and Vasoily Kandinoky combin d Ih eir archilecf,ural e sludies with coureeoin painf,ing, cra{-le,drama and tyVoqraphy, Theechoolbelieved trhaN buildinge ehouldbe funcbional. Theyaleo ao the lnf,ernaf,ional 7lyle, an atbemVt, unile archiNecf,ure, T,o t h e f i n ea f r s a n d m a s e - V r o d u c tion technology. The manifesto of archiieclural moderniem,Towardsa NewArchitecture, wao ?ublished Tariein in

T n

wha| came to be known lfs a qood queotion, becauee develoVed

archilecf,ure aclually the realm ie in whichToetrmodernism began. BUNin order f,o undere|,and whatr Tostmodernarchilecture ie, we haveNo knowoomeT,hinq about modern archileclure,Modernism in architrecture beganwilh lhe

A Hou 5e rsa HouSe rs A llousE. Bur rs tT e HoHe?
--=: {*-:

inlo Enqlieh 192b,and f'ranslaNed a in 1927.The auNhor, kind of meesiahof Modernislarchitec' acluallY f^)re,wao Le Corbuoier, f,hepen nameof one CharleeB Edouard J eanneret,(1 B7 -19 65) . of natrive He was a well-f'raveled gwitzerland,whowas Io est'ablieh archiplanner, himselfao a ciNY or sculVt lecf,, deoiqner, aint'er, V of and VroVhet' a newarchif,ectural creed. gainedhio Ven Le Corbueier name by virAueof the facl NhaN Nhat of a raven hie face resembled (corbeau). And,juel like ?oe's raven,who,in ?oe'gwordg,gaid "Nevermore," Corbugier algo Le gaid,"Neverrnorel" No more retro, ancient, cluttered, nineteenth-century etYleo, No more custom. No more inherited deoigno.No more gloomY interiora jammed with bunches of uoelessbric-a-brac,no more man' heavyfurniture, chandelierg, tel-piecee, thick carpef,e,No more elaborate bookcaeez,consoles, coloro, mirrored wardrobeg,No more decoration, ornament, 6Ymbolism.No more heterogeneitY, riot, ambiquity,capricioueneaa, etitchinq toqether of unrelated elemento,No more qarlando, exquioiteovale,triangular doves boudoirs preeninqthemaelvee, wif,hpoofa of qold and embellished

china cabinete, dreeeera, sideelecushions, black velvet,no more otiffing boards,draped curDaine, qanciee! quolh Le Corbusiercanopieo,damaaked wallpaPero, Ne vermore! carved furniture, faded and arty

Juel ae Ihe propheN literof ary moderniem, Ezra ?ound, had "Make iI new," CorLe Vroclaimed bueierbeliev t hat, archiNeclure ed ehoulduee newmalerialeeuchae sleel and reinforced concref,e, and newconelrucf,ion echniquee. t This newarchiteclure wao t o be ra|,ional,ft ehouldexhibi|a qrandeur of a malhemalicalorder, by lurnfor

lf buildinqo can be read like booke, Corbueier Le calledfor a Tlatonicvocabulary pure, of abeoluleforme:cubee, conee, oVheree, cylindere, ?yramide, 6quaree,Allthis baeedon a ?lat onic allitude IhaL knowledqe reeidesin pure,elernal, VroVerly abgoltff "|dealFormg," e whichwe can knowwith our inlellecNe,

inqto mabhematical calculalione, lhouqh not,throuqhour eeneee, it wouldrevealunivereal law-trhe qovern Nhatr VrinciVlee our universe. new The For inetance, it will alwaye be true and knowablethat 2 + 2 = 4,

architectural deoiqne And this will alwaye be true even ehouldbe inlelliqenl, if there are no longer 2 + 2 applee cold and calm-Vure creaf,ionsof the mindmanif egf,ationg of men creating T,heir own Deli g lh aI archile evin ctural beautyehouldbe baeedon Ihe 6ameimmut able,et ernal?lailonic or orangeeto add up io four,

univerge. Vrimary forme,he likedslrucLuree euchae the ?yramide, TemVle Lhe of Luxor,IheNowere Dabylon, of the Colieeum, Hadrian's

1anIa )ophia, f'he Vosqueoof villa,ConeLantinople'e of the Tower ?iea,lhe copulaeof St amboul, all but Michelanqelo. above eleeThe the Tarfihenon. Tafthenonie found in iN Le Vertect,, Corbueier gw eas, brut alily, inf,enoiNy, eef,n lI delicacyand ef'rengf'h. ie bhe climaxof "Vu?e formg in rela' precioe f,ionohip"u?on beelowin7 ug truth and emolioneof a "ouVerior and order." maf,hematical cture t'hus Mod ern archihe Io atrNemVNed ?are downline,eVace and form Io Iheir ?ureeseenfials. hae a hero it' ie f'he enqilf Le Corbueier of neer-f,he creator of bridqee, At'lant'ic Cubist' Engineero,like linere, railwaye. of are noI dislracled wif'hornamenpaint'ere, ou t af,ionbuI eaNiofy r opiribeby reducinq maf'h' lheir creationeLo ?ureqeometrric, are ematical,Tlatonictorms. Engineero abeorbedin Theirminde, virile,ueeful. and the calculatione mathematical of VerceVlion primarygeometricforms, are in harmonywif,hnatural law.

ll architects could morelilre [e wilh dilfused electric lighting, and engineers, luildings t[en woufd fise builtol slandardized matefials lilre uplikeIuteGrcations ofs0ilit-lingGats, Gannons, airplanes! greal Let ing in unison uniuersal with order. new utolian uerticaf cllies, cities of Ilown withlriuolous otnamentation! whose geonellilmmense ll you musl diuelsity-then il towers, haue lel glass lacades lefleclthe sky, emelgc lheinterplay prlmary cal lrom of amidgteen torms! architecturc t[e cor. tise in skysga0ers let be of llGGs' these let sry' lect andmagnilicenl of such Rlanlalions play sclapels conlain Drains the the ol masses broughl logether lighl! in paris's Clear away narow lel lightshine theglcatprimary nalion. on streetslo admil wide, noble lormsol [risms,Gubes, cones, with [0pulated trees. Lel pyramids. sFacGs, spheres, cylinders, lel lhe suburls[e gardcn cities homes machines liuing De lor wilh people [lay ball,and whele can teracesInstead roofs, o| wilh garden. all the citiesol let windows around, all withoul clulEurope lorn downand be ter-butwithbullt-in lurnishings, reconstlucted the in gaudy without chandeliers, bul image Anefican of cities.

P [5tmudEI'rl fiI't
3y 1950, ffianyof f,heelemenf,e Slyle had, of lhie lnf,ernaNional af,io ind eed, beco me inNern nallinee concentrated the eimplifred, on and forme,lhe emVhaoie func' emalical harmonyof ?ureforms, lhe celebraf,ion raf,ional, of proof newtechnoloqiee newmaand of malhemalice ileelf brokedown qeomef,riee into non-Euclidean eleneee Nh o reme? e and incomol Andwhat wao modernarchitecture to do if its huqe,utogianVro' Whal if the worldwae qrowinq Thenlhe f,iredof f ailed ut ooiae? a-fl opV d? e LheeesenlialmaLh- jecbo-su ch as Drazili tion ae beauty,

greoeive lendenciee, adoVbion uloVianlheorieeand the archi' Nhe f,eclur al Vrojecf,s f,haL refr cte d e for leriale,t'heyearninq a epiriLu- Ihem wouldhaveNochange-and t h a l c h a n a e o u l dn e e da n e w w o a l h o l i e m f s p a c ea n d f o r m , l h e arbitrary dielaete for bazaar-like, reproduction hieloric etylee. of YeL-whaL it all boileddownlo wao cityeca?eefull of concreLe and glaeoboxes. And whal wae modern Lo architecl,ure do-baeed ae il harwao on elernalmaLhemaf,ical mony-if lhe eu??oeed perfeclion
voice.And f,haL new

voicewag Charlee Jencke.

ture (1977),wae NhefireI workt o Charlee Jencke ie an archihecLural critic who hae been enqaqed Lhe in oft,,en heaf,ed debaLebetween moderniet and Toelmodernistr archilect e about, whelher Toelmodern architecNure ehouldevenexist,. He is aleo a major voicein the ongoing attemptrto defrne Toelmoderniem, ln facf,, hie book,The Lan4uaqeof Fostmodern Architecatt empt lo LhemaNize Ihe Toetmodern and No uee "TooNmodern" in the Litle. l n h i ee u b e e quen| books What is Foetmoderniem? and Foetmodernigm, he trracesT,he hief,ory the conof ceVt,. Originally ueed by the 1Vanish wriler Federico De Onis in 1934 f,o describea poelic reacf,ion modNo ernisl poelry,f,he Eermwas subsequentrly ueed,in

1975,by the historian ArnoldToynbee Lo deeiqnaLe Vluraliom and Ihe rioe of non-Weetern culLuree. In the 196Oe the early roote of Toelmodernism qol starf,ed by a 7rou? of Enqlieh intellecL.uale, lnde?enthe denl OrouV, who werefascinated with Americancul-N, fure: moviee, ade, machinery and commercial culture. TheyteaLed VoV collaqeo such of objectro-trhe fireT, VoVart. ln America,

in f,hemidet of HippieoandYupViee, Andy Warhol crankedouf,a of bunchof imaqeo Marimaoe cull,ure: lyn Monroe,Jackie Kennedy, CamVa SouVcan. bell's Then,in Nhe197Os trheToetmodern became movemenl and moreacademic in reopectable: 1971 l h a bH a e e a n u b ? lishedan eo6ay, "F0)Tmodernl)M A ?aracritical Dibliand lhe oqraphy," Tostmodernisl movemenlwae offied ciallyinauqurat in Iheory-cele' brabinqwritere e u c ha e W i l l i a m burrouqhs, Jean GeneN, Jamee Joyceand Samuel Deckett,Lhe mueic of John Cageand Marlhe futurietre s h a l lM c L u h a n n d a Fuller. Suckmineher

But, accordinq t o Jenckg,t,hese aftisis and archif,ecNswere raally Laf,emodernioTo, notr?astmoderniefs.

pl lote Modernists? T Decauee l) Yee.
a u t h o r sg u c ha s JameeJoycewere wrilinqthingo,such Wake, ao Finneqan'o thal veryfew VeoVlecouldunder' eLand. And LhaL's what a lo| of Lat e moderniels-or Highmoderniele did. Com?oeero likeJohn Caqewere wrilinq"mu6ic" lhal nobodyunderetood based on what,moef,peoVle wouldcall noise, In or ?ureeilence. he one Viece remaineVoioed overthe for Viano minules, eeveral ae if Lo st rike lhe oVening chord of a concerl-and

NhecomVooibion of consisbs the eoundof lhe audifor encewaiLin7 lhe concert Lo begin,Andthinkere such ae Oucky Fuller weredeoiqninq accordinq to lhe ulopian of aaeum?Nione moderniem.

liore Lo Jencks's likinq noveliel ie Umbefr,o Eco's recoqnilion a of double elemenV in Toetmoderniem, ForJenckeand Eco Toef,moderniem ie modernism

tr's HEY, THE DuKe l.Jtlo LoVES You
|4AE LY,

alongwith a Toet modernrelationohiVto lhe Vaei: "Thepootmodern replyto lhe modernconeietre of recognizing that,Ihe Vaet , einceiNcannoN reallybe deetroyed,becaueeits deefrucf , i o nl e a d sI o e i l e n c a , i u s f b e ff , revieit butrwilh irony,nol innoed: cenbly. lhink of Lhe Voetmodern I albitude as tha| of a man who lovesa verycultivated womanand knowshe cannoN eay lo her,I love you madly,becauee knowe he thal ehe knowe(and thal ehe knows that, he knowo) that Nheee worde
BO

havealready beenwril,T,en Oarby bara Caraland. 7ltll, T,here a is solulion.He can 6ay,"Ae Barbara CartlandwouldVut itr,I loveyou madly." thie VoinI,, At havinq avoided falee innocence, having eaid clearly thal iI ie no longer f,o he Voooible epeakinnocenNly, will neverlhelese haveeaid whal he wantred eay lo the womani Io lhaL he loveeher,buf,he lovesher in an aqe of loet innocence. the lf womanqoeoalonqwilh trhie, she

will have receiveda declarationol loveall the of eame,NeiNher f'he f,wo oVeakerowillfeel innocent,bof'hwill have ed accept Ihe challenqe of of the paetr, Ihe alreadyeaid,whichcan' boLh nol be eliminaLed; and willconeciouely with ?layf,heqame Vleaoure of irony.. , .7ut bobhwill once havesucceeded, i q a q a i n , n e V e a k i no f rNR love."(ELo, 67-B) And Ihie fir,e in wilh definilionof Jencke's ae ?oslmoderniem " dou' ble codinq:the combination of Moderntechniqueewith eomeLhin4 elee (ueuallytraditional buildtnfl in order for architecture to communicate wifh the public minoriand a concerned f,y,ueuallyother archi14). f,ecta" (wl? A tyVical Toef'mod' creales a ern building doublecodingthrouqh eclecticism:by putlinq toqether Nwodifferent'

of,yleeof lwo differenl it, Veriode, creabeo?aroa quif,y, onLr dicc dy, ambi For,in Lion,Varadox. view, buildinq a Jencke'e buI juet' a buildinq is noN like eomef,hinq a lanc q u a q eA b u i l d i n q a n b e , read likea book.lI hae connolalionsand allu' ll sions,lt' eignifiee. has meaninqe-and off'en oaye t'wo or moreIhinqe a Nt h e e a m el i m e , Thus Tost'modern archilectrsmuel be both poVular and Vrofeesionallybaeed.For ingtance,I'he cobrtul handrailein lhe )f,ul,f,qarI' aVpeal rnueeuffi trothe poVular Iastee of kide dreeeedin Oaywhile Glo colore, iLeclaeeicismof iNoquoNatione ?ureGreek forme-aVVeale elitiel, lo f,hehighbrow
\\

W,&;,

Tostmodern architecturemueLuee bolh new Lechniqueo old Valterne.?oetmodernjel and architecbeare,Lhen,noT, eimplyrevjvalieNs who eimplybringbackIhe Vaet and elop uoingmoderniem, Theyuee modernism and yef, go beyondiN,They quoLefrom the pasL,but, with irony.TheyVarodythe pasI. Theyuee ?aof,iche. Thusdouble coding, like "l loveyou madly," Eco's eT,aqee dieeonance the and and Vre?lay beAween VaeN eent.Thiedieeonance can be ironic,humorous, Varodic, Vlayful, allueive-buI iI makeglhe "reader"of f,he buildinq reffect.The " reader"becomeg eomething an of architecf,u al critri r c. Secauee Lhie,doinq?oetmodern of archileclure ia one way to do ?oef,modern Lheory-_ii,;e doublecodinq makesil'intereebing nol onlyLo Ihe averaqe Joe blow on Lhe sT,reeT but aleo to fellowarchif,ecLe Foetmodern and critice, Evenan obiecL eimVle a teapoL can be doublecoded.Deeiqnae a6 er MichaelGraveedeaiqned LeaVoT, a thal hae eimVle,functionalmoderniet'lines but flaunts an ornamentalbird for lhe whieNle-a kindof a u r a l? u n . In 19Bo Michael oravee-trhe oame quywho desiqned the reapor wibhf'he whistlinqbird-won a com?etiilion hiedeeiqnfor the ?or1for land TublicServiceo Suilding. ie radically lt eclecticand double codediLe qlaeehintre that itris a Vublic 6?ace: sizeand ornamenlal iLe qarlande euggeetr EqyVtianand baroquemotife; ite uee of a eculpture,

on

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"?orLlandia", overthe fronl door-creat'eg a wae af,lacked mood.1ul Ihe buildinq Vlaytul iI who criNicized for what'f'hey by modernieNe calleditrslack of diociVline-iNe iukebox-over' - pa ckaqe Iook. I uV ort'er6, on -Chri a ef'm o eize d V to Lhat it' relaLed f,he f,he olher hand,commenl'ed nearbyCily Hallae wellae oLherpre-moderniel in buildinge t'he neighborhood. and modernisN But why should we even hove Postmodern orchitecture? houeinq huqeuloVianmodernief' Secauoe t'hey inhabif'anNe Vrojeclealienaledf'he very uloViae TheseVlanned No weredeoiqned houee. and vandalism of waeLelands qraffif'i, LurnedinT,o neqlecLThuein hhe lat'e196Oeand early197Os lhey weredynamiled.ln facNJencks,in a Vublic that' on July 15, lecture,Vroclaimed 7M, modern architeature; 1972,at 32312 in died, ao a huqehouoinq Vroiect' 91. blownNo smifhereens. Louis.wae

up Ientks maile thgilate a fail thatilu tepuilPl iust

Muilernism uf Thur raught. thelluath Arthiteflural it. ptuiluteil by simply annnuncing was

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ModernisNs were alarmed, couree, of

ment Lo moderniem alonq. all Thedeath of archilectrural

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and immediately

I f

moderniem may haveeaveda lot beqandenouncin7 of innercitiee,whereNhemodNhenew Toef,mod- erniet Lendencywouldhavebeen ernismwith relito bullddze Nhem and construct giouofervor,DuI, accordin7Io Jencke,Ihe odm moreulopian houeing uniis, WhaI Tostmoderniem offeredwae eclecT,ic, increment reqenerational thal ie Io oay, reqeneratin7, elowly ueinqthe mixof whal io already there alonqwilh what,ie new.

ernigl atf,acks on

Tostrmodern archileclure actrually

inviqoraT,ed its For Jencksmoderniem had qrowth.For ineNance, beeneomethinq a reliqioue of Vhewhenil wae announced nomenon. Aftrer iNdeclared all, in a columnin Le Monde ornamenlation heretic and al, in Octoberof 1901that viewedit self ae Nheunivereal

gtyle lnternatrional EuroVe, eVectre the of ueinq newconetrrucTogLmodernigm," mooN Iion techniquee and Frenchmen ehru juot qqed, newmateriale, had lt bit.inlo lh eir croi eean|,s a mieeion transto
and ffipped the page.DuI modernieile didn't oimply ehruqoff the announcemenT,; their panic effectrively infraledthe epectre into a full-fredqed movemenf,.Therefore, reaeon6Jencke, lhere musl haveexieNed a hiddenresenNform eociety. Accordin7 Io Jencke, modernist, buildingo, such ae lhe Chicaqo Civic CenIeror Chicaqo'e Lakethore houoinq uniNs,

"a eVectre hauntrinq is

1972-ie a bookcalledLearnThio book ing from Lae Vegas.

