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Beyond Nirvana

Beyond Nirvana

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Published by: Malini Dasi on Feb 11, 2012
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Besides the Amarakoña, so highly favoured by Çaìkaräcärya, there are
other famous Buddhist texts like Prajìä-Päramitä Sütra, Astasahastrika
Prajìä-Päramitä Sütra, Sata-sahastrika Prajìä-Päramitä Sütra, Lalita
Vistara etc. Proper scrutiny of these texts reveals the existence of three
categories of Buddha namely:








Human Buddhas: like Gautama, who came to be known as Buddha after
enlightenment.
• Bodhisattva Buddhas: Personalities like Samanta Bhadraka who were
born enlightened.
• Adi (original) Buddha: the omnipotent Viñëu Avatär incarnation of Lord
Buddha.

The Amarakoña states that Lord Buddha, ÇréViñëu’s incarnation is
also known as Samanta Bhadra, whereas Gautama Buddha is a human

Two Buddhas

Beyond Nirväëa

46

being. Other than the eighteen names of the Viñëu Avatära Buddha
mentioned in Amarakoña, many names of Lord Buddha are recorded in
the above mentioned Buddhist texts. In Lalita Vistara, Ch. 21 page 178, it
is described how Gautama Buddha meditated on the same spot as the
predecessor Buddha.

ea dharaëémuëde pürvabuddhäsanasthaù
samartha dhanur gåhétvä çünya nairätmaväëaiù
kleçaripuà nihatvä dåñtijälaï ca bhitvä
çiva virajamaçokäà präpsyate bodhim agryäà

The one seated on the hallowed earth of the previous Buddha’s
birthplace is on the path of voidism and renunciation. With his
weapon, the powerful bow, he vanquishes the enemies of distress
and illusion. Thus with wisdom he will attain the auspicious state
of grieflessness and worldly detachment.

It is transparent from this verse that Gautama Buddha, realising the
spiritual potency of the previous Buddha’s birthplace, chose to perform
meditation and austerities in that vicinity, under a pipal tree. The ancient
and original name of this place was Kékata, but after Gautama attained
enlightenment here it came to be known as ‘Buddha Gaya’ (Bodhi Gaya).
Even to the present day, the rituals of worship to the deity of Buddha at
Bodhi Gaya are conducted by a sannyäsé(renounced monk) of the ‘Giri
order’ belonging to the ÇréÇaìkaräcärya sect. It is commonly accepted
amongst these monks that Buddha-Gaya (Viñëu Avatära Buddha) was a
predecessor of Gautama Buddha, who came later to the original Buddha’s
birthplace to practice meditation. Çäkya Siàha Buddha chose this place
to attain liberation, knowing it to be saturated with immense spiritual
power.

Laìkävatära Sütra is a famous and authoritative Buddhist scripture.
From the description of Buddha, which is found in this book it may be
firmly concluded that he is not the more recent Çäkya Siàha or Gautama
Buddha. In the beginning of this book we find Rävaëa, King of Lanka,
praying first to the original Viñëu incarnation Buddha and then to the
successive future Buddha. A part of this prayer is reproduced below:

laìkävatära sütraà vai pürva buddha anuvarëitaà
smarämi pürvakaiù buddhair jina-putra puraskåtaiù
sütram etan nigadyante bhagavän api bhäñatäà
bhaviñyatyanägate käle buddhä buddha-sutaç ca ye

47

Rävaëa, the king of Laìka, at first recited in the ‘Toöaka’ metre,
then sang the following –“I invoke in my memory the aphorisms
known as ‘Laìkävatära-sütra’, compiled and propagated by the
previous Buddha (Viñëu’s incarnation). The son of Jina (Lord
Buddha) presented this book. Lord Buddha and his sons, who
will appear in the future, as well as Bhagavän, the Viñëu
incarnation, will continue to instruct all from this book.”

Aïjana’s son, named Buddha is different from Çuddhodana’s
son

Some people may consider that it is not Çaìkaräcärya but the Vaiñëavas
who demonstrate a greater degree of respect and sincere reverence
towards Buddha, therefore, it is they who should also be known as
Buddhists. In this regard my personal view is, according to Linga Puräëa,
Bhaviñya Puräëa and the ninth of the ten Viñëu incarnations mentioned in
the Väraha Puräëa, the Buddha described therein is not the same
personality as Gautama Buddha, who was the son of Çuddhodana.
Vaiñëavas never worship the nihilist and atheist (sünyaväda) Buddha or
Gautama Buddha. They only worship Lord Viñëu’s ninth incarnation, Lord
Buddha, with this prayer from the Çrémad-Bhägavatam 10/40/22:

namo buddhäya çuddhäya daitya-dänava-mohine

O Supreme Lord Buddha! I offer my obeisance unto You, Who is
faultless and have appeared to delude the demoniac and atheistic
class of men.

