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in nature compared to other accounting courses. Rather than focusing on learning the rules, techniques, and computations required to prepare financial statements, auditing emphasizes learning a framework of analytical and logical skills to evaluate the relevance and reliability of the systems and processes responsible for financial information, as well as the information itself. To be successful, students must learn the framework and then learn to use logic and common sense in applying auditing concepts to various circumstances and situations. Understanding auditing can improve the decision making ability of consultants, business managers, and accountants by providing a framework for evaluating the usefulness and reliability of information. 1-2 There is a demand for auditing in a free-market economy because the agency relationship between an absentee owner and a manager produces a natural conflict of interest due to the information asymmetry that exists between the owner and manager. As a result, the agent agrees to be monitored as part of his/her employment contract. Auditing appears to be a cost-effective form of monitoring. The empirical evidence suggests auditing was demanded prior to government regulation such as statutory audit requirements. Additionally, many private companies and other entities not subject to government auditing regulations also demand auditing. 1-3 The agency relationship between an owner and manager produces a natural conflict of interest because of differences in the two parties’ goals and because of information asymmetry that exists between them. That is, the manager generally has more information about the ‘true’ financial position and results of operations of the entity than the absentee owner does. If both parties seek to maximize their own self-interest, it is likely that the manager will not act in the best interest of the owner and may manipulate the information provided to the owner accordingly. 1-4 Independence is an important standard for auditors. If an auditor is not independent of the client, users may lose confidence in the auditor’s ability to report truthfully on the financial statements, and the auditor’s work loses its value. From an agency perspective, if the principal (owner) knows that the auditor is not independent, the owner will not trust the auditor’s work. Thus, the agent will not hire the auditor because the auditor’s report will not be effective in reducing information risk from the perspective of the owner. 1-5 Auditing (broadly defined) is a systematic process of objectively obtaining and evaluating evidence regarding assertions about economic actions and events to ascertain the degree of correspondence between those assertions and established criteria and communicating the results to interested users. Assurance is engagement in which a practitioner expresses a conclusion designed to enhance the degree of confidence of the intended users other than the responsible party about the outcome of the evaluation or measurement of a subject matter against criteria. Examples of assurance services are assurance (audit) of financial statements, assurance of prospective financial information, assurance of reporting on internal control, assurance of sustainability reporting, and assurance of electronic commerce. 1
1-6 The phrase systematic process implies that there should be a well-planned, logical approach for conducting an audit that involves objectively obtaining and evaluating evidence. 1-7 Materiality: "Omissions or misstatements of items are material if they could, individually or collectively, influence the economic decisions of users taken on the basis of the financial statements. Materiality depends on the size and nature of the omission or misstatement judged in the surrounding circumstances. The size or nature of the item, or a combination of both, could be the determining factor." (IASB). Audit risk is defined as the risk that the auditor expresses an inappropriate audit opinion when the financial statements are materially misstated (ISA 200). The audit report states that the auditor obtains “reasonable assurance” whether the financial statements are free from “material” misstatement. The term reasonable assurance informs the reader that there is some level of risk that the audit did not detect all material misstatements. In addition, the auditor’s opinion commonly uses the wording that the financial statements present fairly, “in all material respects.” These phrases communicate to third parties that the audit report is limited to material information. 1-8 On most audits, it is not feasible or cost-effective to audit all transactions. For example, in a small business, the auditor might be able to examine all transactions that occurred during the period. However, it is unlikely that the owner of the business could afford to pay for such an extensive audit. For a large organization, the sheer volume of transactions prevents the auditor from examining every transaction. Thus, there is a trade-off between the exactness or precision of the audit and its cost. 1-9 The major phases of the audit are: • Client acceptance/continuance and establishing engagement terms • Preplanning • Assess risks and establish materiality • Plan the audit • Consider internal control • Audit business processes and related accounts • Complete the audit • Evaluate results and issue audit report
1-10 The auditor’s understanding of the entity and its environment includes knowledge about: (1) the nature of the entity, (2) its objectives and strategies, (3) its industry, regulatory, and other external factors, (4) its management, (5) its governance, (6) its measurement and performance process, and (7) its business processes. 1-11 Sometimes auditors will face situations where no standard audit procedure exists, such as the example from the text of verifying the inventory of reindeer. Such circumstances require that the auditor possess creativity and innovation when planning and administering audit procedures where little or no precedent exists. Every client is different, and applying auditing concepts in different situations requires logic and common sense, and frequently creativity and innovation. Solutions to Problems 1-12 The memo should cite the following facts: • There is a historical relationship between accounting and auditing. 2
When parties to the agency relationship (contract) do not possess the same amount of information (information asymmetry) there is a natural conflict of interest between the parties. For example, when an owner and manager are negotiating an employment contract, the owner may assume that the manager likely will use organizational funds for personal uses. Auditing plays an important role in such relationships. The owner and manager will consummate an employment contract only if the manager agrees to be monitored. Auditing can be used to monitor the contract agreed to by the two parties. (P.S. As a lawyer, Lee should be well versed on contract law.) Auditing is also used to monitor other types of contracts for which no laws or regulations require an audit, for example, contracts between management and debt holders. There is historical evidence of forms of auditing in the early Greek states and in the United Kingdom during the industrial revolution. Additional evidence for the demand for auditing is also provided by the fact that many private companies and other entities not subject to a statutory audit requirement contract for audits.
1-13 There are two major factors that may make an audit necessary for Greenbloom Garden Centers. First, the company may require long-term financing for its expansion into other cities. Entities such as banks or insurance companies are likely to be the sources of the company’s debt financing. These entities may require audited financial statements before lending significant funds and require audited financial statements during the time period the debt is outstanding. There is information asymmetry between the lender of funds and the owner of the business, and this asymmetry results in information risk to the lender. Even if the business could get funding without an audit, a standard audit report with an unmodified opinion by a reputable auditor might very well reduce the lender’s information risk and make the terms of the loan more favorable to the owner. Second, as the company grows, the family will lose control over the day-to-day operations of the stores. An audit can provide an additional monitoring activity for the family in controlling the expanded operations of the company. 1-14 a. Evidence supporting the financial statements consists of the underlying accounting data and all corroborating information available to the auditor. b. Management makes assertions about components of the financial statements. For example, an entity's financial statements may contain a line item that accounts receivable are €1,750,000. In this instance, management is asserting, among other things, that the entity owns the receivable and that the receivables are properly valued (i.e., net realizable value). Audit evidence helps the auditor determine whether management’s assertions are being met. If the auditor is comfortable that he or she can provide reasonable assurance that all assertions are met for all accounts, he or she can issue an audit report with an unmodified opinion. c. In searching for and evaluating evidence, the auditor should be concerned with the relevance and reliability of evidence. If the auditor relies on evidence that relates to a different assertion from the one being tested, an incorrect conclusion may be reached about the management assertion. Reliability refers to the ability of evidence to signal the true state of the assertion. 1-15 The auditor’s understanding is obtained during the first two boxes shown in Figure 1-3— Client Acceptance/Continuance and Pre-Planning. The intervening steps include: Assess Risks and Establish Materiality In order to properly plan the audit, the audit team must make a preliminary assessment of the client’s business risks and establish a preliminary 3
S. The auditor should prepare a written audit plan that sets forth. 4 . and searches for any events subsequent to the balance sheet date that may impact the financial statements. the auditor determines the audit procedures that are necessary to reduce the risk of material misstatement to a low level for the financial statement accounts affected by a particular business process. Consider Internal Control When obtaining an understanding of the entity and its environment. 1-16 a. 4. The purpose is of this phase to plan an effective and efficient audit. the auditor should gain an understanding of internal control sufficient to assess the risk of material misstatement. Establish materiality and assess risks. Plan the Audit In developing the audit plan. The auditor then evaluates the internal controls in order to assess the risk that they will not prevent or detect a material misstatement in the financial statements. Complete the Audit After the auditor has completed testing the account balances. The individual audit procedures are then directed toward specific assertions in the account balance that are likely to be misstated. The auditor must obtain sufficient appropriate evidence in order to reach and justify a conclusion on the fairness of the financial statements. The auditor establishes the preliminary judgment about materiality and makes a preliminary assessment of the client’s business risks. During this phase of the audit. 3. the sufficiency of the evidence gathered needs to be evaluated. This phase involves (1) determining the audit engagement team requirements and (2) ensuring the independence of the audit team and audit firm. the nature. The auditor also assesses the possibility of contingencies. plan the audit by performing procedures to understand the design of controls relevant to the audit. The audit partner or manager should discuss with other members of the audit team the susceptibility of the entity to material misstatements due to error or fraud. extent. and determine whether they have been implemented. The audit team relies on these assessments to then assess risk relating to the likelihood of material misstatements in the financial statements.) Audit Business Processes and Related Accounts Based on the knowledge of the entity and its environment. above): 1. Client acceptance/continuance and establish the terms of the engagement. The auditor’s risk assessments and materiality judgment are used to define the scope for the audit.judgment about materiality. and timing of the audit work. in reasonable detail. The auditor understands and evaluates the client’s internal controls in order to assess the risk that they will not prevent or detect a material misstatement. the auditor uses the knowledge of the client to plan the audit and perform preliminary analytical procedures. The auditor establishes an understanding with the client regarding the services to be performed. Consider internal control. 5. 2. The major phases of the audit and their descriptions are (also see solution to 115. Plan the audit. Chapter 17 covers each of these issues in detail. (Note that Chapter 7 covers the audit of internal control for public companies in the U. the auditor should be guided by (1) the procedures performed to gain and document an understanding of the entity and (2) the results of the risk assessment process. Preplanning. The auditor decides to accept a new client or to retain an existing client. The auditor may conduct preliminary analytical procedures to identify specific transactions or account balances that should receive special attention due to an increased risk of material misstatement.
The auditor conducts substantive tests. as well as the financial reporting framework. This occurred because existing financial reporting framework had allowed too much latitude in determining the carrying amounts for problem loans and repossessed collateral. In the discussion case OAG reviewed the 7 banks with financial difficulties by obtaining and reviewing key documents. Audit business processes and related accounts. c. the auditor may become aware of material weaknesses in the entity's accounting systems. Some of the key findings by the OAG were: • Reports had failed to provide early warnings of impaired asset values. The criteria used by OAG to evaluate the adequacy and degree of compliance with the requirements were relevant laws and regulations. While audit procedures may be designed to test a specific assertion. Such evidence may also be relevant to the client’s assertions regarding whether accounts receivable balances were correct at the end of the period. and the reports were compared to determine if they provided adequate and timely disclosure of the true nature of the banks' financial condition prior to the financial difficulties.g. Off-site monitoring involves review and analysis of reports such as quarterly reports and other information requested by the regulator. An example would be when an auditor obtains evidence about a client’s transactions affecting the inventory account and whether sales of inventory were included in the proper period. 7. However. their contents were summarized and analyzed. In most countries such Office or other regulatory bodies (e... Complete the audit. during the course of this work. reviews of bank financial accounting records. Based on the collection and evaluation of evidence. the auditor issues a report on the fair presentation of the financial statements. This included recent reports and audited financial statements prepared by bank management.6. On-site evaluations typically involve inquiries of bank management personnel. If the employees know that their work will be audited. they are less likely to commit errors or fraud.g. The auditor searches for contingencies and subsequent events. and performs a final review of the evidence gathered. The auditor may also make suggestions on how to correct the weaknesses. The auditor is required to communicate this information to management or those charged with governance (e. they may simultaneously provide evidence on another account or assertion. the board of directors). These bodies normally exercise their regulatory supervision and examination duties through on-site and off-site evaluations of banks’ financial condition and safety and soundness practices. Each of the reports was reviewed. Auditors develop an understanding of an entity's internal control in order to establish the scope of the audit. The OAG did not review the specific application of auditing standards used by the independent auditors in reaching their opinion on these banks. and reports of examination and reviews prepared by the regulators. Solutions to Discussion Case 1-17 a. In the discussion case the Office of Auditor General (OAG) has examined banks in financial difficulties. Issue the audit report. The auditor's work on internal control may also have a preventive effect on the entity's employees. and a review of bank operating policies and procedures. b. a Financial Supervisory Authority) have supervision and examination responsibilities for banks. 5 . including analytical procedures and the details of the account balances searching for material misstatements. 8.
org) contains information on accounting scholar and research activities in the U. and numerous links. and numerous European and international links. its committees. It also contains information on other activities by the SEC. and its publications. including to professional organizations. • Fédération des Experts Comptables Européens (FEE) web site (www. • The International Organization of Supreme Audit Institutions (INTOSAI) web site (www.S. 6 .S. Thus. Securities and Exchange Commission’s (SEC) Edgar Web site (www.be/) contains information about FEE.asp) contains information on accounting scholars and research activities in Europe. • The International Accounting Standards Board’s (IASB) home page (www. Audits of quarterly reports will improve the timeliness of reliable financial reports and help identify internal control weaknesses.sec. • The Institute of Internal Auditors home page (www.org/) contains information about IOSCO. including the IFAC Code of Ethics for Professional Accountants and the International Auditing and Assurance Standards Board’s (IAASB) International Standards on Auditing (ISAs). including inadequacies in board of director activities. • The American Accounting Association’s home page (www.iasb. There had been serious breakdowns in corporate governance.org/associations/eaa/index.int/comm/internal_market/financial-reporting/index_en) contains information on accounting and auditing in the Internal Market in the European Union. • The International Organization of Securities Commissions (IOSCO) home site (www.fee.org/) contains information on the organization. such audits can benefit bank examiners in enhancing the safety and soundness of financial institutions. Following are some suggested sites: • The International Federation of Accountants (www.gov) contains all filings by public companies with the U. accounting journals. • The American Institute of Certified Public Accountant’s (AICPA) home page (www.eaaonline. its boards and committees.cfenet. • The Association of Certified Fraud Examiners home page (www. The IFAC site also includes links to its more than 160 member organizations. b. • The U. • The European Commission Internal Market DG home site (europa. standards.S.theiia. The OAG also noted that there had been weaknesses in operating management and loan portfolio management.iosco.aaahq. its standards.eu.org) web site provides detailed information on the organization.com) contains extensive information on the Association’s certification as Certified Fraud Examiners (CFE). and education sites.• Pervasive internal control weaknesses had contributed to the financial difficulties.intosai.ifac. its publication. • The European Accounting Association’s (EAA) home site (www.org/) contains information about INTOSAI. Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC). Independent audits are a critical component of corporate governance and can enhance the effectiveness of the examination and supervision process. and links to its member bodies.org) contains extensive information on the organization's activities. its publications.aicpa. and its pronouncements. Solutions to Internet Assignments 1-18 There are numerous Internet sites that contain accounting and auditing information.org) contains detailed information on internal auditing. and links to its member bodies and other relevant organizations.
com/) provides information on the retail marketplace industry.pcaobus. • MarketResearch. a number of the major public accounting firms have industry specialization in retail.marketresearch. Some suggestions are: • Pegasus Research International.org) maintains a site that contains information and statistics on international direct marketing.retailnet.mindbranch. • The major public accounting firms and many smaller firms also maintain web sites.com/) maintains a home page that contains statistics on E-commerce and the state of the Internet. • 1-19 A search of the Internet will identify a number of potential sources for information on the mail order industry. • Retail Net’s home page (www.Com’s home site (www. including the catalogue and mail order industry. • The International Society for Strategic Marketing (www.org/) offers detailed information about the PCAOB and its standards.com/) provides information on e-commerce and the mail order industry. LLC (www.The Public Company Accounting Oversight Board’s (PCAOB) web site (www. The sites of the firms contain information on the retail industry. 7 .issm. • Lastly.
2-3 The essential components of the high-level model of business offered in the chapter are: corporate governance. timing. timing. 2) compliance with laws and regulations. The entity’s information and internal control systems must be designed to ensure that these transactions are properly executed. combined with allegations of auditors refusing to challenge management’s actions (including widespread earnings management). and extent of testing. WorldCom. and 3) the effectiveness and efficiency of operations. This expansion from their core audit practice. controls. resulted in tension between regulators and the accounting profession. resulting in more public oversight of the profession and new regulations. The scandals of the late 1990s and early 2000s brought into the question the profession’s ability to self-regulate. IFAC as well as regulators issued new rules on auditor independence. Internal control is required to ensure that transactions are appropriately conducted and recorded by the information system and company employees. They provide safeguards to ensure the 1) reliability of financial reporting. strategies. captured. the “back to basics” emphasis. While these changes have caused pain and turmoil. and extent of the audit so that it is efficient and effective. combined with changes in the overall business environment. Major audit firms started reorganizing their portfolio of non-audit services offered. and many others.CHAPTER 2 THE FINANCIAL STATEMENT AUDITING ENVIRONMENT Answers to Review Questions 2-1 During the late 1990s and early 2000s. It should be capable of producing accurate financial reports to summarize the effects of the entity’s transactions.g. objectives. Under pressure to restore the public’s confidence. resulting in more public oversight of the profession and stricter regulations. 2-5 The three categories of management assertions cover every aspect of what is needed for a transaction to be handled properly. along with auditing firms’ renewed focus on thorough and effective financial statement audits. Auditing standards require that the auditor obtain an understanding of internal control in planning the nature. Ultimately. firms aggressively sought opportunities to expand their operations in non-audit services such as consulting. for a financial statement account to be fairly stated. subsequent financial fiascos such as those at Ahold. The responsiveness of the profession to the needs of the public. both the auditors and their professional organizations (e. processes. and processed in order to produce accurate financial statements. To achieve its objectives. Enron. resulted in new regulations and guidelines. and 1 . transactions. Corporate governance is carried out by management and the board of directors (supervisory board) in order to ensure that business objectives are carried out and that company assets are safeguarded. and regulators took action. Tyco. they highlight the essential importance of auditing in our economic system. IFAC and IAASB). caused investors to doubt the fundamental integrity of the financial reporting system. However. Auditors’ independence issues gained renewed focus. and financial statements. 2-4 The information system must maintain a record of all businesses transactions. management must formulate strategies and implement various processes which are in turn carried out through business transactions. will likely prove healthy for the financial reporting systems and for the profession. 2-2 The accounting profession’s expansion into new areas. investors and regulators will be crucial for future regulatory measures. It is important that the auditor obtain a firm understanding of these components in order to plan the nature. Parmalat.
However. 2-8 Management is responsible to prepare financial statements. the agent will not hire the auditor because the auditor’s report will not be effective in reducing information risk from the perspective of the owner. (5) auditor’s responsibility. and Specialized Areas. In some jurisdictions the auditor has additional responsibilities to report on other matters that are supplementary to expressing an opinion on the financial statements. it is important to note that an auditor’s unmodified opinion does not mean that errors or fraud do not exist but rather that there is reasonable assurance that they do not exist in material amounts. International Standards on Review Engagements (ISREs). (6) auditor’s opinion. and (2) an examination of tax returns of individuals and companies by the tax authorities for compliance with the tax laws. users may lose confidence in the auditor’s ability to report truthfully on the financial statements. and International Standards on Related Services (ISRSs). The management assertions form the basis for planning and evaluating the evidence that the auditor must obtain about the fairness of the client’s financial statements. General Principles and Responsibilities. In order to issue this opinion. International Standards on Assurance Engagements (ISAEs). ISAs are grouped into categories: Introductory Matters (currently no standards). International Standards on Auditing (ISAs). From an agency perspective. (2) internal auditors examining the effectiveness and efficiency of funds being spent on the entity’s computer resources. if the principal (owner) knows that the auditor is not independent. and (3) a university hiring an external auditor to examine the effectiveness and efficiency of student advisory services. (7) auditor’s signature. (4) management’s responsibility. Thus. An unqualified audit report for a public company also contains an explanatory paragraph referring to the audit of internal control. (3) the introductory paragraph. (2) the addressee. The auditor is responsible to issue an opinion in regards to the financial statements prepared by management. as illustrated in this chapt 2-10 Examples of compliance assurance (audits) include (1) internal auditors determining whether corporate rules and policies are being followed by departments within the organization. Audit Conclusions and Reporting. Examples of operational assurance (audits) include (1) assurance (an audit) by the Medicines Control Agency to determine the efficiency and effectiveness of procedures for introducing new medicine to the market. (2) assistance by an auditor to a law 2 . Using Work of Others. 2-7 Independence is an important standard for auditors. Risk Assessment and Response to Assessed Risks. (8) the date of the report. the auditor must plan and perform the audit in accordance with established standards to obtain reasonable assurance that the financial statements are free of material misstatement. 2-6 The five IAASB categories of standards are: International Standards on Quality Control (ISQCs). that fairly present the company’s financial condition and operations.for the financial statements to be presented appropriately and to contain adequate disclosures. the owner will not trust the auditor’s work. Such reporting is addressed in a separate section after the auditor’s opinion on the financial statements. Audit Evidence. If an auditor is not independent of the client. in accordance with the applicable financial reporting framework. and (9) auditor’s address. 2-9 There are nine elements of the auditor's standard report with an unmodified opinion on the financial statements: (1) the title. and the auditor’s work loses its value. whether caused by error or fraud. Examples of forensic assurance (audits) include (1) an examination by an external auditor of cash disbursements for payments to unauthorized vendors.
) IFAC has sought IOSCO’s endorsement of the IAASB standards for use in all the capital markets regulated by IOSCO members. The IFAC Council is responsible for deciding constitutional questions and electing the IFAC Board. assurance. The Transnational Auditors Committee (TAC) is the executive committee of FOF. (3) government auditors. In its goal of developing guidelines for financial audits for application of the Standards. The Ethics Committee issues ethics standards. The Professional Accountants in Business (PAIB) develops good practice guidelines on issues affecting professional accountants in business. IFAC and IAASB strongly support the work of IASB in the setting and promotion of the international accounting standards. IOSCO cooperate closely with IFAC. and related services. The IFAC Board is responsible for setting policy and overseeing IFAC operations. The International Auditing and Assurance Standards Board (IAASB) develops and issues the international standards on auditing. 3 . the implementation of programs. The International Public Sector Accounting Standards Board (IPSASB) issues International Public Sector Accounting Standards. The Compliance Advisory Panel (CAP) is the IFAC administration’s instrument to oversee the implementation and operation of the Member Body Compliance Program. 2-11 Auditors can be classified under four types: (1) external auditors. as well as practice statements. The Forum of Firms (FOF) is an organization of international audit firms that perform audits of financial statements that are used across national borders. as far as possible. quality control. IOSCO participates in the IAASB Consultative Advisory Group (CAG) and in the selection of the members of IFAC Public Interest Oversight Board (PIOB). (2) internal auditors. When a particular financial reporting framework or specific accounting rules are referred to in an ISA. and (3) an independent auditor helping identify hidden assets as part of a divorce settlement. The Education Committee develops guidelines related to the education of accountants. The International Organization of Securities Commissions (IOSCO) organizes national securities commissions. INTOSAI cooperates closely with IAASB in projects relevant for public sector auditing. draw upon the ISAs. the reference is to IASs/IFRSs. IOSCO has resolved that the guidelines should. and (4) forensic auditors. INTOSAI has issued Auditing Standards to financial audits in the public sector. including guidelines on corporate code of ethical conduct. and the work of IFAC committees and task forces.enforcement body in tracing laundered monies by organized criminals. 2-12 The Public Interest Oversight Board (PIOB) is an independent body charged with the oversight of the public interest activities of IFAC. (For example. Statements on Standards for Tax Services 2-13 The International Accounting Standards Board (IASB) publishes the International Financial Reporting Standards (IFRSs) and has adopted the International Accounting Standards (IASs). The International Organization of Supreme Audit Institutions (INTOSAI) assembles national Supreme Audit Institutions.
The work performed was not adequately . To satisfy the IFAC Code. 3. management. Contingent fees for audit engagements create unacceptable selfinterest and advocacy threats. IFAC Code requires Jones to perform the audit with diligence. International Standards on Auditing: 1. Jones has an obligation for fairness to the owners. The IFAC Code of Ethics requires that the accountant performs his or her professional responsibilities with diligence. 2. The IFAC Code of Ethics requires that the accountant performs his or her professional responsibilities with competence. It was inappropriate for Jones to hire the two students to conduct the audit. Jones must be without bias with respect to the client under audit. Auditing standards requires that the engagement partner is satisfied that the engagement team has the appropriate capabilities and competence to perform the audit (ISA 220). Sally Jones’ Actions Resulting in Failure to Comply with IFAC Code of Ethics and International Standards on Auditing 2. In addition. Diligent means that the professional accountant and those working under his or her authority should observe technical and professional standards.Solutions to Problems 2-14 Brief References to IFAC Code of Ethics and International Standards on Auditing IFAC Code of Ethics: 1. 1. Jones accepted the engagement without considering the availability of competent staff. Although a junior assistant has not completed his formal education. and creditors who may rely on the report. Independence is related to the basic principles of integrity and objectivity as well as professional scepticism. he may help in the conduct of the examination as long as there is proper supervision and review. A professional accountant should also take steps to ensure that those working under his or her authority in a professional capacity have appropriate training and supervision. Jones failed to supervise the assistants. which imposes on Jones and everyone in Jones's organization a responsibility to observe the auditing standards. The IFAC Code of Ethics requires that practitioners should be both independent of mind and in appearance for audits. Jones is not independent in either fact or appearance with respect to the assignment undertaken. Because of the financial interest in whether the bank loan is granted to Boucher. The 4 1. The examination must be conducted by persons with proper education and experience in the field of auditing.
Although the Jones report contains an expression of opinion. 4. Jones’s improper examination would not enable her to determine whether accounting principles have been consistently applied. 3. The report shall contain either an expression of opinion regarding the financial statements. When an overall opinion cannot be expressed. In all cases where an auditor's name is associated with financial statements. planned. taken as a whole. The auditor shall plan the audit so that the engagement will be performed in an effective manner (ISA 300). Jones’s report made no reference to the ISAs. such opinion is not based on the results of a proper audit examination. The report shall state that the audit includes evaluating the appropriateness of accounting policies used and the reasonableness of accounting estimates made by management.engagement partner shall also take responsibility for direction. 2. Jones should disclaim an opinion because she failed to conduct an examination in accordance with ISAs. The auditor shall obtain an understanding of internal control relevant to the audit (ISA 315). as well as evaluating the overall presentation of the financial statements (ISA 700). Jones merely checked the mathematical accuracy of the records and summarized the accounts. 5. the 5 . Standard audit procedures and techniques were not performed. Because Jones did not conduct a proper examination. supervision and performance of the audit (ISA 220). 2. 4. . or an assertion to the effect that an opinion cannot be expressed. The work performed was more an accounting service than it was an auditing service. The report shall state that the audit was conducted in accordance with the ISAs or relevant national standards (ISA 700). Jones did not study internal control. There appears to have been no audit examination at all. 5. the report should state that no opinion can be expressed as to the fair presentation of the financial statements in accordance with the financial reporting framework. nor did the assistants. 3. the reasons therefore should be stated. Jones acquired little evidence that would support the fairness of the financial statements. 76. The auditor shall obtain sufficient appropriate evidence to be able to draw reasonable conclusions on which to base the audit opinion (ISA 500).
2-29 2-15 Circumstance 1. Solutions to Discussion Case 2-17 Part I. There are arguments both for and against having formal standards for independent auditors who consult. 2. Type of Audit Operational Financial statement Compliance or operational Forensic Operational Operational Compliance Compliance or forensic Type of Auditor Government External Internal or external Internal.report should contain a clear-cut indication of the character of the auditor’s work. The auditor should express a qualified opinion or disclaim an opinion. 2-16 Item Number a. f. external or forensic Type of Opinion 1. d. g. The primary disadvantage 6 . c. or internal Internal or external Government Government. and perhaps more guidance for consultants (to allow them to perform more effective consulting engagements). external or forensic Government. The financial statements are affected by a departure from the financial reporting framework. The auditor should express a qualified or adverse opinion. some assurance that a minimal level of service quality would be attained. b. h. if any (ISA 700). 2. The auditor has a scope limitation due to a lack of evidence. Advantages include potential increase in public trust. e. external.
Note that Part A of the IFAC Code of Ethics applies to all professional accountants. Their relationship with Swidler could have made E&Y feel that they could not lose the engagement under any circumstances.) Part B of IFAC Code of Ethics applies to all professional accountants in public practice. 2-20 A search of the homepage of many companies will include links to their latest financial information. was E&Y’s advice affected by their relationship with the landlord? Is this relationship the reason that E&Y’s cost-cutting suggestions did not go farther? These questions point out the importance of independence in fact and appearance. That is. As mentioned in Part a. In another sense. Members are typical a national professional organization that has its own homepage. All IAASB exposure drafts are accessible using the link ‘Exposure Drafts’. irrespective of functional classification (e. they should have disclosed the nature of these relationships to MGR. (A professional accountant is an individual who is a member of an IFAC body.) Part B of the Code includes certain restrictions in providing consulting services to audit clients. a. tax or consulting) in a firm that provides professional services. the relationship with Rouse could have caused E&Y to hesitate to suggest that the stores for which Rouse was the landlord be closed for fear of losing business from Rouse. If standards were not thought out carefully. These restrictions and IFAC Code of Ethics are covered in a later chapter. and Ethics Pronouncements can be downloaded after registration. audit. thereby explaining their apparently lackadaisical attitude towards the engagement. Even if E&Y acted ethically. its mission and activities. Specifically. this relationship creates the appearance of impropriety. E&Y acted unethically. Examining the independent auditor’s report and financial statements will allow the student have a better idea as to how the chapter’s information is applied in real companies. 2-18 Part II. b. (A professional accountant in public practice is a professional accountant. perhaps the standards would put auditors at a disadvantage relative to non-auditors in the sense that auditors would be subject to standards that constrain their activities or perhaps result in their not being able to compete with non-auditors in the area of fees. 7 . In one sense. containing information about the organization. it is difficult to ascertain whether these relationships caused E&Y to act unethically. Assurance.would result from the fact that auditors who consult compete with consulting firms comprised of non-auditors. Detailed information about IAASB and the Ethics Committee are found using the link ‘IFAC Boards and Committees’. By using the link ‘Standards and Guidance’ IFAC Handbook of International Auditing. even when acting in a consulting capacity. Solutions to Internet Assignments 2-19 The IFAC’s homepage contains links to IFAC members via ‘About IFAC’.g.
3-4 In understanding of the entity and its environment. 3-6 Auditing standards define errors as unintentional misstatements or omissions of amounts or disclosures in financial statements. Auditor’s business risk is the auditor’s exposure to loss or injury to professional practice from litigation. • New locations. timing and extent) of the audit procedures performed. • Significant new products or services or significant new lines of business. reorganizations or other unusual events. detection risk has an inverse relationship with inherent risk and control risk. 3-3 Sampling risk refers to the fact that. 3-5 Some examples of conditions and events that may indicate the existence of business risks are: • Significant changes in the entity such as large acquisitions. or misinterpret an audit result. (4) measurement and review of the entity’s financial performance. or other events arising in connection with financial statements audited and reported on. it is possible that the sample drawn is not representative of the population and a wrong conclusion may be made on the fairness of the account balance. In simple terms. while auditor’s business risk relates to the auditor's exposure to financial loss and damage to his or her professional reputation. regulatory. 1 . Examples of errors include mistakes in gathering or processing from which financial statements are prepared. the auditor does not examine 100 percent of the account balance or class of transactions. (5) internal control. Fraud includes intentional manipulation. Since only a subset of the population is examined. (3) its objectives and strategies. and related business risks. The levels of inherent risk and control risk are functions of the client and its environment. Nonsampling risk occurs because an auditor may use an inappropriate audit procedure. • Operations in areas with unstable economies. Fraud is defined as intentional misstatements that can be classified into two types: (1) misstatements arising from fraudulent financial reporting and (2) misstatements arising from misappropriation of assets. the auditor gathers knowledge about: (1) industry. The auditor can control detection risk through the scope (nature. audit risk is the risk that an auditor will issue an unmodified opinion on materially misstated financial statements. 3-2 Inherent risk and control risk differ from detection risk in that inherent risk and control risk exist independently of the audit. in many instances. • Significant changes in the industry in which the entity operates. Thus. adverse publicity. and other external factors. and mistakes in the application of accounting principles. and the auditor has little control over these risks. • Significant changes in the IT environment.CHAPTER 3 RISK ASSESSMENT AND MATERIALITY Answers to Review Questions 3-1 Audit risk is the risk that the auditor expresses an inappropriate audit opinion when the financial statements are materially misstated. • High degree of complex regulation. (2) the nature of the entity. fail to detect a misstatement when applying an appropriate audit procedure. unreasonable accounting estimates arising from oversight or misinterpretation of facts.
3-11 Qualitative factors that may affect the establishment of the preliminary judgment about materiality (step 1) are shown in Table 3-12. when the aggregate misstatements are greater than the planned judgment about materiality. which is multiplied by a percentage factor to determine the initial quantitative judgment about materiality. such assessments may be higher or lower than the actual inherent risk and control risk that exist for the client. or alteration of accounting records or supporting documents from which the financial statements are prepared. When the aggregate misstatements are less than the preliminary judgment about materiality. Conversely. As a result. or a variant of net income. the auditor concludes that the financial statements are fairly presented. The auditor establishes a preliminary judgment about materiality by choosing a base. Third. 3-10 Total assets or total revenues are better bases for determining materiality for many entities because these factors are more stable and less variable from year to year than is net income (profit).e. and theft of assets such as cash or inventory. as a base when the entity is close to breaking even or experiencing a loss. 3-9 The three major steps in applying materiality are: Step 1: Plan a preliminary judgment about materiality. since the auditor assesses inherent risk and control risk. Many of these qualitative factors are cited in ISA 320 ‘Materiality in the Identification and Evaluation of Misstatements’ (exposure draft). Difficulties arise when using net income. transactions. the audit risk model does not consider the possibility of non-sampling risk. “Materiality” 2 . In other words. Step 2: Determine tolerable misstatement. the model assumes that its components are independent of one another while they are likely to be dependent in the real world. the financial statements of events. likely misstatements and known misstatements) to the preliminary judgment about materiality. the model does not separately take into account fraud risk. This amount can be adjusted for qualitative factors that may be relevant for the engagement. or bases. intentional misapplication of accounting principles relating to amounts. 99. misrepresentation in. firms would prefer to have their auditors establish similar materiality judgments for clients with similar circumstances. auditing firms should develop policies and procedures to assist their auditors in establishing materiality judgments for clients in order to minimize the variability of such judgments by firm personnel. or intentional omission from. or other significant information. First. Step 3: Estimate likely misstatements and compare the totals to the preliminary judgment about materiality. Tolerable misstatement is the amount of planning materiality that is allocated to the account balances or classes of transactions so that the auditor can plan the scope of audit procedures for the individual account balance or class of transactions. or disclosure. the auditor should request that the client adjust the financial statements. 3-8 Professional standards provide very little specific guidance on how to assess what is material to a reasonable user. Second. manner of presentation. Last. classification. 3-7 The audit risk model has a number of limitations. This step involves determining tolerable misstatement based on planning materiality. The auditor estimates likely misstatements and compares the aggregate misstatements (i.falsification. SEC Staff Accounting Bulleting No.
is the risk that the auditor expresses an inappropriate audit opinion when the financial statements are materially misstated 2. If significantly lower materiality levels become appropriate in evaluating the audit findings.3-12 Qualitative factors that may affect the establishment of the evaluation of materiality (step 3) are shown in Table 3-12. Inherent risk and control risk differ from detection risk in that they exist independently of the audit of financial statements. could be the determining factor. 1. 3. Materiality depends on the size and nature of the omission or misstatement judged in the surrounding circumstances. Detection risk has an inverse relationship to inherent and control risk. The size or nature of the item. influence the economic decisions of users taken on the basis of the financial statements. when planning an audit. and the auditor's judgment as influenced by the auditor's perception of the needs of a reasonable person who will rely on the financial statements. the auditor should reevaluate the sufficiency of the audit procedures already performed. 1. whereas detection risk relates to the auditor's procedures and can be changed at the auditor's discretion. 3. 1 Detection Risk 25% 3 . A number of qualitative factors also affect materiality. Solutions to Problems 3-13 a. 2. individually or collectively. Detection risk is the risk that the auditor will not detect a material misstatement that exists in the financial statements. Many of these qualitative factors are cited in ISA 320 ‘Materiality in the Identification and Evaluation of Misstatements’ (exposure draft). Omissions or misstatements of items are material if they could. 3-14 Client No. b. Materiality is affected by the nature and amount of an item in relation to the nature and amount of items in the financial statements under examination. cannot anticipate all of the circumstances that may ultimately influence judgment about materiality in evaluating the audit findings at the completion of the audit. The auditor's judgment about materiality for planning purposes may be different from materiality for evaluation purposes because the auditor. Control risk is the risk that material misstatements that could occur will not be prevented or detected by the internal controls. assuming no related internal controls. Inherent risk is the susceptibility of an assertion to material misstatement. or a combination of both.
the industry is very competitive. 4 . Johnson is expanding rapidly throughout the southeast. the industry is affected by changes in technology. 5. 10% 80% 25% Detection Risk Moderate High Low Low B D C B B 6.2 3 4 3-15 Client No. Second. 10. resulting in a lower assessment of detection risk and more substantive testing. b. 9. Third. 1 2 3 4 3-16 1. First. The industry factors result in an increased assessment of the risk of material misstatement for MaxiWrite. 4. First. The factors affecting the assessment of the risk of material misstatement for MaxiWrite all relate to industry characteristics. dominates the decision making in the company. Second. one individual. the company is experiencing a slowdown in sales. This factor should lead to a higher assessment for the risk of material misstatement because there is no review of important decisions and actions may be taken that are not in the best interest of the company or its stockholders. there has been turnover in two financial positions within the company. These factors lead to an increased assessment for the risk of material misstatement. and MaxiWrite is not one of the industry leaders in technology. leading to a lower determination of detection risk and more substantive tests. who also has majority control of the stock. A number of the risk factors are present for Close-Moor stores. the company is not as profitable or financially strong as the major companies in the industry. 8. Such expansion may result in material misstatements since decision making may become decentralized without adequate internal control. the president of the company is aggressive and places undue emphasis on meeting earnings expectations. 7. Two factors are particularly important in assessing the risk of material misstatement for Johnson. First. Third. c. The increase in the risk of material misstatement due to these two factors will result in a lower determination of detection risk and an increase in the scope of the auditor's work. 2. C D D A D 3-17 a. 3. which can lead to price-cutting and its related effects on revenues. Second. Its products usually are not competitive with the industry leaders in terms of performance.
there has been contentious accounting issues related to loan loss reserves and the value of collateral. skill. Pitts should document the risk of material misstatement for all material accounts and classes of transactions. the audit firm has been the bank's auditors for only two years. If Pitts had evidence that suggested that fraud might exist. • The nature.d. and ability to commensurate with the increased risk of the engagement. prior audits have indicated the presence of misstatements in the loan loss reserve. Pitts should reach an understanding with those in charge with governance regarding the expected nature and extent of communications about misappropriations perpetrated by lower-level employees. • Consider management's selection and application of significant accounting policies. • Modify the nature. detection risk should be set lower and increased substantive tests performed. the matter should be brought to the attention of an appropriate level of management. particularly those related to revenue recognition. Third. • Assign more experienced auditors who have the knowledge. The auditor’s documentation includes the following: • The nature and results of the communication among engagement personnel that occurred in planning the audit regarding the risks of material misstatement due to fraud. The documentation should include: the risks identified. the board of directors or the audit committee). If Pitts's risk factor assessment indicates that fraud may be present. Pitts should report it directly to those in charge with governance ( e. an evaluation of management’s response to such risks. Pitts has a responsibility to plan and perform the audit to obtain reasonable assurance about whether the financial statements are free of material misstatements. whether caused by error or fraud. Based on these risk factors. The IFAC Code of Ethics for Professional Accountants provides guidance on circumstances 5 . timing and extent of audit procedures to obtain more reliable evidence and use increased samples sizes or more extensive analytical procedures. or capitalizing versus expensing. asset valuation. The risk of material misstatement should be increased for the Focus Bank for the following reasons. and extent of the procedures performed in response to the risks of material misstatement due to fraud and the results of that work. • Fraud risks or other conditions that caused the auditor to believe that additional audit procedures or other responses were required to address such risks or other conditions. the law or courts of law. and others. Pitts has no responsibility to disclose the fraud to parties other than the client's senior management and those in charge with governance because of ethical or legal obligations of confidentiality.g. However. those in charge with governance. the auditor’s legal responsibilities vary by country and in certain circumstances the duty of confidentiality may be overridden by statute. 3-18 a. she might respond as follow: • Increase professional scepticism by questioning and critically assessing audit evidence. In addition. • The steps performed in obtaining and supporting knowledge about the entity’s business and its environment. b. and the auditor's assessment of the risk of fraud after considering the entity’s response. timing. Second. If the fraud involved senior management or the fraud causes a material misstatement of the financial statements. First. • The nature of the communications about fraud made to management.