5 moderniem' ailemPf, Io build t qlaeeand ef'eelboxes, o define epace.lt ae archif,ecNure encloeed e?aceie eacredto moderniem, and eculVt'ure literthen paintinq, are alure, meredecoraf'ion, t'o opVoeed Vureo?a6e.lvlodernisN Nraarchit'ecfereiected,anenNire in dilion of archiheoture which and qraPhice eculpt,ure painringe, wif'harchilecture, were integraf,ed Modernlelbulldin7o had at'lemphed sqq$ Io oymbolize buL nof,hinq idealqeomet'ric forms. ln lhe idealizinq refrecl buildinqe and refer f,o well-enqiqeoneered metric f orms

atlempl No be nothinqmorethan ef,ricf orrne-gl aoe eimplegeom and eleel and concrd,e boxeeaay whichin t'heirequareneas "f,hioie what I am-a equare Theform box*and nolhinq el6e." does nol refarlo or alludelo or itself. out'oide meananytrhing
t-arrrt rre

archi- ,,.< ToeNmoderniel N (''{\'al
nn f.hc. nf.he.r '

lf lheir environmenl. Le Corbusier of TransaNl e, antic ele amohi7 wao lhe Veosiahof modernist and Americanqrain elevalors, eft Rob Venluri, archileclure, had CubistVainNinqo,I'heY ended ecolt Arownand ?f'even Oenise a u? oymbolizinq bravenewworld are lhe 7roVhatsof Tosf'- of science lzenour and Iechnoloqy-a AndLheir archif'ecIure. modern naut ical - ind usNrial - CubieN worl d . in firet publiehed manifest'o,

Down w i?h trh e u niv e r g all

ari L e t , r h e a r c h i t e c r unaulhorif, an qualiliee for humorbecome ajeetert,Let archv needed livinq

trecture, the vov of rike art
uee familiar moNifedeeiqninq non-authoritarian buildinqe trhat insiead of eayinq,,1 a am

ouolyin a eocietymade

proclaim Venf,uri, Warhol Leichlenslein, u? of diflerenl raceo, and ScoNt Brown and lzenour. Acceptthe clutter of mixed, maeeeexualorientaf,ione, clasgeo and culr,ureo. For we do live in a Vluraliot eocieLy,reflectedin mixed, glitlerinq,ffaohinq bazaareof neonliqhNe and oiqne on the Las Vegao 9triV,thehodgeVodge of conlradictory, com.a,-

culf,ure, ornamenf,ed, oquare" eay many thinge ticky-Lacky, euburat once. ?ostmodern Let ban,Ginqerbread,New buildinqe ex?reeoirony, Orleans, French 7rovtndal Kanch and otylee. Downwith the archiLeclure of 6?ace,

alongwith comedy, eorrow, paradox, and the

form and functrion.

and confricNing Veling etylee, the roadeigne and billboarde that whiz by in a blur of comVlexmeaninqo, a roadscaVe/car-

1rinq in lhe icone -t#ffi
of 7o? Arl,, of advefi,isin4, every- ,,' of day commercial objecL,o-<f Campbell'e ou? ano 6 c in a qallery, or of imaqee from comic eIriV aft,, Tn euqqeotgaf,ire, sorrowand irony,

ecaVein whichthe mix of oymbolo is more imporf,anl

trhan ?ure torml h e d a z z l i n q? i c t orial themes of lhe caeinos(the

b6

flamboyantFlaminqo, Ihe Deeert lnn, lhe exotic TroVicana, the arabeoqueAladdin, Caeear'o Talace, trhe )tarduot, like the facades of

No expert,. but the opec-

NaIor elrolle Vaet a heN-

eroqeneoue ?layground qruoue,chaotic, inf,ert ex-

o f m u l t i V l ev i t a l , i n c o n ,

i u a l , a l l u s i v e r b a no i g n o , u meaninge, orders-all exploringthe archif,eclure of the paot,. Let architecture be funl Turn et,aid architectural nolione toVoy-Iu rqy! lndul-

Gothic cathedrale, almoet,all eiqn and eymbol) the caeinoehoVVinq malls like orienf,al bazaare. Las Veqao erriV architrecture io a qrabbaq, ecl ecf,i c ,
allu6ive, ?aradoxical4he Alad-

qently embracecomVlexity

mixingimaqeeand eymbolo from the hietoricalpaot in a

nootalgiccollagelLet image

def,ermine forml LetrdeveloVmenl be baeedon incremen f,al, diverse qrowtrh,ralher

than uf,opian planelLet,buildinge retlect the diveroiiy of uoereand clienf,s' f,asf,egl Let

din is Tudorwith a Moorish facade. Caeear'eTalaceie Early Christrian, Roman,Neo-Classical, MoLelModerne,Ef,ruecan and Miesian, Motifs, eigno, columne, winqo, formationsand froorsVarody and queobion eachother. gtriV ie an inclusive TheLas Veqae order. Thereie no one dominant, Iheme.

archif,ecto deoiqnfor oVecific

?eraono-ralher than from gomeulopian, abgtract,conce?-

tion of Man, Let, Toetmodern

buildinqe in wilh Ihe buildfit i n g oe u r r o u n d i n qh e m l tr

Accordinq the aubhors to of from Loe Veqao: Learning "Theemerging order of the 1trlp io a aomplex order,lt is not the eaey, rigid order of the urban renewalproject or the fashionable 'total design' of the megastructure.,,1tio not an orderdominated by the expert and made eaey for the eye, The movingeye ln the movingbody muel workto pickoul and interpret,a varlety of changing,jux-

The of,yleo and lanquaqee, N&T Iraneformef,,he tradibuildinq tionalqlaeoand steelekyocra?erint,oa qrandfather clockf,opVed wilh a ChiVoff ale pend broken ediment,. V leade @ ffrie eclectriciem lo a digsonant, beauty,a disharmonioue harmony, an oxymoron, ?aradox. a After all,there ie diseonance belween buildinq a a and clock. Dut,his diesonance ie humorous becauee many buildinqe dioplay clocks. @ ff',eAT&Tbuildinq dioVlaye urbane an urbanism. lf, doesn't stand oul alone.lt lookepretby muchlikeother modernisL okyecrapers, iL blends buN into, mirroro,mocke, Varodiesand exf,ends other buildinqo lhe enviin ronmenl. @ ?ootmodern buildinqe antrhroare pomorVhic-trheir ornaments and moldingo

taposedorders" i
(LLV 135-6),

ln Jenck6'o view, Toetmodern archilecture dioplayo charac10 t erief,ice. uo ueeThilip Let N&T Johneon'e in building New York City a6 an example.

E tr io Vluralielic-radicallyeclectriccelebraling and difference
othernegg.

oft,enouggeetNhe human form.The AT&Tbuildinq does not,do this, buf,oug,!\\],$
qeoto indirecf,ly,

Itrquoteo different
Bb

throuqhmimickinq human a alci-

buildinq also oaye"qrandfather clock."

fact-a clock. a 6 tt dieVlaye relalionohip betweet
and Vaet, preeentqrandtaf,herclockand

fl

tV."re double ie

codinqthroughihe juxtapooibion of,yleeof grandfaiher clockand moderniet, oky6cra?er-eo thaI irony, ambiquity, conlradicand tion emerqe, modern ?oet buildinqo no| "eilherlor" oay bul"bobh/and." N&T building The oayo"bothland"by combininq

//,

t Vutf,inq oqetherof

w h i c ha l l o w s lhe archi'

V a r o d yt h e m , l o invokenootalqia a n d i n d u l q ei n paoliche, @ There ie a yearnin7for contenf,, for meaninq, lnef,eadof juoV oayinq"qlaee and gf,eel box" Nhe

trhecontem?orary (okyecraper) wilh the antique (qrandf er clock), ath f,hefunctional (officebuildinq)and lhe decoralive (ChiVV ale broken edr end p menl) in an ironic double coding, can meantrwo lt thingeat, once.

\\Y/1.
@ ?oetmodern
buildinqe multivaare lent-they can mean manythinqo eimultaneouely.Unlike Nheunivalence modernisl of buildinqo, whichonly 6ay onethinq-"| am a equar6,"-7ogtmodern archilecLure multiv ie alentr, nonexcluoiv allue, oive,reoon ant,,oymb olic.

KD Many
Tostmodern buildinqe yearn f,o ref,urn Ihe abto genl cenf,er-f,o a

@ ?oetmodern architr cT,ue reint er VreT,s cenlral communal e r o?ace.Duf,Nhen f,radiNion. doee not, ll merelycolV lhe Vaot but realizelhat Lhere we reinterVrets it,.The AT&T ie nof,hinq havein buildinq does noT, eimply reviveNheVaeI; iN mocke it playtully. commonto fill it, wiIh. 9o why not fill it with a clock?

Jencks defines Postmodern claeeiciem as a revivaldrawing u?on motife from Oreece and Rome, He identifres frve eireams of ?oet modern alaeeicismz

Metaphysical classicism
Narative classicism

Allegorica1 classicism Realist classicisn
Classical sensibility
90

ei Meta phy aal Claesioie m
classicismis a Velanaholic claooi' modeof metaVhyeical cism thal focuseeon a relurn bY to the urban,ao oymbolized Lhe lhalianciVyequare-the Viazza-but wilh a difference. architecf'esueh ae Toetmodern LeonKrierand Toef,modern arliate euch as Kito Wolff renmelancholyder euch Viazzae is Nhere a are Lhe Viazzae deeer\ed.Yel, becauee is yearninqfor a cenherhere-and Nhere a cenIerbut the cent'erio emplY,

NarrativeClassiciam
deVictetrhe narraliveVaintinq Traditional heroicact'ioneof great Ynen-euch ae Socratee they arl meanf'lo inepire. hemlock. f,,he drinkinq narralive?aintinqofLenVainbe The ?oef,'modern actions, in menenqaqed immoral unheroic My ln TaulGeorqe'e Kent nude 7tate, a vulnerable, muoe-eymb oI of freedomt aVtemVNo o Feet'he 6cene bein6elayed. of sf,udenf,s

This6enrecan f.akeon erof'icand eubver' ae sive ovefr'enea, in Eric Fiechl'oOad Doy, a lad watchinqa nudewomanwhilehe eleals from her puree.

I

All goriaal Cla siais m e s
G ranL Dr umhell s Lt4 hf,nin6 Throwe reV al.,o er' r e the pooeof a f amouesLatue of Toeeidon aqainaf, a dreadfulbackground what Jenckecalls "radioacof tive gloom." trhefraehinqo Nhebackground Oo in oignify a nuclearwar brought on by ?oseidon, Thorand Jupiter nuclear miesiles? A eub-genre-naiverealiem-returne trothe innocence Granl Woodand Grandma Moees. of An examVle DavidLiqare'eWomanin a GreekChair, ie

RealistClasaiaism
?aradox,an oxymoron conlradiction.ln t,heclaeeicielIradilion the indior vidual Vafbiculareof a body-Lhe hands,toroo, head,etc.-rendered in olone, wereeubordinated ldeal baauty. No ln realist claseicism the ecaleie NiVVed Ioward the uqly,realiolic aepecte of Ihe eubjecl,whichXheVureclaeeicietoverlooke. Example? Workssuch ae ?hiliV?earletein,s TwoFemaleModele on frrentwood Loveeeat and Kuq.Accordinqto Jencke,"A parody of eexualit'y eugqeot by rhe way vael sf"reNches Lhe body are ie ed of focueedon, ae in a Flayboycenlefiold, only lo be lurned inlo sacko of eagginqmeal," (?M 1zr), Kealielclassicismie alwayeeomething a of

, TheClasslcal Sensibility
Jenckefrnde thal eomeartiete are faithful Io a 7eneral opirit of claeoicism-they exhibita claseical seneibility their worke-even Nhouyh in their eubjecT,e conare Nemporary. Milelu Andrejevic'e Apolloand Daphne, examVle, for relells Lhe Greek nrybhof Apollo chaeingDaVhne xhe river, to only to eee her f ather, the RiverGod, transform her inLoa laurelLree.lL ie double coded in thaf' t'here ie an ironic Vutlinq to7elher of Vaeear-Nype coede, a poet-hiVpie guilarieT, a claesical and lheme,
92

theorists? otherPostmodern E *no trresome onee imVortanf, are moeL l, of E Weloome r'he
nke 7o sNslruclu ralisNNhi re,

E Poststructurolist?
ed associat wit'h ie E ?os?slrucf,uralism a rnovemenf' Dercida, Julia f'hinkers: Jacqueo of a wave French Ouaf,Felix OillesDeleuze, Krieteva,KolandDafi,hes, t'end TosNsLruct'uralisNs t'o Foucau\^ f,ari and Michel qy, ae reAard all knowl d0e-hiotory, ant hro2olo lif,er t'haL This ef,C.-as t exf,Ual, meang Nure, ?sycholoqy, buL nof, is knowledye comVooed iuof of aoncept'o aleo Nhe focuoon readinq of wordo,?oolslrucNuralisNs of wriltlencondibion the le>(^Readin Ihis man' a ner,Iext g Vroduce varielyol mutrually
"tPt

conNradichory effects,

a7

-l
ToslmodernieNe aleo lend lo think thaV langua7e and meaninq are fragmenlary. We knowthat, ?oetmodernismqueelionet he wholenolion of dominance, For instance,it queeT,ions idea the that, one qrand etory can domi-

For of Vower. himLhere only io Lhe

ie d t*-how power exercieed
in variouelocalsituatione.The

nale smalleronee.ll queelione the aoylurr, Vrioon,lhehospilal, the idea that Lhereie a hierarchy the univereiNy,lhe bedroom are all of storiee,wilh the grand narcaNivee t oV and Ihe emaller on onee lowerdown on NhetrohemVole. Tosteirucf,uralism backs uV ?oetmoderniem with ito analysisof lanqua7e and knowledge. of One the moet VrominentTostef,ructuraliete hae beena FrenchinlellectualnamedMichelFoucaulN. Vlaceewhere?owerrelationehiVo are at, work, Even9/M, for ,._r,,
,/

-4
-=
\r

s
\

-N

N

FrenchVeycholoqiot born in ToiIiersin 1926, He was concernedwiih Ihe relaNionehip between?ower and knowledge. but, he ridiculed lhe ideathat et ?owerio a huqe,monolilhic af,e slructrureand was distruetful of biq mef,atrheories thatr attemVt, lo Vrovide monolilhic explanatrione
94

euch localot ruqgleo, ee?oueed DUN Daudrillard commande thal we torget Foucault,becau6ehis ideaeaboul ?ower are obeolele.

l9l whyobsolete?

=a
ID

f,o accordinq E Decauee, ie die' Oaudrillard, Vower dead,
and made solved, canceled hyperreal t hrouqh simulalione, modele,aodes. ln the newTosf,modern we of universe mediablilz, no

4

"#

have?ower ee-but, lon7er Ver q ehhin Foucault f orqot som
For aboul-simulations of Vower, inetance,RonaldReaqanruled like a kinq merelyW posing-bV offerinq eigne of powerin phohoope ie Foucault,, a kind of qama a way lhe of of explorinq dimeneions No ?owerlocally. 6rand general how ?ower theory can exVlain eit worksin all Nhese ee. Fur\hermore, Fur\hermore, even eve\ and sound bites-ratrher Nhanby exercisin7 power,

-J

i: trhere lhere ie Vower lance. Andthe onlyw

oaye,iemtntsT,s,iormer com-

iW

d7

t5 dead-su

is flut rougr if

sErrualit

Accordin7 Foucaullsexualito f,,yrefereLo lalk and wrilinq abouN whichcontain rulee erotric Vracticee, and and Vrohibitione distinquieh 7ul normaleexfrom pervereione, gaudrillard, the new Io in accordinq Toetmodern sex ie dead becauee era ie everyLhinq eex.Sexualeimulatione are in in everywhere, advefi,isinq, fashion,on 'N, in filrn.)exualitry no longerinlimafe, ie and Vrivatebehavior. io oVen, lf, ?ereonal enc ouraqe unlimited, d, unreet ricled, mandaf,ory-a commandt o release sexualLeneione(builf uVthrouqh Lhe sex-everywhere dieplayof eexualily) throuqh eexualcodes. Thus "Everyfihing oexualitry" t+1, ie (FF Duf,if everything ie eexuality-Lhen nothing ie oexuality!

