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Chapter 1 : Group Theory

Jason Rosendale

jason.rosendale@gmail.com

February 11, 2012

This work was done as an undergraduate student: if you really don’t understand something in one of these

proofs, it is very possible that it doesn’t make sense because it’s wrong. Any questions or corrections can be

directed to jason.rosendale@gmail.com.

Exercise 1.1.1

(a) is not associate: 3 −(2 −1) ,= (3 −2) −1. (b),(c),and (d) can be shown to be associative by grinding out the

algebra and showing that a ∗ (b ∗ c) = (a ∗ b) ∗ c. (e) is not associative, as can be shown by letting a = b = c = 2.

Exercise 1.1.2

(a) and (e) can be shown to not be commutative by letting a = 1, b = 2. (b),(c) and (d) can be shown to be

commutative by grinding out the algebra.

Exercise 1.1.3

a + b+ c

= a+ b+ c def. of modular addition

= a+ b + c def. of modular addition

Exercise 1.1.4

ab c

= a b c def. of modular multiplication

= a bc def. of modular multiplication

Exercise 1.1.5

To be a group, each element a would need a multiplicative inverse b such that ab = 1; but 0 has no such inverse.

Exercise 1.1.6

(b) is not closed: 1/14 + 1/14 = 1/7. (c) is not closed: 2/3 + 2/3 = 4/3. (d) is not closed: 2 + (−3/2) = 1/2.

(f) is not closed: 1/2 + 1/3 = 5/6. (a) and (e) are groups under addition.

Exercise 1.1.7

That xy is well-deﬁned follows directly from the fact that +,-, and the greatest integer function are well deﬁned

on R. To prove that G is a group: G has an identity element (0 ∈ G and 0 x = x 0 = x − [x] = 0), each

1

element a ∈ G has an inverse (1 − a ∈ G and a (1 − a) = 1 − [1] = 0 = (1 − a) a), and associativity can be

shown with a little tedious algebra. That G is abelian follows from the commutativity of addition:

x y = (x + y) −[x + y] = (y + x) −[y + x] = y x

Exercise 1.1.8a

G has an identity element (1 ∈ G and z1 = z = 1z) and an inverse (z

n

= 1 implies (z

−1

)

n

= 1 so z

−1

∈ G) and

complex multiplication is associative. To show closure:

→ x, y ∈ G assumed

→ (∃m, n ∈ Z

+

)x

m

= 1 ∧ y

n

= 1 def. of membership in G

→ (∃mn ∈ Z

+

)x

mn

= 1

n

= 1 ∧ y

mn

= 1

m

= 1

→ (∃mn ∈ Z

+

)x

mn

y

mn

= 1

→ (∃mn ∈ Z

+

)(xy)

mn

= 1

→ xy ∈ G def. of membership in G

Exercise 1.1.8b

The group is not closed under addition. 1 and −1 are both elements of G, but 1 + (−1) = 0 is not.

Exercise 1.1.9a

The identity is (0, 0), the inverse of (a, b) is (−a, −b), associativity and closure are trivial.

Exercise 1.1.9b

The identity is (1, 0), associativity and closure are trivial. The inverse of (a, b) can be found by solving (a +

b

√

2)x = 1 and is given by:

(a, b)

−1

=

_

a

a

2

−2b

2

,

b

a

2

−2b

2

_

Exercise 1.1.10

The deﬁnition of a symmetric matrix is that for all i, j we have a

ij

= a

ji

. In the group table, this is the case iﬀ

for all i, j we have a

i

a

j

= a

j

a

i

which is the deﬁnition of abelian.

Exercise 1.1.11

General formula is: [a[ = lcm(a, 12)/a.

[0[ = 1

[1[ = 12

[2[ = 6

[3[ = 4

[4[ = 3

[5[ = 12

[6[ = 2

[7[ = 12

[8[ = 3

[9[ = 4

[10[ = 6

[11[ = 12

2

Exercise 1.1.12

[1[ = 1

[ −1[ = 2

[7[ = 2

[ −7[ = 2

[13[ = 2

Exercise 1.1.13

General formula is: [a[ = lcm(a, 36)/a.

[1[ = 38

[2[ = 18

[6[ = 6

[9[ = 4

[10[ = 18

[12[ = 3

[ −1[ = 36

[ −10[ = 18

[ −18[ = 2

Exercise 1.1.14

This would be tedious to type out. For each a we need to use the methods of exercises 0.3.15 to ﬁnd y such that

36x + ay = 1

and this y would be the order of a.

Exercise 1.1.15

Proof by induction. For the n = 1 case, it’s clear that a

1

= a

−1

1

. Supposing the equality holds for the n = k

case, we have:

(a

1

a

2

. . . a

k

a

k+1

)(a

−1

k+1

a

−1

k

. . . a

−1

1

)

= (a

1

a

2

. . . a

k

)a

k+1

a

−1

k+1

(a

−1

k

. . . a

−1

1

) associativity

= (a

1

a

2

. . . a

k

)1(a

−1

k

. . . a

−1

1

) deﬁnition of inverses

= (a

1

a

2

. . . a

k

)(a

−1

k

. . . a

−1

1

) deﬁnition of identity

= e equality holds for n = k

and thus (a

−1

k+1

a

−1

k

. . . a

−1

1

) is shown to be the right inverse of (a

1

a

2

. . . a

k

a

k+1

). The proof for left inverse is

similar. Thus equality holds for the n = k + 1 case. By induction, equality holds for all n ∈ Z

+

.

Exercise 1.1.16

This follows directly from the deﬁnition of [x[. The order of x is the smallest integer n such that x

n

= 1; if

x

2

= 1, then this smallest integer must be less than or equal to 2. Thus it can be only 1 or 2.

Exercise 1.1.17

If [x[ = n, then x

n

= 1, and thus x x

n−1

= 1, which makes x

n−1

the inverse of x.

3

Exercise 1.1.18

→ xy = yx assumed

→ y

−1

xy = y

−1

yx left multiplication

→ y

−1

xy = 1x = x deﬁnition of inverse

→ x

−1

y

−1

xy = x

−1

x left multiplication

→ x

−1

y

−1

xy = 1 deﬁnition of inverse

→ (x

−1

y

−1

)

−1

= xy deﬁnition of inverse

→ xy = yx consequence of exercise 1.1.15

Exercise 1.1.19a

Part (a) is a direct consequence of associativity.

Exercise 1.1.19a

Part (b) is a special case of exercise 1.1.15.

Exercise 1.1.19c

Parts (a) and (b) trivially hold when a = 0 or b = 0. Parts (a) and (b) can be shown to hold for a, b ≤ 0

by taking the inverses of each side of each equation. The only thing left to show is that part (a) holds when

a < 0 < b or b < 0 < a:

Assume that a < 0 < b or b < 0 < a. If [a[ = [b[ (absolute value, not order) then clearly

x

a+b

= x

0

= x

a

x

−a

= x

a

x

b

ow assume, without loss of generality, that [a[ < [b[ Then b has the same sign as −a and b has the same sign as

a + b. Therefore −a has the same sign as a + b and we can deduce:

x

a

x

b

= x

a

x

−a+b+a

from b = b + a −a

= x

a

x

−a

x

b+a

from part (a), since −a and b + a have same sign

= (x

b+a

left cancellation

Exercise 1.1.20

From 1.1.19(b), we have

x

n

= 1 ↔ (x

n

)

−1

= 1

−1

= 1 ↔ x

−n

= 1 ↔ (x

−1

)

n

= 1

Thus the least n such that x

n

= 1 must also be the least n such that (x

−1

)

n

= 1.

Exercise 1.1.21

→ x

2k+1

= 1 assumed, since n = 2k + 1

→ x

2k+1

x = 1x = x right multiplication

→ x

2k+2

= x 1.1.19(a)

→ (x

2

)

k+1

= x 1.1.19(a)

4

Exercise 1.1.22

→ x

n

= 1 assumed

↔ (xgg

−1

)

n

= 1 gg

−1

= 1

↔ xg(g

−1

xg)

n−1

g

−1

= 1 tricky associativity

↔ g

−1

xg(g

−1

xg)

n−1

g

−1

g = g

−1

1g = 1 left and right multiplication

↔ g

−1

xg(g

−1

xg)

n−1

= 1 right cancellation

↔ (g

−1

xg)

n

= 1 1.1.19(a)

This shows that the least n such that x

n

= 1 must also be the least n such that (g

−1

xg)

n

= 1. To prove that

[ab[ = [ba[, let x = ab and g = b

−1

in the preceeding proof and conclude that the least n such that (ab)

n

= 1

must also be the least n such that (babb

−1

)

n

= (ba)

n

= 1.