000 $€38.700. Rationalization is created by an ‘everybody does it’ attitude and a weak commitment by management to accurate financial reporting. it is important to understand that the fraud at Cendant involved fraudulent financial reporting as opposed to misappropriation of assets. b. constant revisions of reserves. Inventory is the account that most likely is misstated. fraudulent financial reporting would be of greater concern to the auditors. top management implemented inadequate controls. (Chapter 19 discusses the IFAC Code of Ethics.800 $3€10. the growth of large favourable adjustments.000 $€2. the auditors likely would set audit risk quite low because there is a high risk of litigation against the auditor should MGR declare bankruptcy. 6 . There also are motivations to overvalue inventory (to inflate financial position). 3-21 a. and inadequate justification for the large transfer from a reserve. The auditor would set audit risk low to minimize the risk of rendering an inappropriate audit opinion. However. this represents a high likelihood of fraudulent financial reporting. a lax auditor. e. Auditor’s business risk would be very high because of the likelihood that the client will go out of business as well as the likelihood that the client will commit fraud. c. which also represents an inherent risk factor. MGR’s motivations to misstate its financial position to mask its difficulties certainly create a motivation to commit fraud. Inventory already has been written down.000 Solution to Discussion Cases 3-20 a. 3-19 Client No. A weak control system. First. This explanation represents an inherent risk factor because it involves business factors that affect valuation. d. and the presence of many accounting estimates present opportunities for fraud. All three aspects of the fraud triangle are present in this situation. In addition. 1 2 3 4 PJM (rounded) $€54. and MGR’s trouble generating sales suggests that further inventory write-downs are likely.where auditors should disclose confidential information or when such disclosure may be appropriate. Materiality and audit risk both would likely be set at very low levels. Incentives include pressure to meet analysts’ expectations. Investors and creditors to assess their investments in light of MGR’s difficulties probably will use the financial statements quite extensively.835. b.) To a funding agency or other specified agency in accordance with requirements for the audits of entities that receive governmental financial assistance. Signals that fraud may have been occurring include the fact that Cendant always met analysts’ expectations. The entity’s business risk also is high because of its continuing financial difficulties. Misappropriation of assets (theft) also is a possibility because MGR’s inventory likely is attractive to its employees.
Jones would use the total assets of €29.000 (rounded). However. For example. the responses to the questions will be found in the sources cited in the problem and will be similar to those in the questionnaire provided by your instructor or downloaded from the book’s website. • Many smaller companies in the industry are losing money. Unfortunately.000 as the base in Exhibit 3-4.400 to it.info-edge. The memo describing Calabro Paging Services’ client business risk should include the following factors: • Highly competitive industry. the preliminary judgment of materiality is €176.ca) have homepages that contain information on the industry.com) and the Canadian Wireless Telecommunications Association (CWTA) (www. This amount is determined by using the planning materiality of €85. b.611.strategisgroup. Two sites that contained such information are: Info Edge (www.611 million x .Solutions to Internet Assignments 3-22 a. • The industry requires substantial funds to finance the maintenance and growth of operations and customer base. c.00461).00461 (€19. The Personal Communications Industry Association (PCIA) (www. we have used companies in the pharmaceutical industry for this assignment. The €90.cwta.com). many of these sites sell their data at relatively high prices. 7 .400 was determined by using the excess over €10 million and multiplying it by . • There are many licensed companies with the industry undergoing consolidation through merger and acquisition.com).500 (the amount over €10 million but not over €30 million) and adding €90. and The Strategis Group (www. Using this amount. • There are significant risks to changing technology.pcia. There are a number of sites on the Internet that contain information on the paging (telecommunications) industry. • The industry is subject to regulation. 3-23 The answers to this Internet assignment will be a function of the company assigned by the instructor. • Many of Calabro’s competitors are larger and better financed. with price being the primary means of differentiation among service providers. Another source of information is the homepages of other companies that operate in the paging industry.
the auditor can examine an accounting transaction from the time it is initiated by the entity until its final recording in the financial statement accounts. Authorization All transactions and events have been properly authorized. 1 . A component can be a financial statement account or a transaction process. 4-3 Assertions about classes of transactions and events for the period under audit: Assertion Definition Occurrence Transactions and events that have been recorded have occurred and pertain to the entity (sometime referred to as validity).CHAPTER 4 AUDIT EVIDENCE AND AUDIT DOCUMENTATION Answers to Review Questions 4-1 Auditors typically divide the financial statements into components or segments in order to make the audit more manageable. Cutoff Transactions and events have been recorded in the correct accounting period. Classification Transactions and events have been recorded in the proper accounts. Accuracy Amounts and other data relating to recorded transactions and events have been recorded appropriately. 4-2 There is a top-down relationship from the financial statements to the audit procedures. The results from applying audit procedures provide the evidence that supports the fair presentation of management’s assertions and the auditor's report (see Figure 4-1). The auditor tests each relevant management assertion and then conducts audit procedures to gather evidence to test whether the assertions are being met. Completeness All transactions and events that should have been recorded have been recorded. Thus. This approach allows the auditor to gather evidence by examining the processing of related transactions through the accounting system from their origin to their ultimate disposition in the accounting journals and ledgers. The financial statements contain management's assertions about the various financial statement components.
electronic form. both financial and non-financial. First. The types of audit evidence examined by the auditor have different degrees of reliability. and liabilities Obligations are the obligations of the entity. and even highly reliable evidence has weaknesses. 4-7 The types of audit procedures and their definitions are: (1) Inspection of records or documents consists of examining internal and external records or documents that are in paper form. 4-6 Audit evidence is usually persuasive rather than convincing for two reasons. Valuation and Assets. and includes the information contained in the accounting records underlying the financial statements and other information. auditors must often rely on evidence that is not perfectly reliable. liabilities and equity interests that should have been recorded have been recorded. liabilities. (7) Observation consists of looking at a process or procedure being performed by others. since an audit must be completed in a reasonable amount of time and at a reasonable cost. inspection. (4) Recalculation consists of checking the mathematical accuracy of documents and records. Vouching provides evidence that items included in the accounting journals or ledgers have occurred (are valid). Thus. due to the nature of evidence. Tracing refers to 2 . or other media. liabilities. (2) Inspection of physical assets consists of physical examination of assets. It also includes information obtained by the auditor through inquiry. records of electronic transfers. Second. and any resulting valuation or allocation adjustments are appropriately recorded. confirmations. (3) Reperformance is the auditor's independent execution of procedures or controls that were originally performed as part of the entity’s internal control. and written representations. the evidence obtained by the auditor seldom provides absolutely convincing about an audit objective. and equity interests exist.4-4 Assertions about account balances at the period end: Assertion Definition Existence Assets. (6) Inquiry consists of seeking information of knowledgeable persons. Rights and The entity holds or controls the rights to assets. Completeness All assets. and physical examination. invoices. 4-8 Vouching refers to first selecting an item for testing from the accounting journals or ledgers and then examining the underlying source document. (5) Scanning is the review of accounting data to identify significant or unusual items. and equity interests are included in the Allocation financial statements at appropriate amounts. throughout the entity and outside the entity. (9) Analytical procedures consist of evaluations of financial information made by a study of plausible relationships among both financial and non-financial data (ISA 520). contracts. 4-5 Audit evidence is all the information used by the auditor in arriving at the conclusions on which the audit opinion is based. Therefore. either manually or through the use of CAATs. (8) Confirmation is the process of obtaining a representation of information or of an existing condition directly from a third party. Corroborating or other evidence includes both written and electronic information such as cheques. the direction of testing is from the journals or ledgers back to the source documents. minutes. observation. the auditor examines only a sample of the transactions that compose the class of transactions or account balance.
c. reperformance. confirmation. d. Today. the auditor might follow up the client's responses concerning the internal controls over the raw-material storeroom by conducting tests of the control procedures to verify their existence and effectiveness. For example. the nature of the information being confirmed. When the auditor performs audit work on one working paper and supporting information is obtained from another working paper. e. 3 8 1 3 6 9 2 g. c. The direction of testing in this case is from the source documents to the journals or ledgers and tests whether transactions that occurred are recorded (completeness) in the accounting records. 4-11 It is important that the audit documentation or working papers be organized or indexed in such a way that members of the audit team or firm can find relevant audit evidence. f. inquiry and observation are generally low-reliability types of evidence since both require further corroboration by the auditor. and the intended respondent. b. It should be understood. d. The reliability of confirmations is affected by the form of the confirmation. and it is subject to a number of exceptions. Finally. much of this cross-referencing is facilitated by the use of electronic working paper programs. scanning. e. Inspection of records and documents. k. b. This process of indexing and cross-referencing provides a trail from the financial statements to the individual working papers that can be easily followed members of the audit team or firm. Solutions to Problems 4-12 a. i. however. that levels of reliability for the types of evidence should be considered as general guidelines. and analytical procedures are generally considered to be of medium reliability. prior experience with the entity. The reliability of inspection of records and documents depends primarily on whether a document is internal or external. The reliability of the types of evidence may vary considerably across entities. 4-9 Corroborating evidence is obtained for inquiry and for observation because these audit procedures typically are not from independent sources and therefore are not considered to be highly reliable. 4-13 a. h. The reliability of analytical procedures may be affected by the quality of the client's internal control system. 4-10 Inspection of tangible assets.first selecting an accounting transaction (a source document) and then following it into the journal or ledger. the auditor cross-references the information on each working paper. j. Scanning depends on the auditor’s ability to identify anomalous items using judgment or CAATs. 7 3 8 1/3 5 5 4 1 2 3 . and recalculation are generally considered of high reliability because the auditor has direct knowledge about them.
e. checking audit trail. • Review of documents relating to subsequent events (including cutoff examination of cash receipts and disbursements in subsequent events period). • Inspection of authoritative documents. The bank confirmation would be considered more reliable than the observation of segregation of duties because an independent external party provided the information. It serves as an outline of the evidence-gathering procedures that the auditor will follow during the audit. checking data processing flow. • Inquiry of client personnel and management. c.4-14 a. • Tracing or Retracing (e. h. An audit plan serves as a record of the work performed during the audit. k. 4-16 a. Examples of the types of audit procedures that would be used by the auditor during an audit of financial statements are the following (note that each procedure listed relates to one of the types of procedures listed in the chapter): • Observation of activities and conditions.g. • Confirmation. • Analytical procedures. tracing bookkeeping procedures. f. Since an audit plan typically includes specific steps to gain corroborative evidence. i. • Physical examination and counts. g. • Examination and corroboration of subsidiary records. flow-charting. The audit plan converts the overall audit strategy into a more detailed plan and contains the planned audit procedures. vouching. b. It represents evidence that the audit was conducted in accordance with auditing standards. d. etc. • Requesting confirmation of information from outside experts. Category of Assertion Assertions about account balances Assertions about transactions and events Assertions about account balances Assertions about account balances Assertions about account balances Assertions about account balances Assertions about account balances Assertions about account balances Assertions about account balances Assertions about transactions and events Assertions about account balances Assertion existence cutoff completeness valuation and allocation valuation and allocation existence completeness/existence valuation and allocation Valuation and allocation/ completeness accuracy valuation and allocation 4-15 a. b. it serves as a list of procedures necessary to test actual transactions and resulting balances.). • Recalculation. • Examination of legal letters. walking through the system. agreeing evidence to accounting records. j. • Scanning. 4 ..
• Prior experience with the entity. moderate to low otherwise. 4-17 a. High if internal control is excellent. 4-18 a. moderate to low otherwise. d. High if internal control is excellent. High because it comes from an external party. moderate to low otherwise. The physical examination of the common stock certificates would generally be considered more reliable than a physical examination of inventory components for a personal computer because the stock certificates are prepared by an entity external to the client. 6. External 4. High if internal control is excellent. High because it comes from an external party. 2. Internal 7. moderate to low otherwise. Internal 3. 8. Additionally.External b. 4. High if internal control is excellent. Positive confirmations are generally considered more reliable because the respondent must reply to the 5 . Type 1. 10. The auditor's recalculation of depreciation is more reliable than the examination of the raw material requisitions because the auditor has direct personal knowledge of the outcome. moderate to low otherwise. Internal 2. High to moderate because the document has been circulated to a party outside the entity. 5. There are two types of confirmation requests: the positive form and the negative form. c. 3. Reliability 1. • The nature of the information being confirmed. 9. the auditor may not be able to easily determine the quality or value of the computer components.Observation is not as reliable because the individuals performing the functions may act differently when someone is observing them. • The intended respondent. Internal 8. High if internal control is excellent. External 5. b. High to moderate because the document has been circulated to a party outside the entity. External 10. Internal 9. External 6. The bank statement would be considered more reliable than shipping documents because the bank statement was prepared by an entity that is external to the client. 7. The reliability of evidence obtained through confirmations is directly affected by factors such as: • The form of the confirmation. High because it comes from an external party.
requested information. A non-response to a negative confirmation is assumed to be correct. Prior experience with the client in terms of confirmation response rates, misstatements identified, and the accuracy of returned confirmations should be considered when assessing the reliability of confirmations. If response rates were low in prior audits, the auditor might consider obtaining evidence using alternative procedures. The nature and availability of the information being confirmed may directly affect the appropriateness of the evidence obtained. The intended respondent to confirmations may vary from individuals with little accounting knowledge to highly qualified accounting personnel in large companies. The auditor should consider the respondent's competence, knowledge, ability, and objectivity when assessing the reliability of confirmation requests. b. The following amounts or information included in EarthWear’s financial statements could be confirmed. The source of the confirmation is also included. Amounts or Information Confirmed Cash balances Accounts receivable Lines of credit Accounts payable Lease assets Common stock outstanding Insurance coverage Source of Confirmation Banks Individual customers Banks Individual vendors Leaseholders Registrar/Transfer agent Insurance company
4-19 a. Auditing standards (ISA 230), stipulates that audit documentation (working papers) should: (1) provide a record of the basis for the auditor’s report and (2) provide evidence that the audit was performed in accordance with auditing standards and applicable legal and regulatory requirements. b. The more common types of working papers include the overall audit strategy and audit plan, working trial balance, adjusting and reclassification entries, account analysis and listings, and audit memoranda. c. Factors affecting the auditor's judgment about the nature and extent of audit documentation include (1) matters that give rise to significant risks; (2) results of audit procedures indicating that the financial information could be materially misstated, or a need to revise the auditor’s previous assessment of the risks of material misstatement and the auditor’s responses to those risks; (3) circumstances that cause the auditor significant difficulty in applying necessary audit procedures; (4) findings that could result in a modification of the auditor’s opinion (ISA 230). Solution to Discussion Case 6
4-20 a. b.
Part I Because of the large increase in sales, both in general and abroad, the auditor primarily would be concerned with occurrence of sales transactions. For the same reason given in part a, the auditor would be concerned with the existence of the accounts receivable. In addition, because there is some evidence that the increase in accounts receivable seemed to be greater than the increase in sales (e.g., greater percentage increase in accounts receivable than for sales, increase in average days outstanding), the auditor also would be concerned with valuation or allocation (i.e. to what extent are the receivables collectible).
The auditor could vouch sales and receivables. Specifically, to examine the occurrence and existence assertions, auditors could choose a sample sales transactions and examine supporting documents, perhaps paying particular attention to the existence of a valid sales order as well as evidence that the products were shipped (i.e. shipping documents). The auditor also could confirm a sample of accounts receivable with customers, perhaps asking the customers to fill in the monetary amount that they owe as of the balance sheet date. This procedure would help verify existence or occurrence, rights and obligations, and valuation or allocation. The auditor also could prepare an aging schedule to check for the existence of a significant amount of old receivables. This procedure would be useful primarily for valuation or allocation. Part II a. The auditors could have examined documentation for sales transactions, particularly searching for valid sales orders and evidence that the products sold were shipped. The auditor also could have considered sending additional confirmations to a larger number of customers, perhaps asking the customer to fill in the dollar amounts because there is so much doubt about the accuracy of L&H’s figures. The confirmation responses suggest that management integrity likely is low, especially those that stated they were not a customer of L&H’s. Therefore, the auditor would be unlikely to use inquiry of the client as an audit procedure.
4-21 a. The auditor can assess the reliability of the client's records for developing the allowance for return of unsold books by testing the number of books sold and the number of books returned. Taking a sample of sales by individual title and tracing them into the client’s internal records could accomplish this. This would verify the sales portion of the internal records. The book return portion of the client’s records can be tested by examining a sample of receiving documents used to record the books returned by individual titles from the retail stores. If these tests indicated that the client's records were accurate, the auditor could rely on the client's records for establishing the allowance for return of unsold books. b. The return rate could be estimated for relatively new titles in a number of ways. One possibility is to use the average historical ‘first-year’ return rate for all new titles. Another 7
possibility is to estimate the first-year return rate by individual author. Thus, if a new title was from an author who had previously published with Bentley Bros., the author's average first-year rate could be tested and used. c. Other than average industry data, there is not likely to be much external evidence that can be gathered on returned books. It might be possible to send a confirmation to the major retail stores and ask for information on current sales activity. Some evidence might also be gathered from the ‘best-selling’ book lists. Solution to Internet Assignment 4-22 A general search for each term using an Internet browser resulted in a long list of ’hits;’ most of which did not apply to the material covered in the text. One site (www.accountingstudents.com) provided a glossary of auditing terms that contained EDI and image processing systems. The Institute of Internal Auditors' home page (www.theiia.org) contained some information related to EDI and image processing systems. EDI refers to the electronic exchange of data, for example, the electronic exchange of data regarding inventory requirements between a customer and a vendor. Image processing systems capture and store electronic images, usually reproductions of documents. For example, many banks now make electronic images of cancelled cheques available to their customers online. These technologies have fundamental implications for auditing, especially in terms of the quality of the electronic evidence involved in both. If important audit evidence is stored only in electronic form and controls over the integrity of the electronic records are not adequate, the auditor may not be able to gather sufficient appropriate evidence to express an unmodified opinion on the client’s financial statements.
CHAPTER 5 AUDIT PLANNING AND TYPES OF AUDIT TESTS Answers to Review Questions 5-1 The auditor should inquire of the prospective client’s bankers and lawyers. that the audit will be conducted in accordance with auditing standards. The successor auditor’s communication with the predecessor auditor should include questions related to the integrity of management. tax or consulting services). and checklists. and other members of the business community who may have knowledge about the integrity of the prospective client and its management. Professional certification and continuing education. in compliance with relevant legal and ethical responsibilities. credit agencies. Subject to any legal constraints the successor auditor is responsible for initiating the communication with the predecessor auditor. Auditing standards (ISA 300) requires that the successor auditor communicates with the predecessor auditor. disagreements with management over accounting and auditing issues. procedures. The letter states the responsibilities of the auditor and management. 5-2 The legal and regulatory responsibilities for communication between the successor and predecessor auditor differ among countries. and that the audit may not detect all material errors and fraud.g.) Additional services to be provided relating to regulatory requirements. Policies to maintain internal auditors’ objectivity about the areas audited. reports. In addition. laws and other regulations may restrict or prohibit such liability limiting arrangements. 5-4 5-5 The following factors can be used to judge the competence of the internal auditors: Educational level and professional experience. The supervision and review of their audit activities. The 1 . However. Arrangements regarding other services (e. and recommendations. The quality of their working paper documentation. Exhibit 5-1 in the text contains a sample engagement letter. 5-5 Those charged with governance is defined as the person(s) with responsibility for overseeing the strategic direction of the entity and obligations related to the accountability of the entity. the successor auditor should request permission of the prospective client before contacting the predecessor auditor. that certain types of audit procedures will be conducted and written representations will be obtained from management. Practices regarding their assignments. 5-3 An engagement letter is used to formalize the arrangement reached between the auditor and client. It serves as a contract that outlines the responsibilities of both parties and is intended to prevent misunderstandings between the two parties. and the predecessor auditor’s understanding of the change in auditors. Evaluation of their performance. Audit policies. The objectivity of the internal auditors can be determined by assessing the following factors: The organizational status of the internal auditor responsible for the internal audit function. assurance. This includes overseeing the financial reporting and disclosure process. the engagement letter might include: Arrangements involving the use of experts or internal auditors.
Develop an overall audit strategy and prepare audit programs. • Review bank and legal confirmations. Sales commissions or agents' fees that appear excessive. and direction of the audit. and oversight of the work of any audit firm employed by the company. The auditor finalizes the overall audit strategy by documenting the effects of the identified risks and controls on the planned audit procedures. the supervisory. audit risks. management. enforcement proceeding. Unexplained payments to government officials. affiliates. tests of controls and substantive tests. including those involving management and those charged with governance. and those charged with governance. 5-8 The auditor can identify related parties by (1) evaluating the client’s procedures for identifying related parties. In developing the overall audit strategy. Investigation by a government department. or employees. Note that in an increasing number of countries audit committees are mandatory requirements for listed companies. or transactions not recorded in a complete or timely manner. improperly recorded transactions. Further. Thus. Risk assessment procedures are used by the auditor to obtain an 2 . or payment of unusual fines or penalties. Large payments for unspecified services to consultants.e. The audit committee may be directly responsible for the appointment. • Perform auditor procedures designed to identify significant and unusual transactions and determine whether related parties are involved. • Review minutes of meetings of shareholders. Some additional audit procedures that may identify transactions with related parties include: • Review significant contracts and agreements not in the ordinary course of business. • Review invoices and correspondence from law firms. Large payments in cash or bank cashiers’ cheques. timing. compensation. and risk management). Circumstances that may indicate a possible illegal act include the following: • • • • • • • • Unauthorized transactions. the auditor considers the results of the other planning steps (i. identification of related parties. business risks. 5-9 The three general types of audit tests are risk assessment procedures. considerations of the possibility of non-compliance with laws and regulations. 5-6 The overall audit strategy sets the scope. all audit and non-audit services provided by its auditor may require pre-approval by the audit committee. • Review the entity’s income tax returns.structures of corporate governance vary from country to country. and performance of preliminary analytical procedures) and the results of the risk assessment procedures performed to gain an understanding of the entity (including client’s business objectives and strategies. Failure to file tax returns or pay government duties. board of directors and/or audit committee may be the focus. and (2) requesting a list of related parties from management. Violations of laws or regulations cited in reports of examinations by regulatory authorities. assessment of a preliminary level for control risk by account and assertion. Companies also establish audit committees on voluntary basis.
transaction classes. ‘tolerable difference is 10% of the predicted amount and/or a difference less than €75. the expectation needs to be very precise. Common corroborating procedures include examination of supporting evidence. Examples include inquiries of management and others. The size of the tolerable difference depends on the significance of the account. Precision is a measure of the potential effectiveness of an analytical procedure. and disclosure components of the financial statements. monetary errors) in an account balance. If the assertion being tested requires a low level of detection risk. the level of disaggregation in the amount being tested. the more precise the expectation. resulting in a cost/benefit trade-off. analytical procedures. This evidence should be of the same quality as the evidence obtained to support tests of details. and the precision of the expectation.’ 5-12 Explanations for significant differences observed for substantive analytical procedures must be followed up and resolved through quantification. analytical procedures. and evaluating evidence obtained from other auditing procedures. For example. and reperformance of the application of the control by the auditor. and evaluation. 3 . Examples of tests of controls include inquiries of appropriate client personnel. the desired degree of reliance on the analytical procedure. or detecting and correcting. inspection of documents and reports. The precision of the expectation is a function of the materiality and required detection risk for the assertion being tested. observation of the application of a specific internal control. and observation and inspection.e.000.understanding of the entity and its environment. material misstatements at the assertion level. Precision is a measure of how closely the expectation approximates the unknown ‘correct’ amount. Corroboration: Auditors must corroborate explanations for unexpected differences by obtaining sufficient appropriate audit evidence linking the explanation to the difference and substantiating that the information supporting the explanation is reliable. a client may offer the explanation that the inventory account increased by a certain percentage as compared to the prior year due to a 12 percent increase in raw materials prices. Auditors often use rules of thumb such as. the auditor must decide the amount of difference that would require further investigation. Examples of substantive tests are substantive tests of transactions. including internal control. Substantive tests are performed to detect material misstatements (i. inquiries of independent persons. the more extensive and expensive are the audit procedures used to develop the expectation. Quantification: Quantification involves determining whether the explanation or error can explain the observed difference. The auditor should compute the effects of the raw materials price increase and determine the extent to which the price increase explains (or does not explain) the increase in the inventory account. corroboration. it represents the degree of reliance that can be placed on the procedure. Since the expectation developed by the auditor will rarely be identical to the client's recorded amount. This may require the recalculation of the expectation after considering the additional information. The second step in the substantive analytical procedures decision process is to define or calculate a tolerable difference. 5-11 The quality of an expectation is referred to as the precision of the expectation. obtaining audit evidence about the operating effectiveness of controls in preventing. However. 5-10 The purposes for using analytical procedures at the planning stage of an audit are (1) to enhance the auditor’s understanding of the client’s business and the transactions and events that have occurred since the last audit and (2) to identify areas that may represent risks relevant to the audit. The degree of desired precision will differ with the specific purpose of the analytical procedure. and tests of account balances.
The auditor should evaluate the results of the substantive analytical procedures to conclude whether the desired level of assurance has been achieved. If Adams refuses to permit Dodd to respond or limits Dodd’s response. • Disagreements with management as to accounting principles. If Hall receives a limited response. or other similarly significant matters. Profitability ratios are indicators of the entity’s success or failure for a given period. activity ratios. 3. auditing procedures. she can determine the size of the assurance buckets (i. similar to other auditing procedures. Hall should explain to Adams the need to make an inquiry of Dodd and should request permission to do so. substantive tests of transactions and substantive tests of account balances and disclosures). The procedures (if not restricted by law) Hall should perform before accepting the engagement include the following: 1. Short-term liquidity ratios are indicators of the entity’s ability to meet its current obligations when they become due. Hall should inquire as to the reasons and consider the implications in deciding whether to accept the engagement. combined with the desire to obtain sufficient appropriate audit evidence. • Dodd's Dodd’s understanding as to the reasons for the change of auditors. 2. 5-15 There are four categories of financial ratios discussed in the text: short-term liquidity ratios. 5-13 The Audit Testing Hierarchy starts with tests of controls and substantive analytical procedures because they are generally both more effective and more efficient than starting with tests of details (i. b. including specific questions regarding: • Facts that might bear on the integrity of management. Hall should consider its implications in deciding whether to accept the engagement. 5. existence (or validity) is typically more important for accounts receivable than it is for accounts payable. 4. Activity ratios indicate how effectively the entity's assets are managed. Hall should ask Adams to authorize Dodd to respond fully to Hall’s inquiries. Solutions to Problems 5-16 a. Coverage ratios provide information on the long-term solvency of the entity. and coverage ratios.e. 5-14 Some of the buckets are larger than others because certain assertions will be more important or present bigger risks for some accounts than for others. including the ability of the entity to continue as a going concern.e. After the auditor has determined the risks associated with the assertions for an account balance. how much assurance is needed) and then begin filling the buckets by applying the audit testing hierarchy. For instance. Hall should make specific and reasonable inquiries of Dodd regarding matters Hall believes will assist in determining whether to accept the engagement.Evaluation: Evaluation involves the effective use of professional scepticism. If the auditor obtains evidence that a misstatement exists and can be sufficiently quantified. profitability ratios. The additional procedures Hall should consider performing during the planning phase of this audit that would not be performed during the audit of a continuing client may include the following: 4 . the auditor makes note of his or her proposed adjustment to the client’s financial statements.
documentation. • Any other information that may be of assistance in determining whether to accept the engagement. auditing procedures. • The estimated completion date. such as • Audit areas that have required an inordinate amount of time. Hall may apply appropriate auditing procedures to the account balances at the beginning of the audit period and. Tish & Field should have communicated with the predecessor auditor regarding: • Facts that might bear on the integrity of management. • Notification of any changes in the original arrangements that might be necessitated by unknown or unforeseen factors. • Disagreements with management concerning accounting principles. Arranging with the client for adequate working space. • The basis on which fees are computed and any billing arrangements. • The predecessor’s understanding about the reason for the change. 4. • Other communication of the results of the engagement. • Access to whatever records. but they would generally contain information regarding: • The objective of the audit. to transactions in prior periods. 5. Hall should document compliance with firm policy regarding acceptance of a new client. b. • Management's Management’s responsibility for the financial statements. 9. Hall may request Adams to authorize Dodd to allow a review of Dodd’s working papers. including time budget. 5-18 5. • A request for the client to confirm the terms of the engagement by acknowledging receipt of the engagement letter. The form and content of engagement letters may vary. • Expectation of receiving from management written confirmation concerning representations made in connection with the audit.1. Establishing and coordinating staffing requirements. 5-17 a. • The fact that because of the test nature and other inherent limitations of an audit. possibly. 6. Discussing the scope of the examination with management of the client. 7. or other significant matters. Additional procedures to be performed prior to the beginning of field work are: Reading the current year’s interim financial statements. • Arrangements with respect to client assistance in the performance of the audit engagement. 10. Prior to acceptance of the engagement. 2. there is an unavoidable risk that even some material misstatement may remain undiscovered. together with the inherent limitations of any system of internal control. 5 . Hall should start obtaining the documentation needed to create a permanent working paper file. 3. • The scope of the audit. 8. Establishing the timing of the audit work. Coordinating the assistance of client personnel in data preparation. • Audit problems that arose from the condition of the accounting system and records. Hall may make specific inquiries of Dodd regarding matters Hall believes may affect the conduct of the audit. and other information may be requested in connection with the audit.
Preparing documentation setting forth the preliminary audit plan. any legal problems relating to the auditor's failure to perform certain procedures can be reviewed with reference to the contractual commitment assumed. A statement that the examination will be performed in accordance with relevant auditing standards. An opening paragraph that confirms the understandings of the auditor and the client. particularly recent ones. Updating the prior year's written audit plan. which should establish the nature of the engagement. 5-20 a. An indication of the possible use of client personnel in connection with the audit work to be performed. 5-19 a. Holding a planning conference with assistants assigned to the engagement and discuss possible fraud-related issues. the ‘in-charge’ auditor conducting the examination can avoid misunderstanding the nature and scope of the engagement if the engagement letter is included in the permanent section of the audit working papers. 8. and the type of opinion expected. experts. An audit committee is an important part of a company’s organizational structure. Any scope restrictions or special limitations and their effect on the auditor's report. 6. It is ordinarily a special committee formed by the board of directors. A description of the scope of the services to be rendered. 3. 14. The typical engagement letter generally includes the following: 1. 13. 16. Making a preliminary judgment about materiality. A statement regarding the auditor’s responsibility for the detection of fraud. In addition. Space for the client representative’s signature. (2) the service to be rendered. Determining the extent of involvement. The letter should eliminate misunderstandings and confusion about the type of financial statements to be examined. The benefits of preparing an engagement letter include the avoidance of possible problems between the independent auditor and the client concerning (1) the scope of the work. The name and address of the person or persons who retained the auditor to perform the auditing services. the estimated report date. The engagement letter is also useful as a reference document when preparing for future engagements. if any. The form of any report or other communication of the engagement.11. It is typically a group of 6 . and (3) the audit fee. A summary of significant events that led to the retention of the services of the auditor. 10. For example. The method and timing of billings as well as billing rates and fee arrangements. 2. 11. 4. 12. if scope limitations prevent the auditor from performing normal audit procedures. of consultants. Making a preliminary judgment about control risk. 7. b. 9. A general description of the audit firm that will conduct the examination. 18. 5. Considering the need for an appropriate engagement letter. 15. 13. which indicates acceptance of the letter and the understandings therein. In addition to avoiding possible misunderstandings. the auditor cannot be legally responsible if a fraud is not detected when clearly it would have been detected if such procedures were performed. A statement that the auditor will provide a management letter if required in the circumstances. and internal auditors. Considering the effects of applicable accounting and auditing pronouncements. 12. 17.