Poststructurql @ *.,,, if sexis deod in the Postmodern,
universe,then is there onything left? lt seemsthot everything hos been destroyed. of AndNhat, brinqeue Lo deconetrucLion-lhe brainchild French' t rainedphiloeoVheracqueeDercida, J

96

Weren't Foucoultond Bouos drillord French well? Why is so much Postmodernond Poststructutrolist thought domi-

thinkers? notedby French the [ *r,, France,durinq (the Enliqhtenmenl l9rh century), ae we havealreadY t alked abouf',reallYinvenf'ed lhe idea of lhe inlellectualwho the idea of a cerebralelitre wouldsil back and iuol sofD of Ihink abouf,thinqo. And from the f,imeof the Enliqhtenmenl,,Francehag beena for kind of Varadiee a intellecNualo,Vlace and wherephiloeoVhers thinkers have beenreqardedao Their books nationalf'reaeuree. ae are ena??edu? ao readilY the Iheir dioPut'eoand lat eol 'r'hriller, divagalioneare writf'en uP in qloeey,maoe-media ma qazinee, rhey a??earon'N ralk ehowe, lovereand they qeVqood-looking qood seaf's at' reslauranls. ln for exchange f'hese favore, theY f,o are ex?ect'ed getra moral I'one, and valueo, Io buckeet'abliehed mosl import'anf'-No be avanN qarde.TheYreetreecurein t'he think whal tr'heY Nhatr knowledqe today, t'he resT,of France will be lomorrow. At times, Nheir t;hinking FrenchborwiedomevenovereVille qreaLerint'ellecT'he dere,floodinq lual worldwilh Frenchideae,

;

For decades,on the eidewalke oubeide the cafes of ?arie, light, has danced downthrouqhthe bouqho alonqNhe boulevardo, playing over the eufiacee ot objeclo,dappling tableclotheand variouelyattired loreoe with ewarme of eVhemeral huee. Frenchcafe-qoers, manyof them peoVle of inlelligence and culture,haveVlaced orders,fumbledfor ciqarettes, and found iI very aNlractive Io be ableto eiNat a t ableand t alkabout who,beeides wonderinq if trheNable or ie is notr,was to be found engaqed poliLical in

acro99

p?e. Ae we
lked

havealrea abouf,,Frenc denLg, eu??o

the Marxietrs,loo
lhe etreete, fiqhling Ihe army and police in order to overlhrow the governmenL They nearlyeucceeded, but wereevenT,ually quelled, Failinq to demoliehehaIe ?ower, Lheybecame dieillueion inw ed, ardlo okin g.

guddenly exhibitinA Affi,l
Toelmodern ciemabouLq mythe euch iem and ffimmuniam,

and Vublic affaire.ln Nheybeqanto commif, recenT,limes, unNil Ihemeelves lanup Lo Lhe t ableand, raioinq the late 196Oe,Jean- quaqeitself. Dieenan intelleclualeyeTaul1afr,re defined gaqing themselvee browin Lhe daVpled the imaqe.7ut I,hen from Volitice,Ihey liqht,, aek if the Lo the icon of the intelbecamelinquieticrevt ableie. lecLual chanqed, oluLionariee, findinq Treeiding over Af the earnelime revolulion turne of in all thie Lablet alk, youn7Americano were eVeech, and they from the time of the t r i V V i n go J i m i H e n - beqanlo viewliherat French Kevolution, f,he drix, "H6y Jude,"Hair, f,ure,reading and imaqeof the Vhilooo- and 2OO1: gpace A writingas eubvereive pher wa6 one of the intellectual enqaqe,
9B

Odyaey, eludent a movementr eweVtr

polilicalact e in [hemeelves.

dieoay. lncreasinqly French intrelloc,tu' IrusLfulof lanquaqe f'o claiming conveY

causedmany previouo Io VhiloeoVhere be and it' reagoeosed,

attehdw'4 ale beqan
lo how wordo oaY f,o \\,a rneref'han what words

t.:'..

..

onlya oinqle, a$thori' set Lhe Nonefor f,arian me#6aqaT'heY muchrhoughf,lo come,lNwas eome' how baganry,lVlorinq can oay lanquaqe thinqof a disharmofor different t'hinqe niouschord, his Ynany DUN forbe wae a subver' eimulf,aneouely. lime all this ," by Nhe had taken Vlaca JacqueoDerridahad in emerqed, t'he laNe 196Oe,as t'he moeN avanf'garde of f,he avanf'qarde'Hie leclure qivenat' Nha sivemodeof reading
i *" I

authonlaiimiSXf;,or any f'exIs. This otyle of readinqcame lo be knownas

deconstructiofi.ln
decongt'rucFrance, q on, T,i ki ckin exieben-

\

wao Univer' lialiem aeide, Johne AoVkine muchin oily in 1966,"91,ruc- euddenly Oerridabelure, Sign and ?laY in voque. the Dieaoureeof t'he cameIhe VhiloooVher of the day,t,henew Human Sciences," enfant terrible of Frenchint ellecI'ualism. Andthen, afI'er Ihe Americandebut, at JohnoHoPkine, and deconst'ructrion t'ook Jacqueo Dercida America bY of'orm, muchof Nhe Lurning Westernworldview toVey-IurqY.
YV

Well,tell me then,whot is deconstruction?
deconslruclionis Defininq an aclivity Nhat'qoee aqainotr the wholeNhruet'of Oerrida's Derridahas lhouqhl, AcLually, euch as eaid lhal any eNat'emenl "decono|,ruclion io'Y" auNomabi' cally miseeslhe Voint.OUN a ofaeninvolvee deconebruclion way of reading that concernb itself wilh decenterinq-with nature unmaskinq Vroblemabic the of all cen|,ers. Decentering? Centers?Whot is c center?Whqt is problemotic obout one?Why should one need to be decentered?

r

whenhe ie not , fl Well Dercida, deconsNruclinq t exl of some a difficult VhiloeoVher euchae Nietzsche or Heideqqer, writ,eeabouN in lanquaqe, whichie usuallycaVitalized, and cen|,ers euchabeNract, gome concrete whichquaranleeeall meanin6. Nhat I will offer Accordinq Oerrida, to examples. all Westerntrhouqhlio basedon trheidea of a cenler*an oriqin, a TruNh, ldealform, a Fixed an Mover, ?oint,an lmmovable an Egsence, Ood, a Treoence, a for For insT,ance, 2OO yeare, much of Weslern culf,urehas been idea of ChrisNiancenf,ered T,he on ity and Christ,. Other cu\,ures, as well, havetheir own central all eymbole.

Well, whot's the motter with thqt? Theproblem cenlerg, for
Derrida,ie IhaI Ihey at0emVt, exclude, Lo In doingoo Ihey ignore, re?re66 marqinalize or others (whichbecome the Other).ln male-dominman ie at ed socieliee, (and womanis cenf,ral the marqin alizedObher, iqnored,Vuehed re?re66ed, Io f,hemarqine). lf you havea culture whichhae Christ in lhe cen|,erof it g icong,lhen Chriotians will be cenlral No that culf,ure, and 7uddhiete, Muelime, Jews-anybody different-will be in the o, marqin marqin alized, f,o Vuohed the oulside. (Wemuet remember that Dercida wao born into an aseimilated '. Jewieh family in Algiero, qrowinq up a6 a member i of a marginalized, d iopooo ss ed c ultu re), e

3o Nhe lonqing a for e?awno cenl,er binary oppooitee, wilh oneLerm
cenlral, of fhe oppooition marqinal. and NheoNher, Fu(Yhermore, cenlers wanl fo fix, or freeze,the Vlay of binaryoVposiNee.

realiNy.All olher

Fixthe ploy of binorY whot does opposites? thqt meon?

viewgare

[

*r', , r,he ovpooir,ion

repreooed. Drawing suchan icon
No is an af'NemVI fix t'he fo bet'ween, ?lay of oVVooitee or Chriet'ianlJew Ch examVle, Jew and Ihe ianlVaqan.lhe ?a7anare nof,evenre?reoen

ie manlwoman juot' one binary m Ot'hersare eViritrl at'ooiNe. oVp / asian f,er;nature/ culture;Cauc 3l a ck; Eurocent riemI Afrocenand T,riem; Chrietrianl Vaqan, tro Accordin7 Derridawe have exceVf' no acceesto realitry codegand concept's, Nhrough

are in euchart'.Dut icone iue oneof lhe eocialVract'icesare Lhere manymore- ihat'

and caNegories, Ihe humanmind t o fix Ihe Vlayof oVVooif,eeeocialcodes,t a functioneby forminqconceVt'ual advefrieing, see pairosuch as Iheee,You of howone member Ihe Vair, The (herethe lefL),ie privileged, lerm then becomee riqhl-hand lconewilh Chriet, marqinalized, or Suddhaor whaleverin f,he what' cenler trry I,o Iell ue trhaN ie in the center is t'he only qo c enf,iong, aNe ries, rilu a conv e t c . 7 u l r e a l i t ya n d l a n q u a 7 e and einqula are noI ae oimVle exclu as iconswith a cenf'ral, siveimaqein their middle-t fiqu are morelikeambiguouo The int ereotingthing abo such figuree ie lhat at' firet

One oee only one ?ooeibilit'y. for io "cenbral" a Voeeibilily momenl.For a momentt',he facee,bul t'hen, fiqureeignifieo NheVlayof lhe eyebecauee olher tremis nol arceeted,T'he and t'he oamefiqure viewdawne, a eiqnifieo candle. a buI eu??oee qrouVoeizee a ?ower, qrou? calledNheFace' made iete (l havedeliberaf'ely this sound like"Faeciol'e"). Theymighl draw eyeoon f,he f aces.Thiewouldbe an tro emVt, fix or arreot t'he aT,t free Vlayof differencee. ln eucha eilualion,Candleiels wouldbe marginalized, and evenoVVreoeed re?reaoed

ed. or ?eroecut The imaqeof NheVriviEhefaces becomes of leqedmember lhe oriqinal worde, violent' a Vair,lnoNher ie hierarchy formed in which memberof the cenf,ralized Nhef ace, becomee lhe Vair, ae ineNilutred NheKeal and lhe Good. Derridaoayo t'hat all ot in Western thoughl behavee paire ihis 6ameway,forminq in of binaryopVoeilee which of one member the Vairie VrivNhe ileqed,lreezinq ?layof the Nhe eyelem,and marqinalizing olher memberof the pair.but' eiqnifieo in Nhefrqure, realif'y, both facee and a candle.

r

@ ,"r, but how doesthis cpply to longucae,to literoture, reoding? to

ie a H Deconstructrion a t actricof decenterinq, way of readinq,whichfirst remindeus of the centrality of the cent'raltrerm.Thenir att emptro subverrlhe f,o centrral Nermso rhat the marqinalized term can become cenf,ral. The marginalized Ierm lhen t emlhe Vorarily overLhrowe hierarchy. )uvpoee you havea ?oemeuch ae rhe followinghaiku:

And eu??oee thaf, for thoueandeof yeare Ihe

onlycorrecrwayof reading poemie to read rhe "pine6" a verb-like pining one,s ao for lost love.
O.K.But whqt qbout the other meoning?Cqn't "pines," in the context of the secondline, switch over ond becomeo noun: .,pines upon the mountqinside?" Yee,that'o riqht, That wouldbe lhe eecondmovein deconetructinqa pieceof literature-to eubverl trheVrivileqed T'ermby revealinq howrhe repreesed, marginalizedmeaninq canjuet as wellbe central.

E

But whot good doesthot do? Doesn't this just instituteo new center?lnsteod of "pines" the verb we hove "pines" the noun. Or insteqd we of Foce-ists now hove in Condle-ists power? Dercida Exachly. claimelhaL ie deconslrucT,iona Volitical and f,hat one musl noI Vractice, paeeoverand neulralize the f,oo phaeeof eubveroion quickly. ie For f,hieohaeeof revereal needed orderf,o subverL in the oriqinalhierarchy f,hefirel of lerm over the second. 7uf, evenf,ually, musNrealize one lhal thie newhierarchv ie e q u a l l y u n e t a b l e ,a n d
gurrenderto the comVlele free-?lay of

f,hebinaryo??o6itee a non' in hierarchical way,Thenyou can eee lhal both readinqe, and many olhere,are equally Voeeible, Yes!Like"pines upon the mountoin sighed" (insteod of "mountoinside")!

E

9o you can eeef,he Voeeibili-

tiee. lf the lexT,werebhe Communiel Manifeeloor f,heTorah or trheKoranor lhe Sibleor f,he you Conetifuf,ion, coulddeconelruct any frxed, auf,horifarian, dogmatric, orthodoxreading. or Of course,such lexlg are much morecomolex than our haiku. Theyare more multifacel,ed, likethe drawinabelow.

105

lf you havea eyof,em trianqleo of you will nof,ice such as Nhie, Nhen IhaN if you sf,are aN il,, a eeries of configuratione of trianqleo preeente itreeltNo your vision-one aft,erthe oT,her. Sul each ao-called preeent confrquratrion, whicheeemsNo eachqrou?of Nrianqlee be momentarily present,hao emerqed inlo a fuNure and con' ouVof a prior confi7uraf,ion is alreadydieeolvinq Thereie no cenT,ral figuration.AndNhie?lay qoeeon endleeely, confiquno ration that, attemVte NotreezeIhe play of the oyef,,em, marqinal one,no Vrivileged one,no re?reesed one.According Oercida lan' to all are, 7uaqeand all t exf,,e whendeconslructed, likethis. And eo ie human Nhouqht,, whichie alwaysmade uV of lanquaqe. eayo we ehouldconHe tinuouelyaltrempl lo eeetrhisfree play in all our languaqe and Next e-which otherwisewilllend toward fixity, inelif.,uNionalizaT,ion, cenlralizalion, totalitarianism,exclusion, in our anxietywe alwaye For feel a needNo construcf, newcenf,ers, asgociaNe Lo ourgelves wilh Nhem, f,hosewho are differenlNhan and lo mar7inalize their cenT,ral valuee.

see,then. Deconstruction first focuseson

D
inttlllt,,tt''

the binory oppositions within o text-like mon/womon. Next it showshow these oppositesqre reloted, how one is regorded os centrol, noturol ond privileged-the other ignored, repressed ond

morginolized. Next it tempororily undoes, the subvertsor decenters hierorchyto moke the text meon the oppositeof whot it originolly qppeqredto meqn. Then,in the lost

\f

ore step,both termsof the opposition doncingin o free deconstructed-seen non-stoble ploy of nonhierorchicol, But meonings. if longuogeisjust no thefreeploy of meonings-with fixed mecnings-ifqll textsdegenerthen ote into the ploy of meqnings, thereis no bosisfor politicoloction.

\1

T and Marxisls riqhl,ln fact',many lfl ffnar'o

cf,i d h f eminietre ave af,tracke deconebru on a iN because cannotr 7rovide firm foundaf,ion or for poliricalacNion even?olilical crif.'icism'

then is frogmented, @ o"O if longuoge who uselonguoge'mustbe people, too. frogmented somewhot I f'heomany?osAmodernisls whaN ljl Vru, t'hisie
of lhe menlal diseaeeo modernism rize.Whereas is ochizoVhrenia \ and Varanoia, werealienat'ion the ?oslmodernmenf'aldieease.lf lhe een-

so lence breaks down, does lhe peyche'5o of does our ex?erience paev, Vreoenland fuLure' itr in wallows the ?lay of meaninqo, eurts Nhese Thue?oelmodernism meaninqsand is concernedwit'hVertormance, ?lay and Vroceoe delighlo Nhanwilh trhe finiehedvroduct,,?oetrmoderniom raNher raf'hert'han wit'h in lhe ever-changing ?lay of appearancez, Whichqet,sust'o our nert and oriqino. and rootre eourcee whoeeidea ol fhe and GuaT't'ari, ?oslslrucluraliets, Deleuze Io rhizomeio oV7oeed f'he root.