Exercise 1.1.23

(x

s

)

t

= x

st

= x

n

= 1, so [x

s

[ ≤ t. But if there were some k such that 0 ≤ k < t such that (x

s

)

k

= 1, then we

would have 0 ≤ sk < st = n with x

sk

= 1 contradicting the assumption that [x[ = n.

Exercise 1.1.24

Proof by induction. The n = 0 and n = 1 cases are trivial. Assume the equality holds for n = k:

(ab)

k+1

= a(ba)

k

b tricky associativity

(= a(ab)

k

b a, b commute

(= aa

k

b

k

b equality holds for n = k

(= a

k+1

b

k+1

Thus equality holds for all n ∈ N. To prove that this holds for negative n, just take the inverse of each side of

the equation to yield (ab)

−n

= b

−n

a

−n

, then apply commutativity to conclude (ba)

−n

= b

−n

a

−n

.

Exercise 1.1.25

Given that x

2

= 1, we see that (ab)(ab) = b(aa)b = 1. Right-multiplying by b

−1

a

−1

yields ab = ba.

Exercise 1.1.26

We’re told that H is nonempty so it contains some element h; it’s closed under inverses and the binary operation,

it contains the identity element hh

−1

= 1. It inherits associativity from G. That’s suﬃcient for H to be a group.

Exercise 1.1.27

Let H = x

n

: n ∈ Z. The identity x

0

= 1 exists in n; if x

n

∈ H then x

−n

∈ H so H is closed under inverses; it’s

trivially closed under the binary operation; and (x

i

x

j

)x

k

= x

i+j+k

= x

i

(x

j

x

k

) so it is associative.

Exercise 1.1.28

All parts of this exercise can be proven through simple but tedious algebra.

Exercise 1.1.29

→ (a, b) (c, d) = (c, d) (a, b)

↔ (ac, bd) = (ca, db) def. of

↔ ac = ca and bd = db def. of equality in AB

5

Exercise 1.1.30

To prove commutativity:

(a, 1)(1, b) = (a1, 1b) = (a, b) = (1a, b1) = (1, b)(a, 1)

Now let p = [a[, q = [b[, and x = [p, q]. Then:

(a, b)

x

= (a

x

, b

x

) = ((a

p

)

x/p

, (b

q

)

x/q

) = (1

x/p

, 1

x/q

) = (1, 1) = 1

Thus the order of (a, b) divides [p, q] = x. Now let n = [(a, b)[. From exercise 1.1.24:

(1, 1) = (a, b)

n

= [(a, 1)(1, b)]

n

= (a, 1)

n

(1, b)

n

Right-multiplying gives us:

(1, b)

−n

= (a, 1)

n

which means

(1, b

−n

) = (a

n

, 1)

thus a

n

= b

−n

= 1. Thus p and q both divide n, which means that [p, q] divides n. We’ve now shown that

n = [(a, b)[ divides x = [p, q] and that x divides n: therefore x = n.

Exercise 1.1.31

To prove that t(G) has an even number of elements, establish an equivalence relation a b : (ab = 1ora = b)

on t(G). This is clearly reﬂexive,symmetric, and easily shown to be transitive. There are two elements per

equivalence class on t(G): one element and its inverse. Thus t(G) has an even number of elements.

Thus the set G−t(G) (that is, g ∈ G[g = g

−1

) must also have an even number of elements. It contains the

identity, so it must contain at least one nonidentity element. Each element in G−t(G) has g

2

= 1, and therefore

must have order 1 or 2 by exercise 1.1.16. Only the identity has order 1, so this nonidentity element must have

order 2.

Exercise 1.1.32

Suppose x

i

= x

j

for 0 ≤ i < j ≤ n −1. Then 1 = x

j

x

−i

= x

j−i

, which would contradict the claim that [x[ = n.

Exercise 1.1.33a

Part (a) is the contrapositive of exercise 1.1.31.

Exercise 1.1.33b

It’s trivial to show that i = k implies x

i

x

i

= x

2k

1 and therefore x

i

= x

−1

. To prove in the other direction:

→ x

i

= x

−i

assumed

↔ x

i

x

i

= x

−i

x

i

↔ x

2i

= 1

This shows that x

i

= x

−i

iﬀ n (the order of x) divides 2i. But 2i < n by the previous exercise, so n[2i implies

2i = 0 or 2i = n. And we’re asked to assume that i > 0, so we must have 2i = n = 2k and so i = k.

Exercise 1.1.34

Were it the case that x

m

= x

n

for some m ,= n, then we would have x

|m−n|

= 1 which would contradict the

assumption that x was of inﬁnite order.

Exercise 1.1.35

Let x ∈ G have order n. Let k be an arbitrary power of x. By the division algorithm, we can ﬁnd unique values

of a, b with 0 ≤ b < n such that k = an + b. Thus we have

x

k

= x

an+b

= x

a

nx

b

= x

b

6

Exercise 1.1.36

We know that at least one element must be its own inverse from exercise 1.1.31. WLOG, assume that this

element is a. From 1.1.31 we know that b is its own inverse iﬀ c is its own inverse: if both are their own inverses,

then the group is abelian by 1.1.25 and we are done.

If neither b nor c are their own inverses, then they must have order 3 (b

3

= c

3

= 1). We cannot have

b

2

= b (for we would have o(b) = 1) or b

2

= 1 (for we would have o(b) = 2) or b

2

= a (for we would have

b = b, b

2

= a, b

3

= ab, b

4

= a

2

= 1 so that o(b) = 4) so we must have b

2

= c. And this gives us a contradiction,

since it would imply that o(b

2

) = o(c) = o(b).

Exercise 1.2.2

We know that D

2n

has order 2n with distinct elements r

0

, r

1

, . . . r

n−1

, r

0

s, r

1

s, . . . r

n−1

s. So any element that is

not equivalent to r

k

for some k is equivalent to sr

k

for some k. We can now use a proof by induction: the case

for x = r

0

s and x = r

1

s is trivial. Now assume that the equality holds for x = r

k

s:

r(r

k+1

)s = rr(r

k

)s = r(r

k

)sr

−1

= r

k+1

sr

−1

and thus equality holds for x = r

k+1

s.

Exercise 1.2.3

As above, every element of D

2n

which is not a power of r has the form r

k

s = sr

−k

. Thus:

(r

k

s)

2

= (r

k

s)(r

k

s) = sr

−k

r

k

s = ss = 1

This proves only that the order of (r

k

s) divides 2; we must show that it is 2. Proof by contradiction: If the

order were 1, then we would have r

k

s = 1 which would imply s = r

−k

which would imply that all 2n elements

could be written uniquely as a power of r; but r

n

= 1 so there could be at most n such elements. Thus the

order of (r

k

s) cannot be 1.

To show that s, sr are generators is suﬃces to show that ssr = r, so all powers of r can be generated.

Exercise 1.2.4

z

2

= r

2k

= r

n

= 1, so o(z) = 2 (k > 1, so z is not the identity element). r

2

k trivially commutes with elements

of D

2n

that are powers of r; since o(z) = 2 it commutes with all other elements of order 2 (cf 1.1.33); that is,

all elements of D

2n

that are not a power of r (previous exercise).

To show that this is the only element other than the identity that commutes with all elemenets of D

2n

, we

use a very unsatisfying proof by exhaustion of cases. Let a be an element such that ab = ba for all b ∈ D

2n

.

Either a = r

i

or a = sr

i

for some i ∈ 0 . . . 2k −1.

case i) Suppose a = r

i

and let b be an arbitrary element of D

2n

. The element a obviously commutes for all b

of the form b = r

j

. If b = sr

j

, then ab = ba when:

→ ab = ba assumed

↔ r

i

sr

j

= sr

j

r

i

deﬁnition of a, b

↔ sr

−i

r

j

= sr

j

r

i

from relation rs = sr

−1

↔ r

−i+j

= r

j+i

left cancellation

↔ r

−i+j

r

−j−i

= 1 right multiplication by r

−(j+i)

↔ r

−2i

= 1

↔ n[2i o(r) = n

↔ k[i n = 2k

This shows that, for this choice of a = r

i

, ab = ba for all b iﬀ i is a multiple of k. But we’ve assumed that

i ∈ 0, . . . , 2k −1 so either i = 0 or i = k. Thus a = r

i

commutes with all b iﬀ a = r

0

(the identity) or

a = r

k

.