Review of financial statements that are part of prospectuses or offering circulars. and general audit procedures). review the accounting for specific items or transactions as well as alternative accounting treatments and their effects. and investigation of compliance with those policies. Also. The audit committee assists and advises the full board of directors and in doing so aids the board in fulfilling its responsibility for financial reporting. political parties). Review of the results of the auditor’s examination including experiences. findings. Post should also attempt to obtain sufficient appropriate evidence to determine whether. Audit committees may also be formed on voluntary basis so that a company can be more responsive to the needs of those interested in financial reporting. Review of the independent auditor’s overall audit plan (scope. Participation in the selection and establishment of accounting policies. If Post discovers that General’s financial statements may be materially misstated due to fraud. conflicts of interest. Review of the impact of new or proposed pronouncements by the accounting profession or regulatory authorities. Post may suggest that General consult with its legal counsel on matters concerning questions of law. • • • • The functions of an audit committee may include the following: Selection of the independent auditor. Review of interim financial reports to shareholders before the board of directors approves them. particularly the appearance of independence. Review of the reports of internal audit staff. and review of the auditor’s engagement letter. Review of the company’s accounting. For listed companies they are often mandated. and operating controls. restrictions. Review of the independent auditor’s evaluation of the company’s internal control systems. and recommendations. review of reports before they are submitted to regulatory authorities. financial. Review of the annual financial statements before submission to the full board of directors for approval. purpose. material fraud exist and. cooperation received. Review and discussion of the independent auditor’s management letter. Audit committees are formed to satisfy the shareholders’ need for assurance that directors are exercising due care in the performance of their duties. and compliance with laws and regulations. Their formation itself is recognition of the responsibilities of both the entity and its auditor to investors and creditors. • • • • • • • • • • • 5-21 a. c. 7 . b.outside directors who have no active day-to-day operational role and who are a liaison between the independent auditor and the board of directors. its effect. from the management of a company whose financial statements are being examined by the auditor.g. in fact. discussion of audit fee with the auditor. they may be formed to reinforce auditor’s independence. Review of the company’s insurance program. Review of company policies concerning contributions to external parties (e. Post should consider the implications for other aspects of the audit and discuss the matter and approach to further investigation with an appropriate level of management and those charged with governance. if so. Review of the independent auditor’s observations of financial and accounting personnel. Matters that the auditor believes should be brought to the attention of the directors or shareholders should be considered.
to supervisory authorities. express a qualified or an adverse opinion on the financial statements. An auditor’s expectations (types of analytical procedures) are developed from the following sources of information: • Financial and operating data.b. As an overall review of the financial information in the final review stage of the audit.g. Post should disclaim or qualify an opinion on the financial statements and communicate these findings to General’s audit committee or its board of directors. • Budgets and forecasts. 5-22 Audit Procedure 1 2 3 4 5-23 a. If Post is precluded from applying necessary procedures. b. • • • Assertion Accuracy Existence Cutoff Valuation and allocation Analytical procedures are used for three broad purposes: To assist the auditor in planning the nature. d. c. Post may have a duty to disclose fraud to third parties outside General’s management and its audit committee. Post should insist that the financial statements be revised and. e. 5-24 8 . disclosing all the substantive reasons for such an opinion. Additionally. • Original documents. • The auditor’s direct personal knowledge. If Post concludes that General’s financial statements are materially affected by fraud. • Competitor information. • Documentary evidence. • The effectiveness of internal controls. c. • Industry publications. and extent of other auditing procedures. Legal duties to report fraud to third parties vary by country. As a substantive test to obtain evidential matter about particular assertions related to account balances or classes of transactions. Post should adequately inform General’s audit committee or its board of directors about the fraud. The factors that influence an auditor’s consideration of the reliability of data for purposes of achieving audit objectives are whether the • Independence of the source of the evidence. if they are not. timing.
800 935.000. The indicated trend may be due to understated sales or overstated accounts 9 . An accounts receivable aging schedule can indicate whether the longer collection period is due to a major delinquent customer or is representative of RCT’s annual activity. If the credit terms have been liberalized.000 110.480. Arthur should first satisfy himself that RCT’s credit terms remained unchanged over those years.1 times 25 times (sales divided by accounts receivable) The accounts receivable turnover is slower for 2005. • Re-evaluate the historical return rates.000 Historical Return Rate 0. Since this amount is less than the tolerable difference of €885.000 x 0.004 0.006 0.000 82.200.425 $€5.000.000 202.000. Assuming Arthur is satisfied that RCT’s credit terms have not changed and that annual activity is fairly represented.500.a.025 0. in fact. the analytical procedure supports the fair presentation of the reserve for returns account. The calculation of the expectation for the reserve for returns account can be made as follows: Monthly Sales (in 000s) $€ 73. 5-25 Accounts receivable 2005 2004 Accounts receivable turnover 18.000 93.000 less the book value of €5.000 158. • Re-evaluate the gross profit margin.870. which implies that the average collection period has increased.000 13.000 6. this increase in collection period may be appropriate.813.500. represent the year’s activity. the auditor should consider performing the following audit procedures: • Review the general journal and general ledger for any unusual entries.890. d. Arthur should also satisfy himself that these computations do.525 is approximately €20. he should include more extensive audit procedures for sales and accounts receivable.015 0.01 0. c.955.200.032 Estimated Returns 293. • Ask the client to adjust the books.870. If the difference between the auditor’s expectation and the book value is greater than the tolerable misstatement.800.000.000 1653. We can establish a tolerable difference by applying a percentage (50-75%) to the planning materiality set for EarthWear of €1.525 Months July August September October November December Gross Margin % Auditor expectation b.300.769.000 3. The expectation of €5. This results in a tolerable difference of €885.200 496.
the auditor should satisfy himself as to the cause of the changed ratio. Arthur may find out if there has been a change in the sales mix of products with varying credit terms. The changed ratio does not automatically imply that an account is misstated. tighter economic conditions may have caused customers to pay their bills more slowly. Furthermore. The auditor must satisfy himself that the accounts are fairly stated and that the change is justified. He should carefully search for unrecorded payables. however. have declined. He should also satisfy himself that there are no unrecorded sales. By inquiry of sales managers.6 8 to 1 to 1 200 2. A ratio that is inconsistent from one year to the next does not necessarily imply misstatements.receivable. He should check that lapping has not occurred. The income taxes each year are directly proportional to that year’s income before income taxes. He should investigate substantial decreases in long-term liabilities and should ascertain that current maturities of long-term liabilities are properly reported in the balance sheet. It merely highlights an area for further inquiry. the amount of income taxes is logical. Arthur should satisfy himself that the accounts receivable balance includes only bona fide trade receivables. therefore. RCT may have increased sales by being less ‘selective’ of its customers. The accounts payable. The objective of ratio analysis is to point out areas where further investigation is warranted. Furthermore. If the client provides some assurance that work will start on the facility and that construction can be completed on time. Failure to complete this facility on time can result in fines and possible plant closure under the consent decree.49 The increased current ratio was due to an increase in current assets greater than the increase in current liabilities. It is possible that the changed ratio is perfectly valid and that the related accounts are fairly stated. he may wish to expand his normal confirmations to cover a larger proportion of the receivables. The current-year audit discovered that Forestcrest Woolen Mills had not completed any construction work on the water treatment facility that must be built to comply with the consent decree from the Environmental Protection Agency. Current Ratio 5 Current ratio (current assets divided by current liabilities) 200 4 2. This situation represents a material uncertainty that is likely to be remote at this point in time. The completion information can be obtained from the company’s president and its construction company. but the major increase in current liabilities has been income taxes. the auditor will likely issue a standard unqualified audit report. Arthur should verify that the accounts receivable are fairly stated at year-end. For example. assuming that Arthur is satisfied that each year’s income before taxes is fairly stated. In addition. However. Increases in both current assets and current liabilities are warranted because activity has increased from 2004 to 2005. the auditor should determine if the client will continue work on the facility and if it can be completed within the remaining three years. He should consider the use of confirmation requests and check that the cutoff of payables was handled properly. Arthur should satisfy himself that the accounts payable are fairly stated. If this is so. Arthur should carefully review the year-end cutoff for sales to verify that sales are not understated. Solutions to Discussion Cases 5-26 a. If the client will not provide assurance on 10 .
the future work on the facility and/or the construction cannot be completed on time, the auditor will have to consider what the potential effects of failure to comply with the consent decree might be. At this point, it is probably too early to consider issuing an audit report emphasizing a going concern uncertainty. The auditor might require that client to provide more detailed disclosure of the issue in the notes to the financial statements. b. If these facts were noted at the end of the seventh year of the consent decree, the auditor would again need information on the possible timely completion of the facility. If the facility can be completed, the auditor would most likely issue a standard report with an unmodified opinion. If, however, the facility cannot be completed on time and the penalties under the consent decree are significant enough to raise doubts about the company's continued existence, the auditor would likely issue an audit report emphasizing a going concern uncertainty.
1. Development of Auditor’s Expectation Four regular games 24,000 Allocation 0.7 0.2 0.1 Total attendance Total Fans 16,800 4,800 2,400 24,000 Four regular games UniversityAtlantic 31,200 Allocation 0.7 0.2 0.1 Total attendance Total Fans 21,840 6,240 3,120 31,200 Less free 21,340 6,240 3,120 30,700 Price per Ticket 14.40 9.60 6.00 Total Revenue 307,296 59,904 18,720 385,920 (30% higher attendance, 20% higher ticket price) Less free 16,300 4,800 2,400 23,500 Price per Ticket 12 8 5 Total Revenue 195,600 38,400 12,000 246,000 x4 984,000
(20% more fans, 75% box seats, 25% upper deck) Price per Ticket 12 5 Total Revenue 43,200 6,000 246,000 295,200 (10% higher ticket prices, 5% lower attendance) Base attendance 16,800 Less free seats and 5% 15,485 Price per Ticket 13.20 Total Revenue 204,402
Box Upper Extra fans -total Regular game revenue
Extra fans 3,600 1,200 4,800
Palace (late evening game) Allocation 0.7 12
4,800 2,400 24,000
4,560 2,280 22,325
40,128 12,540 257,070 $€1,922,190
Total estimated revenue for Oct.Dec.
2. Reported ticket revenue differs from the expectation by approximately 14.5 percent ((2,200,000 – 1,922,190)/1,922,190); this difference is material and should be investigated. One explanation for the larger than expected reported ticket revenue could be that the football team performed better than expected. In addition, perhaps the weather also was better than expected. Auditors can verify ticket sales, perhaps by comparing deposits of ticket revenue with reported attendance. The auditors also could check weather conditions on game days to ascertain whether favourable weather conditions are a plausible explanation for the higher attendance. 3. In a problem such as this, analytical procedures will be most effective when accurate expectations can be developed. From this information provided in this problem, it appears that the auditor’s knowledge of City’s ticket sales is sufficient to allow them to develop a reasonable expectation. Solutions to Internet Assignments 5-28 The Institute of Internal Auditors (IIA) home page (www.theiia.org) contains detailed information about various activities of the IIA. This includes information on the profession, certification, conferences, products, etc. A search of the Web site identified information about independence and objectivity. 5-29 A search of the Internet identified a number of potential sources for information on the mail order industry: Pegasus Research International, LLC (www.mindbranch.com/) maintains a home page that contains statistics on E-commerce and the state of the Internet. • MarketResearch.Com’s home site (www.marketresearch.com/) provides information on e-commerce and the mail order industry. • The International Society for Strategic Marketing (www.issm.org) maintains a site that contains information and statistics on international direct marketing. • Retail Net’s home page (www.retailnet.com/) provides information on the retail marketplace industry, including the catalogue and mail order industry. • Lastly, a number of the major public accounting firms have industry specialization in retail. The sites of the firms contain information on the retail industry. 5-30 The memo should include information in the text about EarthWear. The information gathered in Internet assignment 5-29 should provide additional information on the mail order industry. Chapter 3 discusses materiality for EarthWear and the various risk factors that would affect the auditor’s risk assessments. EarthWear has a strong control environment and strong internal controls over its various accounting applications (for example, revenue and purchases processes). There is a relatively low possibility for errors, fraud, or non-compliance acts. Comparison of EarthWear’s ratios to industry data indicates that EarthWear’s financial position, profitability, and solvency are excellent. 13
The entity’s risk assessment process: The process for identifying and responding to business risks and the results thereof. The auditor needs assurances about the reliability of the data generated within the entity’s internal control system in terms of how it affects the fairness of the financial statements and how well the assets and records of the entity are safeguarded. and report financial data consistent with management’s assertions are the auditor’s main concern. 6-3 Factors that affect the control environment include: • • Communication and enforcement of integrity and ethical values. 2. and decides upon actions to manage them. 6-2 Internal control structure is composed of five components: 1. influencing the control consciousness of its people. process. assesses the likelihood of their occurrence. A commitment to competence. whether automated or manual. Communication involves providing an understanding of individual roles and responsibilities pertaining to internal control over financial reporting. have various objectives and are applied at various organizational and functional levels. Monitoring of Controls: It is a process to assess the quality of internal control performance over time. For financial reporting purposes. process. Control environment: The control environment sets the tone of the organization. Control activities. whether automated or manual. Control Activities: Control activities are the policies and procedures that help ensure that management directives are carried out. and equity. and records established to initiate. and report entity transactions and to maintain accountability for the related assets. consists of the procedures. liabilities. It involves assessing the design and operation of controls on a timely basis and taking necessary corrective actions. 3. It is the foundation of all other components of internal control. record. 4. which includes the accounting system. and Communication: The information system relevant to financial reporting objectives. record. that necessary actions are taken to address risks to achievement of the entity’s objectives.CHAPTER 6 INTERNAL CONTROL IN A FINANCIAL STATEMENT AUDIT Answers to Review Questions 6-1 From management’s perspective. providing discipline and structure. The Entity’s Information System and Related Business Processes Relevant to Financial Reporting. 5. the internal control provides a way to meet its stewardship or agency responsibilities. The controls that are relevant to the entity’s ability to initiate. for example. 1 . estimates their significance. the entity’s risk assessment process includes how management identifies risks relevant to the preparation of financial statements that are fairly presented in accordance with the applicable financial reporting framework. Management also needs a control system that generates reliable information for decision-making purposes.
Thus. Assignment of authority and responsibility. (3) design tests of controls.g. The auditor also plans and performs tests of controls to support the lower assessed level of control risk. Control risk is set at the maximum when a substantive audit strategy is followed. 2 . (2) consider factors that affect the risk of material misstatement. Organizational structure. 6-7 The concept of reasonable assurance recognizes that the cost of an entity’s internal control system should not exceed the benefits that are expected to be derived. or both. Failure to make necessary changes to systems or programs. Enhancement of the ability to monitor the performance of the entity’s activities and its policies and procedures. Management override of internal control. Facilitation of additional analysis of information. Reduction in the risk that controls will be circumvented. availability. Human resource policies and practices. the board of directors or audit committee). personnel errors or mistakes. and (4) design of substantive tests. the auditors understanding of the entity’s internal control is used to (1) identify the types of potential misstatements. Consistent application of predefined business rules and performance of complex calculations in processing large volumes of transactions or data. Enhancement of the timeliness. databases. the auditor relies on the entity’s controls and sets control risk below the maximum. including the recording of unauthorized or nonexistent transactions or inaccurate recording of transactions. Unauthorized changes to data in master files. Enhancement of the ability to achieve effective segregation of duties by implementing security controls in applications. With a reliance strategy. and collusion are inherent limitations of internal control. 6-6 In addition to planning the audit of the financial statements. 6-4 The potential benefits and risks to an entity’s internal control from information technology include: Benefits: • • • • • • Risks: • • Reliance on systems or programs that are inaccurately process data. Inappropriate manual intervention.• • • • • Participation of those charged with governance (e. • • • • • 6-5 A substantive audit strategy means that the auditor has made a decision not to rely on the entity’s controls and to audit the related financial statement accounts directly. and accuracy of information. Potential loss of data. Unauthorized changes to systems or programs. and operating systems. The reliance strategy requires a more detailed understanding and documentation of internal control than does the substantive strategy. Management’s philosophy and operating style. Unauthorized access to data that may result in destruction of data or improper changes to data. an internal control system will not detect every error that might occur because it would be too costly to design such a system. process inaccurate data.
additional substantive tests might include comparing the year-end account balance with the interim account balance. the auditor documents the linkage of the tests with the assessed risks at the assertion level. 6-9 The auditor might consider conducting substantive tests at an interim date for a number of reasons. 6-10 The auditor’s responsibility is to report to those charged with governance or the appropriate level of management of material weaknesses in the design or implementation of internal control. and (3) compliance with applicable laws and regulations. and other personnel that is designed to provide reasonable assurance about the achievement of the entity’s objectives in the following categories: (1) reliability of financial reporting. and/or reviewing related journals and ledgers for large or unusual transactions during the remaining period. the auditor may wish to conduct substantive tests at an interim date to minimize staff overtime at year-end. Alternatively. narrative descriptions. or because evaluating their effectiveness would be inefficient. an entity’s board of directors). including copies of the entity’s procedures manuals and organizational charts. When the auditor has tested the controls. the auditor should obtain an understanding of each of the components of internal control sufficient to plan the audit by performing procedures to understand the design of controls relevant to the preparation of financial statements and whether they have been placed in operation. When the auditor conducts substantive tests of an account at an interim date. A material weakness in internal control is one that could have a material effect on the financial statements. An auditor should document the understanding of the internal control components obtained to plan the audit. • The ability of the auditor to reduce the risk that misstatements existing at the period end are not detected by performing appropriate substantive procedures combined with tests of controls to cover the remaining period. 3 . • Relevant controls. the client may want the auditor to confirm accounts receivable before year-end because of demands on the client’s staff at year-end. d. Internal control is design and affected by those charged with governance (e. internal control questionnaires. conducting some analytical procedures. In planning an audit. Solutions to Problems 6-11 a. or are unlikely to be effective. • The objective of the substantive procedure. and flowcharts. For example. management. The auditor should consider the following factors when substantive tests are to be completed at an interim date: • The control environment. b. • The nature of the class of transactions or account balances and related assertions. The auditor should document the identified and assessed risks of material misstatements related to internal controls. • The assessed risk of misstatement. c. An auditor may set control risk at the maximum level for some or all assertions because the auditor believes controls are unlikely to pertain to an assertion.6-8 A numbers of tools are available to the auditor for documenting the understanding of the internal control. (2) effectiveness and efficiency of operations.g.
evaluating. It also includes policies and communications directed toward ensuring that all personnel understand the entity’s objectives. the knowledge and experience of key personnel. The entity should have personnel policies for hiring. supervisory board and audit committee) significantly influence the control consciousness of the entity. promoting. compensating. enhance. and their components. An entity develops an organizational structure that depends on its size and the nature of its business. and monitoring operations. the extent of its involvement with and scrutiny of the entity’s activities. Organizational Structure The organizational structure defines how authority and responsibility are delegated and monitored. Managements’ Philosophy and Operating Style Management’s philosophy and operating style can significantly affect the quality of internal control. and recognize how and for what they will be held accountable. 6-13 4 . Human Resource Policies and Procedures The quality of internal control is a direct function of the quality of the personnel operating the system.The manner in which these matters are documented is based on the auditor’s professional judgment. executing. or mitigate the effectiveness of specific controls. It provides a framework for planning. and taking remedial action. 6-12 The control environment factors (in addition to integrity and ethical values) that establish. This includes policies regarding acceptable business practices.g. Factors that affect the effectiveness of those charged with governance include the following: its independence from management. Participation by Those Charged with Governance Those charged with governance (e. Assignment of Authority and Responsibility This factor includes how authority and responsibility for operating activities are assigned and how reporting relationships and authorization hierarchies are established. are: A Commitment to Competence Management must specify the competence level for a particular job and translate it into the required level of knowledge and skill. counselling. know how their individual actions interrelate and contribute to those objectives. the degree to which difficult questions are raised and pursued with management. Characteristics that may indicate important information to the auditor about management’s philosophy and operating style include: (1) management’s approach to taking and monitoring risks. Establishing a relevant organizational structure includes considering key areas of authority and responsibility and appropriate lines of reporting. the board of directors. Management must then hire employees who have the appropriate competence for a job. and (3) management’s attitudes toward information processing and accounting functions and personnel. and the resources provided for carrying out duties. the experience and stature of its members. and its interaction with the internal and external auditors. training. the appropriateness of its actions. (2) management’s attitudes and actions towards financial reporting.
The strength of an internal control questionnaire is that it provides a systematic and comprehensive way to evaluate internal control. When deciding whether to hire a specialist. and reported. when the client’s system is very complex. the auditor would need to test the system to determine whether it is working as intended. Conversely. The strength of a narrative description is that it provides a simple. 6-14 a. when the entity has a simple internal control system. A weakness of the use of a flowchart is that it may take a considerable amount of time to complete.’ On most audits. The auditor should also consider whether the firm’s knowledge of IT systems is sufficient to allow it to use a reliance strategy. recorded. processed. A weakness of using an internal control questionnaire is that the auditor evaluates the various parts of the internal control system without an overall view of the system. However.a. This facilitates the auditor’s analysis of the system’s controls. However. Control activities are important because new controls regarding the information system will have to be designed and implemented. The control environment likely is not affected to a great extent by the switch to an automated system except inasmuch as the switch might signal management’s commitment to competence and willingness to improve its controls. 5 . the auditor will have to verify that the new system identifies and records all valid transactions and provides information sufficient for preparing accurate and complete financial statements. b. this may be a weakness because it may be difficult to describe internal control in sufficient detail using words for effective analysis of internal controls and the assessment of control risk. The auditor should ask the IT specialist to communicate information including how IT controls are designed and how data and transactions are initiated. the auditor is more likely to use a reliance strategy. The auditor should consider a reliance strategy if evidence is available only in electronic form. A strength of using a flowchart is that it provides a diagrammatic representation of the entity’s internal control system. The complexity of an entity’s internal control system can affect the use of the various tools. whether the implementation of the system allows the company to engage in electronic commerce and the extent to which audit evidence is available only in electronic form. For example. such as risks involving the design of the control system. In terms of information system and communication. written memorandum that documents the understanding of internal control. c. b. the auditor uses a combination of these tools. however. completion of a detailed internal control questionnaire will result in a large number of answers being ‘no’ or ‘not applicable. a substantive strategy may be more appropriate. The auditor should. Monitoring of controls is important because the monitors (including the internal and external auditors) will have to have sufficient knowledge of the system to be able to effectively monitor the use of the system and its outputs. If the system is working effectively. be aware that it may be risks involved for which substantive procedures alone do not provide sufficient appropriate audit evidence. the auditor in this case should consider factors such as the complexity of the new system. The entity’s risk assessment is affected because the existence of an automated system creates a new set of risks. after developing an understanding of the new system. if not. it is difficult to provide adequate documentation of the system using a simple narrative description.
Other analytical procedures and/or substantive procedures should be performed to extend Cook’s conclusions relative to the assertions tested at the interim date to the balance sheet date. This in and of itself is not a weakness. • The year-end balances of accounts selected for interim testing will be predictable. • General’s procedures for analyzing and adjusting its interim balances and for establishing proper accounting cutoffs will be appropriate. Management is conservative in its use of accounting principles and practices. Preview hires competent people. Cook should consider whether • Cook’s experience with the reliability of the accounting records and management’s integrity has been good. The external auditors review controls at each division. b. • • • • • Preview Company’s control environment has the following strengths: Corporate management has high integrity. • General’s accounting system will provide sufficient information about year-end balances and transactions in the final two months of the year to permit investigation of unusual transactions. • Assessing control risk at below the maximum would not be required to extend the audit conclusions from the interim date to year-end. However. Preview has a code of conduct. if Cook assesses control risk at the maximum during the final two months. Before applying principal substantive procedures to balance sheet accounts at 30 April. • Rapidly changing business conditions or circumstances may predispose General’s management to misstate the financial statements in the remaining period. and any assurance provided from the assessed level of control risk. and changes in balance compositions that may occur between the interim and balance sheet dates. • There is limited monitoring of employee compliance with the corporate code of conduct. However. with the presence of the other weaknesses. Cook should design the substantive procedures so that the assurance from those tests and the tests to be applied as of the interim date. The control environment has the following weaknesses: • Divisions operate autonomously with limited monitoring (management intervenes only when planned results are not obtained). it represents a source of concern for the auditor. Cook should consider whether the effectiveness of the substantive tests to cover that period will be impaired. significant fluctuations. • The cost of the substantive tests necessary to cover the final two months of the year and provide the appropriate audit assurance at year-end is substantial. Such tests should include the comparison of year-end information with comparable interim information to identify and investigate unusual amounts. the interim date. • The board of directors is not very active.6-15 a. • Preview does not have an internal audit department. 2005. Cook should assess the difficulty in controlling incremental audit risk. will achieve the audit objectives at year-end. 6 . Solution to Discussion Case 6-16 a. • Employee compensation is dependent on performance.
Solution is posted on the Instructor’s web page 7 . and sales prices are declining. • • • • The following factors lead to and facilitate Harris’s manipulation of inventory: As a general manager. Competition in the industry is fierce. and controls over inventory are weak. Harris has a high incentive to ‘look good. Solution to Internet Assignments 6-17 6-18 Solution is posted on the Instructor’s web page. There is limited monitoring by corporate management. and there is no internal audit department. Inventory represents a large portion of the balance sheet.b.’ His division has had seven years of increasing profits. and his salary and bonus depend on the division’s performance.
7-2 ‘Likelihood’ refers to the probability that a misstatement will not be prevented or detected. either ‘reasonably possible’ or ‘probable’). • Present a written assessment of the effectiveness of the entity’s internal control over financial reporting as of the end of the entity’s most recent fiscal year.g. For a significant deficiency or a material weakness to exist. including documentation. • The audit of internal control should be ‘integrated’ with the financial statement audit. ‘Magnitude’ refers to the significance that the control deficiency could have on the financial statements according to the judgment of a reasonable person who considers the possibility of further undetected misstatements.CHAPTER 7 AUDITING INTERNAL CONTROL OVER FINANCIAL REPORTING IN CONJUNCTION WITH AN AUDIT OF FINANCIAL STATEMENTS Answers to Review Questions 7-1 Following are management’s and the auditor’s responsibilities under Section 404 of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act of 2002: Managements Responsibilities • Accept responsibility for the effectiveness of the entity’s internal control over financial reporting. • Evaluate the effectiveness of the entity’s internal control over financial reporting using suitable control criteria. • Support its evaluation with sufficient evidence. and should express an opinion on management’s assertions of internal control over financial reporting. effective internal control as of the date specified in management’s assessment. then either a significant deficiency or material weakness exists depending on the magnitude of the potential effects of the deficiency on the entity’s financial statements. Auditor’s Responsibilities • The auditor must audit and report on management’s assertion about the effectiveness of internal control. • The auditor must plan and perform the audit to obtain reasonable assurance about whether the entity maintained. If likelihood is more than remote and if the magnitude of the deficiency is more than inconsequential. in all material respects. 1 . the likelihood of such an occurrence must be more than remote (e.
and the assertions addressed by each control. the results of management’s testing and evaluation should be documented. controls over procedures used to enter transaction totals into the general ledger. on which other controls are dependent. authorize. Controls over significant non-routine and non-systematic transactions. • Form an opinion on the effectiveness of internal control.g. and reporting significant accounts and disclosures and related assertions embodied in the financial statements. Documentation should include a description of each control in place. 2 . including IT general controls. record. and process journal entries in the general ledger. the auditor should: • Understand the flow of transactions. • Obtain and document an understanding of internal control. such as accounts involving judgments and estimates. • Evaluate management’s assessment process. Controls. • Test and evaluate the operating effectiveness of internal control. processing. to initiate. Antifraud programs and controls. and to record recurring and nonrecurring adjustments to the financial statements). 7-5 The steps in the auditor’s process for an audit of internal control over financial reporting include: • Plan the engagement.7-3 • • • • • • All of the following controls would typically be tested: Controls over initiating. or disposition of the company’s assets (AS2. ¶74). • Identify the controls that management has implemented to address these potential misstatements. the business processes to which each control relates. and estimation. Finally. 7-4 Management should document the design of controls over all relevant assertions related to all significant accounts and disclosures in the financial statements. • Identify the points within the process at which a misstatement related to each relevant financial statement assertion could arise. 7-6 The auditor should classify the significant processes and major classes of transactions by transaction type: routine. non-routine. Company level controls. • Evaluate the design effectiveness of internal control. • Identify the controls that management has implemented over the prevention or timely detection of unauthorized acquisition. including (1) the control environment and (2) controls over the period-end financial reporting process (e. authorizing. For each significant business process. use. Controls over the selection and application of accounting policies that are in conformity with generally accepted accounting principles. recording.
(AS2. This relates solely to those aspects of the ineffective regulatory compliance function in which associated violations of laws and regulations could have a material effect on the reliability of financial reporting. 7-9 The circumstances that should be regarded as at least significant deficiencies and as strong indicators of a material weakness include: • Restatement of previously issued financial statements to reflect the correction of a misstatement. the PCAOB does not want them to be overlooked. the auditor should consider the following factors: Competence: • Their educational level and professional experience. procedures performed. and outputs of the processes the company uses to produce its annual and quarterly financial statements. the number of locations involved. • Their professional certification and continuing education. and the nature and extent of the oversight of the process by appropriate parties. • Identification of fraud of any magnitude on the part of senior management. including management. 3 . • For complex entities in highly regulated industries. record. such as for very large or highly complex companies. an ineffective regulatory compliance function. the board of directors. and to confirm whether controls have been placed in operation (AS2. who participates from management. • Oversight of the company’s external financial reporting and internal control over financial reporting by the company’s audit committee is ineffective. 7-10 When evaluating the competence and objectivity of others. and process journal entries in the general ledger. initiate. • Practices regarding the assignment of individuals to work areas. and the audit committee. Because the nature of the audit report depends on the significance of such weaknesses. The auditor should also consider the extent of IT involvement in each period-end financial reporting process element. authorize. 7-8 Walkthroughs help the auditor to confirm his or her understanding of control design and transaction process flow. to determine whether all points at which misstatements could occur have been identified. record recurring and nonrecurring adjustments to the annual and quarterly financial statements. ¶140) These circumstances are ‘red flags’ for potential problems in the control environment. and draft annual and quarterly financial statements and related disclosures. to evaluate the effectiveness of the design of controls.7-7 The period-end financial reporting process controls include procedures used to enter transaction totals into the general ledger. types of adjusting entries. • An ineffective control environment. • The internal audit function or the risk assessment function is ineffective at a company for which such a function needs to be effective for the company to have an effective monitoring or risk assessment component. ¶79). • Significant deficiencies that have been communicated to management and the audit committee remain uncorrected after some reasonable period of time. The auditor’s evaluation of the period-end financial reporting process includes the inputs. • Identification by the auditor of a material misstatement in financial statements in the current period that was not initially identified by the company’s internal control over financial reporting.
• Policies to maintain the individuals’ objectivity about the areas being tested. including any reports or recommendations issued. Whether the board of directors or the audit committee oversees employment decisions related to the testing authority. Quality of the documentation of their work. The auditor must justify and document the extent to which he or she relied upon work performed by others. If the auditor disagrees. significant accounts. and (2) the effectiveness of internal control over financial reporting based on the auditor’s independent audit work. (AS2. Finally. serious scope limitations require the auditor to disclaim an opinion. ¶159) 7-12 The auditor’s report contains opinions on two separate items: (1) management’s assessment of the effectiveness of internal control over financial reporting. b. ¶119-120) 7-11 AS2 requires that the auditor appropriately document the processes. including— a. The auditor also documents the process used to determine. judgments. and major classes of transactions. and adverse. Figure 7-3 illustrates the types of auditor’s reports and the circumstances leading to each.• • • Supervision and review of their activities. A qualified opinion is issued under certain circumstances involving limitations on the scope of the auditor’s work. the auditor must describe the evaluation of any deficiencies discovered as well as any other findings that could result in a modification to the auditor’s report. Objectivity: • The organizational status of the individuals responsible for the work of others in testing controls. The auditor’s documentation must include the auditor’s understanding and evaluation of the design of each of the components of the entity’s internal control over financial reporting. procedures. disclosures. the findings and recommendations of the individuals performing the testing. Significant deficiencies relate to possible financial statement errors that are less than material. b. Whether the testing authority reports to an officer of sufficient status to ensure sufficient testing coverage and adequate consideration of. and results relating to the audit of internal control. including— a. and therefore do not require a departure from an unqualified opinion. 4 . Evaluation of their performance. If the auditor agrees. the opinion on management’s assessment will be unqualified. Policies prohibiting individuals from testing controls in areas to which they were recently assigned or are scheduled to be assigned upon completion of their controls testing responsibilities. qualified. the opinion will be adverse. The auditor’s opinion relating to management’s assessment simply depends on whether the auditor agrees with management’s conclusion regarding the effectiveness of internal control over financial reporting. An adverse opinion is required if a material weakness is identified. c. however. With respect to the auditor’s opinion on the effectiveness of a client’s internal control. the basic options for the opinions are unqualified. and action on. Similar to reports relating to the financial statement audit. an unqualified opinion signifies that the client’s internal control is designed and operating effectively in all material respects. Whether the testing authority has direct access and reports regularly to the board of directors or the audit committee. and the points at which misstatements could occur within. Policies prohibiting individuals from testing controls in areas in which relatives are employed in important or internal control sensitive positions. (AS2.
7-13 The auditor should take into account all of the following items when deciding which locations or business units to test: • The relative financial significance of each location or business unit. (AS2. how much time has passed since the service auditor’s report. Perform the following tests on the reconciliation process: 5 . and the nature and significance of any changes in the service organization’s controls. Objective of the Test: To determine whether misstatements in accounts receivable (existence. valuation. (4) statistical analyses. 7-15 Generalized audit software (GAS) includes programs that allow the auditor to perform tests on computer files and databases. Some functions that can be performed by GAS are: (1) file or database access. (2) selection of transactions that meet certain criteria. • The similarity of business operations and internal control over financial reporting at the various locations or business units. particularly management’s direct control over the exercise of authority delegated to others and its ability to effectively supervise activities at the various locations or business units. • The potential for material unrecognized obligations to exist at a location or business unit and the degree to which the location or business unit could create an obligation on the part of the company. Test the company’s reconciliation control by selecting a sample of reconciliations based upon the number of accounts. • The effectiveness of the control environment. Solutions to Problems 7-16 Control 1: Monthly Manual Reconciliation Nature. • The risk of material misstatement arising from each location or business unit. the significance of the activities of the service organization. • The degree of centralization of processes and financial reporting applications. Such programs are necessary when the entity’s computer system is not compatible with the auditor’s GAS or when the auditor wants to conduct some testing that may not be possible with the GAS. and completeness) would be detected on a timely basis. whether errors have been identified in the service organization’s processing. Timing. • The nature and amount of transactions executed and related assets at the various locations or business units. and (5) report generation. the dollar value of the accounts. • Management’s risk assessment process and analysis for excluding a location or business unit from its assessment of internal control over financial reporting. ¶ B10) 7-14 When a significant period of time has elapsed between the time period covered by the tests of controls in the service auditor’s report and the date of management’s assessment. the need for the auditor to obtain additional evidence increases. and the volume of transactions affecting the account. additional procedures should be performed. As these factors increase in significance. The auditor should consider the results of relevant procedures performed by management or the auditor. An ineffective control environment over the locations or business units might constitute a material weakness. It was developed so that auditors would be able to conduct similar computer-assisted audit techniques in different IT environments. Custom audit software is generally written by auditors for specific audit tasks. (3) arithmetic functions. and Extent of Procedures.
b. Reperform the control for two months by inspecting the reconciliations and reperforming the reconciliation procedures. and Extent of Procedures. valuation. and completeness) would be prevented on a timely basis. observe whether each item included a clear explanation as to its nature. Control 2: Daily Manual Preventive Control Nature. Test the control over making a cash disbursement only after matching the invoice with the receiver and purchase. and whether it had been resolved on a timely basis. evidencing the clerk’s performance of the matching control. Scan through the file of all reconciliations prepared during the year and note that they had been performed on a timely basis. Timing. Observe the employee performing the control. Ask the employee performing the reconciliation the following questions: • What documentation describes the account reconciliation process? • How long have you been performing the reconciliation work? • What is the reconciliation process for resolving reconciling items? • How often are the reconciliations formally reviewed and signed off? • If significant issues or reconciliation problems are noticed. the action that had been taken to resolve it. Make inquiries of personnel performing the control. Examine the invoice to see if it includes the signature or initials of the accounts payable clerk. Timing. For nonrecurring reconciling items. Performed the following procedures: a. and Extent of Procedures.a. Select 25 disbursements (voucher packages) from the cash disbursement registers from January through September. how many reconciling items are there? • How are old reconciling items treated? • If need be. c. Reperformed the matching control corresponding to the signature by examining the invoice to determine that (a) its items matched to the receiver and purchase order and (b) it was mathematically accurate. Make inquiries of company personnel and determined that the reconciliation procedures have not changed from interim to year-end. Perform a walkthrough of one transaction in December. Control 3: Programmed Preventive Control and Weekly Information TechnologyDependent Manual Detective Control Nature. to whose attention do you bring them? • On average. c. d. Update the testing through the end of the year by asking the accounts payable clerk whether the control was still in place and operating effectively. 6 . how is the system corrected for reconciling items? • What is the general nature of these reconciling items? b. Objective of the Test: To determine whether misstatements in cash (existence) and accounts payable (existence.
f. 7-17 a. but less than material. A-138. d. To test the programmed application control. through discussion with company personnel. as evidenced by situations in which transactions that were not material were improperly recorded. appropriate purchase invoices are posted (for example. whether appropriate items are received (for example. Identify. (See AS2. Determine. because individual sales transactions are not material and the compensating detective controls operating monthly and at the end of each financial reporting period should reduce the likelihood of a material misstatement going undetected. match a valid receipt and purchase order. Therefore. orders or invoices) are listed on the exception report. that they do not modify the core functionality of the software. i. c. file sizes (in bytes). this deficiency represents a significant deficiency for the following reasons: The magnitude of a financial statement misstatement resulting from this deficiency would reasonably be expected to be more than inconsequential. Establish. perform the following procedures: a. but sometimes make personalized changes to reports to meet the changing needs of the business.) 7 . Make inquiries of the employee who follows up on the weekly-unmatched items reports and determine why items appear on it. b. the risk of material misstatement is limited to revenue recognition errors related to shipping terms as opposed to broader sources of error in revenue recognition. b. the names. receipts. that the inventory module operated the receiving functionality. Example D2 – Scenario A. The controls do not effectively address the detection of misstatements that are more than inconsequential but less than material. c. purchase order. through discussions with the client and review of the supplier’s documentation. Test the programmed application control of matching the receiver. the software used to process receipts and purchase invoices. the compensating detective controls are only designed to detect material misstatements. Determine that the company had not made significant changes in their controls from interim to year-end by discussing with company personnel the procedures in place for making such changes. Test the detect control of review and follow up on the Unmatched Items Report. Based only on these facts. through further discussion. Furthermore.e. Identify the objectives of the programs to be tested. and locations of the executable files (programs) that operate the functionality under review. Determine whether the programmed control is operating effectively by performing a walkthrough in the month of July. Identify. Observed the performance of the control. and completeness) would be prevented or detected on a timely basis. non-duplicate reference numbers) and unmatched items (for example. d. valuation. including the matching of receipts to open purchase orders. Reperformed the control. e. there is a more than remote likelihood that a misstatement that is more than inconsequential but less than material could occur. However. through further discussion with company personnel. by performing the following procedures in the month of July for the period January to July: a. match a valid purchase order). and invoice as well as the review and follow-up control over unmatched items.Objective of the Test: To determine whether misstatements in cash (existence) and accounts payable/inventory (existence.