GillesDeleuze and Fehx GuaIlari are f,wo FrenchYoslsf,ructuraliste who havehad a major imVact, Americanthought,. on

|rrhEHirtrr ue hrue

fut Fhqria n

For,accordinqto them, mo6f, of Weet ern lhouqht ie dominatred by a elruct ure of knowledqe they call aboreecence. The way of knowinq treelike, ve(Dical, ie For instrance, bioloqy haveLinin wa naeantaxonomies.

uE ln [inguirtirt haue

EhrHIlt{iln

\

VP
/\ is wise

guchNrees of showuVnot onlyin the frelds bioloqy, linguistics analomy,butr in Vhilosoand also botany, treee,theoloqical ?hy-wherewe havemetraVhyoical qenealoqical qnoolicf,rees, World lrees. The Tree, Nreeo, Nrees Theee are hierarchical, imV oinq o limited and requlatred between connecf,iong Iheir comVonentre, Alleuchlreee oVread outrlikemanybranches and from a sinqle sf,ems lrunkfrom an ori1inal eachef,eminq oneneea unity. or
n m a C m o e

nhodospirillum rubtum

treelike because all lhe varioueVeychic can be ?roceoeee f,racedback No an oriqinal traumaf,ic evenL whichIhe in child ie eeVarat ed from Nhemother.Thie lack of the molher ie the basieof deeire, and is com?enaat ed for onlyby the child's enIry into the oymOf couree, thie all can be LracedbackIo ?laf,o,whoe ve(Dic e al, f,reelikeVhiloooVhy a proclaimed material worldof manifeelations st emminq from "f,runk"of a realm T,he of ldealFormeor Eeeences. For instance, Ooberman Vinechere, GermaneheVherde, collies and Voodles are all material manifeetations of an immaterial Eeeence-an ldeal Form of what, Tlato might, call Doqqineee. Doqqineee Ihe sinie gle Tlatonic Oriqinthe Trunk-of the lree of doqo.Toodles, colliee, etc, form the branchee. A major Nreebolicorder-Ihe order of Lawand the Nameof-the-Fatrher. 9u1 Deleuze and OuatLari reject Ihe idea of the OediVue

Nrianqle-of the like etrucf,ure that f af,h - Vrincipl and er e, Deleuze and GuaIf,ari of deeire baeedon is criLicize the )edilack. Deeire, for lf, ?uo comVlex. ie
..

Deleuze and GuaNtrari, instead of beinq baeedon lackand

r\ ll \l \

'

;,,, tt."'.

"f ,s\$ -li

110

rooled in an oriqinal ie )ediValLrauma,

and GuaLlari ?ro' claima rhizomaf,lc,

lhe Whereae lree f,o eeeke eef'ablieh ileelf and eay "lo bel' ie lhe rhizome alwayo rearranqinq inf'ercon' eayinq"and, necliong, a n d ,a n d ,a n d , . l ' Thug the tree ie concerned with origine,foundat'iono, ontologiee, begin-

horizonfal, crealed horizontallY, radically way by oocialinlerconnec- crabgraes-like of Crabqraeo, lione. Andthe inT'er- knowing. bef,ween for ingtance,ie a connecf,iong planI. 7uI instead of the infant'and hie eocieNY ourrounding are alwayein movet'akinq rnent,frowinq, a lineeof friqht',like one cenlral rool, if' of has zillione roob6, noneof whichie cenlral-and each off-

elrinqer of crabqraee shoot,inLerconnecls nlngeand endingounrequlat'' roots.The rhizomeis in random, a ...tike rhizome. ed networksin which concernedwith surLo 3o, oppoeed f'ree' lhe vert'ical, like sf,rucl'ureof Deleuze knowledge, any nodecan inlerconneclwith any olher node. faoe conneolions, lines of flight', wit'lh Lhe "andl'

not mean anythinq or repreaent,anything. Theyare not Lhereto be intrerVreted. It, ie good enouqhmerelyto deecribe dreamsand, in doinqeo Nowalch howlheir eymbole o?en u? new,horizonlalinterconneclione bef,ween olher eymbole. For ingtance,in Kafka'o"LeNler f,o Hie FaIher"he inffateshie faNher lauqhably to absurd, dreamlike dimeneionl,unlil his father's oingularFalherneee qeto eo huqeNhaI iI Vope-explodinq int o a vasl rhizomalic networkof f at herlike eoci conn al eclions character,Greqor gamea, awakee one morninqonlyIo find that he hae beenIraneformed into a huqebuq.SomecriNice reqardtrherelalionehiV between Greqorand hie molher and father ao Nypically Oedipa|Dut, aqain, Kafka exVlodee Falher'e Lhe einqle imaqeinlo many,including a chief clerk and a bose. Kafka thue triee Io de-OediValize Greqor'o fabher.Dut in Lhe end Greqor'6lineof ffiqht faile,and likea qood 6on, he diee for hie family,

lN is only in Kafka'enovels line trhat the rhizomaf,ic of friqhf, in truly succeedo-eo?ecially a The Trial.One miqhl exVecN novelnamedThe Triallo have No eometrhing do wibht'he law, and Guaf't'ari find 3u1 Deleuze lhaN Just'ice in lhe novelis noT' ie JusNice reallY leqalbuLerotric. t'hereare obecene Thue, desire. an in drawinqo Nhecourl'houee; equaileobeinqaccused af,Norney a wilh beinqaf't'ractrive; series of euqgeoNive encounf'erg with eexy, antrifamilial S;-t and women; a Vaintrinq of Just'ice ae winqed, and evasive. K.,tha ?ro' Iaqonietrof Nhenovel, neverreaches Justice. ")he" ie never?resenl, buf' \ alwayeone roo y from him of ral in the rhizomaNic, Nunnel wiNhiNecrazy the coufi,houee connecNcorridoreand ?ervereely whichK. Nhrouqh ed paeoaqewayo Thus ie led by erolicizedwomen. and Jusiice,likelhe coufi'houee neverreach' degire,ig rhizoma|'ic, Kafka'swrif,ing, inq conclueion. and maVVinq ie troo, rhizomaNic, toying with lhe ebrucbures Lof ingf,it'u' u.
.VA

t.iongand eocial relal,iong.

ie indicat'ed The biehoV lsn't the Internetrhizomqtic, horizontol? who was exiledbY JacqueeGuillof', the VaNican Algeriafor his No

)f'uck in the opiniono, hor- "hel,erodox" Yee.lt, is non-hierarchical, middleof Ihe desefi,-in an izonlal.lls nodesintersecl in networksin random,unrequlated whichany nodecan inf,erconnecl with any oT,,her node.ln thie reoVectr and GuaT.,Iari Deleuze werecorrecl,whenthey declareda Ihat for all Vracancienl dioceee no lical VurVoeee longerexietethe he went, online, becominq world'sfiref, virtrualbiehoV. It was a visionary author,Leo

newform of rhizomalic,horizonLal )cheer,who hookedup Ihe biohoV, knowledqe. f acN,f,here He ie quoted ae oayinqthal ln " lnstead of a metaphyeical idea is a sf,oryin t,he

March 8,1996 1
NewYorkerenliIled "Vifr,ual

of a biehop,attached to a real place, we would have a metaphyoical idea of a place, attached to a real biehop." ThevirLualdioceee, whichcan be acceoeedfrom anywhere the in world,imitalee trhemind of Goda horizonf,al, rhizomalicGod. ln facN,lhe biehoV, who counle amonqhis triende VeoVle Jean like baudrillard, comVlaine that, until lhe oVening lhe virtual dioceee, of "The Church hae been orqanized veraically,when we ought to be organizedhorizontallyi' Of couree,

Oiehop;'

-N
\i:

the Church eoonwent, online ae well.

H

like E committed El lt seems s u i c i d e !B u t verticolis out ond horizontol h o w ? is in.
\1,\

T n Hejumped n Yeo,but t,he off a tall vertl'
\

t

.N

lronicthing io HOW,in 1995, aomDeleuze mitted euiaide,

aal etructur* a buildinq.

(

w

The Condition of Poetmodernity
qs It seems if hisselfmusthqvebeenpretty -of ented.Butwheredoesthe frogmentotion
self, ond of "things"-common to both modernism

ond Postmodernism From? come T accordinq DavidHarvey'o Conditionof Postmodernity, to The n Well,

changeein our ?erce?trion lime and epaceoccur,this of brinqeabout equallylarqechanqeoin Nhewayowe re?resentthe world-boLh in the art,e and in Vhitoeophy. The hielory of caViNaliom brouqht, whal Harvey hae on calle e?aceLimecom?reoeion: Therehae beenan increaee Ihe in Vaceof life. And lhe increaein7 com?ression Nime, in e?acehas ehrunk. Varalleling rhe worldoeemoto collapee inwarde u6. on oul it' wao not alwayelikeNhis.DurinqEurope'o feudal era, each tfF Jt f' -t
) ' feudalfiefdomwae a

definireleqal,Volitical,economic and social

ffi._ts

world. t'hecenf'er AN waethe caetrle,lhe Lordand Ladyof the
caet'leand rhe nobiliLy. Working fieldsand the foreeto,a rhe laee of eerts wereloyalto trheirfeudal lorde,of course, to of ff,hiofeudal world wae trhoughV be onlya reffectrion a ';., coemosruledon hiqhby God and a qanq of heavenly hoeT,e, VoVulated darker characfero,Nhecreaand by turee of myfh and folklore-wiT.,ches, qianNe, dragono.

often maVmakere Medieval lhie re?reoenhed world in eensuous det ail, almosl likea Vaintinq. ln such ma?e,a riveris a sensuous frowof blue Vain| Ihat' cuts a trhrough dark foresl (reVreoent'in ed by painbinq a numberof Nreee)-and beyondwe find lhe from t'he castle. A crose ohininq of oteeVle the churchand it s 6ur-

lhe With t'he Kenaiesance, made iIe of princiVle Verepeclive

and etiNioneof m;yl'lh religion. At the 6ametime, t'he of Ttolemaicoyotrem ma?makinqmade ilo way t'o

lhat reV- \i buildinqo aleo all reV' EuroVe-a oyotrem are roundinq resenled o?ace obieclively. resented ae they might,be in a
Thesedet'aile are oeen Vaintrinq. ae from a bird's-eye?ereVecNive, if God werelookingdown upont'he Ar ecene, the edgeof such ma?e wae Nheend of t'he world-and a Fromtrhenon, a malhemalical qrid-a qeometricframework viewerslo acf'uallymeaallowinq lowns oure dislanceg bet'ween

aVand oceane-would Nou No cosmicdraqonwait'inq ewallow ?earon all ma?o. all einceallof o?ace, of anyonewho woulddare venbure couldbereVrelhe world, t trooclose o trheedqe qrid, t'he eenled by a qeomef'ric andf all into hie wholeqlobewae euddenlyknowmouth.
ExVlorero, ableand conquerable. ol oettinq oul on voyaqee dis' drew such ma?e,which covery, valuable to wereNhen s merchant and Nradere,

At the eameNime in everyephereof Nhat o?acebecame choVVed matheuV matically,the clock,

Thenbhe lBrh-

Kenaiesance culbure. cenlury Enlighl,engaw e?aceao ln archileclure,Golh- mentr ic cathedralehad eomethinq be contro quered.Vlapewere purqedof all elemenNe

or chronomeNer, made been?o?ulahed with if,eaVVearance. groleequeqargoyleo

Thesenewconce?- and angels.DuNLhese of fanNasyand reliqion Nions sVaceand of qaveway,in lhe baand became absNracf, time werereflecf,ed roqueera,f,o a more exVansive archiheclure, to lhe eoarinq enerqiee Dach'e of fugueeand the eximaqeeof Vaneive o?aceand time in John Donne's Voetry. 7uI thie new,infinile, meagured imaqeof time and qeomeNric, cold, mathematical, and etrictly funcIional. Bothtime and o?acebecame uniform, mechanical, NewDonian o?aceand Iime. but if the whole worldcould be envieionedae uniform,it landcouldbe laid ouI

o?ace eNill reflectred on a grid and divided God'eqlory. u? equally-ae wae
d o n ei n t h e U n i I e d St atee-trhen thie couldcreate f,he

braNedGod's infinitre qlory but dioplayed dimenIhe sions of a universe Ihal couldbe dominaf,edby MAN, And ueedby Man for hie own freedom.No lonqerwouldone fear fallingoff the edqeof Nheeafth int o Ihe mouf,hof a coemic mongf,er. EuroVeane thouqhl lhat, now Ihere wae a Vlacein this conquerable e?acefor everyone. Africa could Vrovide slaves, and oiher basiefor equalityin oociety,lf, could create Nhebasislor democracy. ln other worde, uniformqrid of 6?ace and trimeallowed Enliqhlenmenl thinkerst o envision and uNoVian colonial planothal couldbe rolledout, overT,he wholeuniformqrid of Ihe qlobe, Spacewao knowable, and throughEuclidean qeomeIry,conquerand trheworldcould be measured, known and dominated. thinkersthis vaet qrid of epaceand time no lonqer celeand climee conlinenbs raw could Vrovide mat erialsfor lhe imVerial EuroVean and American?ower6. Thechronomet er allowed time,like g?ace,Io be geenae mathemal,ical and t,ickedaway in a et raighl linefrom the Vaet,lo trhefuture,

trheviewof a ratrional, able.1pace, natstre,

For Enliqhtrenmenl uniform. Timenow

rul
.\?

9imilarly, workere in variouscountries beqanto oympathize Voderniem :l wilh eachotrher, and in such an eaw Lhe break- environment, Communis| lhe inq up of Lheee Manifeelo, couldgain an audience. AfLer1B5O,Ihe major Euroexpanded qlobally, ?ean naNione etriVVinq muchof the e?ace in Nheworld of iNeVrevioue nameeand ueee.ll becameroutine for nations,cilies and individuale be deeVly to inluenced by evenlslhousands of milee away,The radio,Ihe mol,orcar, and Nhetrain acceleraled theee developmenVe, Howcould any wrif,er, T,hen, still write a realisNic novel wilh a Vlot unfolding?aqe after ?aqe in eimVle, ep-by-eLeV, et chronoloqicalorder?

\.6..2
=

uniform,linear, conceptriono opaceand of

Lime.DurinqLhe Enliqhbenment eocialtime and Vhyeical trimehad merqed, had become uniformand mabhemabical. Timehad become Vroqreeeive. Butrin the mid-ninetreenlh cenLury, thie ?roqreaoive eenee of lime wae ehaken. Vany Euro?eanewho had pafricipatedin uVrieinqs and revolulione had had a Iaele of exVloeive T,ime, ThoeecaughT, in class otrugup qlee had a eeneeof alternalinq, cyclicIime. Also,by the mid-nineLeenLh cenf,ury, becameevjdent, iN thal economic and socialtime had chanqed.With improvemenle in t ranepo(Cat and communicaion f,ione, of Europewae becominq all economic interd endent. If ally eV Taris should euffer a financial crisie,Nhecrieis also affectred London and berlin.

Writers e u c ha s Flaubefi,, and Trouet, James Joyce beqant'o capt ure this eeneeof g i m u la n e o u a t trimeby alf,erinq of Nhesf,rucf,ures their Vlobo. NheoEinstein'erevoluNionary riee of relativity the Ver' chanqed of ceVtrion oVace and time even more.lmVreeoioniot Vaint ere euch ae beqanlo and Cezanne ManeN trhee?aceof object'e decompoee qo-object'e dieeolv wilhin Vaint,in inq into dabe of liqhL Cubismfur'

Now,in the Toebmodern world,rhe of ohrinkinq hae eVace Nhe chanqed waye lhat, moneyand commodiliee oVeraIe,CaVilal is noweleclronically movedaroundIhe qlobalmarketVlacewibhsuch raViditythat' it, hae los| much of if,eeNabilily ln and meaninq. our localeu?erwe markeT,g, can buy French beersfrom and wines, cheeeee Asia and Euro?e, Canada,Mexico, qreenbeanefrom SouIh America Calior Africa,Tahilianmanqoee, aVVleo, Canadian fornia celery, )Vace is aleo eNc.

compreeoed ln in the ?o?uIhe ther decompoeed obiecL. lationsof the gy enta ry oo ciolo Durkheim's EIem ciliee, Forme of ReligioueLife, Vubliohed larqeet,
foundedthe seneeof time in 1912, in socialrhythmo.lt became tha| there are ae many a??arenL of experiences e?aceand lime as f,hereare ?eroVectrivee. made increasinqly uV of minorities

suchae Vietnameae, EasNern Europ eane, Koreans, Africane, ef,c, Americane, Cenbral

Pust
Ae eVace ehrinkl moreand more, Nheindividual qualitiee of differenl epacee, differenl localihiee, qrowe in imVoftance. CefDain in Vrovincee Francebecomevery impoftan| if Nheycan ?rovide cefr,ain a kind of wine

oVVooed f'he fixedaccumulation the early zorh centrury, ro of when corporaT'ione Ford Mohor Company like and Lheir capiNal baeicallyoat, in one placeand Vumped oul cars for a relatrively ehablemarker. Harveybelievee that Ihe ephemeralily, collaqe and fraqmentalion of Toetrmodern aftifacte such ae booke, frlme,archiNecture and art, are oimVly mircore thie Vhenomenon frexibleaccumulahion. of of

An examVle thie ie trhemovieSladerunner, of which contraine eiqnific ToeNmo ant dern elem e. ent "Olade Kunner"ig a Viclorian word for "Vrivatre eye." The film became cull film-and t,hena kind of natrional a

eVecimen Tosf,modernism. of ltreven

e inepired am Gibson' Willi novelNeuromanaerand hae lhe movemenf,lhaf, as comeIo be known
<--

Nheyhave Albhough beenqivenhumanemotiong,lhey are consideredsomewhatdanqeroue,and as Vafi, ol lheir qenetic?roqram, havea life e?an of only four yeare,

ovberounk. Olade Runner ie about,a qanq of qenetihumane callyVroduced called" replicantl" who havebeencreated to oerveae hyVeref,ronq, inlelliqenl and ekilled elavee. Theare uged"offworldl'in trhehaz' ardouework of exVlorinq and colonizinq Ihe e. out er planet

os l$l tt looks if they
would be good shortcontroct workers in q Postmodern world. But qre they humqn beings or not? I Do you remember H e J ean Daudrillard'conceVt, trheeimulacrum? of Sure,the simulocrum is the copy thot is so closeto the originol thqt the originol is no longer importont.