7

case ii) Suppose a = sr

i

. Then this a does not commute with all b: let b = r. Then we have

→ ab = ba assumed

↔ sr

i

r = rsr

i

deﬁnition of a, b

↔ sr

i+1

= sr

−1+i

from relation rs = sr

−1

↔ r

i+1

= r

i−1

left cancellation

↔ r

i+1

r

1−i

= 1 right multiplication by r

−(−j+i)

↔ r

2

= 1

But n is deﬁned by the order of r, so r

2

= 1 implies n = 2, contradicting the requirement that n ≥ 4. Thus

we have shown that the only nonidentity element that commutes with all elements of D

2n

(n = 2k, n ≥ 4)

is r

k

.

Exercise 1.2.5

As shown in the previous exercise, the only element that commutes with element of D

2n

for n > 2 is r

i

where

n[2i. If n is odd then the requirements that i ∈ 0, . . . , n and i = kn together imply i = 0 and thus the only

commuting element is r

0

= 1.

Exercise 1.2.6

Since o(x) = o(y) = 2, we have x = x

−1

, y = y

−1

. Thus we have

tx = xyx right-multiply t = xy by x

tx = xy

−1

x

−1

y = y

−1

, x = x

−1

tx = x(xy)

−1

tx = xt

−1

Exercise 1.2.7

Let a = s and b = sr so that ab = r. The relations follow from each other: a

2

= s

2

= 1, (ab)

n

= r

n

= 1, and

b

2

= (sr)

2

= ssr

−1

r = 1.

Exercise 1.2.8

n is, by deﬁnition, the smallest r such that r

n

= 1 so o(r) = n.

Exercise 1.2.9 through 1.2.13

A tetrahedron has four three-sided faces; a cube has six four-sided faces; an octahedron has eight three-sided

faces; a dodecahedron has twelve ﬁve-sided faces; an icosahedron has twenty three-sided faces. Each side (pair

of vertices) can be ﬂipped, so the total number of positions for a side is : The number of rigid motions for a

given solid is given by:

2 ∗ (number of sides) =

(number of faces) ∗ (number of sides per face)

number of faces connected to each side

Each solid has two faces connected to each side, so this reduces to (number of faces) * (number of sides per

face).

Exercise 1.2.14

For addition, 1. For multiplication, p : p is prime (by the fundamental theorem of arithmetic).

Exercise 1.2.15

For addition, p : (p, n) = 1. For multiplication, p < n : p is prime.

8

Exercise 1.2.16

Letting n = 2, we have r

2

= s

2

= 1. So let x = r, y = s. The relations follow: x

2

= r

2

= 1,y

2

= s

2

= 1, and

xy = y

−1

x :

xy = (xy)

−1

from o(xy) = 2

= y

−1

x

−1

= yx

−1

from o(y) = 2

Exercise 1.2.17a

The presentation in 1.2 is ¸x, y[x

n

= y

2

= 1, xy = yx

2

¸. The text demonstrated that xy = yx

2

implies x

3

= 1.

Thus, if n = 3k then x

3

= 1 but x

0

, x

1

, x

2

are distinct elements. Letting x = r, y = s gives us x

3

= r

3

= 1,

y

2

= s

2

= 1, and rs = sr

−1

:

rs = xy from o(xy) = 2

= yx

2

= yx

−1

xx

2

= 1 → x

2

= x

−1

= sr

−1

Exercise 1.2.17b

We know that x

3

= 1 so x

3k

= 1. By deﬁnition, x

n

=1. If (3, n) = 1 then either n = 3k + 1 or n = 3k + 2 =

3(k + 1) −1 for some k. In either case, we have

1 = x

n

= x

3k±1

= x

3k

x

±1

= x

±1

But x

−1

= 1 iﬀ x = 1, so in either case we have x = 1 and X

2n

is generated uniquely by s, which has order 2.

Exercise 1.2.18

The presentation in 1.3 is ¸u, v[u

4

= v

3

= 1, uv = v

2

u

2

¸.

a) If v

3

= vv

2

= 1, then v

2

= v

−1

. Similarly, u

2

= u

−2

and u

3

= u

−1

.

b) u

3

= u(v

3

)u

2

from v

3

= 1

= (uv)(v

2

u

2

) associative property

= (v

2

u

2

)(uv) from uv = v

2

u

2

= v

2

u

3

v associative property

= v

−1

u

3

v from part (a)

Left-multiplying both sides by v gives us vu

3

= u

3

v; right-multiplying by v

−1

gives us u

3

v

−1

= v

−1

u

3

.

c) From part (b), we have u

3

v

−1

= v

−1

u

3

. Using part (a) this becomes u

−1

v

−1

= v

−1

u

−1

. Taking inverses of

each side yields vu = uv.

d) We’re told uv = v

2

u

2

; by commutativity of u, v this becomes uv = (uv)

2

; by left- or right-cancellation this

becomes uv = 1.

e) 1 = (uv)

4

= u

4

v

3

v = v, and uv = 1 implies u = v

−1

= 1.

Exercise 1.3.8

Deﬁne the function f : N → S

ω

to be f(n) = (1n). The function is clearly injective (albeit not surjective) so

[S

ω

[ ≥ [N[.

Exercise 1.3.9

See exercise 1.3.11.

9

Exercise 1.3.10

Trivial proof by induction on i. Since σ

m

maps a

k

→ a

k

, it must be the identity function; since m is the least

integer such that σ

m

= I, we have o(σ) = m.

Exercise 1.3.11

Let k be the order of σ

i

. It must be the case that m[ik or, by the division algorithm, we could ﬁnd ik such that

ik = xm + b with 0 < b < m which would give us

(σ

i

)

k

= σ

ik

= σ

xm+b

= (σ

m

)

x

σ

b

= σ

b

which would contradict the previous exercise’s conclusion that o(σ) = m.

Having proven that ik must be a multiple of m, we see that the least such multiple of ik is ik = lcm(m, ik). If

we want the o(σ

i

) = m, we must have im = lcm(m, im) = lcm(m, i) which occurs only when gcd(m, i) = 1:

ab = lcm(a, b) gcd(a, b) → lcm(a, b) =

ab

gcd(a, b)

Exercise 1.3.12a

yes: let σ = (1 3 5 7 9 2 4 6 8 10) and k = 5.

Exercise 1.3.12b

no. Let k be the smallest k such that σ

k

= (1 2)(3 4 5). Then σ

2k

= (3 5 4). Thus σ

2k

(1) = 1 (implying that

m[2k from exercise 10) but σ

2k

(3) = 5 (implying m 2k by exercise 10). This establishes a contradiction so

there can be no k such that σ

k

= τ.

Exercise 1.3.13

Assuming that σ can be written has a product of commuting 2-cycles, we have

σ

2

= [(a

1

b

1

) . . . (a

k

b

k

)]

2

= (a

1

b

1

)

2

. . . [(a

k

b

k

)

2

= (1)

2

. . . (1)

2

= (1)

so that o(σ) = 2.

If we assume that o(σ) = 2 then σ maps a → σ(a) and maps σ(a) → σ(σ(a)) = a (with the possiblity

that σ(a) = a). Consider the set of 2-cycles:

¦(a σ(a)) : a ∈ 1, . . . , m and a < σ(a)¦

We can deﬁne σ as the product of every element of this set:

σ = (a

1

σ(a

1

))(a

2

σ(a

2

)) . . . (a

k

σ(a

k

))

Each a ∈ 1, . . . , m appears in at most one of these disjoint 2-cycles, and appears iﬀ a ,= σ(a).