8 . A-139. and the amounts have been material. because individual sales transactions are frequently material. Example D2 – Scenario B. the likelihood of material misstatements occurring is more than remote. in combination. Based only on these facts. Therefore. an adverse report on Fritz’s internal control over financial reporting must be issued. • This growth in loan balances. this deficiency represents a material weakness for the following reasons: The magnitude of a financial statement misstatement resulting from this deficiency would reasonably be expected to be material. A-140. Example D2 – Scenario C. coupled with the combined effect of the significant deficiencies described. these deficiencies were evaluated as representing a more than remote likelihood that a misstatement that is more than inconsequential. Example D3 – Scenario A. An unqualified report should be issued as no control deficiencies were identified. because the frequency of occurrence allows insignificant amounts to become material in the aggregate. results in a more than remote likelihood that a material misstatement of the allowance for credit losses or interest income could occur. (See AS2. but less than material. (See AS2. the auditor should determine that the combination of these significant deficiencies represents a material weakness for the following reasons: • The balances of the loan accounts affected by these significant deficiencies have increased over the past year and are expected to increase in the future. this internal control deficiency meets the definition of a material weakness. each of these significant deficiencies affects the same set of accounts. these deficiencies meet the definition of a material weakness.) b. in combination.) c. Because the auditor identified a material misstatement in the financial statements. these significant deficiencies represent a more than remote likelihood that a material misstatement could occur and not be prevented or detected. Therefore. b. Based only on these facts. Additionally. Therefore. Example D2 – Scenario B. Taken together. A-139. could occur. (See AS2. c. Taken together. these significant deficiencies represent a material weakness. and gross margin can vary significantly with each transaction (which would make compensating detective controls based on a reasonableness review ineffective). then an unqualified report can be issued. However.) 7-19 a. if it is only considered to be a significant deficiency. The likelihood of material misstatement of the financial statements resulting from this internal control deficiency is more than remote (even assuming that the amounts were fully reserved for in the company’s allowance for uncollectible accounts) due to the likelihood of material misstatement of the gross accounts receivable balance. then the auditor should issue an adverse opinion. However. the combination of these significant deficiencies represents a material weakness for the following reasons: Individually. A-140-141. the magnitude and likelihood of misstatement of the financial statements resulting from this internal control deficiency meet the definition of a material weakness.b. improper revenue recognition has occurred. this deficiency represents a material weakness for the following reasons: The magnitude of a financial statement misstatement resulting from this deficiency would reasonably be expected to be material.) 7-18 a. If the lack of an adequate antifraud program is considered a material deficiency by the auditor because of increased risk. Therefore. Based on only these facts. (See AS2. Based only on these facts.
An example can be found in Exhibit 7-5. introductory.d. the auditor may issue an unqualified opinion. The auditor must determine whether the restatements are significant or material deficiencies. e. AS2 paragraph 166 indicates that controls must operate for a sufficient time period to accommodate management and auditor testing. The auditor would most likely issue an adverse opinion because of the importance of the audit committee in the control process. b. and should describe the reason for the material weakness. the auditor will issue an adverse opinion or an unqualified opinion. c. However. otherwise an unqualified report may be given. definition. definition. Depending on the amount of risk of material misstatement due to the ineffective control environment. and explanatory paragraphs. If other controls over financial reporting are present. If material. unless the risk of compliance violations was not material. scope. b. competent evidence that the control deficiencies have been corrected. c. 7-21 a. This does not appear to be possible in the scenario when the changes were made after management’s assessment. an adverse opinion will be issued. if materiality is not a concern. and opinion paragraphs. c. Given the lack of management’s concern for internal control. if the deficiency carries a high risk of material misstatement. However. an unqualified opinion may be given. e. An example can be found in Exhibit 18-20. Otherwise. However. then an adverse opinion should be issued. an adverse opinion should be issued. 7-24 a. f. introductory. an unqualified report can be issued. Most likely an adverse opinion would be issued. 2 3 1 7-25 The substantive auditing procedures Brown may consider performing include the following: 9 . opinion. scope. If it is determined to be material then an adverse opinion should be issued. The auditor does not agree with Barns Security Systems management assessment and should therefore issue an adverse opinion. 7-22 The audit report should include the proper title. an unqualified opinion may be given. 7-23 The audit report should include the proper title. As long as the auditor agrees with company’s assessment of controls. If the ineffective monitoring component is a material deficiency. d. The significance of financial fraud by the CFO is a material weakness and an adverse opinion should be issued. and should describe the reason for the material weakness. limitations. b. The auditor must determine the magnitude of the possible misstatement of non-routine sales. limitations. The auditor should issue an adverse opinion if he or she does not believe sufficient time has passed to gather sufficient. 7-20 a. g. then an adverse opinion should be issued.
INTERNET ASSIGNMENTS 7-26 The opinion paragraph of the audit report will indicate whether the report is for both audits. • Recalculate the cost of sales for selected items sold during the year. less sales (quantities and /or amounts). calculate the number of days’ sales in inventory for selected items. • Select a sample of items for comparison to current sales prices. 2005. • Recalculate the prices used to value the year-end FIFO inventory by matching prices and quantities to the most recent purchases. foot. for vouching or analytical procedures. compare the quantity and dollar amount of each adjustment to the perpetual inventory file as of 5 January. 2005. for comparison to the perpetual inventory at 31 January. for tests of details or analytical procedures. 2005. • Search for tag numbers noted during the physical inventory observation as being voided or not used. 2005.) • Recalculate the ending inventory (or selected items) by taking the beginning balances plus purchases. • Compare the physical inventory file to the file of test counts and print out a report of differences for the auditor follow-up. • Using the calculated book-to-physical adjustments for each item. Print out a report of items for which turnover is less than expected. • Compare the quantities on the file to the calculated quantity balances on the perpetual inventory file as of 5 January. and print out a report to be used to reconcile the totals with the general ledger (or agree beginning balance with the prior year’s working papers). (These are transactions other than purchases or sales for the year. or physical inventory adjustments as of 5 January. 2005. • Calculate the quantity balances as of the physical inventory date for comparison to the physical inventory file. for cutoff testing. • Compare quantities sold during the year to quantities on hand at year-end. Note that even separate reports on each of the audits (of financial statements and controls) will refer to the conclusion reached on the other audit.Using the perpetual inventory file: • Recalculate the beginning and ending balances (prices x quantities). and print out the differences. and print out a report of differences for follow-up. compare the physical inventory file updated to year-end to the perpetual inventory file.) • Select items noted as possibly unsalable or obsolete during the physical inventory observation and print out information about purchases and sales for further consideration. update the physical inventory file for purchases and sales from 6 January to 31 January. 10 . and (3) prior to 5 January. 2005. (Alternatively. (Alternatively.) • Calculate the quantities and dollar amounts of the book-to-physical adjustments for each item and the total adjustment. • Identify and print out unusual transactions. • Combine the quantities for each item appearing on more than one inventory tag number for comparison to the perpetual file. Using the physical inventory and test count files: • Account for all inventory tag numbers used and print out a report of missing or duplicate numbers for follow-up. Print out a report to reconcile the total adjustment to the adjustment recorded in the general ledger before year-end.) • Select and print out a sample of items received and shipped for the periods (1) before and after 5 January and 31 January. 2005. (Alternatively. 2005. (2) between 5 January and 31 January.
7-27 The opinion paragraph of an integrated audit will indicate the auditor’s opinion with respect to the effectiveness of internal control. 11 .
In reference to a test of controls Type I and Type II errors are: • Risk of incorrect rejection (Type I): the risk that the assessed level of control risk based on the sample is greater than the true operating effectiveness of the control. 8-2 Type I and Type II errors are the two types of decision errors an auditor can make when deciding that sample evidence supports or does not support a test of controls or a substantive test based on a sampling application. Also commonly referred to as the risk of assessing control risk too high or the risk of underreliance. • Risk of incorrect acceptance (Type II): the risk that the assessed level of control risk based on the sample is less than the true operating effectiveness of the control. Also commonly referred as the risk of assessing control risk too low or the risk of overreliance. 1 . The risk of incorrect rejection relates to the efficiency of the audit because such errors can result in the auditor’s conducting more audit work than necessary in order to reach the correct conclusion. The risk of incorrect acceptance relates to the effectiveness of the audit because such errors can result in the auditor failing to detect a material misstatement in the financial statements. The justification for accepting some uncertainty from sampling is due to the trade-off between the cost to examine all of the data and the cost of making an incorrect decision based on a sample of the data. In reference to substantive tests Type I and Type II errors as follows: • Risk of incorrect rejection (Type I): the risk that the sample supports the conclusion that the recorded account balance is materially misstated when it is not materially misstated. • Risk of incorrect acceptance (Type II): the risk that the sample supports the conclusion that the recorded account balance is not materially misstated when it is materially misstated. This can lead to litigation against the auditor by the parties who relied on the financial statements.CHAPTER 8 AUDIT SAMPLING: AN OVERVIEW AND APPLICATION TO TESTS OF CONTROLS Answers to Review Questions 8-1 Audit sampling is the application of an audit procedure to less than 100 per cent of the items within an account balance or class of transactions for the purpose of evaluating some characteristic of the balance or class.
on the other hand. The major advantages of a statistical sampling application are that it helps the auditor (1) design an efficient sample. the auditor wants to measure the deviation rate to determine whether the control activity can be relied upon to properly process accounting transactions and therefore support the auditor’s assessed level of control risk. 8-6 Once the population has been defined. to select. For tests of controls. Scanning. Classes of transactions or account balances not tested. Tests of automated information technology controls. and to evaluate the results of an audit sample. the auditor must determine (1) that the physical representation of the population is complete. and (3) quantify sampling risk.8-3 • • • • • • • 8-4 Audit evidence choices that do not involve audit sampling include: Analytical procedures. Statistical sampling. The use of statistical theory permits the auditor to quantify the sampling risk for the purpose of reaching a conclusion about the population. Non-statistical sampling is an approach in which the auditor uses a haphazard selection technique or uses judgment in either or both of the following steps: • Determining the sample size • Calculating the computed upper deviation rate Non-statistical sampling doesn’t require the use of statistical theory to determine sample size or in the evaluation of sampling risk. Observation. The disadvantages of statistical sampling include the additional costs of (1) training auditors in the proper use of sampling techniques and (2) the added complexity of designing and conducting the sampling application. Procedures applied to every item in the population. Inquiry. 2 . uses the laws of probability to determine sample size. (2) the period to be covered by the test. and (3) whether to conduct additional tests in the remaining period. (2) measure the sufficiency of evidence obtained. 8-5 Attribute sampling is used to estimate the proportion of a population that possesses a specified characteristic.
. or missing documents. Solutions to Problems 8-11 a. In that case there is likely to be an unacceptably high risk that the true deviation rate in the population exceeds the tolerable rate. the sample item is a deviation for purposes of evaluating the sample results.. If the auditor concludes that there is an unacceptably high risk that the true population deviation rate could exceed the tolerable rate.8-7 The four factors that enter into the sample size decision and their relationship with sample size are: Relationship to Sample Size Inverse Inverse Direct Decreases sample size only when population size is small (<500 items) Factor The risk of incorrect rejection The tolerable deviation rate The expected population deviation rate The population size 8-8 In conducting the audit procedures for tests of controls. The item should be replaced with a new sample item. In such a case.it is generally appropriate for the auditor to assume that the sample results do not support the planned assessed level of control risk if the rate of deviation identified in the sample exceeds the expected population deviation rate used in designing the sample. the item is not a deviation and the auditor would simply replace the item with another purchase transaction. it is generally more efficient to increase the auditor’s assessed level of control risk because the results of the sample would generally support a higher level of control risk. Each of these situations should be handled in the following manner for an attribute sampling application: • Voided documents: If the transaction has been properly voided. Rather than testing additional items. it might be practical to expand the test to sufficient additional items to reduce the risk to an unacceptable level. • Unused or inapplicable documents: Sometimes a selected item is not appropriate for the definition of the control. The auditor’s justification for accepting the uncertainties that are inherent in the sampling process are based upon the premise that (1) the cost of examining all of the financial data would usually outweigh the benefit of the added reliability of a complete (100%) 3 . the auditor may encounter voided documents. however. 8-10 The AICPA Audit Procedures Study Audit Sampling provides the following advice for considering sampling risk in a non-statistical test of controls . it does not represent a deviation. 8-9 The auditor’s purposes in evaluating the qualitative aspects of deviations in performing error analysis involves considering (1) the nature of the deviations and their causes and (2) how these deviations may impact the other phases of the audit. • Missing documents: If the auditor is unable to examine a document or use an alternative procedure to test whether the control was adequately performed. inapplicable documents.
Sampling is involved in the second strata because the auditor is only examining 15 of the 450 loans in the strata. The uncertainties inherent in applying auditing procedures are collectively referred to as audit risk. which is the risk that the assessed level of control risk based on the sample is less than the true operating effectiveness of the control. 3. 8-12 1. the auditor has decided not to audit the account because it is immaterial. Involves sampling. When performing substantive tests. Involves sampling. Sampling risk arises from the possibility that.g. failed to detect a misstatement when applying an appropriate audit procedure. is composed of two risks or uncertainties: sampling risk and non-sampling risk. Involves sampling. 4 Does not involve sampling. Non-sampling risk includes all the aspects of audit risk that are not due to sampling and can occur because the auditor used an inappropriate audit procedure. 5. 4. regression analysis). 3. In this scenario. Detection risk. In this case. and (2) the risk of incorrect acceptance or of assessing control risk too low. which is a component of the audit risk model. which is the risk that the sample supports the conclusion that the recorded account balance is materially misstated when it is not materially misstated. This approach does not involve sampling. 2. when a test of controls or a substantive test is restricted to a sample. Does not involve sampling. b. which is the risk that the assessed level of control risk based on the sample is greater than the true operating effectiveness of the control. it does not involve sampling.examination and (2) the time required to examine all of the financial data would usually preclude issuance of a timely auditor’s report. 8-13 1. sampling is involved in such a test. Since the auditor has selected less than 100% of the population’s transactions. the related decision errors are: (1) the risk of incorrect rejection. Audit risk is the risk that the auditor may unknowingly fail to appropriately modify the opinion on financial statements that are materially misstated. . the auditor can commit two types of decision errors: (1) the risk of incorrect rejection or of assessing control risk too high. 6. the auditor’s conclusions may be different from the conclusions he or she would reach if the test were applied in the same way to all items in the population. or misinterpreted an audit result. Since the entire population is tested. When performing a test of controls. If the analytical procedures used do not include statistical techniques (e. then the use of analytical procedures does not involve sampling. c. which is the risk that the sample supports the conclusion that the recorded account balance is not materially misstated when it is materially misstated. and (2) the risk of incorrect acceptance. Does not involve sampling. 2. the stratum of loans greater than €1 million is tested in total. 4. Audit risk can be controlled through the scope of the auditor’s test procedures with the audit risk model providing a framework to follow.
and (3) quantify sampling risk. Calculate the sample deviation and computed upper deviation rates. The advantages of using a statistical sampling methodology are that it helps the auditor (1) design an efficient sample. 5. 6. Select sample items. • Determine the desired confidence level. By using a statistical sampling methodology. Draw final conclusions. The remaining steps of attribute sampling are as follows: 2. b. • Determine the expected population deviation rate.8-14 a. (2) measure the sufficiency of the evidence obtained. 5 . 3. Define remaining population characteristics—define the control deviation conditions. Perform the audit procedures—understand and analyze a deviations observed. The text includes Jenny’s step 3 within the second step of attributes sampling. using the following inputs. 4. 7. Determine sample size. • Determine the tolerable deviation rate. the auditor can limit sampling risk to an acceptable level.
3 Supports 4 Number of deviations Sample size Sample deviation rate Computed upper deviation rate Auditor’s decision 8-17 0 156 0.0 2.8-15 The sample size for each control activity is: Control Activity Parameters 1 2 5 % 4 % % 1 % % 15 6 81 1 4 2 % 9 5 % 3 % 98 0% 7 % 4 3 1 % 8 4 10 Risk of incorrect acceptance % Tolerable deviation rate Expected population deviation rate Sample size 8-16 are: 5 The computed upper deviation rate and the auditor’s decision for each control activity Control Activity Results 1 2 5 181 2.3 8.1 7.0 Supports The sample size for each control activity is: Control Activity Parameters 1 2 5% 7% 2% 88 10% 4% 1% 96 3 10% 3% 0% 76 4 Risk of incorrect acceptance Tolerable deviation rate Expected population deviation rate Sample size 5% 6% 2% 127 6 .8 6.7 Does not support 3 3 98 3.9 Does not support 4 94 4.
b. the computed upper deviation rate of 7. Therefore. the sample deviation rate still is less than the tolerable rate. rounding is not a potential source for auditor error.8-18 are: The computed upper deviation rate and the auditor’s decision for each control activity Control Activity Results 1 2 2 88 2. the auditor is guaranteed that the results are acceptable. 8-19 Austen’s conclusion on each item would be as follows: 1. The sample deviation rate is 2. However. the control can be relied upon. the control cannot be relied upon. (2) Mathews could increase control risk because the upper deviation rate exceeds the tolerable deviation rate and the sample deviation rate exceeds the expected deviation rate.4%). However. (1) The tolerable deviation rate exceeds the sample deviation rate. Therefore.0 3. he must recognize that this approach does not leave much allowance for sampling risk.9 Does not support 3 0 76 0. (3) Mathews could justify not adjusting the preliminary assessment because. 8-21 Iceberge’s conclusion on each item would be as follows: 7 . because a statistically derived sample size was determined in problem 8-27 and because the allowed number of deviations were found (see the number in parentheses in tables 8-7 and 88).7* Does Support 2 96 2.1 7.2 Does not support * It appears that the computed upper deviation rate exceeds the tolerable deviation rate for both procedure 2 and 4. these results obtain because the evaluation tables do not have include evaluations for sample sizes of 88 and 76 and when rounded down to sample sizes of 80 and 70 respectively.3* Does Support 4 Number of deviations Sample size Sample deviation rate Computed upper deviation rate Auditor’s decision 4 127 3.1 5. In reality.3%. the upper deviation rate is given as 7% and the sample deviation rate is 4% (6 deviations/150 sample size). The sample deviation rate is 5. Note that when using ACL. 2. In this problem.3 7.0 per cent (1 ÷ 20). but is less than the upper deviation rate. the allowance for sampling risk is 3% (7% .7% and 3. The allowance for sampling risk is the difference between the upper deviation rate and the sample deviation rate. 8-20 a. Since the sample deviation rate exceeds the expected population deviation rate of 4 per cent. even though the upper deviation rate exceeds the tolerable rate. Mathews could increase the sample size and reevaluate the results based on the larger sample size before determining whether to adjust the preliminary control risk assessment.5 per cent (1 ÷ 40). Since the sample deviation rate is less than the expected population deviation rate of 3 per cent.
• Baker failed to consider the difference of an immaterial amount to be an error. • Discovery sampling is not an appropriate sampling technique in this attribute sampling application. • Baker failed to consider the risk of assessing control risk too low in determining the sample size. the control cannot be relied upon. • The computed upper deviation rate is too high (20%) if Baker plans to assess control risk at a low level. Solution to Discussion Case 8-22 The following are the incorrect assumptions. Since the sample deviation rate is less than the expected population deviation rate of 3 per cent. • Baker’s reasoning concerning the decision that the sample supported a low assessed level of control risk was erroneous.1.0 per cent (2 ÷ 50). Since the sample deviation rate exceeds the expected population deviation rate of 3 per cent. • The increase in the population size has little or no effect on determining sample size. 2. The sample deviation rate is 2. 8 . The sample deviation rate is 4. and inappropriate applications of attribute sampling in Baker’s procedures: • Statistical sampling does not eliminate the need for professional judgment.0 per cent (1 ÷ 50). • The population from which the sample was chosen (invoices) was an incorrect population. • The sampling technique employed is not discovery sampling. • The allowance for sampling risk was incorrectly calculated. statements. • The sample was not randomly selected. the control can be relied upon.
Chapter 9 ©The McGraw-Hill Companies. o Population size. or a line item on a transaction.CHAPTER 9 AUDIT SAMPLING: AN APPLICATION TO SUBSTANTIVE TESTS OF ACCOUNT BALANCES Answers to Review Questions 9-1 The steps in a statistical sampling application for substantive testing include (by phases): Planning: • Determine the test objectives. the sampling unit is defined as an individual euro (or similar form of currency). 9-2 When monetary-unit sampling (MUS) is used. o Define a misstatement. • Define the population characteristics: o Define the population. o The tolerable misstatement. Performance: • Select sample items. 2006 9-1 . Solutions Manual. the sampling unit is a customer account. o The expected population misstatement. • Draw final conclusions. • Determine sample size. • Perform the audit procedures: o Understand and analyze any misstatements observed Evaluation: • Calculate the projected misstatement and the upper limit on misstatement. an individual transaction.. o Define the sampling unit. When classical variables sampling is used. Inc. using the following inputs: o The desired confidence level or risk of incorrect acceptance.
logical units (e. • When more than one or two misstatements are detected using a MUS approach. the evidence does not support the fair presentation of the account balance. the evidence supports the fair presentation of the account. when applied using a probability proportional to size sample selection procedure as outlined in the text. • The calculation of sample size and the evaluation of the sample results are not based on the variation (that is. automatically results in a stratified sample because sampled items are selected in proportion to their monetary amount.9-3 The following table shows how the desired confidence level. 9-7 Variation in the population. If UML is less than TM. The advantage of using this approach to selecting the sample is that while each euro in the population has an equal chance of being selected.g. the standard deviation) between items in the population. the risk of incorrect acceptance. Each selected euro represents a group of euros (referred to as the sampling interval). the sample results calculations may overstate the allowance for sampling risk. customer accounts) containing more euros have a higher probability of being selected. and tolerable and expected misstatement affect sample size in the following way: • Variation in the population: As the variation in the population increases. tolerable misstatement. • MUS. • The general approach to MUS assumes that the audited amount of the sample item is not in error by more than 100 per cent. Disadvantages: • Selection of a zero or negative balance generally requires special design consideration. 9-5 Probability-proportional-to-size sample selection gives each individual euro or monetary unit in the population an equal chance of being selected. The sampling interval is determined by dividing the book value of the population by the sample size. the required sample size increases. sample size increases. • Desired confidence level: As the desired confidence level increases. If UML is greater than TM. 9-6 The decision rule for determining the acceptability of sample results when MUS is used compares the tolerable misstatement (TM) to the upper misstatement limit (UML). 2 . and expected misstatement are related to sample size: Factor Desired confidence level Tolerable misstatement Expected misstatement 9-4 Relationship to Sample Size Direct Inverse Direct The advantages and disadvantages of MUS are: Advantages: • When the auditor expects no misstatements. MUS will normally result in a smaller sample size than classical variables sampling.
the auditor must estimate the standard deviation of the audited value or differences. 9-10 The decision that the evidence supports or does not support the account balance using classical variables sampling is made by determining if the recorded book value is included within the confidence interval. 9-9 The advantages and disadvantages of classical variables sampling are: Advantages: • When the auditor expects a large number of differences between book and audited values. classical variables sampling will normally result in a smaller sample size than MUS. or a line item. 3 .• Tolerable and expected misstatement: As tolerable misstatement increases. • Classical variables sampling techniques are effective for both overstatements and understatements. the true variance tends to be underestimated and the resulting projection of the misstatements to the population is not likely to be reliable. If the auditor expects the misstatements to be relatively constant for all items in the population. ratio estimation and difference estimation. Difference estimation projects the average misstatement found in the sample to the population. No special evaluation considerations are necessary if the sample data include both types of misstatements. the evidence does not support the conclusion that the account is fairly stated. • The calculation of sample size in a MUS sample is not based on an estimate of the standard deviation in the population. while an increase in expected misstatement results in an increase in sample size. • If few misstatements are detected in the sample data. Ratio estimation projects the amount of misstatement by dividing the amount of misstatement by the percentage of the euros of the population included in the sample. The advantages of MUS over classical variables sampling are as follows: • MUS sampling is generally easier to use than is classical variables sampling. If the proportions are different. Solutions to Problems 9-11 a. the second method should be used. the first method should be used. the auditor chooses between the two methods on the basis of his or her understanding of the magnitude and distribution of misstatements in the population. If the confidence interval includes the book value. 9-8 The AICPA’s audit guide describes two acceptable methods of projecting the amount of misstatement found in a non-statistical sample. If the auditor expects that the amount of misstatement relates closely to the size of the item. • The selection of a zero balance generally does not require special sample design considerations since the sampling unit will not be an individual euro but rather an account. a transaction. sample size decreases. the evidence supports the conclusion that the account is fairly stated. If the book value is not included in the confidence interval. These two methods of projecting misstatements give identical results if the sample includes the same proportion of items in the population as the proportion of the population’s recorded amount included in the sample. Disadvantages: • In order to determine sample size.
• b. • If no misstatements are expected. • Individually significant items are automatically identified. tolerable misstatement = 5% (€15.000 ÷ 181).MUS sampling in conjunction with probability-proportional-to-size selection results in a stratified sample.000 ÷ €300. Using Table 8-7 in the text with a desired confidence level = 95%. 4 . (€6.657 (€300.000).000 ÷ €300.000) sample size is equal to 181 items. and expected misstatement = 2%. MUS will usually result in a smaller sample size than classical variables sampling. The sampling interval is €1.
657 331 95% Upper Limit Increment (from Table 89*) 3. the evidence supports the fair presentation of the account balance. The upper misstatement limit is calculated as follows: Misstatement Number Basic Precision 2 1 Add misstatements detected in logical units greater than the sampling interval: Misstate ment 3 Upper Misstatement Limit NA—Not Applicable * Using sample size 100.20 1. since book value exceeds sampling interval.500 Tainting Factor .5 (6.0 1.657 1.0 1.0 .c.7) Upper Misstatement (column 2 x 3 x 5) $€4.785) is less than the TM (€15.0) 1.2-4.000 Audit Value $€320 0 2.00 Not applicable. The total projected misstatement for the three misstatements identified is calculated by first computing the tainting factor as follows: Misstatement Number 1 2 3 Book Value $€400 500 3.785 Tainting Factor 1.657 NA NA 500 Since the UML (€8.7 (4.657 Projected Misstatement (column 2 x 3) NA 1.817 497 NA 1.000). 5 .7-3.20 Sampling Interval $€1.971 2. see footnote iii in chapter 9. $€8.657 1.
tolerable misstatement = 5% (€212.2-4.0) 1. The upper misstatement limit is calculated as follows: Overstatement Errors Error Number 1 2 3 Book Value 6. Zhu can not accept the inventory account as being fairly stated since there is only a 5 per cent risk that the account contains a misstatement greater than €212.0 .274 NA NA 75.667 .000).250.000 20.586 NA 34.500.5% (€63. and expected misstatement = 1.500).7 (4.864 8.822 38.272) is more than the TM (€212.0 1.167 Sampling Interval $€34.861 5.5 (6.000 24.274 = €4. b.7-3. Using Table 8-7 with a desired confidence level = 95% (risk of incorrect acceptance = 5%).000 Audit Value 2.274 34.274 34. sample size is equal to 124.000 Tainting Factor .724 Basic Precision 1 2 Add misstatements detected in logical units greater than the sampling interval: Error 3 95% Upper Limit Increment (from Table 8-9*) 3. see footnote iii in chapter 9.250.000 140.000).167 Not applicable.9-12 a.750 ÷ €4. 6 .250.000 65.274 Projected Misstatement (column 2 x 3) NA 22. Since the UML (€225.000 Upper Misstatement Limit $€225.7) Upper Misstatement (column 2 x 3 x 5) $€102. The sampling interval is €34.000 ÷124).500 ÷ €4.667 . since the book value exceeds the sampling interval Error Number Tainting Factor 1.272 NA—Not Applicable * Using sample size 100.
25 .7) 1.4 (7.076 32.365 21.000 ÷ €9.000.000 $€303.20 Error Number Tainting Factor 1. Since the UML (€303. tolerable misstatement = 4% (€360.500 6.635 16.000 0 640 Tainting Factor .20 Sampling Interval $€57.33 Not applicable.000.692 (€9.692 57.000 9. The calculation of the adjustment for the understatement errors is as follows: 7 . sample size is equal to 156.9-13 a.538 Basic Precision 2 1 4 Add misstatements detected in logical units greater than the sampling interval: Error 3 95% Upper Limit Increment (from Table 8-9*) 3.692 57.33 . and expected misstatement = 1% (€90.692 Projected Misstatement (column 2 x 3) NA 19.229 Upper Misstatement Limit NA—Not Applicable * Using sample size 100. since the book value exceeds the sampling interval .000.2-4.000 800 Audit Value 7.7 (4.692 NA NA 60.000). see footnote iii in chapter 9.692 57.000).2) Upper Misstatement (column 2 x 3 x 5) $€173. The sampling interval is €57.5 (6.229) is less than the tolerable misstatement (€360.000 ÷ €9.000).25 .7-3. b. Using Table 8-7 with a desired confidence level of 95% (risk of incorrect acceptance = 5%). Nancy Van Pelt can accept the inventory account as being fairly stated since there is only a 5 per cent risk that the account contains a misstatement greater than €360. The upper misstatement limit is calculated as follows: Overstatement Errors Error Number 1 2 3 4 Book Value 10.153 NA 57.6-6.000 ÷156).423 11.000.000 60.0) 1.0 .038 14.0 1.
580 Projected misstatement Since the projected misstatement (€92.000).500 15.550 38.692 ent -4.000 # The projected misstatement for the accounts receivable account is: Amount of Misstatement $€ 3.692 57.000 >€5.750 $€ 92.000 ÷ 3.04 Projected Misstatement $€ 3. Sample size is calculated as follows: b.000) from the sampling population because they will be the subject of 100% testing.Understatement Errors Error Number 5 6 Book Value 6.000 = .000 750 Value 6.750.303 70.788 -3.653 Projected Misstatem Adjustment to UML 9-14 a.083 -.000 = . 8 . Judd should conclude that there is an unacceptably high risk that the true misstatement exceeds the tolerable misstatement.000 <€5.000 $ Sample Size = % " ! 1.500 800 Audit Factor -.500 50. ' !4.2 = 37 & !155.865 -8.330 Str ata >€50.083 -. Remove the 10 accounts (€750.250 Percentage of Strata Sampled 100% 910.000 1.750.580) is significantly greater than the expected misstatement (€60.000 ÷1.067 Samplin g Interval 57.067 Tainting Adjustment for Understatement Errors Tainting Factor -.000.
000 ounces = 700. the point estimate for the audit value is 684. The achieved precision is determined by first calculating the standard deviation and then using the equation shown below.856 .000 x 1. using the Z value for the risk of incorrect acceptance.000 (1.03.000 16.81 100 . round to 44 b.64 ) 12. The calculation of the sample results is as follows: The calculation of the mean misstatement per sampling item is: = Mean Misstatement per sampling item Total audit difference 400 = = 4 Sample Size 100 Thus. Next.100 (4 )2 = 12.000 Thus.000 ounces = 4000 x Mean misstatement per sampling item 4 Next compute the point estimate.10. The calculation of the sample size for Paonessa’s test of Cougar Goldust is: 2 & 4.81 100 = 8.64 x 25 # =$ = 43 35.403 . In this case we are working with recorded weight in ounces rather than euros Point estimate = Book value (in ounces) + Projected population misstatement 684.1 Confidence bound = N Z IA where N = population size n = sample size 9 SD n = 4. the average misstatement in a bin based on the sample data is an overstatement of 4 ounces.9-15 a. the mean misstatement is projected to the population: Projected population = Population size x Misstatement 16.000 .sample size x mean difference per sampling item 2 sample size .000 ! % " Sample size .000 ounces. SD = Total squared audit difference .1 ( ) SD = 17.
81 Point estimate = Book value €92.000 ounces does not lie inside the precision interval.500 + Projected population misstatement 4.618 = 960 x Mean misstatement per sampling item 4.For Cougar Goldust. the point estimate for the audit value is €92.403 ounces.1 ( ) SD = 10 . The achieved precision is determined by first calculating the standard deviation and then using the equation shown below. the sample evidence suggests that the perpetual records are not fairly stated at a 5 per cent risk of incorrect acceptance.1 8. 9-16 The calculation of the sample results for Hipp Supply Company is as follows: The calculation of the mean misstatement per sampling item is: = Mean Misstatement per sampling item Total audit difference 481 = = 4. the mean misstatement is projected to the population and a population point estimate is determined as follows: Projected population = Population size x misstatement €4.882 = €97.000 + 8.15 100 .895 . SD = Total squared audit difference .882.81. Next. using the Z value for the risk of incorrect acceptance.403 Thus.618 Thus.597 ounces and an upper limit of 692.403 ounces and the confidence interval is calculated as follows: Confidence interval = Population point estimate + Confidence bound = 684. the average misstatement in a bin based on the sample data is an overstatement of €4.81)2 = 8.sample size x mean difference per sampling item 2 sample size . the confidence bound is 8.81 Sample Size 100 Thus.100 (4. Since the perpetual account amount of 700. the Confidence Interval has a lower limit of 675.
28 ) 8.Confidence bound = N Z IA where N = population size n = sample size SD n = 960(1. the confidence bound is €1.001 For Hipp Supply Company. 11 . Since the book value of €97.882 + 1. the sample evidence suggests that the inventory is not fairly stated at a 10 per cent risk of incorrect acceptance.500 does not lie inside the precision interval.881 and an upper limit of €93.001 Thus.883.15 100 = 1. the confidence interval has a lower precision limit of €91.001 and the confidence interval is calculated as follows: Confidence interval = Population point estimate + Confidence bound = €92.
b. it appears reasonable to conclude he has sufficient evidence to consider the balance fairly stated.500 (€1.000) which is well below tolerable misstatement of €250.000) was incorrectly projected as a €1.000 misstatement. Doug’s reasoning for selection seems reasonably sound. • The standard deviation of the euro amounts is not required for MUS sampling. the projected misstatement for this difference was actually €2. 9-18 a. • Expected misstatement was not considered in calculating sample size. the probability of selection of the accounts is proportional to the account’s euro amount. Because the items selected were not identified randomly. Doug based his selection on the items that were most risky or most likely to be misstated.000 x €10.000/€720. not each account.900 and audited amount of €2. • The account with the €1. • The three selected accounts with insignificant balances should not have been ignored or replaced with other accounts.000) of ending inventory and even though it isn’t technically appropriate to project the results from the ‘sample’ we can use our understanding of projection to inform our judgment regarding the sufficiency of the evidence. While Doug’s selection method is not random. judgmentally ‘targeting’ items for testing is acceptable under auditing standards and it may be preferable if there is reason to think some balances are more likely misstated than others.000 difference (recorded amount of €4.000 and audited amount of €3.090.000/€1. statements. • Tolerable misstatement was not considered in calculating sample size. • MUS sampling is not efficient if many misstatements are expected because the sample size can become larger than the corresponding sample size for classical variables sampling as the expected amount of misstatement increases.000 x 50 per cent). and inappropriate applications of sampling are as follows: • Classical variables sampling is not designed for tests of controls. It might be reason to assume that the account is not materially misstated. • The difference in the understated account (recorded amount of €1.Solution to Discussion Cases 9-17 The incorrect assumptions. as a separate sampling unit. Projected misstatement using ratio estimation would be €121.000/€4.111 (€80. • Each account does not have an equal chance of being selected.000 (€500. • The reasoning (the comparison of projected misstatement with the allowance for sampling risk) concerning the decision that the receivables balance was not overstated was erroneous.090.000 x €1. Assuming his was successful at identifying the riskiest items and the fact that he obtained relatively high coverage (the remaining items account for only 44%) and that they are less likely to contain misstatement. 12 . Doug cannot use statistical sampling methods to quantify sampling risk or evaluate his results.000 sampling interval).000) should not have been omitted from the calculation of projected misstatement. • MUS sampling uses each euro in the population. • MUS sampling requires special consideration for negative (credit) balances. His ‘sample’ accounts for 66% (€720.
and the industry’s rate of technological change affect the potential for misstatements in the revenue process. financing and product liability. returns. by a medicine control agency) within the industry may also affect sales activity. The presence of misstatements in previous audits is a good indicator that misstatements are likely to be present during the current audit. 1 . However. the level of competition within the industry. If misstatements were present in previous audits. • The costs incurred or to be incurred in respect of the transaction can be measured reliably. • The entity retains neither continuing managerial involvement to the degree usually associated with ownership nor effective control over the goods sold. The credit function is usually responsible for preparing a report of customer accounts that may require write-off as bad debts. cash receipts. International Accounting Standard (IAS) 18 Revenue states that revenue is recognised when it is probable that future economic benefits will flow to the entity and these benefits can be measured reliably. and sales returns and allowances transactions are initiated. and sales returns and allowances transactions. IAS 18 provides the following criteria for revenue recognition: • The entity has transferred to the buyer the significant risks and rewards of ownership of the goods. • The accounting records. cash receipts. the auditor should assess inherent risk to be high. Finally. most countries have consumer protection legislation that may affect product warranties. 10-3 Industry-related factors such as the profitability and health of the industry in which the entity operates. For example. including computer processing of the data.g. 10-2 The credit authorization function has the responsibility for monitoring customer payments. the final approval for writing off an account should come from an officer of the company who is not responsible for credit or collections. the risk has been transferred. Such industry-related factors directly impact the auditor’s inherent risk assessment for the authorization and valuation audit objectives.CHAPTER 10 AUDITING THE REVENUE PROCESS Answers to Review Questions 10-1 As a general rule revenue is recognized when the earnings process is complete. The level of governmental regulation (e. and the entity has established a receivable due by customer. An aged trial balance of accounts receivable should be prepared and reviewed by the credit authorization function. supporting documents and accounts that are involved in processing sales. 10-4 The auditor needs to obtain the following knowledge for each major class of transactions in the revenue process when performing a walkthrough: • How sales. revenues from the sale of goods are recognised once delivery has taken place. Payment should be requested from customers who are delinquent in making payments for goods or services. • It is probable that the economic benefits associated with the transaction will flow to the entity. • The flow of each type of transaction from initiation to inclusion in the financial statements. • The amount of revenue can be measured reliably.