\

And Nhat'ewhat reVlicanle havebecome-simulacra lhat are naarlyindietinquiehable from humanbeinqo, fact, ln Blade Kunner ?or-

Ihe huge TyrellCorand ie in VoraIion, commandof trhere-

t And lfl Yee. the Loe
Anqelee lhey rehurn lo, ouppooedly Loe

proce66eo Anqelee the year of Vroductive neceoeary crefor 2019, ie no utopia,ln alion of reVlicants. The reVlicanleare facL iN ie a dyetroVia, a decayed,Tostindustrial waeleland.

Iraye a baudrillardian anqryabout Iheir world in which"The eho(Clife eVan.Howreal ie produced from ever,TyrellexVlaino lo miniaturized units, ry bankoand command modules-and with these it can be reproduced an indefinite numberof timee" (erM 5). AndIhe reVliKoy,Nheleaderof trhe lhat f,heyshould enjoylheir shofv life becaueeit, is more inf,ense-like a ffame thal burnsT,wice as briqhflybut,hae only from matricea, memo- enraqedreVlicantro,

a ehoftduraiion, I canls haveret urned l$l Butdoesn'tthot Io Los Anqeleo, where mqkethemlike they weremade,in the Postmodern trheir order to meeN personolitiesmaker,a qenetric coughtup in the namedlyrell, deeigner rushof time?
who is Ihe headof

likeareVlica,asimuthe the 0n lowest 0n hiUhestlacrumof a ?yramid,

hish ware- l0U0l,eoarins f 0u0l, emvty

loel amonqa bazaar Koman, of Oreek, and Vayan,Chinese, Victorian motifs.

and induet'rial abovelhe etreeN houeee -buried ecum,f,owerg hiqha o Vlant lie half t ech worldof corVoin heaVeof ro|t'inq whichare rubbish,

architec' raNe?ower, The Vrofusion of by ecavenqed roaminq Lureand advefVieinq: corVoralearchiZan Am,CocaCola, bandsof punksand leclure and adverDut, humanvulNuree Sudweieer. hovotrher all livinq lhe decayinq erinqabove Ihe on remainsof the VaoI. offices is corporaNe NheTyrellCorVora' tion ileelf. Iioinq oiqnein Ihe whichcomciNy, of bineeelemenNe NewYork,Tokyo, HonqKonqand

miildle 0nt|te
of rhe l0U0l, busrte
elreet, life, itr looke like eometrhinq Honq Kong(on a bad day) wilh Vunko, crowded variousriff-raff,Hare KrishnadevoT,eee, marqinal and oNher etreeNfolk.

Not onlythe reVli- Loe Angelee, ie canls are simulacra, noNhinq much eo buVthe archil,ecf,ure a6 a chaosof of lhe cily io too, lT,ie circulalinq eiqno an eclectic ?osf,modof ern hodqepodqe The eimulacra. TyrellcorVorale looke headquafi,ere referrinq Eo other otqne.

TheToebmodern a(Eistic atr VrinciVle workheraia pae' tiche,a eeriee neutral of quomimickin arioue qv tabione archif,ecNural styleeand frlm e V y l e e ,v e f f i h i niq d o u b l e E e coded.

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whot is double coding, ogoin?

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thaL in !f You will remember architectrure double codingconmelheieT,e ueinglvloderniet of them by ode,bul lranecending eouely ot inq archilec simullan qu f,ural mof,ifefrom the pael or from a localcullure-buf, conin eciouely, a Vlayful, Vaelicheeort,of way thaL can be humoroue or ironic, I lll Likethe ArEr building thot is of onceo pieceof modernorchitectureond o quote of o grondfother clock?

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lil Yee.And doublecodinqcan but, occur noI only in archilecLure injuet,abouf, any art form. 3o in Elade Runner,everythinqie doublecoded.Thereare nol' only everythingie a humanreVlican|e; an Theacf,orereVlicale reVlicanl, qenreo and ecleclicblendof movie periodeVylee-for Elade Runner

ts bolh a lulurieNicfiln, eeV40 yearb in Lhe fulure (from t'he 19BOo)and eeI simulf'aneouely 40 yeare in f,he VaoL-it quoLee from lhe genreof noir ertensively Someof rhe filme of the 194Oe. eeNeare aclually eeLefrom old q r Archif, acNually, everyft,hin ie quoted also: Frank LloydWriqhl, alonq Greekand Komancolumne, with Orienlalmotife and 4Os Thuethe qanqeterseNNhemea ie mof,ive noVVarodybuf,VlaY-

a beLween humanbein7 difference WhaI is android? and a Nexue-6 an betrween oriqinal Lhedifference a n da e i m u l a c r u m ? Thiequeelionie broughllo a belween headin Lhe relatrionehiV

Kick Deckard-a Vrivateeyewho Corpomoviee. hao beenhiredby the Tyrell SoqarI and JameeCagney andraLionf,o acl ao a eearchaqent,in pureuil of deof,roy el, ante- and Kach Nexue 6 replic replicantwith a beautifulbrunel'Le , w h o mh e f a l l e i n l o v e ) h e d o e e ehe ie a repli' nol,knowwheLher

canf,or nol'.This caueeeOeckard paeliehe,ltr is t'he eurtace plaY JueL Io doubt hie own humanhief'ory. of and dioVlay Lhe simulacra. are ae the replicanhe morehuman AfLer he killoone of her fellow h e t h a n h u m a n a , f , he i m u l a c r a a v e mare realt'hanIhe real, became of ln facf,, a main queaNion the flm ie,Whal ie Lhe dif' a ference bef,ween a machine nda human ReVlicant'o beinq? a n d h u m a nb e i n q e are 60 muchalike Ihal it io very difficult to Nellthe copyfrom the "real ilhinqi' What ie the ) dieie Rachael vioiblY androide, turbed, Deckardeaye "KePlicanf,gweren'lou?pooedIo havefeelinqe, n b u LI h e n a q a i n , o r wereSladeKtJnnere."

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qrowinq concernwith f,herelahumanbeinqe between IionehiV and compulere. AN another Vointr Decker and humanand android, Kachel, are t abouLlo oleep ogelher.Kachel eaye,"You'renot goinq to bed with a woman..,. Kememben though,don't think about it, juot do it, Don't pau6e and be philoeophical,becauaefrom a philooophrcal otandpoint it'e dreary for ue both," Out, the movie does makeus think about it Vhilooophically. ln facf,, much of ToeLmodern ie afr juet,a way of thinkinq about,lhe Toetmodern aqe, lt, ie a way of fheory. And doing Toef,modern after all, the movieopawned trhe wholemovement, ayberpunk, of a movemen| Lhal dramatizee lhe
120

Couldthis, then, be onother differencebetween modernism ond Postmodernism?

E

How'e Nhar?

Well,one of the centrol imoges modernists usedto fill in the post-Nietzschion void wos thot of the mochine.Perhops Postmodernismhosjust reploced the imoge of the simple mochinewith thot of the Monmochine-the hybrid of mon ond mochine. Acf,ually, lhaf,;e exaclly what in DonnaHaraway declaree anoth-

er impofr,anf, Toelmoderneggay,"A CyborqManifeet o: )cience,Technoloqy, and )ocialiet Formation in the LaNe Twenlielh Cenluryi' Thiee6oayie actually a chaVt in her er book )imiano, Cyborqe and Women: The Keinvention of Nature, Well,whot's o cyborg? A cyborq io a cybernetic orqaniem. Half

human, half com?uter. Harawayarquea thal in f,he lat e twentielh cenf,ury, for and probably gomeNimeT,ocome, we are all cyborgo.

mylhe about beinq qo humanalwayo backf,o eomeidyllic lime of wholeneoe and unity and innoin cence,like the Garden of Eden.Dut, Ihe myih of the cyborgis neveraboul wholes;iNdoes not, looknoetalqically backto eomeunified oriqin.A cyborqio alwayea oplif,,a hybrid idenbiLy, a cybernetric orqanism: a human-comVuter.

Butore we oll | cyborgs? don't hcve ony ports. mochine I uoee n Haraway "cyborg" conto
elrucl a new mfih abouf,beinq h u m a nO l d .

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For in our culture, we alwaye try to favor t'he words on the left and re?reoe t'lheonee on the ao rlght^ Dut if we oee oureelveo cyborge,Ihenwe can knowNhaN we are alwayebot'h:mindand male body,cu\ure and naf'ure, and female,etrc.-fracf'ured idenuf,ers,And,in anf,ilies, hum comV

clerkal t'he boee,everycheck-out' whoeeeVeedis calqroceryetrore culated by a computer,every ie vofer,everyconoumer bein4 monilored by a comVut'er-ie ?art of a comVutrer-ie a cyberlI netic orqaniem. ie hard t'o tell and er comVut et'oVe whereT,he beqino, Ihe organism

a way,we are. EveryAsian woman l$l well, why don't theseworkers fingero, worko who,wilh her nimble just rebel? induslry,ao' in f,heelecLronics That'e one of the eenNimenls everyoecrecomVuNero, eembling Iary whoeefyVinqeVeedie moniby Iored on Ihe comVut'er her
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tha| 7ave rise No lhe whole cYberVunk movement',

E cyberpunk?

I was CyberVunk onceconsidered lfl Yee. of Ihe most Toetmodern all Toef'modern
beqanao a hybridof BOs lhinqe,Cyberpunk and anarchy. cyb counterculr,ure, efrechnology

indicatee The"cyber" parLof cyberpunk to iI Ihaf,,like cyborq, has somef'hing do wilh comVuNere.
qiveeuo a cluelo Theword"Vunk" have T,he atfiilude thal cyberpunks hip, I'echnoloqy: oexy, Ioward comVul,er auf,horilari dviol ent, min allered,anNifor wilh a distrasNe trhe an, rebellious,
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lifeolylesof NheReaganl dominanN gush era. Nendlo oVerReallife cyberVunke the law,ae lhey aIe eomewhaV oubeide lo are o??oeed the cenlralizeduee of f,echnoloqieo huqemeqaby comVuher and et at'es.Theyare corVoraf,ions oft,enhackerswho uee cybert,echnoloqy t o traVinto lhe international grid elecf,ronic to futfittlheir own A individual deeiree. cyberVunk t quy who wanf,s o seduceoome corVorale eecrelary miqht,soften her up by eofr,eninq her softup

mainframeoo wear (".q,, by alt erinqlhe eofLwarein Ihe corVoraf,e her key elroke raf,e-lhat, that, iI apVearslo her boes-who monitrors she ie IyVinq f,,wice faeN as ehe aclually ie). as

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CyberVunks, unlikehiVViee, nol, are aqaineL t.echnoloqy. Theywant lo uee Iechnoloqy a meanef,o reeiet the ae
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etein warnedagainet Ihe exceeeee and danqere Nheinduet and of rial ecienbific revolulion hhe 19fh cenNuin ficlion writinqI,hal 7oee ry, ecience by Ihe nameof cyberVunk warns of a techno-future whichhumansmusl in fiqhf a7ainoN technoloqical trhe Vowinternalional ere of giantr meqaqical corporaNions, t hat, lechnolo Dutr fut ure is now!

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Neuronr ancer
Thefirsl cyberVunk novel, which wao inepired, paft, by Dlade Kunnen in ie WilliamGibeon'sNeuromancer. The olory ie about,Caee,a pelty comVuler and dala thief who has elolen informaIion from his bosses. Vuniehmenl,, As hie nervecellehavebeenburnedoul. Case'snervoueoyelem ie reVaired, however, whenhe ie hired by a myeterioue emVloyer Verforma Big HeioN. to

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by He ie accomVanied oomehiredmuea cle in Lheform of Molly, qal brimminq razore e, wilh bio-imVlant includinq Toqetrher Nheyeleal her beneatrh naile. conglrucl. a coYn?uf,er The major adventurein the novelie No a trheirmieeion Freeland, planel wherethey are f,o eleal an Anificial lntelliqence enlily namedNecromancer wilh whomWinlermale (Ihe myef,eriwiehes mergeeo tro ou6 emVloyer) God and Iake lhal he may become overf,he univerae, The ditrerencebeNween Dlade is Kunnerand Neuromancer that, in Neuromancer ditrerence Ihe between comVuterand human,naNure oriqinaland coVV, oriqand Lechnoloqy, h i n a la n d e i m u l a c r u m ,a e c o l l a V e e d imVloded, facN,Neuromancer ln sla(be ouf,wiNh deecriplion a of nat ure lhat is in Ierme of "Ihe ekyabove t echnology: ihe porb wae the color of Neleviaion, tuned to a dead (N channel" b).
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And ir ie Caee'oown reVaired nervouooyelem, for ingNance, nof, Io enter cybereVace, AndIhouqh everyone today ie, knowswhaf,cyberepace Gibson wae the one who invenled the Ierm. He did oo by eayinqthal ie: cyberopace " A conseneualhallucination experienced daily by | | / , billlonsoflegitl,,' .-/./ mate o?era| ',/ tors in every : nation.,,a

is CybereVace a cyborq-a merqinq humanand comVut of er wae euqqeetedto cybereVace Gibeonone day in Vancouver, a6 gometeenaqero he wae wat.chin7 video0ame6in an arcade: Vlayinq "l could see in trheVhyoical how intrenoity their pooNures of raVt, f,heeekidewere.,,.You had NhiefeedbacklooV,with Vhotone cominqoff the ocreeninto the Nheneuronemovinq kids'eyeg, elecNrons Ihrouqh lheir bodies, throuqh Lhe comVuter, movinq in Andthoee kide clearlybelieved ed!' Ihe oVacelhese 0arne6Vroject

oomecomVuIer, whichenablee him caVaciNies, this conceVlof And

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scienceficIion is CyberVunk not,eo muchaboul the fulure ae it, is a way of drawinqa map of whatrie qoinqon t oday-a ?resenl in whichdat a are conf'rolled o corV c by vaot, NechnoaVit'aliot'ic buI t'heeehuqedat'a raf,ions. tions of data, Like city lighte reaedlng"(N51). banksexiel in a epacewhere'N, VCR,laser telex,t aVe recorder,

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a @o if you were ou?ermodelstrultinq in thigh-hiqho

inf,oa glitzy trhemereetraurant, euch ae the Faehion Cafe, or) whileenqaqed noieyLeledildonice in wilh eomeone Nat ion of al-Enquirerfr onl- cover st aIuo-o omeone such ao a dieLant, Maft]an. A nano-rover an imVoeeibly ie small robolic lhaN eende back pixel imaqee trom lhe eufraceof Mare. And eo you can 6eethe Voeeibilitiee: Nhedata trom teledildo, Mafi,ian,nano-rover and audioanim onic ?a?arazzi- all interaf,r actinq in one huqecoemicelecLronicevenT,.