Exercise 1.3.14

Follow the preceeding proof. Assuming that σ can be written has a product of commuting p-cycles, we have

σ

p

= [(a

1

b

1

) . . . (a

k

b

k

)]

p

= (a

1

b

1

)

p

. . . [(a

k

b

k

)

p

= (1)

p

. . . (1)

p

= (1)

And we can write σ as the product of elements of the disjoint collection of p-cycles:

¦(a σ

1

(a) σ

2

(a) . . . σ

p−1

(a)) : a ∈ 1, . . . , m and a = min(a, σ(a), . . . , σ

m−1

(a))¦

If p is not prime then we can ﬁnd a, b > 1 such that p = ab = lcm(a, b) and the element

(1 2 . . . a)(a + 1 a + 2 . . . a + b)

has order p despite not being a product of disjoint p-cycles. A more explicit example: In S

6

we have

(1 2 3)(4 5)

which has order 6.

10

Exercise 1.3.15

Choose σ ∈ S

n

and let k be the least common multiple of the lengths of the cycles in its cycle decomposition.

From exercise 1.1.24 we know that σ

k

= (1) means that (a

1

. . . a

i

)

k

= (1) for each cycle in the decomposition

of σ, so k must be a common multiple of the order (length) of each cycle in the decomposition of σ; thus the

order of σ must be the least such k, which is the least common multiple of the lengths of the cycles of σ.

Exercise 1.3.16

From n elements, there are

_

n

m

_

ways of selecting m elements and m! ways of writing an m−cycle with them.

Each distinct m-cycle can be written in m diﬀerent ways. Thus the number of distinct m-cycles in S

n

is given

by

_

n

m

_

m!

m

=

n!m!

m!(n −m)!m

=

n(n −1)(n −2) . . . (n −m + 1)

m

Exercise 1.3.17

There are

_

n

4

_

ways of selecting the elements of two disjoint 2-cycles, and 3 unique ways to construct the two

2-cycles with them. Thus the number of distinct products of two disjoitn 2-cycles is:

_

n

4

_

1

3

=

n!

(n −4)!4!

1

3

=

n(n −1)(n −2)(n −3)

8

Exercise 1.3.18

For each S

n

we can choose i, k > 0 such that i + k ≤ n and construct following disjoint product S

n

:

(1 2 . . . i)(n n −1 . . . n −(k −1))

By exercise 15, this element has order of lcm(i, k). Thus for S

5

we can construct elements of orders 1,2,3,4,5

(trivially) and 6. The order 6 element is given by

(1 2 3)(4 5)

Exercise 1.3.19

With the explanation from the previous exercise we see that S

7

has elements of order 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7 (trivially),

lcm(2, 5) = 10, and lcm(3, 4) = 12.

Exercise 1.3.20

Let a = (1 2), b = (2 3) and deﬁne the generator to be ¸a, b[a

2

= b

2

= 1, abab = ba¸. All other elements of S

3

can be written with these two elements:

(1) = a

2

= b

2

(1 3) = aba = bab

(1 2 3) = ab

(1 3 2) = ba

The fact that a

2

= b

2

= 1 means that every element of S

3

can be reduced to an alternating string of a, b. The

choice of the relation abab = ba (and its equivalents, ab = baba and aba = bab) means that any such alternating

string of length n ≥ 4 can be reduced to a string of length n −2. Thus S

3

can be represented as string of 3 or

fewer alternating elements a, b. There are only 6 such strings: 1, a, b, ab, ba, and aba = bab.

Exercise 1.4.1

Proof by enumeration. Consider all 16 possible 2 2 matrices with entries in ¦0, 1¦ and show that exactly 6 of

them have nonzero determinants.

11

Exercise 1.4.2

_

0 1

1 0

_

2

=

_

1 1

0 1

_

2

=

_

1 0

1 1

_

2

= I

_

1 0

0 1

_

1

_

0 1

1 1

_

3

=

_

1 1

1 0

_

3

= I

Exercise 1.4.3

_

1 0

1 1

_ _

1 1

0 1

_

=

_

1 1

1 0

_

,=

_

0 1

1 1

_

=

_

1 1

0 1

_ _

1 0

1 1

_

Exercise 1.4.4

Suppose n is not prime, and let a(1 < a < n) be a divisor of n. Then a has no multiplicative inverse. Proof

by contradiction: assume that ak = 1. Then we would have ak + mn = 1 (by deﬁnition of equivalence mod n)

which means that gcd(a, n) = 1 which contradicts our assumption that a(1 < a < n) is a divisor of n.

Exercise 1.4.5

If [F[ = q is ﬁnite, then there are at most q

n

2

possible n n matrices; GL

n

(F) is a subset of these matrices

and at least one such matrix has a zero determinant, so [GL

n

(F)[ ≤ q

n

2

and thus GL

n

(F) is ﬁnite. If [F[ is

inﬁnite, then fI ∈ GL

n

(F) for each f ∈ F (where I is the identity matrix) and thus [GL

n

(F)[ ≥ [F[ which

means [GL

n

(F)[ is inﬁnite.

Exercise 1.4.6

see previous exercise

Exercise 1.4.7

The determinant of a 2 2 matrix is given by the formula

det

__

a b

c d

__

= ad −bc

So we see that the deterimant is zero if ad = bc. Using basic combinatorics, it’s easy to show that:

• We can choose a, d such that ad = 0 in p + (p −1) distinct ways

• We can choose a, d such that ad = 1 in p −1 distinct ways

• We can choose a, d such that ad = 2 in p −1 distinct ways

• . . .

• We can choose a, d such that ad = p −1 in p −1 distinct ways

The same holds true for the number of ways we can choose b, c. Which means

• We can choose a, b, c, d such that ad = bc = 0 in (p + (p −1))

2

distinct ways

• We can choose a, b, c, d such that ad = bc = 1 in (p −1)

2

distinct ways

• We can choose a, b, c, d such that ad = bc = 2 in (p −1)

2

distinct ways

• . . .

• We can choose a, b, c, d such that ad = bc = p −1 in (p −1)

2

distinct ways

12

Thus there are (2p − 1)

2

ways to have ad and bc equal to 0, and (p − 1)

2

ways to have them equal each of the

(p −1) other values. Thus the total number of ways we can construct a 2 2 matrix with ad = bc is

(2p −1)

2

+ (p −1)(p −1)

2

= p

3

+ p

2

−p

And since there are p

4

possible 2 2 matrices over F

p

, the total number of such matrices with nonzero deter-

minants is

p

4

−p

3

−p

2

+ p

Exercise 1.4.8

Let A be the matrix with a

1,2

= 1 as the only nonzero entry, and let B be the matrix with a

2,1

as the only

nonzero entry. Then AB has a

1,1

= 1 as the only nonzero entry while BA has a

2,2

as the only nonzero entry.

Exercise 1.4.9

We want to show that

__

a

1

b

1

c

1

d

1

_ _

a

2

b

2

c

2

d

2

___

a

3

b

3

c

3

d

3

_

=

_

a

1

b

1

c

1

d

1

_ __

a

2

b

2

c

2

d

2

_ _

a

3

b

3

c

3

d

3

__

This can be done tediously through algebra.

Exercise 1.4.10a

_

a

1

b

1

0 c

1

_ _

a

2

b

2

0 c

2

_

=

_

a

1

a

2

a

1

b

2

+ b

1

c

2

0 c

1

c

2

_

Exercise 1.4.10b

We want to ﬁnd values of a

2

, b

2

, and c

2

such that the product in part (a) is the identity matrix. It’s immediately

clear that we need to have a

2

= a

−1

1

and c

2

= c

−1

1

. With these substitutions, we have

a

1

b

2

+ b

1

c

2

= a

1

b

2

+ b

1

c

−1

1

which equals 1 exactly when b

2

= a

−1

1

(1 −b

1

c

−1

1

). So the inverse is

_

a

−1

1

a

−1

1

(1 −b

1

c

−1

1

)

0 c

−1

1

_

This is an element of G since a

−1

1

,= 0, c

−1

1

,= 0.

Exercise 1.4.10c

G is a group: we’ve shown closure under the operation in part (a), closure of inverses in part (b), associativity

in exercise 9, and it’s clear that the identity matrix is an element of G. We’re told that a ,= 0 and c ,= 0, so all

elements of G have a nonzero determinant ac −0b = ac.

Exercise 1.4.10d

Parts (a) through (c) are still valid after adding the further restriction that a

1

= c

1

. The proof changes very

little.