10-5 Two important controls for processing of credit memoranda for sales returns and allowances transactions are: (1) each credit memorandum should be approved by someone other than the individual who initiated it and (2) a credit for returned goods should be supported by a receiving document indicating that the goods have been returned. 10-6 The analytical procedures that can be used to test revenue-related accounts and the possible misstatements that can be detected by each analytical procedure are (also see Table 10-9): Analytical Procedure Revenue: Comparison of gross profit percentage by product line with previous years’ and/or industry data. Comparison of reported revenue to budgeted revenue. Comparison of aging categories on aged trial balance of accounts receivable to previous years.or overstatement of allowance for uncollectible accounts and bad-debt expense 2 . Examination of large customer accounts individually and comparison to previous year. Comparison of bad-debt expense as a percentage of revenue to previous years’ and/or industry data. Under.• The process used to prepare estimates for accounts such as the allowance for uncollectible accounts and sales returns. Uncollectible Accounts. Expense: Allowance for and Bad-Debt Possible Misstatement Detected Unrecorded (understated) revenue Fictitious (overstated) revenue Changes in pricing policies Product-pricing problems Comparison of receivables turnover and days outstanding in accounts receivable to previous years’ and/or industry data. Comparison of the allowance for uncollectible accounts as a percentage of accounts receivable or credit sales to previous years’ and/or industry data. Accounts Receivable.
The auditor should consider the respondent’s competence. Generally. misstatements identified. the intended respondents to accounts receivable confirmations may vary from individuals with little accounting knowledge to highly qualified accounting personnel in large companies. and the accuracy of returned confirmations should be considered when assessing the reliability of accounts receivable confirmations.or overstatement of sales commission expense and related accrual 10-7 The auditor verifies the accuracy of the aged trial balance using the following steps. For example. knowledge. if response rates were low in prior audits. 3 . These two steps mainly describe a manual approach to testing accuracy. and Sales Commissions: Comparison of sales returns as a percentage of revenue to previous years’ and/or industry data. Comparison of sales discounts as a percentage of revenue to previous years’ and/or industry data. • Prior experience on the client or similar engagements. a sample of customer accounts selected for proper inclusion in the aged trial balance.or discounts overstatement of sales Under. positive confirmations are considered more reliable because the recipient is required to respond to the auditor regardless of whether a misstatement exists or not. Prior experience with the client in terms of confirmation response rates. the auditor traces the customer’s balance back to the subsidiary ledger detail and verifies the total amount and the amounts included in each column for proper aging. ability and objectivity when assessing the reliability of confirmation requests. The types of confirmations include positive and negative confirmations. a copy of the aged trial balance of accounts receivable is obtained from the client and the total balance is compared to the accounts receivable general ledger balance. First. For each selected customer account. the auditor might consider obtaining evidence using alternative procedures. Second. • The intended respondent. A second approach would involve the use of computer-assisted audit techniques. Estimation of sales commissions expense by multiplication of net revenue by the average commission rate and comparison to recorded sales commission expense.Sales Returns and Allowances. the auditor can use a generalized audit software package to perform the steps described in the first approach to examine the accuracy of the aged trial balance generated by the client’s accounting system. Underreturns or overstatement of sales Under. If the general controls over IT are adequate. Finally. 10-8 Three factors that affect the reliability of accounts receivable confirmations are: • The type of confirmation request.
Negative confirmation requests are used when there are a large number of accounts with small balances. 4 . A negative confirmation requests that the customer respond only when it disagrees with the amount due to the client. and the auditor believes that the customers will devote adequate attention to the confirmation. The transactions that result in receivables from related parties are examined to determine if they were at ‘arm’s length.10-9 A positive accounts receivable confirmation requests that the customer indicate whether or not it is in agreement with the amount due to the client stated in the confirmation. The auditor would confirm and evaluate each type of receivable for collectibility. • Notes receivable.’ Notes receivable would also be confirmed and examined for repayment terms and whether interest income has been properly recognized. a response is required regardless of whether the customer believes that the amount is correct or incorrect. • Receivables from related parties. control risk is assessed to be low. 10-10 Other types of receivables that the auditor should examine include: • Receivables from officers and employees. Positive confirmations are generally used when an account contains large individual balances or if errors are anticipated because control risk was judged to be high. Thus.
receives only a deposit from the customer. Provided that other criteria for revenue recognition are met. IAS 18 states that revenue is recognized when the entity has transferred to the buyer the significant risks and rewards of ownership of the goods. 2. persuasive evidence of an arrangement would require properly authorized personnel of the customer have executed final agreement. irrespective of whether a cancellation clause exists. Until then. It would not be appropriate for Dave’s to recognize the membership fees as revenue upon billing or receipt of initial fee with a corresponding accrual of estimated costs to provide the membership services. Bayonne’s execution of the sales agreement after the end of the quarter causes the transaction to be considered a transaction of the subsequent period by accounting standards such as IAS 18. the ability of the member to receive full refund of the membership fee up to the last day of the membership term raises uncertainty as to whether the fee is fixed or determinable at any point before the end of the term. Additionally. 5 . accounting standards such as IAS 18 would not allow recognition of the revenue. In Thompson’s business practice of requiring a written sales agreement for this class of customer.Solutions to Problems 10-11 1. Because Best Products retains the risk of ownership of the merchandise. Best Products should recognize revenue from sales of its layaway program upon delivery of the merchandise to the customer. Therefore. is not complete. the earnings process. The assessment of when an entity has transferred the significant risks and rewards of ownership to the buyer requires an examination of the circumstances of the transaction. and does not have an enforceable right to the remainder of the purchase price. the amount of cash received should be recognized as a liability. This conclusion is based on Dave’s remaining and unfulfilled contractual obligation to perform services throughout the remaining period. 3.
customer identity and address. date. description and quantities of goods shipped. 5. or file? Are copies of shipping documents forwarded to the Billing Department? Inventory Control Department? No 6.10-12 Johnson Coat Outlet Internal Control Questionnaire Shipments Question Yes 1. and other details? 7. 3. Are shipping documents prepared from sales orders approved in accordance with management’s authorization? 2. • • • • • • • Is the shipping function independent of Sales orders? Credit approval? Billing and accounts receivable? Cash receipts? Warehouse? Receiving? Inventory control? 8. • • Are shipping documents prenumbered? Are shipping documents periodically accounted for? Are shipping documents recorded in a register. log. Do shipping documents include cross-reference to sales orders. 4. Are type and quantities of goods withdrawn and packed for shipping verified by independent counts? 10. Is access to merchandise restricted and controlled within the shipping department? 9. Are receipts from carriers obtained and filed? 6 .
• Does not deliver cheques excluded from the deposit to an employee independent of the bank deposit for review and disposition. • Initiates posting of receipts to subsidiary accounts receivable ledger and has initial access to cash receipts. 7 . • Does not deposit cash receipts promptly. • Releases merchandise to customers before proper approvals of customers’ credit. Collection clerk: • Receives directly and records customers’ cheques.10-13 The weaknesses in Newton Hardware’s internal controls include the following: Warehouse clerk: • Initiates posting to inventory records by preparation of shipping advice. • Does not retain a copy of the shipping advice for comparison with receipt from carrier. • Authorizes write-offs of customer accounts receivable and authorizes customers’ credit. Bookkeeper A: • Authorizes customers’ credit and prepares source documents for posting to customers’ accounts. • Reconciles bank statement and has initial access to cash receipts. • Prepares invoices without notice that the merchandise was actually shipped and the date it was shipped.
Cash should not be left undeposited for a week. There is no segregation of duties between persons responsible for collecting admission fees and persons responsible for authorizing admission. 8 . The other clerk (the admission clerk) should authorize admission upon receipt of the ticket or proof of membership. Discrepancies should be promptly investigated and resolved. The cash collections should be recorded by the collection clerk daily on a permanent record that will serve as the first record of accountability. Cash should be deposited at least once each day.10-14 The following weaknesses in the existing informal control system over cash admission fees should be identified by Smith along with the related recommendation for improvement: Weakness 2. There is no proof of accuracy of amounts collected by the clerks. 6. The treasurer should issue a signed receipt for all proceeds received from the collection clerk. 7. Cash receipts are not promptly deposited. 6. 4. 5. 3. 7. These receipts should be maintained and periodically checked against cash collection and deposit records. 3. records are not Recommendation 2. An independent count of paying patrons is not made. The admission clerk should retain a portion of the prenumbered admission ticket (admission ticket stub). There is no record of the internal accountability for cash. One clerk (the collection clerk) should collect admission fees and issue prenumbered tickets. 5. Admission ticket stubs should be reconciled with cash collected by the treasurer each day. Authenticated deposit slips should be compared with daily cash collection records. 8. In addition. 4. the treasurer should establish a policy that includes an analytical review of cash collections. Cash receipts promptly prepared. There is no proof of accuracy of the amounts deposited. 8.
• There is no indication of follow-up or cross-referencing of the account confirmed-relatedparty transaction. b. • Compare individual customers’ names. • The euro amount and percentage of the six accounts selected for confirmation that the client asked the auditor not to confirm is omitted from the ‘Euros’ columns for the ‘Total selected for testing. individual customer ledger accounts.’ • The two positive confirmations that were sent but were unanswered are not accounted for. c. 10-17 The working paper contains the following deficiencies: • The working paper was not initialled and dated by the audit assistant. possible scope limitation. Stanley would test the aging of accounts receivable and then: • Mail positive accounts receivable confirmation requests directly to all customers with old balances. and amounts shown on the customer’s remittance advices with the names. • The tick mark ‘‡’ is used but is not explained in the tick mark legend. dates. • There is no explanation for proposed disposition of the ten differences aggregating €12. shipping documents. dates. • There is no documentation of alternate procedures. or other working paper reference for the six accounts selected for confirmation that the client asked the auditor not to confirm. 10-18 In order to determine whether lapping exists. 1 3 4 6 5 10-16 In addition to sending second requests.10-15 a. • Examination of the customer orders. no adjustment’ and ‘Confirmation Requests’ to the confirmation control schedule. and amounts recorded in the cash receipts journal. • Obtain authenticated deposit slips directly from the bank. and duplicate sales invoices. • Investigate all exceptions noted on confirmations. such as the eighteen ‘Differences reported and resolved. • There is no reference to second requests.’ • The ‘Euros-Per cent’ for ‘Confirmation Requests-Negatives’ is incorrectly calculated at 10 per cent. Signoff-on can perform the following audit procedures: • Examination of subsequent cash receipts.000. • The overall conclusion reached is not appropriate. • There is no notation that a projection from the sample to the population was made. e. • Cross-referencing is incomplete. 9 . d. • Examination of other client documentation. • Negative confirmations not returned cannot be considered to be accounts ‘confirmed without exception. and deposit slips (if practicable).
000 10 .000 5.• • • • • Verify the propriety of noncash credits to accounts receivable (e. Compare information in copies of monthly customers’ statements with information in customers’ ledger accounts. and the accounts receivable control account.000 e. the auditor should inquire as to why there was such a delay in processing the sales invoice. sales discounts. Since the goods were not shipped until 3 February.000 4. the following entry is necessary: Sales Inventory Accounts receivable Cost of merchandise sold 10. d. Reconcile the total of the individual customers’ accounts with the accounts receivable control account.600 10. Therefore. no sale should be recognized. This sale should be recorded in the current fiscal year. Perform a surprise inspection of deposits. a. Since the goods were shipped on 31 January. Thus the following adjusting entry is necessary: Accounts receivable Sales 6. (2) all sales are made FOB shipping (title passes to the customer at the time the goods are shipped). 2.000 2. the sale was recorded as a current-fiscal-year sale. the following adjustment is necessary: Cost of merchandise sold Inventory b. the customers’ ledger accounts. three points should be noted: (1) The book-to-physical adjustment has already been made by the client. they were included in the physical inventory at the end of the fiscal year.000 6. Since the goods were not on hand on 31 January. c. The following adjusting entry should be made: Sales Accounts receivable 4. 10-19 In evaluating proper sales cutoff. and (3) goods on hand on 31 January are included in the physical inventory. The sale is properly recorded in the current year. Since the merchandise was shipped on 30 January. However. bad-debt write-offs). the sale should be reversed since title has not passed to the customer. they would have been included in the physical inventory. it was not included in the physical inventory. However. sales returns. Since this transaction is a shipment of merchandise to a consignee. Since the sale should be recognized in the current fiscal year.g. Foot the cash receipts journal.000 5.000 This sale is properly recorded as a current-fiscal-year sale.600 f.
to determine the cost of the inventory destroyed by the flood. The auditor can perform the following procedures to support the amount recorded for the receivable: • Examine the inventory records. Thus the following adjusting entry is necessary: Accounts receivable Cost of merchandise sold Sales Inventory 8. The most conservative approach--the one likely to be least favoured by the company--would be when the proceeds are received. One possible answer is to recognize insurance proceeds (a receivable from the insurance company) in Friendly Furniture’s financial statements at 30 June in the following manner: credit a portion of business interruption insurance to cost of sales and recognize in other income a gain that consists of the estimated minimum or expected amount that the replacement cost insurance proceeds exceed the net book value of equipment and inventory destroyed and unallocated proceeds from business interruption insurance. The first issue that needs to be considered is the timing of recognition for some or all of the insurance proceeds that Friendly Furniture is entitled to and expects to receive. The company will likely want to recognize the estimated proceeds from insurance coverage at the earliest possible date to offset losses.000 5. • Examine the client’s and insurance company’s calculation of the amount of income to be recognized as a result of the business interruption. Since the merchandise was shipped on 31 January. • Examine the property. b. h.g.000 5. • Examine the appraisal reports to test the fair market value of the equipment destroyed. 11 . plant. A decision as to which of those alternatives should be used needs to be based on the company’s ability to estimate the proceeds as reliably as possible.500 8. If the insurance company has admitted to a liability. if any. This transaction is correctly recorded as a sale in the next period. The other extreme would be recognition of the insurance proceeds before verification of coverage or admission of liability by the insurance carrier. from the destruction of fixed assets and inventory as well as from lost production. There are a number of points in time when the insurance proceeds may be recognized. including the perpetual and physical inventory. • Examine the appraisal reports to test the fair market value of the inventory destroyed. and equipment subsidiary records to determine the cost (book value) of the equipment destroyed.500 Solution to Discussion Case 10-20 a. There are two other alternatives: (1) recognition when the company has been able to determine that coverage exists and has been able to develop a minimum estimate of the amount to be recovered or (2) when the insurance carrier has admitted liability. it should be recorded as a sale in the current fiscal year. It was also included in the physical inventory because it was on hand on that date. Friendly Furniture carried insurance coverage for property loss at replacement value and business interruption insurance for lost production. Friendly Furniture would have a good basis for recognizing the minimum amounts subject to an evaluation of the reliability of the estimates and the probability of collection.
Eddie Bauer is part of The Spiegel Group. Timberland reports that it recognizes revenue at the time of shipment. They also disclose that they reserve for returns at the time of sale based on projected returns. Your search could be for financial statements of catalogue sportswear retailers in your home country or in other countries. For example. but there is no disclosure on returns.Solution to Internet Assignment 10-21 It is difficult to get information directly on some of EarthWear’s competitors. 12 . The Spiegel Group’s annual report states that revenue from catalogue and e-commerce sales is recognized at time of shipment.
Period costs are expenses that are recognized during the period in which cash is spent or liabilities incurred for goods and services that are used up at that time or shortly thereafter. The more common accounts affected by each major type of transaction are: Purchase transaction: • Accounts payable • Inventory • Purchases or cost of goods sold • Various asset and expense accounts Cash disbursement transaction: • Cash • Accounts payable • Cash discounts Purchase return transaction: • Purchase returns • Purchase allowances • Accounts payable ©The McGraw-Hill Companies. 11-2 The three types of transactions that are processed through the purchasing process are: • Purchase of goods and services for cash or credit. • Payment of the liabilities arising from such purchases. 2. An example of a product cost would be the expensing of inventory through cost of goods sold. • Return of goods to suppliers for cash or credit. Examples of such expenses are administrative salaries. and interest expense. 2006 Solutions Manual. 3. Some expenses are allocated by systematic and rational procedures to the periods during which the related assets are expected to provide benefits. Depreciation of plant and equipment is an example of such an expense.CHAPTER 11 AUDITING THE PURCHASING PROCESS Answers to Review Questions 11-1 1. Such expenses cannot be directly related to specific transactions and are assumed to provide no future benefit. rent expense. Inc. Chapter 11 11-1 . Expenses can be classified into three categories: Product costs are expenses that can be matched directly with specific transactions or events and are recognized upon recognition of the revenues..
A vendor invoice is the bill from the vendor that includes the description and quantity of the goods shipped or services provided. the terms of trade including cash discounts. and (2) misstatements detected in prior audits. Inc. there is less risk that the entity’s operations will be affected by raw-material shortages or that production costs will be difficult to control. authorization. the price including freight. The invoice-processing function should be segregated from the accounts payable function. A defalcation that would normally be detected by reconciling subsidiary records with the general ledger control account. 11-6 The following controls and related tests are utilized to ensure that the occurrence. The purchasing function should be segregated from the requisitioning and receiving functions. Overpayment for goods and services or theft of cash. quality. However. and classification objectives are met for purchase transactions: ©The McGraw-Hill Companies.. Theft of cash. An entity would combine all these documents into a ‘voucher packet’ because such a packet would contain all the information on a particular purchase transaction. quantity and other information on the goods and services being purchased. The disbursement function should be segregated from the accounts payable function.11-3 A purchase requisition is a request for goods and services by an authorized individual or department within the entity. If there are questions about the transaction at a later time. The presence of misstatements in previous audits is a good indicator that misstatements are likely to be present during the current audit. if an entity is dependent on a single vendor to supply a critical component and the vendor is unable to provide the component. A purchase order contains the description. If the entity deals with a large number of vendors and prices tend to be relatively stable. 2006 Solutions Manual. valuation. The accounts payable function should be segregated from the general ledger function. coal and precious metals may be subject to both shortages and price instability that significantly affect their financial results. the entity may suffer production shortages and shipping delays that significantly affect financial performance. A voucher is a document that is frequently used by entities to control the payment of acquired goods and services. 11-5 Two inherent risk factors that directly affect the purchasing process are (1) industryrelated factors. and the date billed. industries that use commodities such as oil. Additionally. the auditor should assess inherent risk to be high. 11-4 The key segregation of duties and the errors or fraud that can occur if they are not present are: Segregation of Duties Possible Errors or Fraud as a Result of Conflicts in Duties Theft of goods and possible payment for unauthorized purchases. If misstatements were present in previous audits. A receiving report is used to record the receipt of goods. Chapter 11 11-2 . the entity can obtain access to all the documents and information more easily.
proper Purchase not recorded without approved purchase order and receiving report Test of a sample of vouchers for the presence of an authorized purchase order and receiving report. Trace a sample of receiving reports to their respective vendor invoices and vouchers. if IT application. if IT application. examine application controls. examine application controls. Completeness Competitive bidding procedures followed Accounting for numerical sequences of receiving reports and vouchers Receiving report matched to vendor invoices and entered in purchases journal 11-7 When the information system is highly computerized. 2006 Solutions Manual. Review and test client’s procedures for accounting for numerical sequence of receiving reports and vouchers. if IT application.. Examine paid vouchers and supporting documents for indication of cancellation. examine application controls. Trace a sample of vouchers to the purchases journal. examination of application controls. CAATs can be used to test numerous controls in the purchasing process. Review and test client’s procedures for accounting for numerical sequence of receiving reports and vouchers. Review client’s monetary limits authorization for acquisitions. Chapter 11 11-3 . Review client’s competitive bidding procedures. Inc. For example.Assertions Occurrence Control Activities Segregation of duties Tests of Controls Observe and evaluate segregation of duties. if IT is used for automatic ordering. a generalized audit software ©The McGraw-Hill Companies. Accounting for numerical sequences of receiving reports and vouchers Cancellation documents Authorization of Approval of acquisitions consistent with the client’s authorization monetary limits Approved purchase requisitions and purchase orders Examine purchase requisitions or purchase orders for proper approval.
employee. electronic data interchange). Compare amounts owed to individual vendors in the current year’s accounts payable listing to amounts owed in prior years. • Examine the files of unmatched purchase orders.or overstatement of liabilities and expenses Under. Chapter 11 11-4 . including any unusual or adverse purchase commitments. Compare current-year balances in accounts payable and accruals with prior years’ balances. receiving reports and vendor invoices for any unrecorded liabilities. 11-8 The analytical procedures that can be used to test accounts payable and accrued expenses and the possible misstatements that can be detected by each analytical procedure are: Substantive Analytical Procedure Compare payable turnover and days outstanding in accounts payable with previous years’ and industry data. • Vouch large monetary items from the purchases journal and cash disbursements journal for a limited time after year-end. 2006 Solutions Manual. • Long-term purchase contracts. examine the dates on each receiving report or vendor’s invoice to determine if the liability relates to the current audit period. • Costs by reportable segment of the business..package can be used to account for the numerical sequence of purchase orders.g. 11-10 The following are examples of disclosures for the purchasing process and related accounts: • Payables by type (trade. • Obtain copies of vendors’ monthly statements and reconcile the amount to client’s accounts payable records. • Short.).or overstatement of liabilities and expenses Under. Inc. Compare purchase returns and allowances as a percentage of revenue or cost of sales to prior years’ and industry data. officers. Possible Misstatement Detected Under. ©The McGraw-Hill Companies.or overstatement of purchase returns 11-9 The following audit procedures may be used as part of the search for unrecorded liabilities: • Inquiry of management about control activities used to identify unrecorded liabilities and accruals at the end of an accounting period. etc. Another example involves the use of a CAAT to test programmed controls over approval of purchase orders when IT is used for automatic ordering (e.or overstatement of liabilities and expenses Under. • Dependence on a single vendor or small number of vendors. • Purchases from and payables to related parties. including accounts with small or zero balances. receiving reports and vouchers. affiliate. • Confirm vendor accounts.and long-term payables.
this evidence is viewed as reliable. the confirmation requests that the recipient fill in the amount or furnish other information. accounts payable confirmations are generally mailed at year-end rather than at an interim date because of the auditor’s concerns about unrecorded liabilities. Accounts payable confirmations primarily provide evidence on completeness. Both positive and negative confirmations are used for accounts receivable. Lastly..11-11 Accounts payable confirmations are generally used less frequently by auditors than accounts receivable confirmations because the auditor can test accounts payable by examining vendor invoices and monthly vendor statements. Inc. Accounts receivable confirmations are sent at both dates. Since these documents originate from sources external to the client. This type of positive confirmation does not state the balance owed. while accounts receivable confirmations primarily provide information on validity. Instead. Chapter 11 11-5 . 2006 Solutions Manual. ©The McGraw-Hill Companies. auditors generally use a form of positive confirmation referred to as a ‘blank or zero-balance’ confirmation. When confirming accounts payable.
Requisitioning Department: • Proper authorization of requisitions by department head is required before purchase orders are prepared. terms and instructions? 7. Are purchase commitments documented on written purchase order forms? 6. receiving and accounts payable functions are segregated. Purchasing Department: • The purchasing department ensures that requisitions are within budget limits before purchase orders are prepared. 2006 Solutions Manual. invoice-processing. Is the purchasing function independent of the receiving. Are there written purchasing policies and procedures? No 2. Is a detailed listing of purchase orders maintained? 10. • The requisitioning department head independently verifies the quantity and quality of the goods received. and treasury functions? 11. Are price quotations requested for purchases over an established amount? 5. Are there adequate safeguards over unissued purchase order forms? 12.Solutions to Problems 11-12 Sommer Manufacturing Internal Control Questionnaire Purchases Questions Yes 1. Are vendors notified of conflict-of-interest policies? 11-13 The internal control activities that most likely would provide reasonable assurance that specific control objectives for the financial statement assertions regarding purchases and accounts payable will be achieved are: • The purchasing. ©The McGraw-Hill Companies. Are prenumbered purchase order forms periodically accounted for? 9. Are purchase requisitions approved in accordance with management’s authorization? 3.. Are purchases made from approved vendors? 4. Are old items in the open-purchase-order file periodically investigated? 13. Chapter 11 11-6 . Are purchase orders approved by authorized personnel before issuance? 8. Do purchase orders include adequate descriptions. shipping. Inc.
2006 Solutions Manual.• The adequacy of each vendor’s past record as a supplier is verified. Receiving Department: • Secure facilities limit access to the goods during the receiving activity. • The accounts payable department recomputes the mathematical accuracy of each invoice. Accounts Payable Department: • Requisitions. • The voucher register is independently reconciled to the control accounts monthly. 11-14 a. independently of any other department. Chapter 11 11-7 .. The flowchart for Kida Company is shown on the following page: ©The McGraw-Hill Companies. • All supporting documentation is required for payments and is made available to the treasurer. Inc. • The receiving department makes a blind count of the goods received. purchase orders and receiving reports are matched with vendor invoices as to quantity and price.
purchase order is stamped and any differences noted. Note C: Once a month the buyer reviews the unfilled file to follow up on and expedite open orders. Equipment sent to Requisitioning Department. 2006 Solutions Manual. To Dept. Note B: When the buyer is orally informed by the Receiving Department that the item has been received. Checks By due date See Note F Daily Checks A To vendors Unfilled See Note C See Note B Filled Note D: When equipment is received. Purchase 4 order Paid file Vendor invoice Note E: Matches vendor invoice with purchase order and sets up a payable. A prenumbered purchase order is processed. Checks under $10.. Chapter 11 11-8 . The buyer searches order vendor catalogues and calls vendor for a quote. the purchase order is transferred from the unfilled file to the filled file. Payable Department A Purchase3 order See Note D Purchase 4 order Unpaid file See Note E Vendor invoice Treasurer Checks Purchase Requisition See Note G Purchase 2 order Purchase 3 order Purchase 4 order Note A: Buyers verify that the purchaser is a department Purchase 5 head. Note F: Checks are prepared on due date.Kida Company .000 are machine signed. Vendor is given a verbal order. Head Purchase3 order To Requisitioning Dept.000 are signed by the treasurer or controlller. Checks over $10. ©The McGraw-Hill Companies. Note G: Checks sorted into two groups. Inc.Special Ordering System Purchasing Department From Department Head See Note A Purchase order 1 To vendor Receiving Department Accts.
• The cashier alone has custody of the key. the buyer does not determine the adequacy of the vendor’s past record as a supplier to Kida. Treasurer: • Documentation supporting the cheques is not sent by the accounts payable Department to the cashier in order for the cashier or treasurer to be assured that the cheque is for properly authorized and received equipment. • The controller is authorized to sign cheques. • Cheques for large-euro purchases are not signed by two officers of Kida Company to ensure that material expenditures are proper. • Investigate debit balances and. • Prior to placing an order. Accounts Payable: • The mathematical accuracy of the invoice is not recomputed. • Investigate and discuss with management any old or disputed payables. if significant. • Written notice of equipment received is not sent to the purchasing department. the signature plate. • All documentation to support a cheque is not canceled by the cheque signer and returned to the accounts payable department. Largeeuro requisitions should be ordered after receiving quotes and/or sealed bids. • Compare a sample of individual account balances from the accounts payable subsidiary ledger with the schedule. 9 . • Compare a sample of individual account balances from the schedule with the accounts payable subsidiary ledger. and record of usage. • Notification of the acceptability of the equipment from the requisitioning department is not obtained before the payable is recorded. • No alphabetic file of vendors from which purchases are made is maintained. Receiving: • Receiving clerk does not make blind counts for all special equipment or at least for largeeuro items.b. • Agree the total of the schedule to the general ledger trial balance. • Invoice quantity is not compared with a report of quantity received. consider requesting positive confirmations and propose reclassification of the amounts. 11-15 The substantive audit procedures Coltrane should apply to Jang’s trade accounts payable balances include the following: • Foot the schedule of the trade accounts payable. • Perform analytical procedures. • Written notice of equipment received is not sent to accounts payable department. Kida Company’s major internal control weaknesses are: Purchasing: • The buyer does not verify that the department head’s request is within budget limitations. • No procedures have been established to ensure that the best price is obtained. • Review the minutes of the board of directors’ meetings and any written agreements and inquire of key employees as to whether any assets are pledged to collateralize payables. • Perform cutoff tests.
• Examine vendors’ statement in support of items on the client-prepared schedule. purchase orders. • Examine other documents (such as approved vouchers) in support of items on the clientprepared schedule. • Review open purchase orders for unusual or old items that may have been received but not recorded. or canceled cheques for disbursements after the balance sheet date to identify transactions that should have been recorded at the balance sheet date but were not. e. • Inspect receiving reports to test the accuracy of the year-end cutoff. • Examine documents in support of invoices paid subsequent to year-end to ascertain whether the payable was recorded in the appropriate year. and receiving reports. 5 3 4 6 1 11-17 Taylor should perform the following additional substantive audit procedures: • Foot the client-prepared schedule. • Examine unpaid invoices on hand to ascertain whether any were erroneously omitted from the client-prepared schedule of accounts payable. • Inspecting files of unprocessed invoices. • Investigating and reconciling differences discovered during the confirmation procedures. • Review correspondence files with respect to disputed items. invoices. • Requesting a sample of vendors to provide statements of account balances as of the date selected. account balances from vendors with account balances and vendors with zero account balances. • Review the general ledger control account for noncash debits or unusual items and investigating them. • Inquiring of key employees about additional sources of unprocessed invoices or other trade payables. • Testing a sample of unconfirmed balances by examining the related vouchers. Perform a search for unrecorded liabilities by: • Examining files of receiving reports unmatched with vendors’ invoices and searching for items received before the balance sheet date but not yet billed or on the schedule. • Confirm. the voucher register. d. with positive confirmation requests. 11-16 a. • Examine unmatched receiving reports. c. • Ascertain whether year-end outstanding cheques to vendors were returned with the cutoff bank statement.Confirm or verify recorded accounts payable balances by: • Reviewing the voucher register or subsidiary accounts payable ledger and consider confirming payables for a sample of vendors. purchase orders. and vendors’ statements. • Agree the general ledger accounts payable control account to the client-prepared accounts payable schedule. • Reviewing support for the cash disbursements journal. b. 10 .
There is no requirement to use accounts payable confirmation procedures. Certain vendors do not send statements. 4. The company is in a ‘tight’ cash position and bill paying is slow. Accounts with zero balances or relatively small balances would not be subjected to selection under such an approach. When selecting accounts payable for confirmation. Solution to Discussion Case 11-18 a. since understatements are more likely to be detected when examining such accounts. including accounts payable confirmations. To determine adequacy of internal control for processing and payment of invoices.g. 3. 11 . 4.• • Make certain that the client representation letter includes the proper assertions concerning accounts payable.g. 1. ISA 505 External Confirmations cover external conformations. the accounts payable confirmation is often used. Select prior-year vendors who are no longer used. A selection technique using the large euro balances of accounts is generally used when the primary audit objective is to test for overstatements (e. Vendor accounts are pledged by assets. The auditor might consider such use when: 1. To prove that amounts shown on the balance sheet are in agreement with supporting accounting records. accounts with small balances. accounts with zero balances. etc. Vendor accounts include unusual transactions. select based on terminal digits. etc. accounts receivable audit work). Use a sampling technique that selects items based on criteria other than the monetary amount of the items (e. Design a statistical sampling plan that will place more emphasis on selecting accounts with zero balances or relatively small balances. Select vendors that do not provide periodic statements. The accounts payable audit procedures should be directed toward searching for proper inclusion of all accounts payable and ascertaining that recorded amounts are reasonably stated because the primary audit purpose is to reveal any possible material understatements. Physical inventories exceed general ledger inventory balances by significant amounts.). 5. particularly when the client has had substantial transactions with such vendors during the year. The principal objectives of the accounts payable examination are: 1. ISA 505 states that the auditor generally should determine whether the use of external confirmation is necessary to obtain sufficient appropriate evidence at the assertion. Although not required. b. Selection of accounts with relatively small or no balances for confirmation is the more efficient direction of testing. Select new vendors used in the subsequent period. 3. Change in personnel or management behavior related to payables. Investigate and resolve confirmation exceptions and other matters requiring follow-up. To determine that liabilities existing at the balance sheet date have been reconciled. 2. 3. 2. select every nth item based on predetermined interval. 2. the auditor is primarily concerned with the possibility of unrecorded payables or understatement of recorded payables. Analyze the accounts payable population and stratify it into accounts with large balances. When auditing accounts payable. 5. 6. 2. c. the following procedures could be followed: 1. Internal controls are weak.
11-20 A search of the SEC’s website should identify a recent company that has been cited by the SEC for revenue recognition issues.7. Lands’ End is owned by Sears while Eddie Bauer is part of The Spiegel Group. Solution to Internet Assignments 11-19 It may be difficult to get information directly on some of EarthWear’s competitors. 8. Select accounts reflecting unusual transactions during the year. Select accounts secured by pledged assets. Your search could be for financial statements of catalogue sportswear retailers in your home country or in other countries. 12 . Timberland is a publicly traded company. For example.
payroll taxes. Payroll processing: Computation of gross pay. which is also referred to as the payroll journal.CHAPTER 12 AUDITING THE HUMAN RESOURCE MANAGEMENT PROCESS Answers to Review Questions 12-1 Most entities either computerize their payroll systems or use an outside service bureau because of the routine nature of payroll transactions. deductions..g. 12-2 There are two major types of transactions that are processed through the human resource management process: (1) payments to employees for services rendered and (2) accrual and payment of payroll-related liabilities arising from employees’ services. wage rates and salary adjustments. and net pay. firing. The financial statements accounts that are generally affected by the two types of payroll-related transactions are: Payroll transaction: • Cash • Inventory • Direct and indirect labour expense • Various payroll-related liability and expense accounts Accrued payroll liability transactions: • Cash • Various accruals (e. pay rate and authorized deductions. Inc. salaries and payroll deductions. Chapter 12 ©The McGraw-Hill Companies. and verification of account distribution. 2006 12-1 . 12-4 The following duties are performed in the personnel. Solutions Manual. timekeeping and payroll-processing functions: Personnel: Authorization of hiring. The payroll master file is the computer file that maintains all the entity’s records related to payroll. 12-5 The following table contains the key segregation of duties in the human resource management process and possible errors and fraud that can occur if such segregation of duties is not present. identification number. recording and summarizing of payments. Timekeeping: Processing of employees’ attendance and time information and coding of account distribution. The payroll master file changes report contains a record of the changes made to the payroll master file. is a summary of all payroll payments issued to employees. and pension costs) 12-3 The payroll register. including information on each employee such as name.
disbursements Concealment of a defalcation that would normally be detected by independent review of accounting entries made to the general ledger. 12-7 The key authorization points within the human resource management process include authorization procedures for hiring and terminating employees. the presence of labour contracts and labour legislation. Second. These policies should include specific authority and responsibility for hiring and firing of employees.. Chapter 12 ©The McGraw-Hill Companies. Key risk factors to consider are the level of performance-based compensation and the closeness of key performance measures to compensation/bonus thresholds. Solutions Manual. 12-8 Client control procedures must exist for the classification assertion to ensure that the appropriate payroll accounts are charged. The payroll-processing function should be segregated from the general ledger function. Possible Errors or Fraud as a Result of Conflicts in Duties Unauthorized payments to existing employees or payments to fictitious employees. If payroll is not properly classified between direct and indirect labour. for setting wage rates and making salary changes. the supply of skilled workers. the entity should have sound policies for hiring.Segregation of Duties The supervision function should be segregated from the personnel records and payroll-processing functions. Because of the officers may have motive and opportunity to take advantage of their highranking offices in the form of excessive compensation. training. First. inventory and cost of goods sold may not be properly valued. Unauthorized payroll may be made. promoting and compensating employees. inherent risk is frequently not set at low. its personnel practices. 12-6 Two control environment factors that have a pervasive effect on the human resource management process must be considered. the entity’s organizational structure. and for establishing benefits. and its methods used to assign authority and responsibility must be examined. setting pay rates. The disbursement function should be segregated from the personnel records. Inc. the frequency of employee turnover. 2006 12-2 . 12-9 Except for executive compensation. awarding benefits and making payroll payments. supervision and payroll-processing functions. Some factors the auditor might consider include the effect of economic conditions on payroll costs. making withholdings. there are generally very few inherent risk factors that affect the human resource management process and its related accounts.