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diek, camcorder, tel edild o, a ud ioa n i m I r on ic Va Va ra z z i , a nano-rover and t eleVhone are wiredtroqelherlikea eprawling eleclroniceVecies coemiccrabof qraoe. Andthey can be Vluqqed int o by thoee with Ihe hacker, cybVerVunk ethic of "informaNion for Lhe VeoVle." Audioonimqtronic E reteditdo? pqpqrozzi? Nqno-rover?Whqt qre those? Teledildoniasinvolvee a kindof comVut eex in er - et ickwhicha joy dildo can be animated by a uoer on a digT,anf, comVuter. Audioanimatronia acbi?a?arazziare eoundvatredrobotic paparazzi whichena?your photo

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fiction science @ aro.rpunk
to seems provide o more occurote mop of the contoursof times thon thesePostmodern doesBoudrillord'stheory. right, ln fact', many ThaN'e is think that, Saudrillard really and trhatr fict'ion, doinqecience fict'ion ecience muchof cyberpunk ie reallyVretIy qood Iheory. AfLer a only all, Oaudrillard deecribee No ly ourrenders f,hesensual, and obecenefrowof hyVerrealily zineehave CyberVunk mainglream. become MONDO 2000, a qlooeycyber-qlam 'BOo crezine,latre . alion of R.U ?iriue and Queen Mu "domined-

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ecience druqo,cyber7uI cyberVunk eimulacra. fiction not only deecribesa world fashion(cyberpunke of simulacrabut aleo showeiI to ofbenwear mirrorbe a world dominated by vasf' ione,and euqgeetre me7acorVorat ohadeo),cyber-qoeoip,ef,c. arit'y wae lvl nd o'e Vopul o

in ecliVeed, 1993, by Wired,a eile a form of resistancelo Nheconexer- for cyberVunk aulhors euch as trol these huqecor?orat'iong WilliamGibeon.Wiredwenf'online cige over uo, like cyberVunk, 1auHowever, drillard,hae nowceasedt'o be hiV, qardeand ie now merelY avanN in 1994 as HotWired.

iloltlireil lTe[ www.wirBil.G0|l|

magaSeeidee Lhese?o?ular f,oneof cyberpunk zinee, eci-fihae

n e r n c i v i l i z a l i oin t e r m i n a ld e c l i n e hookeup wiLhrebellioue ultrimalely

g il beenVumped ouT^ 1uT, all eounde and lou qh-lalkin (youlhI aftifrcial culto) who offer pelly muchNheeame.Ae Ceicoery- inlelligencelrock Ronayaeke: "Howmanyformulaic ales t in can one wadeNhrouqh whicha -deetruclive bul eeneiliv eelf e younqVrolaqonieL with an (imanf, e e Vl / Vr oeIheei / Lel cht ronic t al ent) trhaI makee Lhe evil(megane corVoraT,io I polic el at eeI e p c r i m i n au n d e r w o r l d e )u r e u e i m l h elite luxuryenclavee| eccent ric e?aceef,alions)full of groheeque (haircuLe cloth esI eelf- mulila / t ione rock mueiceexual I I h o b b i e e e e i q n ed r u q o /d r / f,elechf,r nic qa d qeto/ na oty o newweapone ex\eriorized I hallu ci naIi one) re?reeentin g Ihe (moree/faehione) modof
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nol the alt ernaLive, of (communit y I ooc ia l i e mt r ad i t io na l va l u eI I e tranecendental vieion), of eubuL qoinq life ?reme, affirminghippneee, wilh lhe flow whichnowflowein the machine, aqainet, epecf,er the of a world-eubverLinq (arLifi cial inf,elliqenceI mulbina tional corVorat web evil e /
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just cyberpunk E well,
soundslike o bunch of boys with high-tech power fqntosies.How ore theseony different from Rombo?And whot does cyberpunk hove to soy obout the problemsof crime, drug oddiction, sex qddiction, obout women, obout ecology? I

t h a n I h e o r i q i n a lT h u es h e i s . formudeliberat Irivial, shallow, ely laic. And not,only in her videoe. the realizee that "real" lite ie juol show biz aleo.Thueehe collecf,s her Vaycheck neverreallyqoee buN t o work.Whenshe dresoeeu? ao MarilynMonroeshe does so wilh the knowledqe IhaI MarilynMonroe, hereelf, waejuet a VuT,-on, a juot a consbruction, simulacrum, likedreeeinquV in draq or voqueinq,Thuoher dreseinq ae Mari' u? lyn Monroeis doublecodedin Nhe oame 6enoethat Dlade Kunner and Tosf,modern architecbureare double coded. like Some of her crilice, VeoVle Tlanned?ar' f eminiet Neachers, s, of Wars, enthood,Veterans Foreiqn ehc.reqardMadonnaae juot a cheese' cakeywhore dreeeedup

reVlaceo [if Wharever
will cyberpunk havef,o be more eart,h-cenf,ered and more woman-cenf,ered,

Whot'sso Postmodern obout Modonno?
Well, one thinq, she ie tor all coneciouely surtace, quitre all all all Vut-on, dreoe-uV, all all make-over, simulalion, bhat the eimulacrum. knowe of we livein an aqe of hyVe,

junk jewelry, with in Nraehy
a hrNherebellybulf,on

and a fondle-mythe knowstrhat' bra, boy-toy hyVer-reality. and a??earance simulation attitrude. meanmorelhan subsf,ance

and reality.the knowsthat and fhe apVropriaf,ion replicationof lhe oriqinalare morereal

oexual difference, For Madonnaingtrance, io it, oloqisfs,on Nhe ou??o6edly a of,herhand, ref e m i n i nq a m a e qard Madonna ao noN maoculine a deconelruclinq eooenq a m e , t ow e a ra lialisl notions malel of blacklace bra, with a female, hiqharr,lVoV afi,, little bit of etraV ohowvirqin/ whore, blackl whiNe, inqaI f,heehoulder. Dut, fucker/fuckee, c, et in Vadonna'; videoe men I Deconstructing essenlEl havebreast and wear e tialist notion of whcrt? bra6,imVlying NhalXhey envy(inotead genderrole6, havebreaotr E Traditrional of the women havinq ideaoof whal it Nakes be to Venie6nqy), wornen havehard-ons, maoculine feminine, or are virgins whoree, eluNe are and keVIin Vlace fixedpolariby are virqino, triee-binaryo??osit of es 9ome
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videoJuetify My Lovehae become of f,hevideo'o lraneqression where a k i n do f g a y a n t h e m .I I b l u r eL h e bodieeintereect in the infamoue ecene. Vultiplebodiee bedroom ehiff poeitione a eeriee diein of whilecameramoveplacemenf,s, the ffuidilyof menLeimulalee erolic activity as iI ranqeeover bodiee, undieNurbed subetitu' by f,ione. aurcender CoreidenliLiea Io lhe aeeumVf,ion erof,icrolee of in a oplif,tinq between dark and gay and liqht,maleand female, e eLr qhr- differencee multiVli d ai and compounded" ibo-g). 1u?F 3y deconef,rucNing riqid the b boundarieeelweenmaeculine m a n d f e m i n i n e , a na n d w o m a n , qay and etrrai7hl, Madonna' e
140

differencebelweeneexualorientaqenderand sex, lione, belween an Vortrayinq erotic flow of fractured imaqeo Lhal refueeto play eitherthe leebian Nhehelero' or qame,eiLher eexual the eLraighf qameor the qay qame,eilher q t h e b l a c k a r n e r t h e w h i l eg a m e , o e i t h e rt h e m a l eq a m eo r L h ef e ' maleqame,buN, wibha litIle imaq' e inabionand crosedreesinq,play lhe hybrid,mulanl, hyperreal, Iesbi al an-heleroe exu qame, I,he t heferosexual-leebi6ame, he an - maleI esbia n qa me,the mulaf,to half-breed-temale-gay- man qame.

Butif Modonno's videosdecontruct gender, sexuolity ond roce,don't videos-ond these the wholeModonno phenomenon-hove something do to with power?

Or ?ower E Yee, with
fant aoiee, Naf,ually, the like ?owerlese ?ower. And a largepafi of \Aadonna'e ?ower from herabiliby derives Lo Vroduce imaqes of rebellinq aqainstestablished?owere. buL, often the only?ower Madonna fane have ie Nobuyher Vroducf,e: t o increase wealth the of the mulLinatrional enlerLainmenl oracor? Lione Nhathave Ihem hypnoNized.

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like somef,hing maeke, o?eninqa letler, elc. "Cindy'o" imaqee All of trheee concealinq face (whichie nol so famileeem otrranqely iar. buf, this io only familiar lo ue) but,

I l9l Hypnotizedthem? T fl Yeo.Theflow of hyVno' mediaimaqeo lizee and conditione ue.The hyVerreality of Vadonnaimaqee more real becomee NhanNheMadonna who imiwanna-bes t ale her.And Ihis Vhenomenon-of lhe imaqebeing more realthan t'he human-is drama-

Ihey were u6 remindinq of eome- becauee in ineVired, Varb, Ihinq familiar (yeL, we someT,hinq cannol quile qraeV). from old by clich1e Dri7iINeDardot and )oVhia Lorenmovies. Whenyou oee one of her Vholoe,you a think you recognize characler or ecene you from an old movie have6een,Dul, in fact,Ihe phot'osdo notrreVroduce any opecificaceneoin any

moviee bu| pullup in lized W VhotograVher What'we oee,t'hen, our mind'e eye t'he Cindytherman in a ie noI Cindytherman, kinds of vieualalich4e eeriesof Vhof'oqraVhe and roleo womenhave butran imaqeof a 1977 laken bet'ween ouf' glarlef', a Vlayedin old moviee Vaooedand 19BO ent'it'led we havegeen. hitch-hiker, a woman Untitled Film ?tille, The imaqeaare act'uallyall of Cindytherman,the phot'ograVher, hereelf,bu| we do nol, eee Cindytherman.Whal we eeeare thal a??ear imaqeo in our mind'oeye. Theeeimaqeoact'
142

Thus,our momenf, io of recoqnif,ion only T a n i l l u e i o n .h o u q h Iheee imageeoeem lo refer No eomething than them' oNher selveo,Ihey all are oufiace,all deVthlessness.

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lhal whirl by wirh

qlowand imaqee fricker, makinqthe viewerinlo a kind of mindecreen.

Another Tootmod- such velocitythat ern arLifact ie MTV f,hey have been etriVVed all meanof inq-refercinq only T in tro olher imaqee,lelevision, fl Wall general, considered Nheaudience ie havinq t o be TosT,modern reached the point, becauseit, is like a t ornadoof imagee of t ot al saturation ae lhe meaninqlees

barbie dollein compromieinq poeiT,ione, dreeeing them up in boy'o

Butsome the imoges of dO mokesense. Mostof the sit-coms ond soopshove stories-qrrotives.
AndNhaf,'e why is considered to be eepeoially Toslmodern./ a ---r gecauee \: for moel of IV, narrative-hae been the norm. Ouf,Mry ie not basedon etories but, on disconneated flowe of images.Then there ie subvertleing, a

clothinq, ae lhe barbieLiberaor, trionOrqanization ewitchin7 did, the voice-boxee barbiedolls of wilh thoee of G.l.Joe.

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trhemeelves with the limiteof individual congciousness-

"4

\- howthe individual knows Nheworld.ln novele such as James Joyce'ePortmit of the Anist ao 5-r' a YoungMan, the reader io plunged o lhe st ream int of thouqhtre feelinqo and of a youn7manae he attemVte to knowthe world aroundhim.

q adveflieinc am- ;<i**iffi -.

(,-#ffi of paiqnohuqe
\ \i

corVoraf,ione

by creatinq Varodiesof their guch meogaqeg,
ao: "American Excegg: Don'l Leave Home Wil"hout,

ciatedwithAarbie-art,, {T }tj
the af7 of subveftin7 Oarbie-ismby Vlacing

fft'i ffib hH

In the ?oatmodern novelor film,how_ eventhe queation ie not,eo much Howdo I knowthe world? but,What ie a world?

Coneider the film Blue Velvet,for

r. n, idr-c, nlJ owmde I "!"^'l,l romance, and a worldof ""niTl' murder
sadietic 6exua and It juxtaPoseo them in suchlitY' a waythat we do not knowwhichworld ie more,"uti.

:::^!,", fe re n tw o rl d g :

rt iuxta?ooea two

veryutt dif_

2 utnnr)^; _ .' vrx

Anotherfilm that iu ott"n branded*?ootmodern, i6 WimWendere,s Wingeof Desire.Again, the filmjuxtatwo verydifferent ?oeeo worlde. Theplace is tserlin_international, coomo?olitan, filled with different languages and cultureeand iden_ tities. Eacho.
Each man livee in his own private world.

mntd^,o,l,!,2:Z' ee ;,::t; others.

"

ITITITIITITI
WE ARE CAPABLE OF LISTENING IN ON PEOPLE'S THOUGHTS: T 0 A Y O U N Gt q A N C O N T E N 1 P L I N G S Ul C I D E : AT T 0 A D YI N G

N l A N 0 N T H E S T R E E T ; T 0 P E 0 P L E C 0 F 1 N 1IU T I N C A R S ; T 0 NG N l O T H E R S N D F A T H E R S . L O V E R S A N D C HI L D R E N . E V E R Y A A L I E N A T E D , I S O L A T E D I N DI V I D U A L H A S B E C O N 1 E I K E A L L I T T L E S T A T E W H E R E E A C H S T R E E T H A S B A R RI E R S , A N D A L L I S S U R R O U N D E D Y A N O - N l A N ' S L A N D T H R O U G H HI C H O N E B W CAN PASS ONLY I F ONE HAS THE RI GHT PASSWORD.

T H E O T H E R t / { O R L D , J U X T A P O S E DW I T H A P O S T M O D E R N E R LI N . B I S R E A L F 1O F E T E R N A L T I I ' , l E . O F P U R E S P I R I T . I N H A BI T E D

BY ANGELS. THE ANGELS CAN HEAR PEOPLE'S THOUGHTS AND NlOVE INSTANTANEOUSLY HROU H SPACE. THEY ATTEIqPT T G T O I N T E R V E N E I N W O R L D L YA F F A I R S B Y B A T HI N G P E O P L E I N S P I R I T U A L V I B R A TI O N S . B U T O { : T E N T H E I R H E L P F A I L S . T H E Y 0 U T H C O N T E t q P L A T I N G U I C I D E J U t L l P ST 0 H I S S DEATH.

A YET. BOTH THE ANGELS AND SOME OF THE HUMA.NS RE 0 A y - J A R EF E A C H 0 T H E R ' , S E XT 9 T E N C E . 0 F T H E E 4 ! l l A l O T H E R N E S S F E A C H O T H E R ' S E XI S T E N C E . O

IIIIIIIIIIII
l+to

But how obout in fields other thon the orts? Whqt impoct hod on hos Postmodernism the reol world?

f

hao trhouqhl even E ?ost'modern

move' had an impacl on Ihe ecoloqical redwoodo, ment-and thus u?onmount'ains, oceano,rivers and lakee.Aft'erall, Toslmodernisf's of are eue?icioue qrand narcaf,ives-ofbiq eNorieeof ulopian vieions.And coneervalionists-t'he kind wilh "gave the Kiver"bumVerelickereof VeoVle free of wilderneee dream of a ut oVianecoloqical induetrries. pollulinq ie T,endency t'o diemiee The Toef,modern Lhe conceVtof euch a ?ure ulopian And wilderneelae a qrand narraf,ive.

whaf,'e more,Ihie eIory ie based that on biq rucf,uraliet, evile-a binary evilof Tostret ln Ihie ca6e,lhebinary o??ooVVoeibion.
nr eition wilderneeelcivilization, o7ut, olher environmenT,alist eeVecially infruenced by Nhoee Gary 1nyderpoel and eco-acbivist, Nhat ie are aclinq ouNa Vhiloeo?hy boNh Toetmodern and ecological,

tl;/ ,

fft

ineteadof engaqing empty in f,heorizinq whilethe foreetre and rivereare euffering.enyder'e environmentaliem baeedon hiE ie longimmereion Zen Suddhiet, in medilaf,ionand philo oVhy. o The SuddhieIuniveree, like the Toetmodern univeree, made is uV of counhleee helero7eneoue selveswith counf,leee helerogeneoueviewVoinbe. a utoVia, Notr basedon onevieion, a hetbut eroto?iabaeedon the vieione of counlleee)lhere. Andall of f,heee)r,her selves-l,he selvee of mounlainlione,redwoods, redn ecks,con6 alioniele and erv rivere-are inLerconnected and muluallyinherdeV endenN. And becauee noneof theee eelvee etand alone,by themeelvee, wilhoul all the Of,here, their ee?araT, nees-t heir Otrh nes s-i s e er EmpIy,an lllueion. Thue,like thal NaLive American trickster figure,Coyote,

1nyder's poeli c eco- Vhil eoo phy danceoarounddeconslrucV"IeVaraf,e ing the eeeming eelvee" "wilderne66" d "civilizali of an on." ln Vractice, thie meanedancinq bel,ween and weavinq oqether t ecological alliancee betrween Lhe "oe?aratre 6elve6" landowners, of corporaf,i n6, f ed eral agenciee, o f oregIg, mo unf,ain mounNain e, Iioneand troqe. lt mean6,too, lhal,we are all members a of muf,ualeating eociely.We both eat and are eaf,en. The eyeeof lhe mounl,ain eXalkina lion ue are our own.

rhe
aniu,lgf
i7 . a-

ana the
n d t hc
n5rr..tt! \./E
'-'2

artsdtr
,t5

uh*
[ln RetrospEdJ
Sothen, whot lS andconfueinconq caVit alief,ic timee, Accordinq t,o Lyotard,if, has Lo do with eceVliciem about Grand NarraLivee: and if, ie about heleroqeneily.Accordinq Jameeon, f,o iL muet involve way a o f m a ? ? i n qh e n e w t According to Saudrillard, ToeLmoderniem a flow ie of ullr a -fe ch noloqical i m a g e en a c o n e u m i erisl hyperreality Postmodernism? loure of our late ;urcender. Vaoeively Accordinq to cyberpunk, ie a il worlddominatedby m u l t i n a l i o n a lo r c and lhe Voratione dala they conlrol. Yel cyber?unke advocaf,ea hackeref,hic,

acroeea mediaocaVe I a p V i n q n t o a n d i or mindecreen Lo ueinqeuchdala for whichwe can only ende. ?eroonal

Accordinq to Charlee Jencks, however, these all thinkereare only lahe deecribinq capilaliamor laNemodernism. AuNhenIic Toet' moderniem, he involvee dou' ar0ue6, ble codinqIhe a(bielic repreeenf,at,ion of moderniemwith somethinq doe6ome )Nher.For, ae all ToeNmodern Ihinkerewouldadmit, Thereie no one dom?luinan| worldview, Tradiralism rulee. t r i o n a lm o d e r n , l a N e , modernand ToeLmodernattitudeg in all rub elbowe the oameculT,ure. This meanethat, the Other increaeinqly upon encroachee what had once been opace.So our VrivaNe menN NheOtherof whetherIhat, Other ie Other individuals, Other Other qrou?e,

ity; by lookinqbackward t o trhepaol, or eidewaysto a local Thue, while culture. ueinqmodernietr f,echniquee, lhey include lhe Other, humo ro uoly, ir onically or Vlayfully,ralher trhanexcludinq Thie it, ie why Jenckewrites ?oe|,-modernism wii',h in a hyphenz because Ihese Toetmodern are a lol f,imeg, Nhere of hybrid identritiee. AndIhis ie eometrhinq quiNenew.For,ae we in havediscuseed, VaeI centurieowe lookedfor eome or SuVermyIh meeei' ah Io unile all of humanityundertrhe umbrellaof one overarchinqphiloooVhy, mind The Tostmodern hae qivenu? eucha Thie hae led to hoVe. a radicalchanqe in how we believe.