13

Exercise 1.4.11a

XY =

_

_

1 a b

0 1 c

0 0 1

_

_

_

_

1 d e

0 1 f

0 0 1

_

_

=

_

_

1 d + a e + af + b

0 1 f + c

0 0 1

_

_

To prove non-abelianism, we see calculate Y X:

Y X =

_

_

1 d e

0 1 f

0 0 1

_

_

_

_

1 a b

0 1 c

0 0 1

_

_

=

_

_

1 a + d b + dc + e

0 1 c + f

0 0 1

_

_

So we have XY ,= Y X whenever af ,= cd. An explicit example can be given by letting a = b = f = 0, c = d =

e = 1.

Exercise 1.4.11b

We want to ﬁnd values of d, e, and f such that both of the products in part (a) are the identity matrix. This

immediately yields a system of equations:

d + a = 0

e + af + b = 0

b + dc + e = 0

c + f = 0

Whose solution is d = −a, f = −c, e = ac −b. So the inverse matrix is

X

−1

=

_

_

1 −a ac −b

0 1 −c

0 0 1

_

_

Exercise 1.4.11c

Associativity can be proven with tedious algebra. The previous parts of this exercise show that H(F) is a group.

The fact that each of the 3 entries can take [F[ possible values implies that o(H(F)) = [F[

3

.

Exercise 1.4.11d

Too tedious to typeset.

Exercise 1.4.11e

Let X be an arbitrary element of H(R). We prove by induction that for all n ∈ N, the matrix X

n

has the form

X

n

=

_

_

1 na nb +

n(n−1)

2

ac

0 1 nc

0 0 1

_

_

The case for k = 1 is trivial. For k = 2 we have

X

2

=

_

_

1 a b

0 1 c

0 0 1

_

_

2

=

_

_

1 2a 2b + ac

0 1 2c

0 0 1

_

_

Now assume that we have established the form of X

k

. For X

k+1

:

X

k+1

= XX

k

=

_

_

1 a b

0 1 c

0 0 1

_

_

=

_

_

1 ka kb +

k(k−1)

2

ac

0 1 kc

0 0 1

_

_

=

_

_

1 (k + 1)a (k + 1)b +

k(k+1)

2

ac

0 1 (k + 1)c

0 0 1

_

_

So that the proof by induction is complete. From this, we see that X

n

= I only if na = 0, nc = 0, and

nb + n(n + 1)ac = 0. This occurs only when a = b = c = 0: that is, when X is the identity matrix. Thus every

nonidentity element has inﬁnite order.

14

Exercise 1.5.1

o(1) = 1, o(−1) = 2, o(±i) = o(±j) = o(±k) = 4.

Exercise 1.5.3

All the given relations of Q

8

can be derived from ¸1, i, j, k[i

2

= j

2

= k

2

= −1, ij = k¸:

ij = k → iij = ik → −j = ik, i = −kj

ij = k → −kij = 1 → −ij = −k → j = ki, −i = kj

Exercise 1.6.1

Trivial proof by induction on n. It’s trivial for n = 1, and true by deﬁnition of homomorphism for n = 2.

Assuming it holds for n = k, we have

ϕ(x

k+1

) = ϕ(x

k

x) = ϕ(x

k

)ϕ(x) = ϕ(x)

k

ϕ(x) = ϕ(x)

k+1

From this, we have

1 = ϕ(x

0

) = ϕ(x

−n

x

n

) = ϕ(x

−n

)ϕ(x

n

) = phi(x

−n

)ϕ(x)

n

so that, by the deﬁnition of inverses,

ϕ(x

−n

) = (ϕ(x)

n

)

−1

= ϕ(x)

−n

Exercise 1.6.2 lemma

From the previous exercise, we know that ϕ(x

0

) = ϕ(x)

0

so that ϕ(1

G

) = 1

H

. Now, choose an arbitrary x ∈ G

and suppose o(x) = n is ﬁnite.

→ x

n

= 1

G

assumed

→ ϕ(x

n

) = ϕ(1

G

) ϕ is well-deﬁned

→ ϕ(x)

n

= 1

H

from previous exercise

→ o(ϕ(x))[n

→ o(ϕ(x))[o(x) deﬁnition of n

Note that this last step also implies that o(ϕ(x)) is ﬁnite. Now assume that o(ϕ(x)) = m is ﬁnite:

→ ϕ(x)

m

= 1

H

assumed

→ ϕ(x

m

) = ϕ(1

G

) ϕ is well-deﬁned

→ x

m

= 1

G

ϕ is an isomorphism, thus 1-to-1

→ o(x)[m

→ o(x)[o(ϕ(x)) deﬁnition of m

This last step implies that o(x) is ﬁnite. Thus we have shown that o(x) is ﬁnite iﬀ oϕ(x) is ﬁnite, and if either is

ﬁnite then o(x) = o(ϕ(x)). The result is not true if ϕ is only assumed to be a homormorphism (the step requir-

ing isomorphism is clearly labeled). As a counter example, consider the following homormorphism : f : Z → Z

deﬁned as f(n) = 1. f(3)f(2) = 1 1 = 1 = f(6), but clearly o(3) = ∞ while o(f(3)) = 1.

Exercise 1.6.3

→ G is abelian assumed

↔ (∀a, b ∈ G)ab = ba def. of abelianism

↔ (∀a, b ∈ G)ϕ(ab) = ϕ(ba) isomorphisms are well-deﬁned and bijective

↔ (∀a, b ∈ G)ϕ(a)ϕ(b) = ϕ(b)ϕ(a) def. of homomorphisms

↔ ϕ(G) is abelian def. of abelianism

↔ H is abelian isomorphisms are surjective

Each step in this proof is bidirectional, so we’ve proven that when ϕ is isomorphic, then G is abelian iﬀ H is

15

abelian. If ϕ is only a homomorphism, then we have the unidirectional proof:

→ G is abelian assumed

→ (∀a, b ∈ G)ab = ba def. of abelianism

→ (∀a, b ∈ G)ϕ(ab) = ϕ(ba) isomorphisms are well-deﬁned

→ (∀a, b ∈ G)ϕ(a)ϕ(b) = ϕ(b)ϕ(a) def. of homomorphisms

→ ϕ(G) is abelian def. of abelianism

This shows that when ϕ is a homormorphism, then G is abelian implies ϕ(G) is abelian.

Note that nothing can be assumed from the abelianism of H or ϕ(G). Consider ϕ : G → 1

H

deﬁned as ϕ(g) = 1

H

.

ϕ(G) = H is trivially abelian, but G can be any group whatsoever.

Exercise 1.6.4

C −¦0¦ has an element of order 4 (i), but no such element exists in R. This contradicts exercise 1.6.2.

Exercise 1.6.5

Proof 1: There can be no bijective function between the two sets, as proven by Cantor’s Theorem.

Proof 2: suppose ϕ : Q → R were an isomorphism. Let x ∈ R be the element such that ϕ(2) = x; let a ∈ Q be

the element such that ϕ(a) =

√

k. From this, we have

ϕ(a

2

) = ϕ(a)

2

= (

√

k)

2

= k = ϕ(2)

Which, since ϕ is a bijection, means that a

2

= 2 and thus a =

√

2. But this can’t be true of any a ∈ Q.

Exercise 1.6.6

Let Q has an element of order 3 (

1

3

), but there is no such element in Z. This contradicts exercise 1.6.2.

Exercise 1.6.7

D

8

has only one element of order 4 (o(r) = 4) while Q

8

has three such elements (i, j, k). This contradicts exercise

1.6.2.

Exercise 1.6.8

Assuming m, n > 0, S

m

contains m! elements while S

n

contains n!, so there can be no bijection between them

unless n = m.

Exercise 1.6.9

D

24

has an element of order 12 (r) while S

4

can have no such element (exercise 1.3.15)

Exercise 1.6.10a

→ a = b

→ θ

−1

(a) = θ

−1

(b) θ is bijective

→ σ ◦ θ

−1

(a) = σ ◦ θ

−1

(b) permutations are well-deﬁned

→ θ ◦ σ ◦ θ

−1

(a) = θ ◦ σ ◦ θ

−1

(b) permutations are well-deﬁned

Exercise 1.6.10b

The same logic used in part (a) can show that θ ◦ σ

−1

◦ θ

−1

is well-deﬁned, and this clearly acts as an inverse

to ϕ.