These amounts can be traced to the various payroll tax returns or other documentation filed by the entity and should agree to the amount of payroll tax expense included in the income statement. The credits to the account represent the recognition of payroll tax expense at the end of each pay period. the auditor obtains a detailed account analysis schedule. Solutions Manual. • Profit-sharing plans. Employees should not be permitted to maintain their own time records and submit them without approval. 12-13 Disclosure items for the human resource management process and related accounts include: • Pension disclosures. Compare budgeted payroll expenses with actual payroll expenses. 2. Chapter 12 ©The McGraw-Hill Companies. These payments can be verified by tracing the amounts to the cash disbursements journal. • Deferred-compensation arrangements. 4. Compare labour utilization rates and statistics with industry data. 12-12 For the accrued payroll tax account. The debits to the account represent payments made to the relevant government agencies..12-10 Two audit procedures that can be performed using CAATs are: (1) testing the computer logic used to calculate payroll amounts and (2) recomputing the calculation of gross pay. 3. Test reasonableness on accrual balances. deductions and net pay. Inc. Solutions to Problems 12-14 a. Compare the expectation to current-year balance and investigate the difference if it is greater than the threshold. • Postretirement benefits disclosures. Compare current-period balances in payroll-related accruals with the prior periods’ balances after adjusting for changes in conditions. 2006 12-3 . 12-11 Substantive analytical procedures that can be used to test payroll accounts and payrollrelated accrual accounts are: Payroll expense accounts: 1. Estimate sales commissions by application of commission formulas to recorded sales totals. 5. Payroll-related accrual accounts: 1. Compare payroll costs as a percentage of sales with prior years’ and industry data. Use a reasonableness test to develop an expectation based on number of employees and prior year average compensation per employee category after considering pay rate changes. 2. • Weaknesses in the internal control system are the following: Lack of approval of the foreman’s clock card by an appropriate supervisor is an unsound practice.
The clerk who is responsible for preparing the payroll register should not perform the comparison of gross and net payroll indicated on payroll cheque with gross and net payroll indicated in the payroll register. Chapter 12 ©The McGraw-Hill Companies.. b. Arithmetic computations and rates of pay used in the preparation of the payroll register are not checked by a person who is independent of their preparation. Evidence in support of account distribution. The comparison of regular and overtime hours indicated on payroll cheques with regular and overtime hours indicated on clock cards should not be performed by the clerk who is responsible for the original computation of regular and overtime hours indicated on clock cards. Unclaimed payroll cheques should be in the custody of an employee who is independent of the payroll process. signed payroll cheques should not be distributed by the foreman. 2006 12-4 . A signature-stamp machine should not be in the custody of any payroll clerk who has access to unsigned cheques.• • • • • • • • • The computation of regular and overtime hours prepared by payroll clerk no. and payroll register columns are not verified (re-added) by a person other than the preparer of the payroll register. 2 that is used in the preparation of the payroll register is not compared with the summary of regular and overtime hours prepared by the foreman. Employment. required vacations and so forth) are in existence. 2 checks clock cards for the foreman’s written approval. wage and related data in payroll files are periodically crosschecked with personnel files for agreement. such as approved time cards or attendance records. Approved overtime is indicated on clock cards. • • • • • • . • • • • • 12-15 McCarthy should consider performing the following procedures in the audit of Kent Company’s payroll transactions: 1. bonding. Payroll cheques are not reconciled to the payroll register in order to prevent improper disbursements. Evidence in support of proper authorization of payroll withholdings. One should inquire whether: Payroll clerk no. Select a sample of payments to employees from the payroll register and compare each selected transaction to the related documents and records.g. A timekeeper observes the punching of clock cards. Evidence in support of time on which compensation was based. and examine: Evidence in support of authorization of pay rate. An officer of the company does not approve payroll. The entry to the employee’s records used to summarize employee compensation for payroll reporting purposes. Inc. The clerical accuracy of the transaction. Other mitigating internal control measures (e. Solutions Manual. Since the paymaster should be independent of the payroll process.
James should perform the following procedures in the examination of the 24 November. • Compare pay rates with wage authorizations and union contracts. • Trace totals per the register to postings in the general ledger. 2005. • Manually compute gross and net pay and compare with computer printed figures. Observe the distribution of payroll cheques. 5. Obtain the payroll register for a selected period and • Test the arithmetic accuracy of the payroll register. • Inspect employee authorization forms for ‘special deductions. • Compare names with employment authorizations.2. • Compare numbers of hours worked (regular and overtime) with approved time sheets or other supportive records. payroll register: • Compare information on the input form with information in the payroll register and information on issued payroll cheques (e. 12-16 a. In order to verify the information in the input form. spelling of names. James should: • Compare the names. Review the accounting for unclaimed wages. 6. hours. • Determine whether payroll was approved in accordance with management’s prescribed procedures. 4.g. • Compare payroll summary totals with other pay periods and investigate any unusual variations among periods. identification numbers. Perform analytical procedures. • Test payroll deductions by using withholding tax tables to recompute social security and withholding taxes. correctness of identification numbers. 5 . and withholding data on the input form with the forms to authorize the withholding of income taxes. 3. Observe a sample of employees in the performance of their duties. • Perform other related basic auditing procedures that may be deemed necessary in accordance with the circumstances. recompute regular and overtime hours.’ b. rates and deductions). • Check footings and crossfootings in the payroll register.
g. e.g. an ‘S’ or ‘M’ is entered in response to ‘single or married?’ • Overflow check: Ensures that no digits are dropped if a number becomes too large for a variable during processing. • Arithmetic check: Ensures the validity of the result of a mathematical computation. e. e. total number of employees and salaries of the executive officers are usually found in the company’s annual report. e. 12-18 Data on employees’ compensation expense. number of dependents requires exactly two digits. e.g. • Size check: Ensures that only data using fixed or defined field lengths will be entered into and accepted by the system.g. • Sign check: Ensures that positive or negative signs are entered into and accepted by the system where only such signs are required to be entered or that the absence of a positive or negative sign appears where such an absence is required. e. no negative regular hours. • Limit (reasonableness) check: Ensures that only data within predetermined limits will be entered into and accepted by the system. total employees for period equal number of employee numbers in system. e. • Special-character check: Ensures that only specific special characters are entered into and accepted by the system where only those special characters are required to be entered.g. • Logic check: Ensures that spurious data are rejected.g. You may find that proportion of executive compensation to average salary is high.g. numbers 0-9 in employee identification number. authorized employee account numbers. A rough estimate of the average employee’s salary can be computed by dividing the estimated employee compensation expense by the estimated total number of employees.g.g. e. e. It is argued that this proportion should be high because of the value of the executive’s strategic influence on the company. hyphens between numbers in identification number. rate per hour cannot be lower than the minimum set by law or higher than the maximum set by management.Solutions to Discussion Cases 12-17 The following edit checks might be used to detect errors during the typing of answers to the input cues: • Password: Ensures that the operator is authorized to access computer programs and files. hourly rates ‘on size errors’ are detected • Control-total check: Ensures that no unauthorized changes are made to specified data or data fields and all data have been entered.g.g. • Missing-data check: Ensures that no blanks will be entered into and accepted into the system when data should be present. • Alphabetic check: Ensures that letters are entered into and accepted by the system where only letters are required to be entered. Whether or not this is true depends 6 . employee numbers generated by the modulus 11 method with prime-number weighting. • Numeric check: Ensures that numbers are entered into and accepted by the system where only numbers are required to be entered. The salary for one officer divided by the average salary equals the proportion of executive salary to average employee salary. e. e.g. e.g. e. letters A-Z in employee name. ratios of ten to one or higher. • Validity check: Ensures that only authorized data codes will be entered into and accepted by the system where only such authorized data codes are required. hours worked. • Self-checking digit: Ensures that only specific code numbers prepared by using a specific arithmetic operation will be entered into and accepted by the system.
e. • Use CAAT to search for payments to executives. It is argued that if executive compensation is tied to the value of the stock price then executives will perform better. A number of the major audit firms’ home pages contained information on the retail industry. the user must be a member to obtain information. expense reimbursement). This strategy is frequently employed by technology companies seeking rapid growth. • If fraud or embezzlement is suspected. Examine minutes of board of directors and compensation committee for approval of executive compensation and information on other cash transfers (e. hire a private investigator to evaluate if executive is seemingly living beyond their compensation level. some financial services companies. is there a compensation committee independent of management). Also by using stock based compensation. When the executive stands to gain tens or hundreds of millions by achieving earnings targets. loans.entirely on the circumstances of the company. the executive’s self interests provides incentives for earnings management or fraud in order to meet or beat earnings forecasts. The biggest disadvantage is the potential greed associated with high levels of stock-option compensation. however. b. Also the applicable financial reporting framework may not require options to be expensed directly to the income statement. Potential audit procedures may include: • Analytical procedures can be used to benchmark compensation levels to other companies in the industry and to examine trends over time. such as Standard & Poors have sites that contain links to the retail industry. Lastly. For some of these sites. because their interests will be aligned with those of the company’s stockholders. companies are free to use the cash that would have been used as compensation to fund other areas of the company. 7 .g. a. Recently there has been increased public outrage at the large disparity between top executive salary and that of the average employee. or parties related to executives. Solution to Internet Assignment 12-19 A search of the Internet showed a number of sites that contained information on the retail industry. • Evaluate whether there is proper objectivity in establishing compensation (i.
The purchasing process controls the acquisition and payment of raw materials and overhead costs. Production data information is reported about the transfer of goods and related cost accumulation at each stage of production. purchasing and human resource management processes. 13-4 The following duties are performed by the production management. The cost accumulation report summarizes the various costs charged to departments and products and presents the results of inventory processing in terms of actual costs versus standard or budgeted costs.CHAPTER 13 AUDITING THE INVENTORY MANAGEMENT PROCESS Answers to Review Questions 13-1 Inventory represents one of the most complex parts of the audit because the assignment of values to inventory quantities is difficult. stores and cost accounting functions: Inventory management: Raw materials stores: Cost accounting: Authorization of production activity and maintenance of inventory at appropriate levels. Last. work in process and finished goods. The inventory master file contains all the important information related to the entity’s inventory. The cost of direct and indirect labour assigned to inventory is controlled through the human resource management process. This information is used to update the entity’s perpetual inventory system and as input to generate the cost accumulation and variance reports that are produced by the inventory system. The complexity of auditing inventory may also be affected by the degree of processing required to manufacture products. finished goods are sold and accounted for as part of the revenue process. There are also issues such as obsolescence and lower of cost or value (net realizable value) that affect the valuation of inventory. issuance of purchase requisitions to the purchasing department Custody of raw materials and issuance of raw materials to manufacturing departments Maintenance of the cost of manufacturing and inventory in cost accounting records 1 . 13-2 The inventory process is affected by control activities in the revenue. 13-3 A production schedule is used to determine the quantity of goods needed and the time at which they are required to meet the production scheduling. including the perpetual inventory records for raw material. The materials requisition is the document that authorizes the release of raw materials from the raw materials department.
leading to an over. 3. Planning and performing tests of controls on inventory process transactions. 13-6 Industry-related factors. • Review of inventory levels by the inventory management department.13-5 The key segregation of duties in the inventory process and the errors or fraud that they can prevent are: Segregation of Duties The inventory management function should be segregated from the costaccounting function. Unauthorized shipments can be made or the theft of goods can be covered up. 13-7 The three major steps in assessing control risk in the inventory process are: 1. Unauthorized shipments resulting in theft of goods. The inventory stores function should be segregated from the costaccounting function. Operating and engagement characteristics are (1) the susceptibility of the products sold by the client to theft. 2 . Inventory shortages can be covered up through the adjustment of the inventory records to the physical inventory resulting in an overstatement of inventory. Assessing and documenting control risk for the inventory process. 2. Industry factors include industry competition and changes in technology. Understanding and documenting the inventory internal control system based on the planned level of control risk. and (3) possible related-party transactions for the acquisition of raw materials and sale of the finished product. The responsibility for supervising the taking of physical inventory should be separated from the inventory management and inventory stores functions.or understatement of inventory and net income. 13-8 The following control activities can be used by the client to prevent unauthorized inventory production: • Preparation and review of an authorized production schedule. • Use of material requirements planning and/or just-in-time inventory systems. The cost-accounting function should be segregated from the general ledger function. (2) the difficulty in auditing and valuing inventory. Possible Errors or Fraud as a Result of Conflicts in Duties Production and inventory costs can be manipulated. and operating and engagement inherent risk factors affect the inventory process. leading to an overstatement of inventory.
Or. if production is scheduled.13-9 Substantive analytical procedures that can be used to test inventory and related account balances include: • Compare raw material. such as detailed inventory listings. The material component requires testing of the quantity and type of materials included in the product and the price of the materials. Overhead costs are tested by reviewing the client’s method of overhead allocation for reasonableness. • Compare days outstanding in inventory to previous periods and industry data. and consistency. the auditor should perform the following procedures: • Ensure that no production is scheduled. • Compare actual cost of goods sold to budgeted amounts. which may be based on time-and-motion studies or historical information. the auditor and client personnel must ensure that the goods are not double counted and that all goods are counted. including the number of the last shipping and receiving documents issued on the date of the physical inventory count. Tag control information includes documentation of the numerical sequence of all inventory tags and accounting for all used and unused inventory tags. • Compare current-year standard costs with prior periods’ after considering current conditions. If movement is necessary. The labour rates for each type of labour necessary to assemble a product can be tested by examining a schedule of authorized wages. labour. • Obtain tag control information for testing the client’s inventory compilation. • Compare actual manufacturing overhead costs with budgeted or standard manufacturing overhead costs. • Inquire about goods held on consignment for others or held on a ‘bill and hold’ basis. or carried in excess quantities. • Make sure that the client’s count teams are following the inventory count instructions. the auditor should first review the client’s policies and procedures for constructing standard costs. The amount of labour necessary to assemble a product can be tested by reviewing engineering estimates. ensure that proper controls are established for movement between departments in order to prevent double counting. • Obtain cutoff information. finished goods. Once the policies and procedures are understood. 13-10 To audit standard costs. and overhead for a representative sample of standard product costs. The quantity and type of materials are tested by reviewing the engineering specifications for the product. • Observe the condition of the inventory for items that may be obsolete. Labour costs require evidence about the type and amount of labour needed for production and the labour rate. 13-11 During the observation of the physical inventory count. compliance with the applicable financial reporting framework. If the client uses another method of counting inventory. • Compare gross profit percentage by product line with previous periods’ and industry data. and total inventory turnover to previous periods’ and industry averages. • Ensure that inventory tags are issued sequentially to individual departments. the auditor normally tests the component cost build-up for materials. • Perform test counts and record a sample of counts in the workpapers. The auditor examines the costs included in overhead to ensure that such costs are appropriate costs assignable to the product and that the inclusion or exclusion of such costs is consistent from one period to the next. the auditor should obtain copies of the listings prior to the start of the inventory count. slow moving. • Ensure that there is no movement of goods during the inventory count. 3 .
• Purchase orders and purchase requisitions should not be combined and filed with the unmatched purchase requisitions in the stores department. The receiving room does not make any use of the purchase requisitions. • Expenses from write-downs of inventory or losses on long-term purchase commitments. 13-13 Solutions to Problems 13-14 The identification and explanation of the systems and control weaknesses are as follows: • The purchase requisition is not approved. • Unreported scrap or spoilage. quantities. • Purchase requisition number 2 is not required. • Long-term purchase contracts. Since the requisitioner will be charged for the materials ordered. Purchase requisitions are unnecessarily sent from the stores department to the receiving room. A copy of the requisition might be sent from the stores department directly to the accounts payable department.) are in agreement. specifications. • Pilferage or theft. (3) delivery dates are in accordance with company needs. A responsible person in the stores department should approve the purchase requisition. there is no indication that any comparison is made of the two documents. • Components of inventory. The approval should be indicated on the purchase requisition after the approver is satisfied that it was properly prepared based on a need to replace stores or the proper request from a user department. A separate file should be maintained for the combined and matched documents.The auditor must also inquire about goods held on consignment for the client. (2) the quality of the materials ordered is acceptable.g. and (4) all pertinent data on the purchase order and purchase requisition (e. Example disclosure items for inventory and related accounts include: • Cost method (FIFO or weighted average). Although purchase orders are attached to purchase requisitions in the stores department. • Warranty obligations. 13-12 Possible causes of book-to-physical differences include: • Inventory cutoff errors. where it can be compared to the purchase order to verify that merchandise requisitioned by an authorized employee has been properly ordered. 4 . delivery dates. • Pledged or assigned inventory. the requisitioner’s functions should include a check that (1) prices are reasonable. • Purchase requisitions and purchase orders are not compared in the stores department. Prior to attaching the purchase order to the purchase requisition. and no purpose seems to exist for the receiving room to obtain a copy. the requisitioner is the logical person to perform these steps. etc. • Purchases from related parties. The unmatched purchase requisitions file can serve as a control over merchandise requisitioned but not yet ordered. • Consigned inventory.
should indicate approval on that copy and send it to the accounts payable department. specifications. Such sheets should be sent to departments posting transactions to general and subsidiary ledgers. The purchase office should attempt to obtain the highest-quality merchandise at the lowest possible price. Prior to preparation of the purchase order. A copy of the receiving report should be sent from the receiving room directly to the stores department with the materials received. In addition to the matching procedure. There is no indication of the company’s procedures for handling purchase returns. There is no indication of the procedures in effect when the quantity of merchandise received differs from what was ordered. the purchase office should clearly indicate on the invoice that it is approved for payment processing. 5 . There is no examination of documents prior to voucher preparation. That office should be directly involved with vendors in determining the cost of materials ordered and should be primarily responsible for deciding at what price materials should be ordered and which vendors should be used. the mathematical accuracy of all documents should be verified prior to preparation of vouchers. In addition to counting the merchandise received from the vendor. There is no indication of control over vouchers in the accounts payable department. etc. terms. There is no indication of control over monetary amounts on vouchers. and purchase requisition. receiving report. receiving department personnel should examine the condition and quality of the merchandise upon receipt. The copy of the purchase order sent to the receiving room generally should not show quantities ordered. and a copy of the vouchers should be filed in an alphabetical vendor reference file. so as to provide proper division of responsibility between the custody of assets and the recording of transactions. The cash disbursement function should be the responsibility of the treasurer. after verifying the accuracy of the receiving report. prices. The approved invoice should be sent to the accounts payable department. the purchase office should review the company’s need for the specific materials requisitioned and approve the request.• • • • • • • • • • • Preliminary review should be made before preparing purchase orders. verifying quantity. thus forcing the department to count goods received. some indications of this should be included as part of the purchases flowchart. The stores department. Accounts payable personnel should prepare and maintain control sheets on the monetary amounts of vouchers. and if the invoice is in agreement with the purchase order. The receiving report is not sent to the stores department. In the accounts payable department a record of all vouchers submitted to the cashier should be maintained. dates. The copy sent to the accounts payable department will serve as proof that the company received the materials ordered and are in the user department.. and the procedures that are followed to achieve this should be included on the flowchart. There is no indication that the purchase office submits purchase orders to competitive bidding when appropriate. Although separate return procedures may be in effect and included on a separate flowchart. The purchase office does not review the invoice prior to processing approval. The controller should not be responsible for cash disbursements. Procedures for handling overshipments should be clearly outlined and included on the flowchart. not the controller. The purchase office should review the vendor’s invoice for overall accuracy and completeness.
and that the planned tolerable and expected misstatement and risk of incorrect acceptance will be reasonable in the circumstances. 13-16 a. • Tracing of test counts recorded during the physical inventory observation to the inventory listing. • Inspection of shipping and receiving documentation for proper amounts and dates to verify proper cutoff procedures. • Reconciliation of physical counts to perpetual records and general ledger balances and investigation of significant differences. • Obtaining of confirmation of inventories at locations outside the entity. 13-15 a.e. approval and responsibility. • Audit plans tailored to the strengths and weaknesses of the internal control system (i. Evidence found in the working papers to support the fact that the audit was adequately planned and assistants were properly supervised would be: • Documentation indicating discussions with client personnel concerning developments affecting the entity that require recognition in the audit plan. When a client uses statistical sampling to estimate inventories. • Confirmations that all questions raised by assistants were answered. Substantive tests that would document management’s completeness assertion as it relates to inventory quantities would be: • Observation of physical inventory counts. • The auditor should be satisfied that the statistical sampling plan to be used by the client has statistical validity. • An internal control write-up documenting that the internal control system had been reviewed. All prenumbered documents should be accounted for. changes in accounting and auditing standards. b. that it will be properly applied. • Analytical procedures for the relationship of inventory balances to purchase. • Recomputation of the inventory calculations for clerical accuracy. • Individual working papers signed by reviewers to document review. • Documentation of a preaudit planning conference among audit firm personnel to develop an audit strategy by considering matters noted in the review of prior years’ working papers. • There is no indication of any control over prenumbered forms. and sales activities. • Accounting for all inventory tags and count sheets used in recording the physical inventory counts. etc. tested the relevant assertions). production. The flowchart should indicate what procedures are followed whenever matching reveals a difference between the information on the documents compared. • Audit plans indicating steps that were assigned to and completed by individual assistants.• Discrepancy procedures are not indicated. • A budget indicating the time to be spent in each audit area. • The auditor should ascertain that proper steps have been taken to ensure that all 6 . the auditor should perform procedures similar to the following: • The auditor should review the client’s procedures and methods for determining inventories to ascertain that they are sufficiently reliable to produce results substantially the same as those that would be obtained by a 100 per cent inventory count.
2005. • Perform analytical procedures for inventories. • Make test counts where appropriate. • Account for all client inventory count sheets. • Trace selected count data to the inventory compilation. (2) between 5 January and 31 January. and print out a report to be used to reconcile the totals with the general ledger or agree beginning balance with the prior year’s working papers. 2005. • Ascertain that there was a proper purchases and sales cutoff. 13-17 The substantive auditing procedures Kachelmeier may consider performing include the following: Using the perpetual inventory file: • Recalculate the beginning and ending balances (prices x quantities). • Be sure inventory items are properly classified. • Review the treatment of merchandise in transit and consigned merchandise. and of proper quality. Alternatively. for cutoff testing. • Select items from the warehouse at random and trace these items to the perpetual inventory records. The auditor should be present when the sample is drawn to make sure that the requirements for random selection are properly observed and that all items in the inventory have an equal or determinable probability of selection. Calculate the quantity balances as of the physical inventory date for comparison to the physical inventory file. • Select items from compilation and trace them to original count data. b. The inventory observation can be made either during or after the year-end of the period under audit if well-kept perpetual records are maintained and the client makes periodic comparisons of physical counts with such records. • Observe the physical count. update the physical inventory file for purchases and sales from 6 January to 31 January. 2005.• • • parts and supplies in the warehouse are included in the perpetual inventory records. • Verify footings. in good condition. 2005. The auditor should review the statistical evaluation and be satisfied that the estimated value of the precision at a given level of reliability meets the materiality requirements set for the audit. • • 7 . 2005. • Compare inventory compilation amounts to the subsidiary ledger control and investigate significant differences. In addition to the above. Select and print out a sample of items received and shipped for the periods (1) before and after 5 January and 31 January. for comparison to the perpetual inventory at 31 January. and (3) prior to 5 January. for vouching or analytical procedures. This would normally be checked in advance of the physical count. for tests of details or analytical procedures. The auditor must be present to observe counts and must be satisfied with the client’s counting procedures. foot. the following standard audit procedures for verification of physical quantities should be performed whether the client conducts a periodic physical count for all or part of its inventory: • Review and be satisfied with the client’s physical inventory-taking procedures. • Confirm merchandise in warehouses.
• • •
Compare quantities sold during the year to quantities on hand at year-end. Print out a report of items for which turnover is less than expected. Alternatively, calculate the number of days’ sales in inventory for selected items. Select items noted as possibly unsalable or obsolete during the physical inventory observation and print out information about purchases and sales for further consideration. Recalculate the prices used to value the year-end FIFO inventory by matching prices and quantities to the most recent purchases. Select a sample of items for comparison to current sales prices. Identify and print out unusual transactions. These are transactions other than purchases or sales for the year, or physical inventory adjustments as of 5 January, 2005. Recalculate the ending inventory by taking the beginning balances plus purchases, less sales, and print out the differences. Recalculate the cost of sales for selected items sold during the year.
Using the physical inventory and test count files: • • • • • Account for all inventory tag numbers used and print out a report of missing or duplicate numbers for follow-up. Search for tag numbers noted during the physical inventory observation as being voided or not used. Compare the physical inventory file to the file of test counts and print out a report of differences for auditor follow-up. Combine the quantities for each item appearing on more than one inventory tag number for comparison to the perpetual file. Compare the quantities on the file to the calculated quantity balances on the perpetual inventory file as of 5 January, 2005. Alternatively, compare the physical inventory file updated to year end to the perpetual inventory file. Calculate the quantities and monetary amounts of the book-to-physical adjustments for each item and the total adjustment. Print out a report to reconcile the total adjustment to the adjustment recorded in the general ledger before year-end. Using the calculated book-to-physical adjustments for each item, compare the quantities and monetary amounts of each adjustment to the perpetual inventory file as of 5 January, 2005, and print out a report of differences for follow-up.
13-18 Basic Inventory Procedures Auditing How a General-Purpose Computer Software Package and Tape of Inventory File Data Might Be Helpful 1. By determining which items are to be test counted by selecting a random sample of a representative number of items from the inventory file as of the date of the physical count. 2. By mathematically computing the monetary value of each inventory item counted by multiplying the quantity on hand by the cost per unit and verifying the addition of the extended monetary values. 3. By arranging test counts in a tape format identical to the inventory file and matching the tapes. 4. By comparing the total extended values of all inventory items counted and the extended values of each inventory item counted to the inventory records. 5. By preparing a tape in a format identical to the tape of the inventory file and matching the tapes. 6. By listing a sample of items on the inventory file for which the date of last purchase and date of last sale are on or immediately prior to the date of the physical count. 7. By listing items located in public warehouses. 8. By listing items on the inventory file for which the quantity on hand is excessive in relation to the quantity sold during the year. 9. By listing items on the inventory file for which the quantity on hand is
1. Observation of the physical count, making and recording test counts where applicable.
2. Testing of the mathematical accuracy of the inventory compilation.
3. Comparison of the auditor’s test counts to the inventory records. 4. Comparison of physical count data to inventory records.
5. Testing of the inventory pricing by obtaining a list of costs per item from buyers, vendors, or other sources. 6. Examination of purchases and sales cutoff.
7. Ascertainment of the propriety of items of inventory located in public warehouses. 8. Analysis of inventory for evidence of possible obsolescence.
9. Analysis of inventory for evidence of possible overstocking or slow9
moving items. 10. Performance of an overall test for accuracy of inventory master file. 13-19 a. b. c. d. e. 6 3 1 4 2
excessive in relation to the quantity sold during the year. 10. By listing items, if any, with negative quantities or costs.
Solution to Discussion Case 13-20 a. The auditors did not follow the following audit procedures in a satisfactory manner: • Control of count sheets during and after the inventory. There may not have been adequate supervision and instruction of the inventory observation teams by the auditors. There is no evidence that there was adequate preplanning of the inventory count. Even though it is difficult to spend continuous time in the upper decks, there must be a careful control over their contents and planned counting must still be observed. • Although the late addition of such sheets is highly irregular, the auditors did very little to satisfy themselves of their accuracy. The altering of count sheets after the auditors left could have been prevented by ‘lining out’ unused portions of the count sheet prior to leaving the inventory observation. Test counts of lines on sheets could also have detected the changes • Physically examining inventory represented on additional count sheets with specific assurances that the items did not represent a duplication in the count. Tracing the items to purchase invoices does not prove existence at the inventory date, only that the items were at one time bona fide. • Questions about inventory turnover and similar comparisons should have been raised and addressed. • If the additional items listed on the four additional sheets, the changing of unit designations, or the fictitious amounts added to completed sheets created unusual balances in specific inventory items, a review of the inventory balances and comparison with previous years’ would have indicated unusual increases. Because of the weaknesses in inventory control, audit procedures should have been expanded. b. Failure to obtain adequate evidence to support management’s assertions can result in legal liability from injured third parties and in sanctions by the supervisory authorities (e.g. suspension or revoke of license to practice, fines, or reprimands). c. Auditing standards require (ISA 260) the auditor to communicate audit matters of governance interest arising from the audit of financial statements with those charged with governance of the entity (i.e. the board of directors, audit committee or supervisory board). This includes matters such as material weaknesses in internal control, questions regarding management integrity, and fraud involving management.
Finally. Some of these sites require that the user must be a member to obtain information. these services may be available by subscription only. such as Standard & Poors have sites that contain links to the retail industry. financial services companies. However. 11 . A number of the major audit firms’ home pages contained information on the retail industry. as does Andersen Consulting.Solution to Internet Assignment 13-21 A search of the Internet showed a number of sites that contained financial information on the retail industry.
Similarly. 14-3 The purchasing process affects prepaid insurance and property. therefore misstatements can occur which affect multiple periods. For example. These issues can lead to disagreements between the auditor and the client.CHAPTER 14 AUDITING FINANCING PROCESS: PREPAID EXPENSES AND PROPERTY. PLANT AND EQUIPMENT Answers to Review Questions 14-1 Prepaid expenses provide economic benefit for less than a year. Deferred expenses and intangible assets provide economic benefit for longer than a year. plant and equipment transactions are normally part of the purchasing process. the occurrence (validity) and authorization of property. plant and equipment transactions because such transactions are subject to the control activities included in the purchasing process. Examples of prepaid expenses include: • Prepaid insurance • Prepaid rent • Prepaid interest Examples of deferred expenses and intangible assets include: • Organization costs • Debt issuance costs • Copyrights • Trademarks • Trade names • Licenses • Patents • Franchises • Goodwill • Computer software development costs 14-2 Deferred expenses and intangible assets often present serious inherent risks because there are possible judgment issues relating to the valuation and estimated lives of items such as patents. franchises and goodwill. 1 . control activities in the purchasing process may provide assurance as to the proper authorization and recording of insurance policies.
plant and equipment are complex accounting issues. For example. Finally. This should include a level of authorization above the department initiating the disposition. non-monetary exchanges. difficult-to-audit transactions. the likelihood of misstatements in the current year is higher. Lease accounting. plant and equipment transactions are: • Acquisition of capital assets for cash or other non-monetary considerations. expiration date. Control activities should also identify assets that are no longer used in operations. because they may require different accounting treatment. • Disposition of capital assets through sale. 14-7 Three inherent risk factors that should be considered when assessing inherent risk for property. 14-6 Four types of property. or abandonment. exchange. The vast majority of property. retirement. If the auditor has detected misstatements in prior audits. 14-5 A confirmation from insurance brokers would include information on the policy number. 14-8 Most entities have some type of authorization table for approving capital asset transactions. and self-constructed assets are more difficult to audit because it may be difficult to verify the value of such assets. transactions involving donated assets. plant and equipment transactions are relatively easy to audit. The entity also needs to have control activities for authorizing the sale or other disposition of capital assets. an appropriate level of management should properly authorize all major maintenance or improvement transactions. • Leasing of capital assets. 2 . • Compute the ratio of insurance expense to assets or sales and compare it with the prior periods’ ratios. coverage. However. • Depreciation of capital assets over their useful economic life. the control activities should specify monetary limits at each managerial level to ensure that larger projects are brought to the attention of higher levels of management for approval before commitments are made. and misstatements detected in prior audits. Control activities should be present to ensure that the authorization to purchase capital assets is consistent with the authorization table. deductibles and premiums.14-4 Two substantive analytical procedures that can be used to test prepaid insurance are: • Compare the current-period balance in prepaid insurance and insurance expense with the prior periods’ balances after considering any changes in operations. self-constructed assets and capitalized interest are examples of transactions that involve complex accounting issues.
3 . • Compute the ratio of repairs and maintenance expense to the related property. Conceal a defalcation that would normally be detected by reconciling the subsidiary records with the general ledger control account. • Compute the ratio of insurance expense to the related property. • Review capital budgets and compare the amounts spent with the amounts budgeted. plant and equipment and depreciation expense with current-year balances after considering any changes in conditions or asset composition. Tools and equipment can be stolen and the theft concealed by adjustment of the accounting records. assets that do not meet the company’s quality control standards. • Compute the ratio of depreciation expense to the related property. The property. plant and equipment accounts and comparison to prior years’ ratios. plant and equipment records function should be segregated from the general ledger function.14-9 The key segregation of duties for property. plant and equipment: • Compare prior-year balances in property. or illegal payments to suppliers or contractors. If a periodic physical inventory of property. plant and equipment records function should be segregated from the custodial function. plant and equipment and possible errors or fraud that can occur if they are not present are: Segregation of Duties The initiation function should be segregated from the final approval function. The property. Possible Errors or Fraud as a Result of Conflicts in Duties Fictitious or unauthorized purchases of assets can occur. Theft of the entity’s capital assets can be concealed. resulting in purchases of unnecessary assets. plant and equipment accounts and compare to prior years’ ratios. plant and equipment is taken. the individual responsible for the inventory should be independent of the custodial and record-keeping functions. plant and equipment account and compare to prior years’ ratios. 14-10 The following substantive analytical procedures can be used in the audit of property.
14-11 The following audit procedures can be used to verify the completeness. • Examine the insurance policy coverage and ensure that costs are properly allocated to the various insurance expense accounts. expiration date and premiums. requesting information on each policy’s number. coverage. Taylor should consider performing the following procedures in the audit of Palmer’s goodwill account: • Trace the totals in the account analysis for each significant acquisition to the general ledger. Two substantive analytical procedures that can be used to test prepaid insurance are: • Examine the trend in prepaid insurance over 3-5 years to develop an expectation for the current year balance after considering any changes in operations. • Recompute the unexpired portion of the prepaid insurance after considering the premium paid and the term of the policy. The following substantive tests should be performed on the schedule of prepaid insurance: • Foot the schedule and trace the ending balance to the prepaid insurance account in the general ledger. Vouch additions and dispositions to vendor invoices or other supporting documentation. • Determine that the amortization period is reasonable. 14-13 a. • Review the reasonableness and consistency of application of the method of amortization used. • Inquire of management or its insurance broker about the adequacy of the entity’s insurance coverage. alternatively. Solutions to Problems 14-12 a. ownership. Examine or confirm deeds or title documents for proof of ownership. 4 . • Compare the detailed policies in the current year’s insurance register with the policies included in prior years’ insurance register. Test depreciation calculations for a sample of capital assets. • Trace the opening balance to the audit working papers for the preceding year. • Compute the ratio of insurance expense to assets or sales and compare it with the prior years’ ratios. Compare the expectation to the current-year balance and investigate the difference if it is greater than the threshold. plant and equipment subsidiary ledger. • Send confirmations to the entity’s insurance brokers. • Examine supporting documents for evidence of continued ownership of the acquisitions that resulted in excess of costs over fair value of net assets. b. and valuation assertions: Completeness: Rights and Obligations: Valuation: Physically examine a sample of capital assets and trace them into the property. examine supporting documents such as insurance bills and policies.