Earlier in Çrémad-Bhägavatam 1/3/24, Lord Buddha’s advent is described
in the following manner:

tataù kalau sampravåtte
sammohäya sura-dviñäm
buddho nämnäïjana-sutaù
kékaöeñu bhaviñyati

Then, in the beginning of Kali-yuga, the Lord will appear as
Buddha, the son of Aïjanä, in the province of Gayä, just for the
purpose of deluding those who are envious of the faithful theist.

The Buddha mentioned in this verse is Lord Buddha, son of Aïjana;
also known by some as ‘Ajina’s’ son. ÇréÇrédhara Sväméwrites in his
authoritative commentary to this verse:

Two Buddhas

Beyond Nirväëa

48

buddha avartäramäha tata iti aïjanasya sutaù
ajina suta it päöhe ajino’ pi sa eva kékaöeñu madhye gayä-pradeçe

The words ‘ tataù kalau’ etc. describe Viñëu’s incarnation Buddha
as the son of Aïjana. Ajina in the word ‘ajina sutaù’ actually means
‘Aïjana’. Kékata is the name of the district of Gayä.

The monists, either by mistake or some other reason, regard ÇréÇrédhara
Svämi as belonging to their sect and persuasion. Be as it may, his comments
however on this matter can easily be accepted by the Mäyävädis as true
without hesitation. The following quote is from Nåsàha Puräëa 36/ 29:

kalau präpte yathä buddho bhavannäräyaëa – prabhuù

In Kali-yuga the Supreme Lord Näräyaëa appears as Buddha.

A fair estimate of Lord Buddha’s appearance can be made from this
verse; that he lived approximately 3500 years ago, or by accurate
astronomical and astrological calculation around 4000 years ago.
Regarding the astrological facts at the time of His birth, the treatise
‘Nirnaya-sindhu’ states in the second chapter:

jyaiñöha çukla dvitéyäyäà buddha-janma bhäviñyati

Lord Buddha will appear on the second day of the waxing moon,
in the month of Jyaiñöha.

Elsewhere in this book is described the procedure for Lord Buddha’s
worship:

pauña çuklasya saptamyäà kuryät buddhasya püjanam

Lord Buddha is especially worshipped in the seventh day of the
waxing moon in the month of Pausa.

The rituals, prayers and procedures for worship mentioned in these
scriptures all clearly indicate that they are meant for Lord Viñëu’s ninth
avatära incarnation. Lord Buddha also finds repeated mention in many
authentic Vedic scriptures like Viñëu Puräëa, Agni Puräëa, Väyu Puräëa
and Skanda Puräëa. The Buddha mentioned in DevéBhägavat, a more
recent text, and in Çakti Pramoda refers to Çäkya Siàha – not the Viñëu
Avatära Buddha.

The truth remains that there are many different demigods and
demigoddesses who are worshipped by their respective devotees, in the
same way that Çäkya Siàha Buddha (who was an atheist) is worshipped
or glorified by his followers. However, this is all completely separate and

49

unrelated to the path of Sanätana-dharma, which is the eternal religion of
man enunciated in the Çrémad-Bhägavatam.

According to the German scholar Max Mueller, Çäkya Siàha Buddha
was born in 477 BC in the Lumbinégardens, within the city of Kapilävastu.
This ancient, and at that time, well-populated city in the Terai region of
Nepal was well known. Çäkya Siàha or Gautama Buddha’s father was
known as Çuddhodana, while his mother was called Mäyädevi, this is all
accepted historical fact. Although Aïjana’s son and Çuddhodana’s son
both share the same name (Buddha), they are nevertheless two different
personalities. One of them was born in Kékaöa – which is now famous as
Bodhi-Gayä, while the second Buddha was born in Kapilävastu, Nepal.
Thus the birthplace, parents, and era of Viñëu Avatära Buddha and the
birthplace, parents, era etc. of Gautama Buddha are totally at variance.

We can therefore now observe that the famous personality generally
referred to as ‘Buddha’, is not the Viñëu incarnation, the original Lord
Buddha and hence, Çaìkaräcärya’s views on this are completely
unacceptable. It is not uncommon to find disagreements in matters of
tradition and history, but in regards to important and significant issues
an unbiased and objective discussion is imperative. Attracted by Buddha’s
personality and fame it is one thing to honour and respect him, but being
impressed by his philosophy and teachings and reverentially surrendering
to him is wholly another matter. Whatever the case may be, I am sure
that the respected readers have grasped the crucial point that Buddha is
not a single person, but at least two separate identities, – Çäkya Siàha is
not the same as Lord Buddha, Viñëu’s ninth incarnation. It is certainly
undeniable that there are some similarities between these two Buddhas,
yet it is incontestable that they are two different persons.

(Footnotes)

1

Mleccha - derived from the sanskrit root mlech meaning to utter indistinctly
(sanskrit) – a foreigner; non-Äryan; a man of an outcaste race; any non-
Sanskrit-speaking person who does not conform to the Vedic social and
religious customs.

2

This book was published under the auspicies of the Asiatic Society and can
be referenced at its library. See www.indev.nic.in/asiatic/. Ed.

Two Buddhas

Beyond Nirväëa

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