16

Exercise 1.6.10c

ϕ(σ ◦ τ) = θ ◦ (σ ◦ τ) ◦ θ

−1

= θ ◦ (σ ◦ θ

−1

◦ θ ◦ τ) ◦ θ

−1

= ϕ(σ) ◦ ϕ(τ)

Exercise 1.6.11

The function f : AB → B A deﬁned as f(a, b) = (b, a) is easily shown to be an isomorphism.

Exercise 1.6.12

The function f : (A B) C → A (B C) deﬁned as f( ((a, b), c) ) = (a, (b, c)) is easily shown to be an

isomorphism.

Exercise 1.6.13

Verifying the group properties is tedious but easy. We just need to show that 1

H

∈ ϕ(G) and that ϕ(G) is

closed under its operation and inverses. If ϕ is injective then the homomorphism is bijective, since ϕ is clearly

surjective onto ϕ(G), and bijective homomorphisms are isomorphisms.

Exercise 1.6.14

Verifying the group properties of K is tedious but easy. It’s clear that ϕ can’t be injective if more than one

element maps to 1 ∈ H, so ϕ is injective only if K = ¦1

G

¦. Proof by contrapositive that ϕ is injective if

K = ¦1

G

¦: Assume that K = ¦1

G

¦.

→ ϕ(a) = ϕ(b)

→ ϕ(a)ϕ(b)

−1

= 1

H

ϕ(G) is a group by previous exercise

→ ϕ(a)ϕ(b

−1

) = 1

H

→ ϕ(ab

−1

) = 1

H

→ ab

−1

= 1

G

K = ¦1

G

¦

→ a = b

Exercise 1.6.15

(x, y) is in the kernel of π if π(x, y) = x = 1, so the kernel is

K = ¦(x, y) ∈ R

2

[x = 1¦ = ¦1¦ R

Exercise 1.6.16

Following the logic above, we see that the kernel of π

1

is

K = ¦(a, b) ∈ AB [ a = 1

A

¦ = ¦1

A

¦ B

and the kernel of π

2

is

K = ¦(a, b) ∈ AB [ b = 1

B

¦ = A¦1

B

¦

Exercise 1.6.17

Let ϕ : G → G be deﬁned by ϕ(g) = g

−1

. This function is clearly onto, so ϕ(G) = G. So we are asked to prove

that ϕ is a homomorphism iﬀ G is abelian. First assume that ϕ is a homomorphism:

→ ϕ(a

−1

b

−1

) = ϕ(a

−1

)ϕ(b

−1

) assumed

→ ϕ((ba)

−1

) = ϕ(a

−1

)ϕ(b

−1

) properties of inverses

→ ba = ab deﬁnition of ϕ

Thus ϕ(G) = G is abelian. Now assume that G is abelian:

17

→ b

−1

a

−1

= a

−1

b

−1

assumed

→ (ab)

−1

= a

−1

b

−1

property of inverses

→ ϕ(ab) = ϕ(a)ϕ(b) deﬁnition of ϕ

Thus ϕ is a homomorphism.

Exercise 1.6.18

Let ϕ : G → G be deﬁned by ϕ(g) = g

2

.

→ ba = ab

↔ a(ba)b = a(ab)b

↔ a(ba)b = a(ab)b left- and right-multiplication

↔ (ab)(ab) = (aa)(bb) associativity

↔ ϕ(ab) = ϕ(a)ϕ(b) deﬁnition of ϕ

Exercise 1.6.19

As deﬁnied here, G is the set of ﬁnite roots of unity in C. From complex analysis, we know that for each

k ∈ N there are k distinct elements of order k. Let k be ﬁxed and deﬁne f

k

as f

k

(z) = z

k

. This is clearly a

homomorphism, and is surjective since

z ∈ G → z

1/k

∈ G → f

k

(z

1/k

) = z

But by exercise 14, f

k

cannot be injective: the k roots of unity of order k mean that the kernel of f

k

is of size k.

Exercise 1.6.20

The identity element is the identity mapping; isomorphisms are invertible and therefore have inverses in Aut(G).

Associativity and closure is inherited from the properties of function composition.

Exercise 1.6.21

Deﬁne f

k

: Q → Q to be f

k

(q) = kq. This function is clearly injective and a homomorphism. To prove

surjectivity:

q ∈ Q →

q

k

∈ Q → f

k

_

q

k

_

= q

Exercise 1.6.22

Deﬁne f

k

: A → A to be f

k

(a) = a

k

. Since A is abelian, we have

f

k

(ab) = (ab)

k

= a

k

b

k

= f

k

(a)f

k

(b)

If k = −1, then the function is injective (a = b → a

−1

= b

−1

→ f(a) = f(b)) and surjective (a ∈ A →

f(a

−1

) = a).

Exercise 1.6.23

Let σ be an automorphism such that σ

2

is the identity map and σ(g) = g iﬀ g = 1. Choose arbitrary elements

a, b ∈ G. σ is bijective, so there are x, y ∈ G such that σ(x) = a, σ(y) = b. From this we have

→ σ(xy)

2

= xy = σ(x)

2

σ(y)

2

σ

2

is the identity map

→ σ(x)σ(y)σ(x)σ(y) = σ(x)σ(x)σ(y)σ(y) σ is a homomorphism

→ abab = aabb deﬁnition of a, b

→ ba = ab left- and right- cancellation of previous step

and since a, b were arbitrary this suﬃces to prove that G is abelian.

18

Exercise 1.6.24

We need to show that mapping preserves the properties of each generator and relation. We’re told that x

2

=

r

2

= 1 and y

2

= s

2

= 1. From the exercise 1.2.6, the fact that x

2

= y

2

= 1 is suﬃcient to conclude that

xy = yx

−1

.

Exercise 1.6.25a

Let v = [v[ cos(φ) +[v[ sin(φ) be an arbitrary vector. The given matrix transforms v as follows:

_

cos(θ) −sin(θ)

sin(θ) cos(θ)

_ _

[v[ sin(φ)

[v[ cos(φ)

_

=

_

[v[[cos(φ) cos(θ) −sin(φ) sin(θ)]

[v[[sin(φ) cos(θ) + cos(φ) sin(θ)]

_

which, via the angle addition formulas from the trigonmetric identities, is equivalent to

_

[v[ cos(φ + θ)

[v[ sin(φ + θ)

_

which is, of course, the original vector with its endpoint rotated by an additional φ radians counterclockwise

about the origin. Our vector v was arbitrary, so every vector endpoint (and thus every point in R

2

) is also

rotated in the same way.

Exercise 1.6.25b

We need to show that mapping preserves the properties of each generator and relation. ϕ represents a rotation

of 2π/n radians, so clearly o(ϕ(r)) = n. And ϕ(s)

2

= I, so o(ϕ(s)) = 2. We can show that the relationship

rs = sr

−1

has an associated relationship ϕ(r)ϕ(s) = ϕ(s)ϕ(r)

−1

by some tedious algebraic veriﬁcation. The

text (bottom of p38) assures us that this is suﬃcient to guarantee an isomorphism between G and D

2n

.

Exercise 1.6.26

Further deﬁne ϕ as follows:

ϕ(1) = I, ϕ(k) =

_

0 −

√

−1

−

√

−1 0

_

We need to show that mapping preserves the properties of each generator and relation. There are a lot of

relations that need to be algebraically veriﬁed (e.g., ϕ(i)

2

= −ϕ(1), ϕ(i)ϕ(j) = k) but they are trivial (albeit

tedious). The identity is the only element of Q

8

that maps to I ∈ GL

2

(C), so by exercise 1.6.14, this is suﬃcient

to prove that ϕ is injective.