• Reporting procedures ensure prompt identification and analysis of variances between authorized expenditures and actual costs.• • • • • • Recompute amortization for book and tax purposes. • There are written policies covering retirement procedures that include serially numbered retirement work orders. • There are adequate procedures to determine whether dispositions of property and equipment are properly accounted for and proceeds. such as the board of directors. equipment. Trace amounts amortized during the period to the related general ledger expense accounts. • A property and equipment subsidiary ledger is maintained showing additions. • An annual budget is prepared and monitored to forecast and control acquisitions and retirements of property and equipment. and presentation and disclosure. and methods of depreciation and amortization. such as a system that matches purchase orders. Taylor would be most concerned with the risk of the loss of recoverability of the goodwill’s market value due to the company’s not meeting profit expectations. 5 . • Documents evidencing title and property rights are periodically compared with the detailed property records. • Property and equipment are insured in accordance with management’s authorization. retirements. • Approval authority for transactions above an established monetary value is required at a higher level. are received in accordance with management’s authorization. if any. and determining estimated useful lives. • Property and equipment is physically inspected and reconciled at reasonable intervals with independently maintained property and equipment records. • Adequate safeguards protect property and equipment. The two significant assertions that Taylor would be most concerned with relative to Palmer’s goodwill are valuation or allocation. and depreciation. salvage values. classifying leases. • There are written policies covering capitalizing expenditures. stating the reasons for retirement and bearing appropriate approvals. b. Examine evidence supporting additions and reductions during the year Ascertain whether goodwill and amortization are properly described and classified in the financial statements and disclosed in the notes to the financial statements. as well as the risk of inadequate disclosure or presentation in the financial statements. • There are adequate policies and procedures to determine whether property and equipment are received and properly recorded. and related transactions that Nakamura may consider in assessing control risk include the following: • Advance approval in accordance with management’s criteria is required for property and equipment transactions. receiving reports and vendors’ invoices. 14-14 The key internal controls related to Grant’s property. • Property and equipment transactions are adequately documented. • The entity employs internal auditors to test whether the internal controls are operating effectively. Assess whether there has been a permanent impairment of value. and the ledger is periodically reconciled. Determine that the carrying amount does not exceed amounts properly allocable to future periods.
plant and equipment normally include only fixed tangible assets. the auditor must be satisfied that: • Internal controls over PP&E and PP&E acquisitions are adequate. plant and equipment. Property. plant and equipment. • Amounts in the financial statements are in substantial agreement with the supporting records. Since clearing costs are costs of the land. Item Number 1 Is Audit Adjustment or Reclassification Required? Yes Reasons Why Audit Adjustment or Reclassification Is Required or Not Required Commissions paid to real estate agents are costs directly related to the acquisition of the property and should be included in the land cost. The costs of removing. plant and equipment (PP&E). All costs relating to the purchase of machinery and equipment should be capitalized. For 2 No 3 Yes 4 Yes 6 . An adjustment is required for these items so that total land costs can properly be included in property. • Assets included in PP&E are owned by the company whose financial statements are being examined. which are part of property. In connection with the examination of property. • Maintenance accounts do not include items that should be capitalized.14-15 a. Fixed tangible assets are capital assets with useful lives generally in excess of one year that are used in the operation of the business and that are not purchased for resale purposes. • Important information relating to the assets is properly disclosed. • The valuation and the disclosure of the method of evaluation are acceptable. • Depreciation and/or amortization methods are proper. • Assets included in PP&E exist and are being used in the normal operations of the business. should be a reduction of the cost of the land and should not be recorded as other income. if so. No adjustment is required because clearing costs are costs that are directly attributable to conditioning the property for use and should be included in land costs. b. amounts realized from the sale of materials recovered. • Assets included in PP&E are not encumbered by liens or. the facts are properly disclosed in the footnotes to the financial statements. such as timber and gravel. • Accounting for additions. relocating or reconstructing property of others to acquire possessions are costs that are directly attributable to conditioning the property for use and should be included in land costs. disposals and retirements is proper.
• Determine that beginning-of-year balances agree with the prior year’s ending balances. • Obtain. • Inspect documents in support of additions during the year. • Test the calculation of depreciation expense and accumulated depreciation balance. 7 c. Such payments should be charged to expenses as they accrue. Because no closing has taken place. other than royalty payments. • Evaluate the financial statement presentation and disclosures for conformity with generally accepted accounting principles. IAS 16 Property. Leno may account for the transaction using another method. However. Machinery costs. US GAAP are close aligned to the general principles of IAS 18. should not be included in the cost of the machinery. • Evaluate the reasonableness of estimated lives and methods of depreciation used. however. • Analyze repairs and maintenance for possible reclassifications. US 7 . 14-16 a. 2 14-17 Substantive audit procedures that Pierce should use in examining Wong’s mobile construction equipment and related depreciation would include the following: • Determine that the equipment account is properly footed. • Determine that the subsidiary accounts agree with controlling accounts. an analysis of changes in the account during the year.purchased items such costs would include invoice price. Royalty payments. • Perform analytical procedures such as comparing depreciation expense to balance sheet accounts for proper relationship and compare the current year’s depreciation expense with prior year’s depreciation expense. • Determine the propriety of accounting for equipment not in current use. • Review insurance coverage. • Test the accuracy of equipment and accounting records by (1) selecting items from the accounting records and verifying their physical existence and (2) selecting items of equipment and locating them in the accounting records. or prepare. 4 b. Plant and Equipment states that an entity is required to derecognise the carrying amount of an item of property. • Inspect documents in support of retirements during the year. plant and equipment that it disposes of on the date the criteria for the sale of goods in IAS 18 Revenue would be met. Solution to Discussion Case 14-18 a. should be included in property. IAS 18 generally states that revenue is recognised when it is probable that future economic benefits will flow to the entity and these benefits can be measured reliably. plant and equipment. freight costs and unloading charges. Leno’s transaction should not be accounted for under full recognition. but lacks specific guidance.
66 provides a number of alternative approaches for recognizing revenue. Prior to recognizing any gain on the transaction.580. Your search could be for financial statements of catalogue sportswear retailers in your home country or in other countries. For example. • Examine the letter of credit. • Examine the subsidiary records containing the information on the land and building’s book value. • Obtain a confirmation from the bank on the terms of the letter of credit. The cost recovery method can be used if the receipt of the irrevocable letter of credit is treated as a separate transaction from the total sales transaction and profit is recognized on this portion of the transaction independently of the remainder of the transaction. • Examine financial information on the buyer to determine its financial position.accounting pronouncements provide specific application guidance for revenue recognition. and it appears that the useful lives of its assets are comparable to EarthWear. FASB No. Solution to Internet Assignment 14-19 It is difficult to get information directly on some of EarthWear’s competitors. the auditor should: • Examine the sales contract. The Spiegel Group’s annual report states that depreciation is calculated using the straight-line method consistent with EarthWear. 2005. It may be argued that the receipt of the irrevocable letter of credit can be treated as a separate transaction from the total sales transaction and profit can be recognized on this portion of the transaction independently of the remainder of the transaction. a gain of €1. and the letter of credit would be presented as a ‘deposit received under contract of sale. no profit is recognized because the sale has not been consummated. It can be argued that the deposit method is appropriate. Under the deposit method. The property would be removed from Leno’s balance sheet.’ b. including (1) the deposit method and (2) the cost recovery method.000 would be recognized on the difference between the amount of the irrevocable letter of credit and the book value of the property. 8 . Following the cost recovery method at 31 March. Eddie Bauer is part of The Spiegel Group.
it is normally more cost-effective to conduct substantive tests of the transactions that compose the account balance. If the two amounts are not materially different. • Any completed or pending transactions (e. issued and outstanding for each class of stock and (2) restrictions on retained earnings and dividends. 15-6 The two most common disclosures for stockholders’ equity are (1) the number of shares authorized. 15-3 The auditor can estimate interest expense by multiplying the twelve monthly balances for long-term debt by the average interest rate. monthly balances) must be audited in order to obtain assurance from the substantive analytical procedure.e. interest rates.g. These disclosures are necessary so that stockholders can determine what share of the company they own and whether there are any restrictions on the declaration of dividends. and dates for preferred stock. if the recorded amount of interest expense was materially higher than the estimated amount. prices. completeness. valuation and classification. • Appropriate segregation of duties should be established among the payment and recording of dividend payments. the following segregation of duties should be maintained: • The individuals responsible for issuing. The documents that normally contain the authorization to issue long-term debt include a properly signed lending agreement and the minutes of board of directors’ meetings. authorization. 15-4 Confirmation of long-term debt provides evidence on the existence. The reasonableness of interest expense can then be assessed by comparing this estimate to the interest expense amount recorded in the general ledger. • Stock option or purchase plans. Other disclosures for stockholders’ equity include: • Call privileges. each transaction is usually material. • The individual responsible for maintaining the detailed stockholders’ records should not also process cash receipts or disbursements. 15-5 When the client does not use an outside agent and a sufficient number of personnel are available. 15-2 The assertions for long-term debt that are most important to the auditor are occurrence. the auditor can conclude that interest expense is fairly stated. although the number of transactions is smaller. Thus. the client may have failed to record debt. transferring and cancelling stock certificates should not have any accounting responsibilities. On the other hand. stock dividends or splits) that may affect 1 . It is important to remember that the inputs (i. completeness and valuation assertions. • The individual responsible for maintaining the detailed stockholders’ records should be independent of the maintenance of the general ledger control accounts. If the estimated amount of interest expense is materially higher than the recorded amount.CHAPTER 15 AUDITING FINANCING PROCESS: LONG-TERM LIABILITIES. the auditor might conclude that the client has failed to record a portion of interest expense. STOCKHOLDERS’ EQUITY AND INCOME STATEMENT ACCOUNTS Answers to Review Questions 15-1 A substantive audit strategy is normally followed when auditing the long-term debt and capital accounts because.
The procedures that Maslovskaya should employ in examining the loans are as follows: • Obtain an understanding of the business purpose of the loans made by the president. and other income expense because these are accounts that are not directly affected by an accounting process. or accounts for which detailed information is needed for the tax return or other schedules included with the financial statements. 15-9 The auditor conducts a detailed analysis of the transactions in legal expense. • Perform direct substantive tests of specific revenue or expense accounts (e. including notes and loan agreements.g. Any new appropriations or changes in existing appropriations should be traced to the contractual agreement that required the appropriation. The auditor begins the audit of retained earnings by obtaining a schedule of the activity in the account for the period. This amount is agreed with the amount authorized by the board of directors. the auditor must be certain that the transactions satisfy the requirements of the relevant accounting standards. The amounts for any cash or stock dividends can be verified as in the previous paragraph. • Review minutes of meetings of the board of directors for proper authorization. travel and entertainment. sales commissions can be tested by using the client’s commission schedule and multiplying the commission rates times eligible sales).stockholders’ equity. • Confirm the loans. The beginning balance is agreed to the prior year’s working papers and financial statements. the auditor must make sure that all necessary disclosures related to retained earnings are made in the notes. and evaluating the adequacy of disclosure and compliance with restrictions. 15-8 Three substantive analytical procedures that the auditor might use in auditing the income statement include: • Use the prior years’ trends in quarterly euro (or other currency) amount for each significant revenue and expense account (e. including terms. If there are any prior-period adjustments. • Read the financial statements. Net income or loss can be traced to the income statement. • Recompute (or verifying) interest expense and interest payable. The auditor can recompute the dividend amount by multiplying the number of shares outstanding on the record date by the amount of the per share dividend approved by the board of directors. • Calculate the ratio of individual expense accounts to net sales and comparing these percentages across years. Last. • Verify payments made during the year and transactions after year-end. accounts which contain sensitive information or unusual transactions. disaggregate revenue by product or location) to develop an expectation for the current year. 15-7 When the entity uses an outside dividend-disbursing agent. by direct communication. Solutions to Problems 15-10 a.g. the auditor can confirm the amount disbursed to the agent by the entity. This amount should agree to the amount disbursed to shareholders and accrued at year-end. 2 . • Recompute the long-term and short-term portions of the debt.
• Confirm with the trustee that insurance policies protecting against fire loss to the extent of 100 per cent of value have been filed. 15-12 The • • • • • • • • • • • • • 3 working paper contains the following deficiencies: Index number of the working paper is missing.• Consider any tax implications for the interest on the loan from the company’s president. b. The following disclosures should normally be made: • The amount.333/€1. There is no indication that the dates under ‘Interest paid to’ were audited. if not otherwise apparent. • If the working capital ratio is less than 2 to 1.667 = 20%) was noted and investigated. • The monetary amounts of the loans. the terms and manner of settlement.000. There is no indication of cross-referencing of the stockholder loan to the relatedparty transactions working papers. • Amounts due the president and.406. b. There is no indication of any follow-up on the identified error in the accrued interest payable computation. and due date of each bond issue. and the working paper totals do not crossfoot. The liability activities of Lender’s Capital Corp. • The covenant restrictions on the bond indentures. • Obtain a management representation letter. verify that the total compensation of the chairperson and president is not more than €650. Rekdahl should perform the following audit steps to determine if the company is in compliance with the bond indentures: • Calculate the working capital ratio to ensure that it is 2 to 1 at the end of each month during the fiscal year. • The amount of debt due over each of the next five years. There is no indication as to whether the confirmation exception was resolved. Broadwall’s financial statements should normally disclose the following information concerning the loans from its president: • The nature of the related-party relationship. • Test retained earnings to ensure that 40 per cent has been restricted from dividend payments. • Confirm whether any bonds have been repurchased. There is no indication that the unusually high average interest rate (€281. interest rate. The tick mark ‘R’ is used but not explained in the tick mark legend. . There is no investigation of the payment on the stockholder loan that was reborrowed soon after year-end. 15-11 a. There is no consideration of the need to impute interest expense on the 0 per cent stockholder loan. • Confirm with the First Euro Bank that a sinking fund has been established and that the required semiannual payments have been made. The loan with the unwaived violation of a provision of the debt agreement is misclassified as long-term. The working paper does not support the overall conclusions expressed. The subject of the working paper is not properly indicated in the title.
• Test the covenant procedures at 30 June. However. at a minimum the status of the debt should be disclosed in the notes. This may provide some additional evidence on the reliability of the tests at 31 August. Solutions to Discussion Case 15-13 a. Special purpose entities (SPEs) were used to handle off-balance financing by Enron. and the suspected violation occurred on 31 August. the debt should continue to be classified as non-current because no violation was present at the balance sheet date and the waiver after the balance sheet date cures the problem. However. it appears as if the SPEs met the accounting rules for not consolidating such entities. the date the restrictions became effective.• There is no indication that the working paper was prepared by client personnel. 4 . If so and if the client can obtain a waiver. There are a number of audit procedures that Johnson can conduct in order to determine if the client is in violation of the debt agreement. In this case. If Johnson determined that a violation had occurred at 31 August. since the client does not have good period-end cutoffs for sales and purchases. he could (1) ask management if they intended to seek a waiver or modification of the loan restrictions and (2) inquire of the lenders as to whether Mother Earth would be granted such waiver or modification. If Johnson determined that Mother Earth was in violation on 31 August. it appears that at least one large SPE did not meet the accounting rules and Andersen claims that they were not told the truth about the outside investments in the SPE. In most cases. The client’s year-end was 30 June. • Obtain a representation letter from management that the covenant restrictions were being met. Johnson should perform cutoff procedures at 31 August. the most appropriate solution is for Johnson to determine if Mother Earth violated the covenants on 31 August. Note that the possible violation of the debt covenants may have occurred during the subsequent events period. Solution to Internet Assignment 15-13 A review of the relevant sources provides considerable information on its October 2001 restatement. Possible audit procedures are as follows: • Test the covenant restrictions at 31 August. b.
Use of imprest accounts also minimizes the time necessary to reconcile the general cash account. Control can be improved further if an independent party such as the internal auditor reviews the bank reconciliation. 16-4 A cutoff bank statement is obtained to test the reconciling items such as deposits in transit and outstanding cheques included in the bank reconciliation.CHAPTER 16 AUDITING FINANCING PROCESS: CASH AND INVESTMENTS Answers to Review Questions 16-1 The reliability of the client’s control activities over cash receipts and cash disbursements affects the nature and extent of the auditor’s substantive tests of cash balances. (2) endures that all cash disbursements recorded in the client’s cash disbursements journal have cleared the client’s bank account. Such accounts provide the branch with the ability to pay local expenses and to maintain banking relations with the local community. These procedures include examining the disposition of the reconciling items included in the prior months’ reconciliations and the reconciling items included in the current bank reconciliation. and the account is used for limited purposes. An imprest bank account contains a stipulated amount of money. As a result. By separating similar types of payments. and (3) ensures that no bank transactions have been omitted from the client’s accounting records. The four-column proof of cash (1) ensures that all cash receipts recorded in the client’s cash receipts journal were deposited in the client’s bank account. amount. the auditor’s use of analytical procedures for auditing cash is limited to comparisons with prior years’ cash balances and to budgeted amounts. and endorsement. it does not have a predictable relationship to other financial statement accounts. Such bank reconciliations ensure that the client’s books reflect the same balance as the bank’s after considering reconciling items. • Proof of cash. 16-3 Because of the residual nature of cash. the entity facilitates the disbursement of cash while maintaining adequate control over cash. The major source of cash receipts for this account is the revenue process. This limited use of analytical procedures is normally offset by (1) extensive tests of controls and/or substantive tests of transactions for cash receipts and cash disbursements or (2) extensive tests of the entity’s bank reconciliations. 16-5 Three fraud-related audit procedures for cash are: • Extended bank reconciliation procedures. the outstanding cheques returned with the cutoff bank statement are examined for proper payee. An imprest account serves as a clearing account for similar types of direct deposits or cheques. Imprest accounts are frequently used for disbursing payroll and dividend. and the major sources of cash disbursements are the purchasing and human resource management processes. Companies that have multiple locations are likely to have branch accounts. A major internal control procedure that directly affects the audit of cash is the completion of a monthly bank reconciliation by client personnel who are independent of handling and recording of cash receipts and cash disbursements. The effective operation of these control activities provides strong evidence that the completeness assertion is being met. 1 . For example. 16-2 A general cash account is the principal cash account for most entities.
they are recorded at their acquisition cost. 16-7 The main transaction assertions for investments are occurrence. the security should be written down and a new carrying amount established. 16-8 When securities are initially purchased. IAS 39 Financial Instruments: Recognition and Measurement includes factors indicating other-than-temporary impairment of the investment. Securities values can be improperly recorded or not reported to management. authorization. With an interbank transfer schedule the auditor tests the dates of cash disbursements and the cash receipt for each transfer to assure that the transfer is properly recorded. 16-9 are: The two presentation classification issues that are important for the audit of investments • • Marketable securities need to be properly classified between held-to-maturity investments. 2 . An interbank transfer schedule is used to test for kiting (see Exhibit 16-3). completeness. The value-monitoring function should be segregated from the acquisition function.• Tests for kiting. The key segregation of duties for investments and the errors or fraud that they can prevent are: Segregation of Duties The initiation function should be segregated from the final approval function. valuation and classification. Theft of securities can be concealed. Responsibility for maintaining the securities ledger should be separate from that of making entries in the general ledger. Possible Errors or Fraud as a Result of Conflicts in Duties Fictitious transactions can be made or securities can be stolen. Concealment of a defalcation that would normally be detected by reconciliation of subsidiary records with general ledger control accounts. The financial statement classification requires that all trading securities be reported as current assets and held-to-maturity securities and individual available-for-sale securities be classified as current or non-current assets based on whether management expects to convert them to cash within the next twelve months. Responsibility for custody of securities should be separate from that of accounting for the securities. 16-6 An approach used by auditors to test for kiting is the preparation of an interbank transfer schedule. If the investment value is determined to be permanently impaired. trading investments and available-for-sale financial assets. Debt securities that are to be held to maturity should be valued at their amortized cost.
• Make inquiries as to compensating balances and restrictions. amount. bank statements and related paid cheques for the last few days before and the first few days after year-end and 3 . • Prepare a bank transfer schedule from a review of the cash receipts and disbursements journals. • Investigate outstanding cheques that did not clear with the cutoff bank statements. • Trace amounts of deposits in transit to the cutoff bank statements and ascertaining whether the time lags are reasonable. date.’ ‘cash. • Obtain copies of the bank reconciliations as of the balance sheet date and • Trace the adjusted book balances to the general ledger balances.Solutions to Problems 16-10 The auditor’s internal control questionnaire should include the following additional questions: • Does access to the bank safe deposit vault require the signature or presence of two designated persons? • Are all individuals who have access to marketable securities bonded? • Are those who have access to the securities denied access to the accounting records? • Does the accounting department keep detailed records of • Purchases and sales? • Securities (including number of shares) owned? • Stock certificate numbers? • Dividend income? • Gains and losses? • Are all securities registered in the name of the company? • Are all securities periodically inspected? • Is the inspection performed on a surprise basis? • Is the physical inventory of securities reconciled with the accounting records? • Are all purchases and sales of securities executed by the treasurer within the directives of the investment committee? • Is the amount of dividends received on individual investments periodically reconciled to published public records? • Does the investment committee periodically review compliance with its established policy? 16-11 The audit plan for auditing Sevcik’s bank balance should include the following steps: • Review answers to questions on confirmation requests to determine proper recognition in accounting records and the necessity for financial statement disclosure.’ and related parties. • Verify the clerical accuracy of the reconciliations. • Obtain explanation for unusual reconciling items. authorized signatures and endorsements to determine any deviations from company policy or fraud in the accounting records. including cheques drawn to ‘bearer. • Trace cheques dated prior to the end of the period that were returned with the cutoff statements to the list of outstanding cheques. • Compare the bank balances to the opening balances on the cutoff bank statements. • Examine a sample of cheques for payee. • Compare the bank balances to the balances on the confirmations.
• The date of purchase and sale of R security. The following procedures were not noted as having been performed: • The securities were not physically inspected or confirmed. • Dividend rates were not verified by reference to public records (e. • Data required to evaluate the classification of securities. • Computations of year-end accruals were not made. f. Trace incomplete transfers to the schedule of outstanding cheques and deposits in transit.• • 16-12 Review the schedule to determine that the deposit and disbursement of each transfer is recorded in the proper period. and market values were not verified. c. 7. • Data concerning the accrual and/or receipt of interest due on R to date of sale. • Justification for accrual of dividends. b. 9 3 16-13 a. revenue accruals. 10 2. • Data concerning the 31 December. loss on sale of R) were traced to the general ledger. a. • The stated interest rates. 9. maturity dates.g. 9. d. e. • The broker’s advice (or other independent corroborating evidence) verifying the sale of R was not examined. 9 1. 4. • Accounting treatment of bond discount. 8. The following information is missing: • The date of purchase of S security. 2005. 10 5 5. b. 7.g. 4 . • Not all amounts (e. Standard & Poor’s) of dividend declarations. • Data concerning the accrual and/or payment of interest due on S to the date of purchase. 8.
16-15 a. Phung should consider applying the following additional substantive auditing procedures in auditing Vernon’s investments: • Inspect securities on hand in the presence of the custodian. • Ascertain whether any investments are pledged as collateral or encumbered by liens and. 4 Solution to Internet Assignment 5 . Primary Assertion 4. • Examine broker’s advices in support of transactions or confirm transactions with broker. 5 b. Valuation or allocation 7. Valuation or allocation Objective To determine that the custodian holds the securities as identified in the confirmation. are properly disclosed. • Determine that gains and losses on dispositions have been properly computed. To determine that the market or other value of the investments is fairly stated and the loss is properly recognized and recorded. To determine that all income and related collections from the investments are properly recorded.16-14 a. • Determine that the amortization of premium and discount on bonds has been properly computed. b. etc. accuracy 8.) for transactions between the balance sheet date and the inspection date. • Obtain confirmation from the issuers or trustees of investments. if so. 6 c. Completeness 6. • Trace payments for purchases to cancelled cheques. • Examine supporting evidence (broker’s advices. • Examine contractual terms of debt securities and preferred stock. To determine that transfers are properly authorized and that the financial statement presentation and disclosure of investments is in accordance with the applicable financial reporting framework and for consistently. and proceeds from sales to entries in the cash receipts journal. Authorization and Presentation and disclosure— classification. • Determine that trading securities and available-for-sale securities are properly valued and any unrealized gains and losses are properly accounted for. Existence or occurrence 5. • Determine that the board of directors or its designee properly approved sales and purchases. To determine that the market or other value of the investments is fairly stated.
6 .16-16 Major companies often hold large amounts of investment securities and give extensive disclosure in notes to the financial statements.
and the amount or range of potential loss. • A request that the lawyer comments on unasserted claims where his or her views differ from management’s evaluation. • A request for additions to the list provided by management or a statement that the list is complete. The client may provide the list. Neither probable nor remote: The chance of the future event occurring is less than likely but more than slight (remote). 3. . • Product warranties or defects. Lawyers may also be concerned that disclosure of the unasserted claim may itself result in lawsuits. Lawyers may be reluctant to provide the auditor with information about the unasserted claims because of clientlawyer privilege. • A statement by management acknowledging an understanding of the lawyer’s professional responsibility involving unasserted claims and assessments. • A description of any materiality levels agreed upon for the purposes of the inquiry and response. the action the entity plans to take. • Actual or possible claims and assessments. • Guarantees of obligations to others. Probable: The future event is likely to occur. 2. This should include the progress of the case. 17-2 The auditor requests that the lawyer provide the following information on pending or threatened litigation: • A list and evaluation of any pending or threatened litigation to which the lawyer has devoted substantial attention.CHAPTER 17 COMPLETING THE ENGAGEMENT Answers to Review Questions 17-1 A contingency is a liability that is uncertain because the possible outflow of resources from the entity will ultimately be resolved when some future event occurs or fails to occur. Examples of contingent liabilities include: • Pending or threatened litigation. • A request that the lawyer describes and evaluates the outcome of each pending or threatened litigation. the likelihood of unfavourable outcome. An unasserted claim or assessment is one in which the injured party or potential claimant has not yet notified the entity of a possible claim or assessment. Remote: The chance of the future event occurring is slight. • A request that the lawyer indicates if his or her response is limited and the reasons for such limitations. • A listing of unasserted claims and assessments considered by management to be probable of assertion and to have more than a remote possibility of unfavourable outcome. • Agreements to repurchase receivables that have been sold. • Income tax disputes. Contingencies can be classifies into three categories: 1.
Examples of the first type of event or condition are: • An uncollectible account receivable resulting from continued deterioration of a customer’s financial condition leading to bankruptcy after the balance sheet date. The extent of the review depends on the complexity of the audit engagement and the risk that the auditor’s report might not be appropriate in the circumstances. The representation letter also reduces the possibility of misunderstanding concerning the responses provided by management to the auditor’s inquiries. • The settlement of a lawsuit after the balance sheet date for an amount different from the amount recorded in the year-end financial statements. • Commencing major litigation arising solely out of events that occurred after the balance sheet date. • Changes in tax laws enacted or announced that have a significant effect on financial statements tax accounts. subsequent events may come to the auditor’s attention during this period and require adjustments (a Type I event) or disclosure (a Type II event) in the financial statements. . 17-8 The main purpose of an engagement quality review is to have an objective evaluation of the significant judgments made by the engagement team and the conclusions reached in formulating the auditor’s report. 2.17-3 Two examples of long-term commitments are the purchase of raw materials or the sale of products at a fixed price. Events that provide evidence about conditions that did not exist at the date of the balance sheet but arose subsequent to that date. The objective of conducting final analytical procedures near the end of the engagement is to help the auditor assess the conclusions reached on the financial statement components and evaluate the overall financial statement presentation. • Loss of the entity’s manufacturing facility or assets resulting from a casualty such as a fire or flood. Events that provide additional evidence about conditions that existed at the date of the balance sheet and affect the estimates that are part of the financial statement preparation process. 17-7 The auditor obtains a representation letter in order to corroborate oral representations made to the auditor and to document the continued appropriateness of such representations. When the fair market value of the good is less than the purchase price included in the contract. the entity may have to recognize a loss on a long-term commitment even though there has been no exchange of goods. However. 17-4 The two types of subsequent events that require consideration by management and evaluation by the auditor relevant to financial statement audits are: 1. These types of events require adjustment of the financial statements. but the auditor is not responsible for making any inquiries or conducting any audit procedures after the date of the audit report. 17-5 The period from the date of the auditor’s report to the issuance of the financial statements is part of the subsequent-events period. • Sale of equity capital or bond issue by the entity. 17-6 Auditing standards (ISA 520) require that the auditor perform analytical procedures at the final review stage of the audit. Examples of the second type of event or condition are: • Purchase or disposal of a business by the entity. These types of events usually require financial statement disclosure.
If the auditor concludes. he or she should consider the adequacy of the disclosure about the entity’s ability to continue and. . • Loss of a key franchise.17-9 Three overall steps in the going-concern evaluation process are as follows: 1. Other financial difficulties: • Default on loans. • Negative cash flow. if the disclosure is adequate. 3. • Negative working capital. 2. and assess the likelihood that such plans can be implemented. • Dependence on the success of one particular project. • Accumulated deficits. • Restructuring of debt. 17-10 The four major categories of events or conditions that may indicate going-concern problems and examples of each are: Financial conditions: • Recurring operating losses. Internal matters: • Work stoppages. performance. • Inability to meet interest payments. If there is significant doubt. External matters: • Legal proceedings. after evaluating management’s plans. • Negative income from operations. • Loss of a major customer or supplier. including a written representation of its plans. • No additional sources of financing. Consider whether the results of audit procedures performed during the planning. 17-11 The following items should be included in the auditor’s communication with those charged with governance (ISA 260): • The auditor’s responsibility. • Negative net worth. • Dividends in arrears. • The planned scope and timing of the audit. or patent. • Denial of trade credit by suppliers. and completion of the audit indicate whether there is significant doubt about the entity’s ability to continue as a going concern for same period as that used by management (minimum twelve months from the balance sheet date when reporting in accordance with IASs/IFRSs). include an emphasis of matter paragraph in the audit report. • Current-year deficit. • Uneconomic long-term commitments. that there is significant doubt about the ability of the entity to continue as a going concern. license. the auditor should obtain information about management’s plans to mitigate the going-concern problem.
• Circumstances that lead to expected modifications to the opinion in the auditor’s report (proposed ISA 705). Notify regulatory authorities and other persons relying on the auditor’s report that the auditor’s report can no longer be relied upon. • Non-compliance with laws and regulations that comes to the auditor’s attention (ISA 250). Matters required by other ISAs and additional external requirements. Notify the client that the auditor’s report must no longer be associated with the financial statements. claims. and assessments should include the following: • Inquire and discuss with management the policies and procedures adopted for identifying. and assessments are matters within the direct knowledge. the auditor should notify those charged with governance such as the board of directors and take the following steps: 1. and often. auditor independence (introduced in proposed ISA 260). and assessments that existed at the date of the balance sheet being reported on. including an identification of those matters referred to legal counsel. evaluating. and during the period from the balance sheet date to the date the information is furnished. or others where the fraud results in a material misstatement in the financial statements (ISA 240). and matters agreed with the entity. • Material weaknesses in the design or implementation of internal control that could have a material effect on the financial statements that have come to the auditor’s attention (ISA 315). 2. Other matters of which the auditor is aware that the auditor judges to be serious and relevant to the responsibilities of those charged with governance. Accordingly. claims. when previously issued financial statements contain material misstatements due to unintentional or intentional actions by management. control of management of an entity. 17-12 Generally. Solutions to Problems 17-13 Since the events or conditions that should be considered in the financial accounting for and reporting of litigation. In the case of listed entities. Matters required to be communicated to those charged with governance by other ISAs include: • Fraud the auditor has identified that involves management. The practical outcome of these procedures is that the auditor has withdrawn his or her report on the previously issued financial statements. If the client refuses to cooperate and make the necessary disclosures. Harper’s audit procedures with respect to the existence of loss contingencies arising from litigation. employees who have significant roles in internal control.• • • • The conduct of and findings from the audit. and . claims. • Obtain from management a description and evaluation of litigation. and assessments. and accounting for litigation. claims. proposed amendment). • Events or conditions that may cast significant doubt on the entity’s ability to continue as a going concern (ISA 570. management is the primary source of information about such matters. the financial statements will require revision.
• A description of the progress of each case to date is omitted. claims. directors. • Materiality (or the limits of materiality) is not addressed. • Consolidated’s understanding of Young’s responsibility to advise Consolidated concerning the disclosure of unasserted possible claims or assessments is omitted. • An estimate. and assessments are the following: • Reading minutes of stockholders. • Young is not requested to include matters that existed after 31 December 2005 up to the date of Young’s response. and assessments. claims. 17-14 The omissions. that they have disclosed all such matters required to be disclosed by the applicable financial reporting framework. loan agreements.• • • obtain assurances from management. if one can be made. or disbursements. and assessments. The auditor should request the client’s management to send a letter of inquiry to those lawyers with whom they consulted concerning litigation. • The reference to a limitation on Young’s response due to confidentiality is inappropriate. • Inspecting other documents for possible guarantees by the client. or to appeal an adverse decision) is omitted. claims. to seek an out-of-court settlement. • The unasserted claims and assessments probable of assertion that have more than a remote possibility of an unfavourable outcome are not identified. • Obtaining information concerning guarantees from bank confirmation forms. • An evaluation of the likelihood of an unfavourable outcome of each case is omitted. Examples of other procedures undertaken for different purposes that might also disclose litigation. including correspondence and invoices from lawyers. ordinarily in the form of a representation letter. leases. and inappropriate statements and terminology in Cao’s letter are as follows: • The action that Consolidated intends to take concerning each suit (e. ordinarily in the form of a representation letter. that they have disclosed all unasserted claims that the lawyer has advised them are probable of assertion and must be disclosed in accordance with the applicable financial reporting framework. and appropriate committee meetings held during and subsequent to the period being examined. Obtain assurance from management. to contest the matter vigorously. of the amount or range of potential loss of each case is omitted. Examine documents in the client’s possession concerning litigation. . • The reference to Young’s response possibly being quoted or referred to in the financial statements is inappropriate. and correspondence from taxing or other governmental agencies. ambiguities. • Vague terminology such as ‘some chance’ is included where ‘possible’ is more appropriate.g. and similar documents. • Young is not requested to identify the nature of and reasons for any limited response. services. • There is no inquiry about any unpaid or unbilled charges. • The other pending or threatened litigation on which Young was consulted is not identified and included. • Reading contracts. • The date by which Young’s response is needed is not indicated.
preliminary. For the financial statement audit. • Compare the latest available interim statements with the financial statements being audited.17-15 a. and assessments. the two types of subsequent events that require Namiki’s consideration and evaluation are: • Events that provide additional evidence concerning conditions that existed at the balance sheet date and affect the estimates inherent in the process of preparing financial statements. . or working capital to the date of inquiry. claims. as to whether any subsequent events would require adjustment or disclosure. • Inquire whether any contingencies or commitments existed at the balance sheet date or the date of inquiry. The explosion in Agronowitz’s plant that led to the uncollectibility of Scornick Company’s accounts receivable was an event whose conditions did not exist at the balance sheet date. 4. 5 This is not an event that is considered a subsequent event for financial statement purposes. • Ascertain whether the interim statements were prepared on the same basis as the audited financial statements. • Examine and/or inquire about findings including in internal audit reports completed after year end. The auditing procedures Namiki should consider performing to gather evidence concerning subsequent events include the following: • Review procedures management has established to ensure that subsequent events are identified. • Obtain a management representation letter. b. The sale of Scornick’s Manufacturing Division is an event whose conditions did not exist at the balance sheet date. • Inquire whether there was any significant change in the equity capital. • Read or inquire about the minutes of meetings of stockholders or the board of directors. • Inquire about the current status of items in the audited financial statements that were accounted for on the basis of tentative. Such events result in financial statement disclosure. 3. • Events that provide evidence concerning conditions that did not exist at the balance sheet date but arose subsequent to that date. • Inquire of the client’s legal counsel concerning litigation. 2. 17-16 1. This is not an event that is considered a subsequent event for financial statement purposes. The tax court ruling in favour of Scornick Company is an event whose conditions existed at the balance sheet date and which involves the revision of an estimate. • Make such additional inquiries or perform such additional procedures Namiki considers necessary and appropriate. This event requires disclosure in the 2005 financial statements. The 2005 financial statements should be adjusted to reflect the favourable ruling. the event requires disclosure only in the 2005 financial statements. dated as of the date of Namiki’s audit report. or inconclusive data. This type of subsequent event requires that the financial statements be adjusted for any changes in estimates resulting from the use of such additional evidence. Thus. long-term debt.
directly or through others in the organization. Obtaining a management representation letter does not relieve an auditor of any other responsibility for planning or performing an audit. and cash flows in accordance with the National Financial Reporting Framework. results of operations. analysts. former employees. • Events have occurred subsequent to the balance sheet date that would require adjustment to. about the matters covered by the representation. The representation letter should be addressed to the auditor and dated as of the date of the auditor’s report. or other similar bodies that may affect the financial statements. The refusal is ordinary sufficient to cause an auditor to disclaim an opinion or withdraw from the engagement. b. regulators. The letter should be signed by members of management whom the auditor believes are responsible for and knowledgeable.g. and whether there are liens or encumbrances on such assets or any pledging of assets. • All material transactions have been properly reflected in the financial statements. • The company has satisfactory title to all owned assets. Accordingly. • All financial records and data were made available for the auditor. • There are other material liabilities or gain or loss contingencies that are required to be accrued or disclosed. • Obtain evidence concerning management’s future plans and intentions (e. • Complement the other auditing procedures by corroborating the information discovered in performing those procedures. . • Management has knowledge of any allegations of fraud or suspected fraud affecting the entity’s financial statements communicated from employees. 17-18 Other matters that Heinrich’s representation letter should specifically confirm include whether or not: • Management acknowledges responsibility for the fair presentation in the financial statements of financial position. c. when refinancing debt or discontinuing a line of business). • Management has disclosed to the auditor the results of its assessment of the risk that the financial statements may be materially misstated as a result of fraud. • Indicate and document the continuing appropriateness of management’s representations. • Management acknowledges its responsibility for the design and implementation internal control to prevent and detect fraud. • Reduce the possibility of misunderstanding concerning the matters that are the subject of the representations. or disclosure in. • There are related-party transactions or related amounts receivable or payable that have not been properly disclosed in the financial statements. an auditor should still perform all the usual tests to corroborate representations made by management. or others. • The auditor has been advised of all actions taken at meetings of stockholders. • The company has complied with all aspects of contractual agreements that would have a material effect on the financial statements in the event of non-compliance.17-17 a. Their refusal to sign the letter would constitute a limitation on the scope of the audit sufficient to preclude an unmodified opinion and affect the auditor’s ability to rely on other management representations. the board of directors. The purposes of obtaining a written management representation letter are to: • Confirm the oral representations given to the auditor. the financial statements.