Other raceo, oVecieo, f,heworld ie ohrinkinq. the }ther of "malel' the Other of "f,he Westl' the )ther of "Europe," Other of Nhe mind, T,he conscioue rhe Orher of Nhe mind,trhe ratrional Otrher moderniem, of rhe )ther of "ourgelf" or in "ouroelf," Throuqh double coding,Toef,modern arA architreclure, and repreoenl liNeralure

We are forced lo much of ToeNmodern rhe Obher, and t'hus LhaNour thouqht,has t'o do hetreroqene- recoqnize Vreoent, world resisle qrand with lhis encroach-

narralivegae much as individuals and qrou?ocravetrhem. ThaI our world is a carnivalof colofiul and contradicNory worldviewe. have We cometro realizethat our viewof reality ien't ae real as it

gucha mage,in guch and euchan orbil thal can be mathemaNically deecribed, icineio ouVerior f,o Orienlalherbalism, or trhat beinq feminine equaloouqarand eViceand everyfthinq

objecf,ive alit y, And re few believe that any one eyelem of thouqht,any one biq mythic Vropoftiono, io caVable exVlaininq of everythinq. Not,even ocienceio objeclivebecauseiLe data are alwayedependent on lheory. Realitiee areeocial,linguislic congt,rucNiongueefulfrctione,relaNiveVereVeclives. lf rhe qrand narralives, the mastrer narraf,iveo, f,he big gT,orieg, no lonqer are believable-if Nhey havedieaVVearedIhey havebeen

or lhaN WeeT,ern med- etory or theory of

once eeemed. have nice,or T,haN CauWe the comelo realize lhaV casian race is Nhe there is noI one realimagT,er racety buVmany different,, ' all theee are mant, oft,enconfficlinqreali- €l made nolione. tieg. We havecometo eee thaf, our ideas about,trulh are notr et ernal,but,made. Theideaethat the only God isYahweh, or Allah,or the Goddees,or lhat oome qod named1umba vomitedlhe Moon and 9t arg, or the gcientific nolion NhaI trheMoon ie a phyoical bodyof such and euch mae6bhat, orbite another Vhyeical body,Lhe Vlanet Eafbh,of such and t na n
\ 9 , < ,'

I ney are

replacedby a hodqepodqeof litlle narcalives. Toelmodern instead of VeoVle, dreaminq the day of whenall lhe world will be unihed underthe univereal bannerof Marxismor

161

Chrietianityor gcience, are more intrereetred oeeingLhe world as in a kind of carnivalof culluree-a tribal qaNherinq. Theshininq ounof Universal Truth and Meanin7 ecliVoed io by

fofth, and anotherotory proclaimo Nhat, the moonand sNarswerecreated by God. Tostmodern audiencee don'|,demandIhaI allf,heheteroqeneouo slories add up t o some

qrand,qlobal, univereal total oenoe; the colofiuldieVlay little dancee, instead,they celebrate f act, of ihe giq etories are lilf,leeloriee. that il's ?Kto etop making eo reVlaced little etories.gtorieo by muchoen6e, Because are no longer aboutr attemVV an lo establishsomesofr of univeroal UIopia,unlessii be a heterotoVia. Theydo not try to ?rove themselveo makinq by universal claims. Tostmodern A etoryteller maytell in onenighV Grimms' the fairy t ale of Haneel and Grelel and trheevilwitch in lhe dark forest who livee in trheqingerbread houee, NaliveAmerican a Nricketer tale of CoyoLe eeducinq the chief'e

I

of the exVloeion culof tural meeeaqee, are we beqinning underto st and lhat, nol onlyour stories but also our rituale,religioue dogmao, mytrhe, qenderroles,eelf conceple, beliefe, ohist rieeand trheories are culbural,ocial inv s enfione.Weare beqinninq

lo realize NhaN livein a worldof we man-made eiqnoand eymbole, and

dauqht and an ancientmyfrh er, from we havebequn playaroundwith to lndiaaboul the creationof the uni- f,hose eignoand eymbols humorouoveroefrom a qoldeneqq,Theetorytellerand the audience form a socialbond,but it is the bondinq of a heheroqeneoue eocietythat can ly and ironically that we are not eo to enslaved them. Thieoft,enmeano accepting Grand Narrative, a but,

havinq ironicattitude toward it. an livewith lhe inconqruitieo, conflicf,s, Thuswe may be a "quasi" fundaand qa?obetween various othe menlalist, st Chriet,ian Muelim or or riee.This Toef,modern societydoeo not mindif one et ory oayelhal lhe Moonand Slare werevomiled orAhodox or Calholic; qo to we Jew churchor lo lhe eynaqoque the or thouqhwe may have mo6que, even

o o m e d o u b t e a b o u l t r h em e l a V h y o i - m u l t i p l e , o c a lf o r c e s h a s l i b e r a L e d l c a l c l a i m o ? r o ? o u n d e d, h e r e W e f . m a y b e l i e v eh a I o u r ? a r f , i c u l a r I v o c a b u l a r y n d i d e a ea b o u t L r u b h a have no opecialclaim to reality. ThaL VeoVle with other orienLaIione may bejuet, ae oriented No lheir own realif,y. Juot, ae ofNen i Nm e a n eV a r t r i c i p a L i n n m o r e iq than oneqrand narraLive-beinq a buddhiel Chrielian, or inslance, f The fraqmenLaNion qrand narof raLivesunder Lhe oreeeureof Ihe concernfor Othere.Whereae m o d e r n i s L r i te r e o u c h a s C o n r a d w t h o u q h l N h e yc o u l d 6 ? e a kf o r Olhere-for Lhe colonized, for Africane,for women,for Lhe Or i e n t - ? o e t m od e r n i o m ' e m p h e a e i e o n d i f f e r a n c e( i r r e c o n c i l a b l e difference)hae allowedformerly eilencedNhers such ao women. ) q a y e , b l a c k eo r i e n l a l ee t c , l o , expre66their own storiee in Lheir own voices.

YouBerruR Do tr l"lY WAY.

is hopE But thisreotty
pening? Hoven't thesePostmodern times producedjust os frequentlywhqt Boudrillord describes o prolifer' os otion of myths of origin? Hosn't Postmodernism seen o multiplicotion of cults, suchos Jopon's SqrinGos Sect?And sincethere ore so mqny millionsof people cought up in cults ond sects ond mojor religions,it seemsos though there is q need for Grond Norrotives ond thot the Postmodern erq hos even produced o proliferotion of them. So how doesone reconcilethe notions thot Postmodern peopleno longer believe in Grqnd Norrqtives,thot Grond Norrotivesoppress qnd morginolizeminorities, that there is no Big Picture, thot there is no DeepStructure to reolity (ond thot if therewcs, the humon mind could not know it) with the foct thot Grond Norrotives are vety much in evidence?

Yee,f,ha|,'gf,rue.The NewAqe movemente Nhe'6Osand'7Oe of from a mixbure drew ineViration quruo euch of poV-peychedelic ae Timolhy Leary,rock-ehamans such as Jim Morrieonof the Doors,and mantra-chant ing eavanls from lndia oteeVedin the Bhagavad Gita. baby boomer

opiritualiNy, whileoflen serious and eclecNic, tended t o be narcieeistic and worehiptul of aulhorily figuree. qh AlLhou many Generaf,ion X-ers reject lhe poychedelic' fueledcommunal hedoniem lhe of boomer6,rrluchof GeneralionX eViritualitry continueeNo circulaIe by meaneof imaqeeborrowed from VoVand rock.Thue,in the oameway trhat, big chunkof a 6Oe oViritualiby dependDoomer' of ed on trheima7e-mix the 1eaIin lee and lhe Mahariehi, the '9Oo, elevat ed publictelevision Io mylholoqielJooephCamVbell Ihe stalue of eainlhood:M'N wriNhed iconssuch as Madonna LrackswhiledanNohechno-beat, q l i n qr e l i q i o u c h i cf a e h i o n a n q l e o b eaccenf,inq such as cleava7eroearies; fashiondeoiqnere drew inopiration trom HasidicJewish tradilionalismand Amiehunderstatement; aust ere monasbic one on the chantr CDehit number widely anqelebecame Vopchart,e: ed and a t opicof circulat ima7ee Nalkehows;Nhehighlypublicized men'omovement, qoddeeo and movemenlcelebratred ret urn Lo a oViritu y alit Va qaniem;Oof,.hic

rGl

{ ssrcarI

| r+r \{Al I

I V,lrtrctt1

L]^'J

*-*5;E;

imageeof body-Viercinq,l,aILooin7 and glM inundatedM'N: and

cyberVunk morphed
intro cyberehamaniem, Cyberohamanism, or technoshamaniem, by the way,is a Nechnopagan at Iemptrlo creale ancienar, ehamanielicexperiencee of eceNaey (tra dili on allyinduced by chantinq, drumming, dancinq and f,he inqeebion of Veychoacbive eubelancee)

lfl Yeo.Althou7hthe qrand narcatjvee of Chrielianity, lelamand Judaiem havea difficulf, Nimedealinq with differences, there are f,wo major traditrione-D uddhiemand

r

to fill in the postNietzscheon by Void inventing own our qnd grond imoges norrqtives. there Are ony troditionolgrond norrotives from othercultures thot ore copoble of embrocingditference?

throuqh comVulerized fract al afr,,designer drugo,and reVetilioue music Ihat fille hhe gometrimee room likeincense. cyberehamane evenen7aqe in toadlicking, fad eta(Ded a by a rurnorNhat,inqeolinq Nhevenomof a Colorado Riverf,oad ie a qood idea. The venom,however, ig often falally Loxic.

Hinduism-LhaN can and do embrace Ihe ditrerence;in our increaeingly pluralieEic world. Duddhiem democraT,ic, ie cool, practrical, inexpeneive, (becauae and the liberation Tibet, of from Chinahas je become hiVcauoe)Duddhism a dern Veoples Volit ically correct. ?oetmo and culr,urel livein a world of differencee. Buddhism'e philoooVhy interof deVendence ue eee our differencee lele ae a vaeNinlerconnectred web.ln facN, guddhief,e the imaqe use Io illuslrate

E

tt seems in the thot,

some woy os the modernists,we ore trying

thie ie Ihat of lndra's net. At each intereeclion of the elrande of this vaeVnetr, whichie lhe universe differenl eelve6, of i6

itso ffi

r
.v

reffecl,e rhe ffi all a jewel-a "eelfn- which ffiA\ jewel, ffi"" in No otherjewelo the net,. oingle

ilffiffiffi

lt s ence ie f,hen, self-eufficienl. exiet deall pendou?on,and reilecf'o, the ot'hers.

tffi*-:
ffi'ffi
ffi

jewelie each linqo, Andso, in Ouddhiet,

of Empty self-exietence'
E rhis soundsa lot like deconstruc-

ffi
ffi

ffi

Neither mutuolly interdependent. con exist without the other.

@ rru, Anda Suddhiel wouldoay,
"Eoth the facee and the candle are Empty of inherent exiatence!" Anolher lradition capable of ie differencee Lhe accommodatring

baudrillard,Jean (A) (?arie: Amerique. Orasset,lgSO). ()ED) De la aeduction. (?ario: Galilee,lgSO). TheEcataay of communication. Trans.oernard and caroline )chuf,ze.(New York Iemiot ext(e),1gBB). : For a Critique of the PoliticalEconomyof the Oiqn,Trano. Charles Levin. (9t. Louio: Telospreo6,1gb1). (FF) For7et Foucault.Trans.NicolaDufresne.(NewYork:Semiotext(e), 1gS7). (99M) In the ghadowof the Silent Majoritieo. .. or the End of the )ocial and Other Eoeayo. Trans,?aulFoeo,?aul ?atton ana (New John Johnoon. York:Iemiotext(e),1g\b). (9 l M) ) im ulat ion a .T ra n e .N i c o l a fre s n e .(N ew Y ork: ouexv(e) b). Du S emi 19S La eocietede consommation. (yario:Gallimard,lgTO). Le oyoLeme objete.(?arie:Oenoel-Oonthier,1967). des Ceicery-Ronay,letavan "Cyberpunk (9R9) and Neuromanticisml'in Storming the Reatity gtudio, Larry McCaffery, (Durham: ed. DukeUniv. ?rese,1B4). Deleuze, Gillee and Gualtari, Felix Anti-)edipue.Trane.Kobert,Hurley,Mark )eem, and HelenK. Lane,preface by MichelFoucault. (New York Vikinq,1g7T). Kafka:For a Minor Literature,Trane.Dana ?olan.(Minneapolis: lJniv. of Minnesot 7ress,19BO). a 'Khizome.'Trans. TaulFossand ?aul?alton, I and C S (1951):4g-71. A ThouaandFlateauo: Capitalism and gchizophrenia. Trane.grian Maseumi, (Minne olie:Univ.of Minneeotra ap ?ress, B7). 19 Derrida,Jaoquee Of Grammatolo7y. Trans.Gayatri gpivak.(balNimore: John Un P76). Eco, Umberao (fNK) ?ootocript to TheNameof the Kose.(NewYorkand London: Harcourt DraceJovanovich, 1984\. Foucault,Michel Diocipline and Funish:Thetsirth of the Friaon. Trans.AlanSheridan.(New York:?antheon,1977). The Hietory of Sexuality,Volume An lntroduction. Trans. Robert Hurley. I: ( NewYorkz?anIheon,1977). TheOrder of Thinqo: Archaeologyof the Human gciences.Trans. Alan An theridan. (NewYork:Tantheon, O). 197

158

Gibson,William (NewYork:Ace,19B7). Neuromancer. (N) Haraway,Donna and "A CyborgVanifestozScience,Technology, gocialist Formationin lhe The and Women: Reinvention Late TwenliethCenturyi'in gimiane,Cybor7e of Nature. (NewYork:Rouiledqe,1991). Harvey, David o The Cond iti on of ?oetm od ernity. (Dla ckwell: Oxf rd, 199O). Hase a n ,l h ab a of The Dismemberment Orpheus:Toward FostmodernLiterature. (TLf) ?ress,19b2). (NewYork:OxfordUniv, Hemingway,Erneet (NewYork:gcribner'e,1925). ThethorD gtoriee of Erneat Hemin7way. (ggEH) Jameson, Fredrlo New "?oslmodernism: the Culf,ural Loqicof Late CaViLaliom." Left or (?CL) B4): 53-92. 146 (19 Keview, gociety|' ln Foetmodern "?ostmodernism Culture,Hal and Coneumer (?CO) Foeter,ed. (Londonand Sydney:1985), Lyotard, Jean Francois cksie 1971. ck, Discoura, fiq ure, Taris:Klin (DF) qton and Th 7o (?c) e atm od ern Cond it'ion, Trano. Oennin ?rese,19B4, (Vinneapolis: of Univ. Minnesota Massumi. first edif,ion1979). iohwiahtenberg, Cathy "Vadonna's?ostmodernFeminisml' TheMadonnaConnection. Caihy in (MfF) 7rese, 1995). (6 oul der, CO:Westview erq, 5 chwichtenb ed. Venturi, Robert;5oott brown, Denlee;and lzenoun Sbven MIT 7ress,1977). (Cambridqe, Maoe.z from Laa Ve7ae. (LLV) Learnin4