Exercise 1.7.1

Let F be a ﬁeld and deﬁne a group action of G = F

×

on A = F by g a = ga. The element 1 ∈ F

×

satisﬁes

property (i) of group actions (1 a = a for all a ∈ F). To prove property (ii), we note that (F, ) is not a group

(0 has no inverse), but it is still a semigroup (it’s associative and closed under its operation). Property (ii) is

then justiﬁed as follows:

(g

1

g

2

) a

= g

1

g

2

a deﬁnition of the group action; F is closed under multiplication

= g

1

(g

2

a) multiplication in F is associative

= g

1

(g

2

a) deﬁnition of group action

= g

1

(g

2

a) deﬁnition of group action

19

Exercise 1.7.2

The element 0 ∈ Z satisﬁes property (i) of group actions (0 a = a for all a ∈ Z). To justify property (ii), let

g

1

, g

2

, a be arbitrary elements of Z:

(g

1

+ g

2

) a

= (g

1

+ g

2

) + a deﬁnition of the group action; Z is closed under addition

= g

1

+ (g

2

+ a) addition in Z is associative

= g

1

+ (g

2

a) deﬁnition of group action

= g

1

(g

2

a) deﬁnition of group action

Exercise 1.7.3

The element 0 ∈ R satisﬁes property (i) of group actions. To justify property (ii), let r

1

, r

2

be arbitrary elements

of R and let (x, y) be an arbitrary point in R R:

(r

1

r

2

) (x, y)

= (r

1

+ r

2

) (x, y) operation on R is addition

= (x + (r

1

+ r

2

)y, y) deﬁnition of group action

= (x + (r

1

+ r

2

)y, y) operation on R is addition

= ((x + r

1

y) + r

2

y, y associativity, distributive property of ﬁeld R R

= r

2

(x + r

1

y, y) deﬁnition of group action

= r

2

(r

1

(x, y)) deﬁnition of group action

= g

1

+ (g

2

+ a) addition in Z is associative

= g

1

+ (g

2

a) deﬁnition of group action

= g

1

(g

2

a) deﬁnition of group action

Exercise 1.7.4a

Let K represent the kernel of the action (g ∈ G : g a = a for all a ∈ A). By the subgroup criterion (proven in

chapter 2), we need show that a left identity exists and that a, b ∈ K → ab

−1

∈ K. It’s clear that 1 ∈ K, so an

identity exists. Now assume that g

1

, g

2

∈ K:

→ 1, g

1

, g

2

∈ K assumed

→ (∀a ∈ A)g

1

a = a ∧ g

2

a = a ∧ 1 a = a deﬁnition of K

→ (∀a ∈ A)g

1

(g

2

a) = a algebraic substitution

→ (∀a ∈ A)(g

1

g

2

) a = a property (ii) of group actions

→ g

1

g

2

∈ K deﬁnition of K

Exercise 1.7.4b

Fix some a ∈ A and let S represent the stabilizer of a in G. By the subgroup criterion (proven in chapter 2), we

need show that a left identity exists and that a, b ∈ S → ab

−1

∈ S. It’s clear that 1 ∈ S, so an identity exists.

Now assume that g

1

, g

2

∈ S:

20

→ 1, g

1

, g

2

∈ S assumed

→ g

1

a = a ∧ g

2

a = a ∧ 1 a = a deﬁnition of S

→ g

1

(g

2

a) = a algebraic substitution

→ (g

1

g

2

) a = a property (ii) of group actions

→ g

1

g

2

∈ S deﬁnition of S

Exercise 1.7.5

Each step in the following proof is bidrectional (iﬀ):

→ g ∈ K assumed

↔ (∀a ∈ A)ga = a deﬁnition of K

↔ (∀a ∈ A)σ

g

(a) = a deﬁnition of σ

g

↔ σ

g

is the identity permutation on G deﬁnition of the identity function

↔ σ

g

is the identity element of S

A

deﬁnition of the group S

A

↔ g is in the kernel of ϕ : G → S

A

deﬁnition of kernel, ϕ

Exercise 1.7.6

Proof by contradiction. Assume that G is not faithful: then there are distinct nonidentity elements g

1

, g

2

such

that g

1

a = g

2

a for all a ∈ A. From this, we obtain

(g

−1

1

g

2

) a = g

−1

1

(g

2

a) = g

−1

1

(g

1

a) = (g

−1

1

g

1

) a = 1 a = a

and thus g

−1

1

g

2

∈ K. And this element cannot be the identity since g

1

,= g

2

. Thus the kernel contains a

nonidentity element. By contrapositive, if K = ¦1¦ then G is faithful.

Exercise 1.7.7

The kernel of the given action is ¦1¦; by the previous exercise, this suﬃces to prove that the action is faithful.

Exercise 1.7.8a

Let G = S

A

and let B = T(A). The identity permutation σ

1

satisﬁes property (i) of group actions (σ

1

(b) = b for

all b ∈ B). To show that property (ii) is satisﬁed, let σ

g

, σ

h

be arbitrary elements of G and let b be an arbitrary

element of B:

(σ

g

◦ σ

h

) b

= (σ

g

◦ σ

h

)(b) deﬁnition of

= σ

g

(σ

h

(b)) deﬁnition of ◦

= σ

g

(σ

h

b) deﬁnition of

Exercise 1.7.8b

The element (1 2) acts on each subset by replacing 1 (if it exists) with 2 and vice-versa. For example, (1 2)¦1, 4¦ =

¦2, 4¦. The element (1 2 3) replaces each 1 with 2, each 2 with 3, and each 3 with 1. For example, (1 2 3)¦2, 3, 4¦ =

¦3, 1, 4¦.

Exercise 1.7.9

The proof in 1.7.8(a) and the description in 1.7.8(b) still apply when subsets are replaced with ordered k-tuples.

21

Exercise 1.7.10a

We prove that the action is faithful for k < [A[ or k ≥ [Z[.

case 1) Suppose [A[ is ﬁnite and k < [A[. We show that the action of S

n

on k-element subsets of A is faithful.

Let σ

x

, σ

y

∈ S

n

be any two distinct permutations of A. Since these permutations are distinct, there is

some a ∈ A such that σ

x

(a) ,= σ

y

(a). From the invertibility of permutations this gives us the inequality

σ

x

(a) ,= σ

y

(a) → σ

−1

y

σ

x

(a) ,= σ

−1

y

(σ

y

(a)) = a

Since 1 ≥ k < n, we can choose a k-element subset B ⊂ A such that a ∈ B but σ

−1

y

(σ

x

(a)) ,∈ B. We

can now demonstrate that the action is faithful, since σ

x

(B) contains σ

x

(a), but σ

y

(B) does not contain

σ

y

(σ

−1

y

(σ

x

(a))) = σ

x

(a). Thus σ

x

and σ

y

do not perform the same action on B. But these were arbitrary

elements of S

A

, thus no two elements of S

A

perform the same action. By deﬁnition, this means that S

A

is faithful on the set of k-element subsets of A.

case 2) Suppose [A[ is ﬁnite and k = [A[. There is only one distinct subset of size k: A itself. And every

permutation of A is still the same set (just rearranged). Thus S

n

is the trivial action on k-element subsets

of [A[.

case 3) Suppose [A[ is inﬁnite. For all ﬁnite k, we can follow the logic of case (1) and conclude that the action

is faithful. If k is also inﬁnite, then we can still choose an arbitrary a ∈ A and let B = A−¦a¦, and then

follow the logic of case (1) and conclude that the action is still faithful.

Exercise 1.7.10b

Choose two arbitrary permutations σ

x

, σ

y

∈ S

n

. For these to be distinct, there must be some a ∈ A such that

σ

x

(a) ,= σ

y

(a). Having chosen such an a, let B be the k-tuple consisting of the element a repeated k times. It’s

clear that σ

x

(B) ,= σ

y

(B), so the action of S

A

is faithful. But the value of k was never speciﬁed, so this proof

holds for all values of k (ﬁnite and inﬁnite).

Exercise 1.7.12

Note that a regular n-gon is a two-dimensional shape; the three-dimensional version is a regular n-hedron. Let n

be even, and label the vertices of the n-gon clockwise as 0, 1, 2, . . . , n −1. Let the n/2 pairs of opposite vertices

be represented by the set of ordered pairs ¦a

i

¦ deﬁned as

¦a

i

¦ =

__

i,

n

2

+ i

_

: 0 ≤ i <

n

2

_

We deﬁne the action of D

2n

on the elements of ¦a

i

¦ so that the elements of D

2n

permute the set as follows:

r

k

a

i

= a

(i−k) mod n

s

k

a

i

= a

(i−kn/2) mod n

To prove this is an action, we note that r

0

a

i

= a

i

for all a

i

, so property (i) of group actions is satisﬁed. To

verify property (ii), let r

a

s

b

and r

x

s

y

be two arbitrary elements of D

2n

:

(r

a

s

b

r

x

s

y

) a

i

= a

j

, with j = ((((i −ny/2) −x) −nb/2) −a) mod n deﬁnition of , associativity of modular arith-

metic

= r

a

s

b

a

k

, with k = ((i −ny/2) −x) mod n deﬁnition of , associativity of modular arith-

metic

= r

a

s

b

(r

x

s

y

a

i

) deﬁnition of

The kernel of this action is ¦r

0

¦ = ¦1¦.