A
adverAieinq,l44 aesLheticof coqnitivemaVVing,40 Africansculplure, lS g-13,15,2b-29 Age of Reason, Aqeeof Moderniem, Toelmoderniem, Kealiem (Jameoon),36-37 Allegoric Claeeicism, al 92 gb Andrejevic,Millel.,Apollo and Daphne, anthroVomo rphiom, B-Bg B anli-arL,1B arboresence, 10B-14 architecture, 72-02, B4-B B art for arL'ssake,13 ae moderniet, ree?on6e the void,lb-14 to audioanim onic paparazzi,135 alr

c
C a 4 eJ o h n , 1 B , 7 B , 7 9 , CamVbell, JooeVh,156 capitaliom,35,116 cenLr oymb e, 1 O-1O4, 1 6 al ol O O Cezanne, Zaul,121 Mont 1aint-Victoire, 21 Chriolianity, 12,29 11, Cl s eical I enoibility, a 93 codeo,of Vower,95 Communism,19,90 com?uter6, and knowled 22-23 qe, conoumVtion, 45-47 (Snyder),14O CoyoLe -Ronay, Coiceery letavan,137 Cubiem,13-14, 121 cyberpunk, 123, 128,130-38, 149, 156 cyberopace, 3-4, 134-35 cyborqo,l29-3O,134

o
b a c h ,J . 9 . , 1 1 O Oacon, Francis,9 BarbieLib erat ion Orqanization, 144 baroqueera,11B barLhes,Roland,93 b audrillard, J ean, 41-71,95, 11 123-24, 13O, 4, 149 America,6T-69 The Ecotaoy of Communication, 69-11 For a Critique of the PoliticalEconomy of the )iqn,45 0n )eduction,65-67 The)rders of the gimulacra,4B-64 thadow of the 1ilent Majoritiee,64-65 The)ociety of Conaumption,4S The ?yetem of )bjecto,45 bauhaue chool,72 5 O e c k e t t1 a m u e l , 7 O , Dhaqavad Gita,155 binaryoppooiteo, lol-3, 105-7, 13O,139, 147 binaryrequlalion, 52-53 "7lade Kunner"(film),122-Zb,133 b onaventure HoIel (Loe Anqelee), -b B 57 Borqeo, Jorqe Luie,SB Drown,Deniee1colt, B5 Ouddhiem, 147-4B, 156-57 burke,Edmund, I Durrouqho, William, Tb

D
Death of the Real(Oaudrillard),59-64 deconstruction, 96, 99-107, 157 Deleuze, Gilles,93, 10b-15 democracy,1l9 denol atriv ot at ement, 26 e Derrida, Jacquee,93, 96, 99-107 ?tructure, Sign and Tlay in the gg Discourseof the Human Sciencea, deterrence model,53 Dionyouo,lO diecourse, ecientificvs. narralive, 25-33 D o n n eJ o h n , 1 1 B , doublecodinq,01-83, 89, 126, 13O,15O dreame,20,112 Drumheller, Grant, Li7htninq Thrower,92 Durkheim, Emile,ElementaryFormsof Keli7ioue Life,121

E
eclecticism,B1-83, 84, BB Eco,Umberbo, BO e6o,3B Einstein, AlberL,121 Elior,T. 9.,14 TheWaateland,16 Enlight enment, 28, 97, 11 B-19 environment alism,147-4B value,46 exchanqe existentialism, 99

F
ruleof,27 f alsification, feudal era, 4b-49, 116-17 fi\m,145-46 Fischl,Eric, 1ad boy, 91 Gustave,121 Flaubert, Fouc aull,, Michel,93, 94-96 freedom,29-30 2O-29, 97-99 Frenchinlellectuale, 9, FrenchRevolution, 2B F r e u d9 i 6 m u n d , 1 4 , 7 FuIler:7uckminsf'er, O, 79

I
S6 iconoclaem, GrouV,Tb lndependent, ion, ri lnduet al Kevolut 50, 51 lnternational 7tyle, 72-77, b4 int ernet,l14 b5 lzenour, St'even,

J
34-40, 140-49 J ameeon,Frederic, or Fostmoderniem, the Cultural Logic of Late Capitaliom,35-30 7 Jencke,Charlee, O-b4, OO,90, 92, 149, 15O of The Lan6ua6e ?oet-modern Architecture, TB Johneon,?hilip,AT&TFuildinq(NewYork),BB Joyce, James, 14,7B, 121 Wake,16,79 Finneqan'e ?ortrait of the Artiet aa a YounqMan, 15,144 Ulyeeee,16 "Juraeeic Zark" (film), 54

G
6enderroles,13942 GenerationX,155 Genel,Jean,TO ?aul,My Kent )lale,91 George, Gibson,William,136 Neuroma ncer, 123, 132-34 Gogh,Vincentvan, ?eaoantthoeg, 36, 37 arr ee. grand narraf'iv I ee metran atives (Lyorard) B2-O3 Graves,Michael, B2 )ervices buildin4, ?or\landTublic Walter,72 Gropius, 93,1OO-14 Guatt ari, Feliz,

K
Kafka,Franz,112-13 "Letter Io His Falherl'112 The Meta morphooie, 16, 112-13 TheTrial,113 Kandineky,Vaeoily,T2 Klee,?aul,72 knowledge and comouters,22-23 ali and poetetr uct'ur sm, 9 4 and ecience,29-31 Krier,Leon,91 Krieteva, Julia,93

H
Donna,l2B-3O Haraway, gimiana,Cyborgoand Women: The of Keinvention Nature, 129 Harvey,David,The Conditionof ?ootmodernity, 116-22 Haeean,lhab,17-1b qr " ?OOT odernl)M A Taraarilic 9iblio a al m phy"(eeeay),7O G.W. F.,29-30 He6el, Ernest, 12,34, 3B-39 Heminqway, heter oqeneify, 21-22, 15O helerolopia,l4B,152 (rhizomatic) vs. hierarchy, non'hierarchical thinkinq,lOB-15 " Hiqhbrow' culture,16, 37 Hinduism,156,157 hiot ory,awareneooof, 40 Hitler, Adolf,11,15 Holocaust', 15,20-21, 3O HotWired,136 hyperrealily, 60-64, 13B

L
Lacan, Jacquee,20 lanquaqe and Vootetr ucluralism,94 c eetiqation, 22-23 and ecientifi inv t y V e oo f , 2 6 , 3 2 v g .t h e u n c o n e c i o u s , 2 0 of,60 simulacrum Lagcaux caveo, D. Lawrence, H.,14 Orown, Learninqfrom Lao Vegae(Vent'uri, B5-Bo lzenour), Leary,Timothy,155 Le Corbueier,36,73-76

Liqare,David, Womanin a GreekChair,g2 lo6ic,9 "Lowbrow" cull,ure, 37 16, LyoIard,J eanFrancois,19-33, 148 Diacouree/fiqure, 20 The Toat-modern Condition: a report on knowledqe,22

NewWave French of theory,42 Nietzeche,Friedrich, 10-11, 12-13 non-arl,1B novele, modernieL VoeLmodern,144, ve. i4b

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objecLe, commoditiee, ae 45-47 )ediVue comVlex, 110-13 Onie, Federico de,7O other,the,15O

M
machine qemythoo,15 a Madonna,lSb-42,156 "JuoIify My Love"(video),140-41 "makeit, new"(?ound),13,74 Mandel, Ernest, LaLe Capitaliom, 35-bO Manet,Edouard,14,121 M a o T e eT u n q , 1 1 market, capitaliem,SS Marx, Karl,9 Marxism,19,29, 40, 42, 43, 45-47, gO Masaccio, Trinity,2l m a o oc u l t u r e , 4 1 , 7 B M c L u h a nM a r e h a l l . T B , meaninq in lanquaqe,45-47 in poeLmo dern archif,ecf,ure, b9-9O Medieval era,117 me la nc h o lc C a s s i i s m ,9 1 i l c met ana r raf,iv o (Ly ard), 29 -33, I 4, j 4 b-O7 e oI metaVhor, Voetic,22 Met aphyeical aesiciem, Cl 91 micronarratives, 32-35 modele,5l-52 of power,95 moderniem,lT-18 artiet ic etylee in, 13-16 meaning B-16 ot, -1 ve. Vostmoderniem,17 B M0Np0 2000,136 M o n e t ,C l a u d e , 1 4 monopoly caVilaliom, 35 Morrieon, Jim,155 M o s e eG r a n d m a , 9 2 , M'N,leJ-aa,66 multiculturalism,l-4 Munch, Edvard, Thegcream,36 music,24 Museolini,15 myrLhe, 24-27,32, 59

7
p a r a d o x , 3 1 ,B B parody,3B-39, 02, 09, 92, 127 ?arf,henon,75 3B-39, 82, 89, 126, 127 ?aetriche, Tearlotein,ThiliV,TwoFemaleModeleon BrentwoodLoveeeaL and Ru6,92 perlormativity, 31 o phil eophic narcativ 2B-29 al e, piazzao,9l ?lato,74,11O B p l u r a l i e m ,B art,22 Volitical e, Volilical nar raf,iv 20-29 ?oVArt,37,70 Toef,modern Claeeicism, 90-93 Voolmoderniem in architeclure,7B-9O i n t r h ea r L s , 5 beqinnin7 movement, B of 7 l a n q u a qo f , 6 - 7 e meaninq f,7,14O-57 o ve. modernism,17-1b ?oetet ruct uralism,93-121 ? o u n dE 2 r a , 1 3 , 1 5 , 7 4 , "Canl,og," 16 ?ower and knowl dqe (Fouc ault), I 4 e of Madonna,141-42 microVolitice 94-96 of, idea of, b-13,15,29-30 ?roqreoo, 7roust,, Marcel,121 Tlolemaic maV- m akin 117 q, Tynchon,Thomae,O ravity'o Kainbow,22

R
Keaqan,Ronald,95 RealietClasaicism,92 reagon, 9,20-29 reinforcedconcrete, 50, 74 -1 Ren aieeance,50, 117 B K e n a u l tC a m i l l e , 5 0 ,

N
naive ealiem,92 r nano-rover,135 Narrative Cl aeeicism.91 Nazia,20,3O NewAqe movemenle,155

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SarLre,Jean ?aul,42, 9b 5aue6ure,Ferdinand 43-44 de, oceVliciom,36 )cheer, Leo,114 ochizophrenia,1O7 science,9 and tranemissionof knowledqe, 22-25 sciencefict ion,71,136-37 seduction,6ffi7 eemiotics,43,45-46 eex and oexuality, 6MT, 92, 96, 135 thell ey, Mary, Frankenstei n, 132 Sherman,Cindy,UnbitledFilm ?tills,142-43 simulacra, 95, 123-27, 136, 138 simulacrum-ism,56 Snyder, Gary,147-4b (leftiet qroup),19 Socialism Darbariem or e?ace, perceplioneof, 116-22 opace-time comV reaoion, 116 9t alin,Jogef,11 gteel,74 eNorytelling,lM stream of consciougnegg, 16 stucco,SO student uVrioinqe, 42-45, I O eubject,SB subverLieinq,l44 SupermanconceVt, 10-11, 12-13 ?uperRace concept,lS

Wired,136 Witt genetein, Ludwig, 26 Wolff,RiDo,91 Wood, Granl,92

Y
Yeaf,s, Willianr bur,ler, O,14

T
t eledildonics,lSS televieion,l4S f,ime, perceptionoof, 116-22 Tocqueville, Alexisde, Democracyin America,6T Toynbee, Arnold,TB

U
unconscious, the,20 Unity of Knowledge (Heqel),29-30 BB urbanism, use value,45 utoViao,36, 77, 79, 83, 119, 147,148, 152

v
Venl,uri, Kobert, B5 verification, rule of, 27 void,the, 8,11-13,32

W
Warhol, Andy,37,7B DiamondDuet thoea,37 WebenMax,9 Wenders,Wim,"Winqs Desire"(fi|m),145-46 of Williame, William arlos,15 C Willto 7ower,10 163

Anreun Fon BEcTwNERso Gabriela Stoppelman Illustrated by Jorge Hardmeier ISBN 0-86316-29r-6

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Artaud for Beginnerso revealsthe life and art of the man known in rhe avantgardeworld as a "totally rebellious artist." His book, TheTheater and lts Double,was first publishedin 1938,and is still considered one of the most important contributions to 20th century theater.Leading figures in the theater haveattemptedto rurn into practice some aspects futaudt theory on of drama, such as his 'truelry theory." futaudt "cruelty" aspiresto a type of theater where the languageofphysical movement and gesrurecould be applied on a multirude of psychological levels. Artaud'sintention was ro abolishthe boundaries berweenlife and arr. He appliesthis criterion to all his ardstic productions,including: poerry cinema, drawing and painting.

It is impossible to classify his bools by specific genres, because he broke all genre rules. From his poems, The Umbilicut Meter, to his most mature worla such as Van Gogh: The Man Suicided by Society, futaud rejected the acceptable and palatable conventions of traditional theater that serve ro limit or mask the real torment of human suffering. of Limbo and The Mrue

Artaud had suffered from illness since he was a small boy; larer in life he endured drug addiction, rehabilitation treatments, nine years' confinement in a series ofpsychiatric hospirals, and electroshock therapy. None of the horror that futaud experienced in his life prevented him from gaining international recognition for his contribution to rhe art and theater worlds.

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Bukowski for Beginnerso examinesrhe life and literary achievements this of unique American wrirer. Charles Bukowski is a cult figure of the dissident and rebellious, novelist,short story writer, poet and journalist. Bukowski was born in Germany in 1920 and died in the United States in 1994.He wasone of the mosr unconventional writers and cultural crirics of the 20th cenrury. Bukowski lived his life in his own way and wrote in a style rhat was impossible to classifr or categorize. His work is cynical ar times and humorous at others,but alwaysbrilliant, and

alwa;'s challenging.

His life and work is distinguished not only by this remarkable talent for words, but also his rejection of rhe dominare social and cultural values of American Sociery-the ican Dream. Bukowski began writing ar rhe age of 40, and, during that time he published 45 books, six of them novels. Along with Raymond Chandler and Joan Didion, he is a great voice of Los Angeles and Southern California-an area full of contradictions and chimeras hidden beneath the masquerade of wealth and progress. Amer-

At long last, a Divine Comedy with jokes, a Dante with shtick, a trip through the afterlife with a happy ending. Actually it always had a happy ending, but who could have known rhat after The Inferno comes Purgatorio and Paradiso? Dante for Beginnerso takes the reader on a trip starting in hell and ending in heaven. The reader gets a quick introduction to Dante and his times (you always wanted to know a GuelPh from a Ghibelline, didnt you?). Next, the reader meets a sweet lass named Beatrice (whose face may not have launched a thousand ships, but certainly caused Dante to dip his oar in the ink), and samples a bit of his other literary

offerings, such as the great feast, The Conaiuio. But then it's on to the big one, The Commedia, and a canto by canto description of the entire work. Characters, ideas and situations are described as they happen-no searching through end notes, footnotes or field notes to distinguish Forese Donati, Dantet pal, from his evil brorher, Corso. The entire plan of the he reafter is simply mapped out. Dante for Beginnerso is a Sreal vaca' Alighieri. tion with history's greatest tourist, Dante Pack a bag for the thrills and ills of Hell, Purgatoryt sweet salvation and the hallucinogenic high ofheaven,

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Jack Kerouac (1922-1969) is not only one of the major writers of the United States after'!7orld War II, but also the best known figure of the Beat Generation. "The Beats" were portrayed by Kerouac in his best selling novel On the Road as aesthetic pilgrims-pilgrims who were "mad to live, mad to talk, mad to be saved." Kerouac and his contemporaries used this madness to test the boundaries of everything: frenetic Buddhism, fast sex, writing, living,Zen cars, freight trains and be-bop Jazz.

Kerouac for Beginnerso is a journey into the world of Kerouac's major novels and poems. Kerouac is accompanied on his short, but fast-paced journey by other visionaries like Allen Ginsburg and \William S. Burroughs. Through their literary and lifesryle experimentation, Kerouac and his fellow Beats laid down rhe foundation for the more widespread cultural revolution of the hippies in the 1960s.

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Mahe me always a man uho questions. - F. Fanon Philosopher, psychoanalyst, politician, prophet-Franu Fanon (1925-1961) is one of the most infuential writers on race and revolution. This book provides a clear, FnruoN Fon BrcnvNERs'" detailed introduction to the life and Deborah \fyrick, Ph.D. work of the man Jean-Paul Sartre

that Fanon w.rore while studying medicine and psychoanalysis. The Struggle Against Colonialism, as explained in A Dying Colonialism and Tbuards the African Reuolution, essaysFanon produced when he was aciriely engaged in Algeria's war of independence. The Process of Decolonization, as analysed in The \Yretched of tbe Earth, the book that extended insights gained in Algeria to Africa and the Third'World. During his short lifetime Fanon accomplished a great deal, including writing books that have sold millions of copies throughout the world and continue to have a profound impact on contemporary cultural debate. Fanon For Beginners" concludes by examining Fanon's infuence on political pructice such as the Black Power Movemenr, literary theory and post-colonial studies.

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'HE BOIIY
What is the body? Is it a natural object? An idca? A uord? The Body For Beginners" addresses these and other questions by examining different aspects of the body in a variety of cultural situations. It argues that in recent years ies, technobodies, grotesque and hybrid bodies, tabooed, cannibalistic and vampiric bodies-to mention just a few of the aspects considered in this book. No one map of the body is valid for all cultures. The word body wlll always mean something different, depending on the context in which it is used. This implies that the body can no longer be seen as a purely natural entiry. In fact, it is a construct produced through various media, especially language. All societies create images of the ideal body to define themselves. Framing the body is a vital means of establishing structures of power, knowledge, meaning and desire. Yet, the body has a knack of breaking the frame. Its boundaries often turn out to be unstable. And this instabiliry can be both scary and stimulating at the same time. This book will appeal to you if you are curious about the body as something more exciting and multifaceted than simply a lump of meat!

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