22

Exercise 1.7.13

We prove that the identity element of G is the only element in the kernel K. Property (i) of group actions

guarantees that 1

G

∈ K. But let g ∈ G be an arbitrary non-identity element of G and choose 1

G

∈ A = G.

Then g1

G

,= 1

G

and so g ,∈ K.

Exercise 1.7.14

We prove by contradiction that property (ii) of group actions is not satisﬁed. Assume A = G is non-abelian and

deﬁne the action g a = ag. Let g

1

, g

2

be arbitrary elements of G. Hypothesis to be contradicted: suppose that

property (ii) of group actions were satisﬁed.

(g

1

g

2

) a

= a(g

1

g

2

) deﬁnition of this group action

= (ag

1

)g

2

) associativity of operation on G

= g

2

(ag

1

)) deﬁnition of this group action

= g

2

(g

1

a)) deﬁnition of this group action

= (g

2

g

1

) a)) property (ii) of group actions

This demonstrates that g

1

commutes with g

2

. But these were arbitrary elements of G so all elements of G

commute, which means that G is abelian. This contradicts our initial assumption that property (ii) of group

actions is satisﬁed.

Exercise 1.7.15

Let A = G and deﬁne the action g a = ag

−1

. The identity element 1

G

satisﬁes the condition 1 a = a for all

a ∈ A. To verify property (ii):

(g

1

g

2

) a

= a(g

1

g

2

)

−1

deﬁnition of this group action

= a(g

−1

2

g

−1

1

) property of inverses

= (ag

−1

2

)g

−1

1

associativity of operation on G

= g

1

(ag

−1

2

) deﬁnition of this group action

= g

1

(g

2

a)) deﬁnition of this group action

Exercise 1.7.16

Let A = G and deﬁne the action g a = gag

−1

. The identity element 1

G

satisﬁes the condition 1 a = a for all

a ∈ A. To verify property (ii):

(g

1

g

2

) a

= (g

1

g

2

)a(g

1

g

2

)

−1

deﬁnition of this group action

= (g

1

g

2

)a(g

−1

2

g

−1

1

) property of inverses

= g

1

(g

2

(ag

−1

2

)g

−1

1

associativity of operation on G

= g

1

(g

2

ag

−1

2

) deﬁnition of this group action

= g

1

(g

2

a)) deﬁnition of this group action

Exercise 1.7.17

Let G be a group and ﬁx a value for g ∈ G. Deﬁne a mapping f : G → G as f(x) → gxg

−1

. We want to prove

that the given function is an isomorphism. We do so by showing that it’s a bijective homomorphism.

23

f is a homomorphism

f(xy) = g(xy)g

−1

= g(xg

−1

gy)g

−1

= (gxg

−1

)(gyg

−1

) = f(x)f(y)

f is surjective

Choose h ∈ G. Then g

−1

hg ∈ G and f(g

−1

hg) = h. Thus f is surjective

f is injective:

f(x) = 1 iﬀ gxg

−1

= 1 iﬀ x = g

−1

g = 1. The kernel of f consists only of the identity element; by exercise 1.6.14,

this is suﬃcient to prove that f is injective.

Exercise 1.7.18

reﬂexive:

1 ∈ H and a = 1a so a ∼ a.

transitive:

If a ∼ b then a = hb, which implies b = h

−1

a, which implies b ∼ a.

symmetric:

If a ∼ b and b ∼ c, then a = bh

1

and b = ch

2

, which implies a = ch

2

h

1

, which implies a ∼ c.

Exercise 1.7.19

Let H be a subgroup of ﬁnite group G, and let H act on G by left multiplication. Fix an element x ∈ G and

let O

x

be the orbit of x under the action of H. Deﬁne the map f : H → O

x

as h → hx. We prove that f is a

bijection.

f is surjective:

O

x

is deﬁned as the set ¦hx : h ∈ G¦ which is exactly the image of f(H).

f is injective:

h(a) = h(b) iﬀ ha = hb iﬀ a = b (by left-cancellation).

We’ve shown that [H[ = [O

x

[. But H was an arbitrary subgroup and x was an arbitrary element of G: thus

[O

x

[ = [O

y

[ for all x, y ∈ G. Applying the preceeding exercise, we conclude that G can be partitioned into

disjoint sets of size [O

x

[ = [H[; this can only occur if [G[ is an integer multiple of [H[.

Exercise 1.7.20

Label the 4 vertices of the tetrahedron as 1, 2, 3, 4. Let G be the group of rigid motions of the tetrahedron.

Each rigid motion corresponds to some permutation of the 4 vertices, so deﬁne the function ϕ : G → S

4

so that ϕ(g) is the permutation corresponding to the rigid motion g. It’s clear that ϕ is a homomorphism:

ϕ(g

1

g

2

) = ϕ(g

1

)ϕ(g

2

), since each side of the equation represents the rigid motion g

1

followed by the rigid motion

g

2

. ϕ is injective: the kernel of ϕ consists only of the identity element of G, so ϕ is injective by exercise 1.6.14.

Thus G is isomorphic to ϕ(G), which is a subgroup by exercise 1.6.13.

24

Exercise 1.7.21

Choose one face of the cube to call the ’front’ and label its vertices a

1

, a

2

, a

3

, a

4

. On the opposite face, label

the diagonally opposite points to be b

1

, b

2

, b

3

, b

4

. This labels all eight vertices of the cube. No matter how we

rotate this cube, we know several things:

• exactly four of these vertices will be on the front of the cube

• for each i exactly one of a

i

, b

i

will be on the front of the cube (because they are diagonally opposite)

• no rigid motion consists only of swapping one or more points with the points diagonally opposite (i.e.,

swap one or more a

i

with its corresponding b

i

)

This last point is particuarly important: it means that if there were a set of rigid motions that would give us

front vertices of (arbitrary example) (a

1

, b

2

, b

3

, a

4

), then none of the 15 other ordered 4-tuples we could form

from replacing a

i

with b

i

(or vice-versa) would represent a rigid motion. This means that each rigid motion of

the cube can be uniquely expressed as a permutation of (1, 2, 3, 4). We now follow the logic of the preceeding

exercise to prove an isomorphism.

Let G be the group of rigid motions of the cube. Each rigid motion corresponds to some permutation of the

4 pairs of opposite vertices, so deﬁne the function ϕ : G → S

4

so that ϕ(g) is the permutation corresponding to

the rigid motion g. It’s clear that ϕ is a homomorphism: ϕ(g

1

g

2

) = ϕ(g

1

)ϕ(g

2

), since each side of the equation

represents the rigid motion g

1

followed by the rigid motion g

2

. ϕ is injective: the kernel of ϕ consists only of the

identity element of G, so ϕ is injective by exercise 1.6.14. Thus G is isomorphic to ϕ(G), which is a subgroup

by exercise 1.6.13.

Exercise 1.7.22

We can apply the preceeding exercise with opposite faces taking the place of opposite vertices. This is intuitively

true: we could place a cube inside an octohedron by placing one vertex of the cube in the center of each face

of the octohedron, and the rigid motions of the octohedron would correspond perfectly with the rigid motions

of the cube. So the rigid motions of an octahedron are isomorphic to S

4

itself (the errata for this textbook

eliminates the ’subgroup’ qualiﬁcation, although S

4

is technically a subgroup of S

4

).

Exercise 1.7.23

Label the front, top, and one side face of the cube as (respectively) A, B, C. Label the respective opposite faces

D, E, F. The set of rigid motions of the cube can be made up from various combinations of the three basic

rotations:

r

1

= (A B D E), r

2

= (A C D F), r

3

= (C B F E)

When these rotations act on the set of opposite vertices, the action faithful. But when they act on the set of

opposite faces, they are equivalent to

r

1

= (¦A, D¦ ¦B, E¦), r

2

= (¦A, D¦ ¦C, F¦), r

3

= (¦C, F¦ ¦B, E¦)

so that r

2

1

, r

2

2

, and r

2

3

are all equal to the identity motion. The kernel of the action becomes

K = ¦i, r

2

1

, r

2

2

, r

2

3

¦

(Any product of elements of K can be simpliﬁed to one of these elements). Note that 4[24, in concordance with

exercise 19.

25

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