• Appropriate provision has been made for any material loss to be sustained in the fulfilment of. • The effects of the uncorrected financial statements misstatements summarized in the schedule (accompanying the representation letter) are immaterial. • Provision. 2. • Inventory quantities at the balance sheet dates were determined from physical counts taken by competent employees at various times during the year. when material. 14. • Receivables recorded in the financial statements represent valid claims against debtors for sales and have been appropriately reduced to their estimated net realizable value. • Appropriate provision has been made for any material loss to be sustained as a result of purchase commitments for inventory quantities in excess of normal requirements or at prices in excess of the prevailing market prices. 17-19 1. 8. 10. both individually and in the aggregate. to the financial statements taken as a whole. 15. 3. 17. 7. 6. 13. 9. or from inability to fulfil. E M L G M H C K E M O I E E E E B M L . 4. 5. has been made to reduce excess or obsolete inventories to their estimated net realizable value. 12. 16. 18. 19. 11. any sales commitments.• Management is aware of fraud that could have a material effect on the financial statements or that involve management or employees who have significant roles in the internal control system.
Contingent Liabilities and Contingent Assets’ prescribes the accounting and disclosure for liabilities. In assessing the materiality of an uncertainty it must be recognized that some uncertainties are unusual in nature or infrequent in occurrence and thus more closely related to financial position than to normal. An argument can be made that a claim will not occur or not have a significant effect on Ceramic Crucibles’s financial statements.Solutions to Discussion Cases 17-20 a. In this case.g. Ceramic Crucibles’s financial position does not appear to be threatened by potential action because its pollution levels are significantly below the levels of others. Finally. and the fact that once the NEPA has put a site on the National Priorities List and has authorized an investigation of the site. it is quite likely that the company may never have to pay. These amounts might be 9 . it is unlikely that they will not assert a claim. not because of the extent of the pollution. To reach a decision in this case. and no disclosure would be required. The potential loss of between €10 million to €13 million represents a reduction in stockholders’ equity of 4. it is necessary to consider whether the facts would lead to a conclusion about the probability that a claim will be asserted against Ceramic Crucibles and. contingencies). the other PRPs are capable of paying their share of potential fines. and no waste water has been discharged since the company acquired the property. Since the NEPA has not initiated a lawsuit or other regulatory action against Ceramic Crucibles.0 per cent.. probable but not estimable. At the international level the International Accounting Standard (IAS) 37 ‘Provisions.5 per cent to 7. the rating of the Red River site is considerably lower than the ratings of other sites on the list. First. Ceramic Crucibles could also sue the prior owners of the property for their share of the damages should there be an adverse outcome to the investigation. b. it is considered probable that a claim will be asserted and there is a more than a remote that the outcome will be unfavourable. there are two viable PRPs who are responsible for the vast majority of the contaminants. the fact that Ceramic Crucibles has been named as one of the ‘potentially responsible parties’ (PRP) with two other companies may not lead to a claim against the company. An unfavourable outcome under these facts might be considered remote. litigation related to alleged violations of fair competition or employments regulations). Application of IAS 37 to contingencies would imply that the auditor must decide whether an estimated loss from the contingency is probable and estimable. or remote. the company no longer uses lead in its production process. whether the amount of the clean-up cost is reasonably estimable. its past use of lead met the national food quality authorities requirements. An argument can also be made that.e. neither probable nor remote. Second. This line of reasoning argues that the Red River site was placed on the National Priorities List only because each region must have a site on the list. Third. In such instances the auditor should consider the possible loss in relation to shareholder’s equity and other relevant balance sheet components such as total assets. if so. total liabilities. current assets. based on the current evidence of pollution on the site. recurring operations (e. the potential loss is an unasserted claim. However. and current liabilities. including liabilities that will be resolved by the occurrence or non-occurrence of some future events (i. based on the fact that the NEPA has paid most of the costs of pollution clean-ups and only a fraction of the costs of pollution clean-ups have been borne by industry.
The components were not sold during 2005. standard audit report with an unmodified opinion would be issued. the amount of accrued vacation pay amounted to €300.000 for accrued vacation pay based on materiality considerations.000. it is not likely that an unfavourable outcome would be material. It is highly unlikely that the investigation would affect the auditor’s report. The issue is the possible obsolescence of the specialized computer components for the special-order optical scanner. It also does not appear that an unfavourable outcome would have an adverse affect on the company’s financial position. b. However. and there appear to be no prospects of a future sale. This should be included in the management representation letter. Thus. • d. the auditors waived the adjustment of €20. which appears to be zero. a 17-21 This case presents a realistic situation that can arise on an audit engagement. The main issue of the case is whether the auditor needs to require the client to make adjustments to the financial statements for possible misstatements that have been identified during the audit. c. In 2004. a. These proposed adjustments can result in conflicts between the auditor and client. including the following: Copies of any public documents (e. Based on these facts. The client explained that the items could be sold during the next year without a loss. 10 . • Financial information on the other PRPs.g. the auditor should insist that the components be written down to their fair market value. • The affidavits from Ceramic Crucibles’s employees on the discharges into the levee. Schmidt should try to explain to Adams that accounting standards require that such adjustments are required to make the financial statement present fairly. • Any environmental engineering studies conducted by Ceramic Crucibles. It is difficult to provide detailed guidance on how Schmidt should handle the client’s demands. the report rating the site as 8. The auditors identified these components as possible obsolete items in 2004. Since accounting standards require accrual of such expense and the amount is material. • Information on Ceramic Crucibles’s change to lead-free mud in its crucibles. By 2005. considering that the likelihood of the claim is remote and that Ceramic Crucibles (or NEPA) can take action against the other PRPs. the auditor should insist on accruing the executives’ vacation pay. The auditor would obtain representations from management concerning its estimate of the likelihood of a materially adverse outcome. The auditor could obtain and examine a number of additional pieces of evidence.considered material to the financial statements and thus require disclosure by the client in the notes.3) that led to the site being added to the National Priorities List. c.
sec. However.gov).sec.com). The company name as well as terms like ‘accounting fraud’ and ‘accounting irregularities’ can be used in the search. Solutions to Internet Assignments 17-22 a.She should also point out that shareholders might react very negatively if they discovered that management was manipulating earnings from period to period in order to maintain the stock’s price. 17-23 Web sites of stock exchanges and supervisory bodies may be a source for finding situations where the auditor has withdrawn an audit report on a company. if Schmidt believes that both adjustments are necessary. Documents from legal cases and bankruptcy proceedings may also be a source of good information. In addition. to retrieve the articles. b. However. It is possible to get information on these frauds by searching the Internet using a search engine (e.g. For companies registered in the US the SEC’s EDGAR database search engine is a good source of information (www. there may be a fee. The SEC’s EDGAR database is a free site and can be used to research specific companies registered in the US (www. News sites and web sites of business journals are also a good source of information.gov). Google. she must require the client to make the adjustments or resign from the engagement. 11 . Various news and search engine web sites can be used to find information on recent accounting frauds. The potential for stockholders’ lawsuits could be raised. students may find information on news sites.
but overall the financial statements present fairly. A significant uncertainty may be related to the future outcome of major litigation or regulatory action. a significant effect on the entity’s business or operations. An example could be a sale of a company’s building to the CEO. 18-2 An emphasis of matter paragraph does not affect the auditor’s opinion because it can only be included in the audit report if the matter is presented or disclosed in the financial statements in accordance with the applicable financial reporting framework. • Early application of a new accounting principle. An other matters paragraph does not affect the auditor’s opinion because it relates to matters other than those required to be presented or disclosed in the financial statements. (2) the addressee. (4) management’s responsibility. (7) auditor’s signature. An example of a circumstances-imposed scope limitation is when the auditor is not engaged to conduct the audit until after year-end.CHAPTER 18 REPORTS ON AUDITED FINANCIAL STATEMENTS Answers to Review Questions 18-1 The nine elements of the audit report with an unmodified opinion on the financial statements are: (1) the title. when the matter is both unusual and of fundamental importance to the user’s understanding of the financial statements. Further. Auditing standards suggest that when restrictions imposed by the client significantly limit the scope of the engagement. 18-5 The three types of audit reports with modified opinions are: • Audit Reports with a Qualified Opinion. the following circumstances would require an emphasis of matter paragraph: • Significant uncertainties. and (9) auditor’s address. Early application means application before a new accounting principle or standard is required. (3) the introductory paragraph. An example would be a purchase or disposal of a business by the entity after the balance sheet date that results in disclosure in the financial statements. (6) auditor’s opinion. 18-3 An emphasis of matter paragraph is required when a material uncertainty about the entity’s ability to continue as a going-concern exists. An example would be that a regulatory agency requires a company to recall a major product for safety reasons. Under such circumstances. An example would be the destruction of a major production plant by a fire. 1 . The auditor’s opinion is qualified because of either a scope limitation or a departure from the applicable financial reporting framework. or continues to have. which is disclosed in a note to the financial statements. • A matter such as a major catastrophe. the auditor may not be able to observe inventory. Auditors should be particularly cautious when a client places a limit on the scope of the engagement because the client may be trying to prevent the auditor from discovering material misstatements. 18-4 An example of a client-imposed scope limitation is where a client requests that the auditor not confirm accounts receivable because of concerns about creating conflicts with customers over amounts owed. (5) auditor’s responsibility. that has had. • Significant and unusual related party transactions. (8) the date of the report. • A subsequent event disclosed in the financial statements. the auditor should disclaim an opinion on the financial statements.
If the effect of the condition is so significant that the overall financial statements are affected. specifically on certain of the other information published in a document that contains the audited financial statements. Conditions that may lead to a departure from the applicable financial reporting framework include circumstances where a departure from the applicable financial reporting framework is evident or where an auditor is not able to gather sufficient appropriate evidence to become reasonably assured that there is no material misstatement with respect to a particular management assertion.g. The opinion on the 2005 financial statements would not be adverse because. the auditor should issue a qualified opinion. • Compliance with contractual agreements related to audited financial statements. scope limitation or departure from the applicable financial reporting framework) that might lead to the departure is judged by the auditor to be immaterial. the auditor must judge the effect of the item on the overall financial statements. auditing standards (ISA 720) requires that the auditor read the other information and consider whether such information is consistent with the information contained in the audited financial statements. 18-9 If the auditor determines that other information contained with audited financial statements is incorrect. the auditor should request that the client correct the other information. 2 . and he or she has no obligation to perform any audit procedures to corroborate the other information included in an entity’s annual report. while the misstatement is material. in addition to express an opinion on the financial statements. specified elements. withhold the report. it is not highly material or pervasive. 18-7 The auditor should issue an audit report with an unmodified opinion on the 2004 financial statements and a modified report on the 2005 financial statements because the current year is not in accordance with the applicable financial reporting framework. 18-10 Examples of special reports include reports on: • Financial statements prepared on an other comprehensive basis of accounting to meet the needs of specific users.• • Audit Reports with a Disclaimer of Opinion. If the condition is material but the overall financial statements still present fairly. The inappropriate accounting for the lease transaction should be disclosed in the audit report. 18-8 The auditor’s reporting responsibility is restricted to information identified in the auditor’s report. 18-6 The concept of materiality plays a major role in the auditor’s choice of audit reports. or may consider withdrawing from the engagement. In such circumstances the auditor should apply necessary procedures to assure the relevant other information and issue an audit report as appropriate. As the materiality of the condition increases. The auditor disclaims an opinion on the financial statements because there is insufficient appropriate evidence to form an opinion on the overall financial statements. • Components (a single financial statement. The auditor’s opinion states that the financial statements do not present fairly in accordance with the applicable financial reporting framework because the departure materially affects the overall financial statements. accounts. If the condition (e. (In some jurisdiction the auditor is obliged to report. or items) of financial statements. the auditor should include an other matters paragraph in the audit report. If the other information is not revised. then a standard audit report with an unmodified can be issued. Audit Reports with an Adverse Opinion. or withdraw from the engagement.) However. the auditor should issue a disclaimer or an adverse opinion as appropriate.
an adverse opinion is very likely the most appropriate response. 3 . a negative outcome for this uncertainty appears to be remote. The client’s failure to disclose the related-party transaction means that the financial statements do not comply with a financial reporting framework such as IFRSs. It is important that OCBOA financial statements be properly titled so that they are not confused with financial statements prepared in accordance with financial reporting framework designed to meet the common information needs of a wide range of users (i. an audit report with a disclaimer of opinion would have been the appropriate response. In this case. e. the tragedy may well threaten the company’s ability to be involved in similar projects in the future. d. b. The company’s disclosure approach is not in accordance with a financial reporting framework such as IFRSs because such contingencies must be disclosed in the notes to the financial statements. the auditor should issue an audit report with a qualified opinion for a scope limitation due to a lack of evidence on the accounts receivable balance. In this case the potential settlement is likely to be very large given the proportions of the tragedy in terms of human loss and suffering. depending on the materiality of the item in question. Since the client fails to disclose the related-party transaction. 18-13 a. • Tax basis. ‘general purpose financial statements’). c. a standard audit report with an unmodified opinion can be issued. The auditor should issue a standard audit report with an unmodified opinion. Solutions to Problems 18-12 a. As long as this uncertainty is properly disclosed or accounted for in accordance with the applicable financial reporting framework. • Cash basis. If the auditor is satisfied that the controller’s motivation for not sending confirmation is appropriate. The auditor should issue an audit report with a qualified opinion if the applicable financial reporting framework such as IFRSs. The alternative audit procedures would normally include a physical count subsequent to year end and reconciliation to the balance at the end of the reporting period. In addition.e. the auditor should issue an audit report with a qualified or adverse opinion depending on the materiality of the matter. the auditor need not modify the opinion. Thus. A departure from the applicable financial reporting framework such as this one requires either an audit report with a qualified or an adverse opinion. This situation suggests that the client has determined that the uncertainty is probable but the amount of damages is not estimable. If the question had indicated that the accounts receivable balance was highly material. Since the auditor is satisfied about the inventory balance using alternative audit procedures. Therefore. requires including a statement of cash flows among the financial statements.18-11 Three bases for OCBOA financial statements are: • Regulatory basis. The auditor is not required to prepare the statement of cash flows for disclosure in the audit report.
f. the auditor should issue an audit report with a qualified or adverse opinion because the financial statements will not be in accordance with the financial reporting framework. Assuming that the error is properly accounted for by the client (including any required restatement of the prior year financial statements). you should issue an audit report with a qualified opinion or a disclaimer of opinion depending on the materiality of the matter. the auditor should include an other matters paragraph in the audit report describing the material inconsistence in the management’s report. This is a significant and unusual related party transaction that would require an audit report with an emphasis of matter paragraph (proposed ISA 706). The auditor may also have significant doubt about the entity’s ability to continue as a going-concern. which could result in the addition of an emphasis of matter paragraph to the audit opinion to disclose the going-concern issues. If the client refuses to make the adjustment to the loan-loss reserve.the client is not required by a financial reporting framework such as IFRSs to disclose the uncertainty in the financial statements. g. 4 . c. This is an early application of a new accounting standard that would require an audit report with an emphasis of matter paragraph (proposed ISA 706). Thus. you should issue a standard audit report with an unmodified opinion. d. If the auditor concludes that there is a going-concern problem and the client refuses to disclose the issue in the notes to the financial statements. e. b. If the information in the management’s report is not revised. A scope limitation exists because you have been unable to obtain reasonable assurance that all cash sales have been properly recorded. the auditor’s opinion will be adverse.
net income and earnings per share would be decreased by €75. and a summary of significant accounting policies and other explanatory notes. were audited by other auditors whose report dated 31 March 2006. whether due to fraud or error. and the income statements. Those standards require that we comply with ethical requirements and plan and perform the audit to obtain reasonable assurance whether the financial statements are free from material misstatement. and making accounting estimates that are reasonable in the circumstances. but not for the purpose of expressing an opinion on the effectiveness of the entity’s internal control. Basis for Qualified Opinion Devon Worldwide has excluded. An audit involves performing procedures to obtain audit evidence about the amounts and disclosures in the financial statements. property would be increased by €312.75. should be capitalized in accordance with International Financial Reporting Standards. from property and debt in the accompanying balance sheet.000 and €. including the assessment of the risks of material misstatement of the financial statements. In making those risk assessments. and retained earnings would be decreased by €75. as well as evaluating the overall presentation of the financial statements.000 as of 31 December 2006. certain lease obligations that. This responsibility includes: designing. statements of changes in equity and cash flow statements for the period ended 31 December 2006. selecting and applying appropriate accounting policies. An audit also includes evaluating the appropriateness of accounting policies used and the reasonableness of accounting estimates made by management. and for the year then ended. Auditor’s Responsibility Our responsibility is to express an opinion on these financial statements based on our audit. If these lease obligations were capitalized. in our opinion. which comprise the balance sheet as at 31 December 2006. Management’s Responsibility for the Financial Statements Management is responsible for the preparation and fair presentation of these financial statements in accordance with International Financial Reporting Standards. implementing and maintaining internal control relevant to the preparation and fair presentation of financial statements that are free from material misstatement. for the year then ended. respectively. Additionally.000. 5 . whether due to fraud or error. the auditor considers internal control relevant to the entity’s preparation and fair presentation of the financial statements in order to design audit procedures that are appropriate in the circumstances. We believe that the audit evidence we have obtained is sufficient and appropriate to provide a basis for our audit opinion. We conducted our audit in accordance with International Standards on Auditing. expressed an unmodified opinion on these statements.000 and long-term debt by €387.18-14 INDEPENDENT AUDITOR’S REPORT To the Shareholders of Devon Worldwide We have audited the accompanying financial statements of Devon Worldwide. The procedures selected depend on the auditor’s judgment. The financial statements of Devon Worldwide as of 31 December 2005.
Qualified Opinion In our opinion, except for the possible effects of the matter described in the Basis for Qualified Opinion paragraph, the financial statements present fairly, in all material respects, the financial position of Devon Worldwide as of 31 December 2006, and of its financial performance and its cash flows for the year then ended in accordance with International Financial Reporting Standards. Rao Rao, Independent Auditor 28 February 2007 PO Box xxx City 18-15 INDEPENDENT AUDITOR’S REPORT To the Board of Trustees of Modern Museum We have audited the accompanying statements of assets, liabilities, and fund balances arising from modified cash transactions of Modern Museum as of 31 December 2006 and 2005, and the related statements of support, revenue, and expenses and changes in fund balances modified cash basis and changes in financial resources-modified cash basis for the years then ended. Management’s Responsibility for the Financial Statements Management is responsible for the preparation and fair presentation on a modified cash basis. This responsibility includes: designing, implementing and maintaining internal control relevant to the preparation and fair presentation of financial statements that are free from material misstatement, whether due to fraud or error; selecting and applying appropriate accounting policies; and making accounting estimates that are reasonable in the circumstances.
Auditor’s Responsibility Our responsibility is to express an opinion on these financial statements based on our audit. We conducted our audit in accordance with International Standards on Auditing. Those standards require that we comply with ethical requirements and plan and perform the audit to obtain reasonable assurance whether the financial statements are free from material misstatement. An audit involves performing procedures to obtain audit evidence about the amounts and disclosures in the financial statements. The procedures selected depend on the auditor’s judgment, including the assessment of the risks of material misstatement of the financial statements, whether due to fraud or error. In making those risk assessments, the auditor considers internal control relevant to the entity’s preparation and fair presentation of the financial statements in order to design audit procedures that are appropriate in the circumstances, but not for the purpose of expressing an opinion on the effectiveness of the entity’s internal control. An audit also includes evaluating the appropriateness of accounting policies used and the reasonableness of accounting estimates made by management, as well as evaluating the overall presentation of the financial statements. We believe that the audit evidence we have obtained is sufficient and appropriate to provide a basis for our audit opinion. As described in Note X, these financial statements were prepared on the basis of modified cash receipts and disbursements. Opinion In our opinion, the financial statements present fairly, in all material respects, the assets, liabilities, and fund balances arising from modified cash transactions of Modern Museum at 31 December 2006 and 2005, and its support, revenue, and expenses and the changes in its fund balances and changes in financial resources for the years then ended, on a modified cash basis of accounting as described in Note X. Brown & Brown Brown Brown, Independent Auditor 12 March 2007 PO Box xxx City 18-16 INDEPENDENT AUDITOR’S REPORT To the Board of Directors of Kim Company We have audited the accompanying financial statements of Kim Company, which comprise the balance sheet as at 31 December 2006 and 2005, and the income statements, statements of changes in equity and cash flow statements for the years then ended, and a summary of significant accounting policies and other explanatory notes. Management’s Responsibility for the Financial Statements Management is responsible for the preparation and fair presentation of these financial statements in accordance with International Financial Reporting Standards. This responsibility includes: designing, implementing and maintaining internal control relevant to the preparation and fair presentation of financial statements that are free from material misstatement, whether 7
due to fraud or error; selecting and applying appropriate accounting policies; and making accounting estimates that are reasonable in the circumstances. Auditor’s Responsibility Our responsibility is to express an opinion on these financial statements based on our audit. Except for the matter described in the Basis for Qualified Opinion paragraph, we conducted our audit in accordance with International Standards on Auditing. Those standards require that we comply with ethical requirements and plan and perform the audit to obtain reasonable assurance whether the financial statements are free from material misstatement. An audit involves performing procedures to obtain audit evidence about the amounts and disclosures in the financial statements. The procedures selected depend on the auditor’s judgment, including the assessment of the risks of material misstatement of the financial statements, whether due to fraud or error. In making those risk assessments, the auditor considers internal control relevant to the entity’s preparation and fair presentation of the financial statements in order to design audit procedures that are appropriate in the circumstances, but not for the purpose of expressing an opinion on the effectiveness of the entity’s internal control. An audit also includes evaluating the appropriateness of accounting policies used and the reasonableness of accounting estimates made by management, as well as evaluating the overall presentation of the financial statements. We believe that the audit evidence we have obtained is sufficient and appropriate to provide a basis for our audit opinion. Basis for Qualified Opinion We did not observe the counting of the physical inventory as of 31 December 2004, since that date was prior to the time we were engaged as auditors for the Company, and we were unable to satisfy ourselves regarding inventory quantities by means of other auditing procedures. Inventory amounts as of 31 December 2004 enter into the determination of net income and cash flows for the year ended 31 December 2004. Because of the matter discussed in the preceding paragraph, the scope of our work was not sufficient to enable us to express, and we do not express, an opinion on the results of operations and cash flows for the year ended 31 December 2005. Opinion In our opinion the financial statements present fairly, in all material respects, the financial position of Kim Company as of 31 December 2006 and 2005, and of its financial performance and its cash flows for the year ended 31 December 2006 in accordance with International Financial Reporting Standards. Friday & Co. Friday Friday, Independent Auditor 11 March 2007 PO Box xxx City
Solution to Discussion Case 18-17 a. International Accounting Standard 1 ‘Presentation of Financial Statements’ requires management to make an assessment of an enterprise’s ability to continue as a 8
those uncertainties shall be disclosed. that the burden of proof has shifted. such as the following: • Negative trends. the auditor should consider how management plans to overcome the adverse effects of the conditions and events. 9 . or has no realistic alternative but to do so. When management is aware. The auditor needs to evaluate whether the conditions and events that caused the auditor to use an emphasis of matter paragraph in the report for a going-concern uncertainty continue to exist or whether the auditor can be satisfied that there has been sufficient improvement in Paper Packaging’s financial condition that there is no longer a significant doubt about the company’s ability to continue as a going-concern. • Plans to reduce or delay expenditures. management takes into account all available information about the future. • The company settled all outstanding legal actions in 2006.going-concern. and to consider whether there are material uncertainties about the entity’s ability to continue as a goingconcern that need to be disclosed in the financial statements. • Plans to borrow money or restructure debt. the auditor must consider how successful management has been in overcoming the conditions that existed at 31 March 2005. In making the determination of whether to use an emphasis of matter paragraph. The auditor should consider the following: • Plans to dispose of assets. of material uncertainties related to events or conditions that may cast significant doubt upon the entity’s ability to continue as a going-concern. • Other indications of possible financial difficulties. In this case the following positive events have occurred since the 31 March 2005. • Internal matters. In this case the auditor knows that for the year ended 31 March 2005. In performing audit procedures throughout the audit the auditor remains alert for audit evidence of events or conditions and related business risks which may cast significant doubt on the entity’s ability to continue as a going-concern. c. Financial statements shall be prepared on a going-concern basis unless management either intends to liquidate the entity or to cease trading. which is at least. but is not limited to. In assessing whether the going-concern assumption is appropriate. b. then. twelve months from the balance sheet date. requires no repayment of principal during the first two years. and provides for 8 per cent annual interest for the term of the agreement. Auditing standards (ISA 570) require the auditor to consider the appropriateness of management’s use of the going-concern assumption in the preparation of the financial statements. • Plans to increase ownership equity. That agreement has a ten-year term. in making its assessment. • The arbitration proceedings were resolved in 2006. Auditing standards provide guidance to the auditor for evaluating an entity’s ability to continue as a going-concern. Once conditions or events that may indicate a going-concern problem have been identified. year-end: • The company has renegotiated its 2000 credit agreement. It appears. • External matters that have occurred. the previous auditor had determined that there was significant doubt about Paper Packaging’s ability to continue as a going-concern and consequently the auditor’s report included an emphasis of matter paragraph discussing the going-concern uncertainty.
2 million in the upcoming fiscal year. there are some positive trends that should be considered. For example.5 million at year-end and expects to generate a net cash flow of €3.Most of the company’s tax issues have been resolved. despite the fact that most of the adverse conditions that existed at the 2005 year-end have been resolved favorably. the company continues to be in default on €4.5 million. there may be sufficient grounds for including an emphasis of matter paragraph for a going-concern uncertainty in the report on the 31 March 2006. at 31 March 2006. Based on that fact alone.6 million of the debentures due in 2005. Further. • 10 . and those still pending are expected to result in a cash inflow to the company. the company had a cash balance of €5. Paper Packaging’s plan for 2007 indicates that the company expects its earnings before income taxes to be €1. On the other hand. Nevertheless.
The effectiveness of the traditional detailed rules approach to regulation of independence had come into question. Stage V: The individual views social contracts and mutual obligations as important. Utilitarian theory recognizes that decision-making involves trade-offs between the benefits and burdens of alternative actions. and the literature hade assigned to independence. 1 . 19-2 The six stages of ethical development are: Stage I: The individual’s actions are judged in terms of their physical consequences. INDEPENDENCE AND QUALITY CONTROL Answers to Review Questions 19-1 The three theories of ethical behaviour are (1) utilitarianism. The theory of justice is concerned with issues such as equity. Differences in conflict situations are resolved impartially and with consideration of everyone’s interests. Stage II: The individual is aware of others' needs. Such framework would serve as a foundation for the regulators to develop independence rules and assist other independence decision makers such as audit firms and auditors in analyzing and reaching conclusions about what is acceptable behaviour in the absence of specific authoritative rules. and (3) justice-based approach. Stage VI: The individual bases actions on universal moral and ethical principles (such as justice. Thus. and conflicts are resolved through the use of these norms. but this depends on career stage and other factors. The other’s view of the situation is considered. a decision maker who follows a theory of rights should undertake an action only if it does not violate the rights of any individual. such as avoidance of punishment. and dignity) that apply to all individuals and groups. Thus. but satisfaction of the individual’s own needs is the basic motivation for action. Stage III: The individual attempts to conform to group norms. (2) rights-based approach. Hopefully future accounting professionals will operate at higher stages! 19-3 In the 1990s regulators as well as the profession felt a need to clarify the varied and often inconsistent meanings the profession. The individual uses the laws and rules for guidance in conflict situations. Decisions made within this theory should lead to a fair and equitable distribution of resources among those individuals or groups affected. The theory proposes that the interests of all parties affected.CHAPTER 19 PROFESSIONAL ETHICS. Stage IV: The individual is concerned about order in society and its rules. and it focuses on the consequences of an action on the individuals affected. • Evaluate the significance of the threats. The theory of rights assumes that individuals have certain rights and other individuals have a duty to respect those rights. both the profession and regulators were in search of an articulated. not just one’s self-interest. 19-4 The four key steps are: • Identify threats to independence. equality. and robust operational framework for resolving independence issues. fairness and impartiality. regulators. wellreasoned. Research indicates that auditors typically operate at stages III and IV in making professional ethics judgments. and start mapping out an approach to independence issues from here. should be considered.
A professional accountant should not allow bias. Confidentiality. 19-9 One circumstance may be associated with more than one category of threat. for example • Production of documents or other provision of evidence in the course of legal proceedings. A professional accountant should act diligently and in accordance with applicable technical and professional standards when providing professional services. conflict of interest. or undue influence of others to override professional or business judgments. Apply appropriate safeguards to bring independence risk to an acceptable low level. 2 . • To comply with technical standards and ethics requirements. • To comply with the quality review of a member body or professional body. A professional accountant should respect the confidentiality of information acquired as a result of professional and business relationships and should not disclose any such information to third parties without proper and specific authority unless there is a legal or professional right or duty to disclose. • To protect the professional interests of a professional accountant in legal proceedings. or eliminate the activity or relationship creating the threats. (2) make exaggerated claims for the qualifications they possess or experience they have gained. • Disclosure to the appropriate public authorities of infringements of the law that come to light. Confidential information acquired as a result of professional and business relationships should not be used for the personal advantage of the professional accountant or third parties. 19-6 The five principles in The IFAC Code of Ethics are: Integrity. • There is a professional duty or right to disclose. A professional accountant has a continuing duty to maintain professional knowledge and skill at the level required to ensure that a client or employer receives competent professional service based on current developments in practice. A professional accountant should be straightforward and honest in all professional and business relationships. legislation and techniques. 19-7 Circumstances in which confidential client information can be disclosed under the IFAC Code of Ethics without the client’s permission: • Disclosure is required by law. A professional accountant should comply with relevant laws and regulations and should avoid any action that discredits the profession. Objectivity. Professional competence and due care. • To respond to an inquiry or investigation by a member body or regulatory body. or (3) make disparaging references or unsubstantiated comparisons to the work of others. when not prohibited by law. Professional behaviour. 19-8 The Code states that professional accountants should not (1) make exaggerated claims for the services they are able to offer. 19-5 Independence affects auditor objectivity because independence means absence of interests that may compromise objectivity.• • Identify and evaluate the effectiveness of existing and potential safeguards against the threats. or do not accept or terminate the assurance engagement.
• Consult an independent third party. • Provision of IT system services to the client. Examples of self-review threats and applicable safeguards • Temporary staff assignments to a client.Examples of self-interest threats and applicable safeguards • A team member has a financial interest in the client. 3 . • Ascertain that members of the team are not involved in providing the legal service. Examples of familiarity threats and applicable safeguards • Using the same senior personnel on the engagement over a long period of time. such as an audit committee. • Consult an independent third party. • Auditor is assisting the client in resolving a tax dispute. • Disclose to those charged with governance the extent and nature of the fee charged. • Restrict the member’s responsibilities on the engagement. • Disclose to those charged with governance the extent and nature of the financial interest. • Engagement quality control review. a professional regulatory body or another professional accountant. provided it has been drawn up using criteria specified by the client. • A contingent fee charged by a firm for a non-assurance service provided to a client. • Restrict the services to produce a short-list of candidates for interview. a professional regulatory body or another professional accountant. • Ascertain that the client makes all management decisions with respect to the design and implementation process. • Potential employment of team member to a client. • Preparing accounting records for the client. • Ascertain that all underlying assumptions are originated and approved by the client. • Restrict the services to review the professional qualifications of applicants and provide advice on their suitability for the post. • Recruiting client senior management. • A member of the engagement team has a family relationship with client personnel. such as an audit committee. • Dispose part of or the complete financial interest. • Restrict the involvement to accounting services of routine and mechanical nature. • Ascertain that the client evaluates the adequacy and results of the design and implementation of the system Examples of advocacy threats and applicable safeguards • Provision of legal services to the client. • Disclose to those charged with governance the extent and nature of the temporary staff assignment. • Rotate senior personnel on the engagement. • Review of the final fee by an unrelated third party. • Remove the member from the team. • Ascertain that the staff providing the assistance is not given audit responsibility for any function or activity that they performed or supervised during their temporary staff assignment. • Restrict the nature of the involvement.
Examples of intimidation threats and applicable safeguards • The client threatens the auditor with litigation.• Reduce the member’s responsibilities on the team. 4 . • Discuss the issue with those charged with governance. • Obtaining the audit client’s acknowledgement of responsibility for the results of the work performed by the firm. • Confirming with the audit client their understanding of the underlying assumptions of the valuation and the methodology to be used and obtaining approval for their use. • Making arrangements so that personnel providing such services do not participate in the audit engagement. • A business relationship exists between a member of the engagement team and client personnel.. nor in the aggregate. • Involve an additional professional accountant to review the work done. • Providing structuring advice and assisting the client in analyzing the accounting effects of proposed transactions. 19-11 Providing valuation services to the audit client may be acceptable if the valuation services are neither separately. Applicable safeguards are: • Involving an additional professional accountant who was not a member of the audit team to review the work done or otherwise advise as necessary. This includes home mortgages. material to the financial statements. 19-10 Loans from banks and similar institutions to a member of the assurance team or their immediate family made under normal commercial terms are acceptable under certain conditions. • Disclose to those charged with governance the extent and nature of the threatened litigation. Only immaterial loans are acceptable if the provider of the loan is not a bank or similar institution. • Involve an additional professional accountant in the firm who was not a member of the team to review the work done. • Involve an additional professional accountant to review the work done by the member. • A member of the engagement team has served with the client. • Discuss the issue with those charged with governance. and using professionals who are not members of the assurance team to provide the services. • Reduce the member’s responsibilities on the team. • Assisting an audit client in identifying or introducing the client to possible sources of capital that meet the client specifications or criteria. • Remove the member from the team. Safeguards include implementing policies and procedures to prohibit individuals assisting the client from making managerial decisions on behalf of the client. • An audit firm is threatened with replacement over a disagreement about an auditee’s application of an accounting principle. car loans and credit card balances under normal lending terms. 19-12 Acceptable corporate finance services to an audit client are: • Assisting the client in developing corporate strategies. or that do not involve a significant degree of subjectivity. • Reduce the magnitude of the business relationship. bank overdrafts.
• At least annually. • Acceptance and continuance of client relationships and specific engagements. • The firm’s policies and procedures emphasize the fundamental principles. • The firm communicates to relevant engagement partners and other appropriate personnel deficiencies noted as a result of the monitoring process and recommendations for appropriate remedial action. • On withdrawal from an engagement document significant issues. 19-14 Variety exists among countries in the structure of quality assurance programmes for inspecting and reviewing audit firms’ practices. • The firm provides the necessary training resources and assistance to enable personnel to develop and maintain the required capabilities and competence. conclusions. consultations. • The firm’s chief executive officer assumes ultimate responsibility for the firm’s system of quality control. • Consider the identity and business reputation of the client’s principal owners. (See also Internet Assignment 19-24. the firm communicates the results of the monitoring of its quality control system to engagement partners and other appropriate individuals within the firm. most programmes will inform about their structure and report to the public outcomes of reviews and sanctions imposed. and other assurance and related services engagements comprise Parts A and B of the IFAC Code together with national requirements that are more restrictive. and the basis for the conclusions. • Human resources. however. Thus.) 5 . and those charged with its governance. b) education and training. • Management responsibilities are assigned so that commercial considerations do not override the quality of work performed. foster a more common structure. • All audits of financial statements of listed entities require an engagement quality control review. among other things. You could search for information on the quality assurance programmes in the relevant country by approaching the relevant national accountancy body or regulatory body. An effective quality assurance programmes should be transparent. Elements of the quality control system and related policy or procedures are: • Leadership responsibilities for quality within the firm. • Ethical requirements relating to audits and reviews of historical financial information. which are reinforced in particular by a) the leadership of the firm. IFAC SMO 1 and EU minimum requirements. related parties.19-13 The purpose of establishing a system of quality control is to monitor the firms’ practices and ensure that professional standards are being followed. including the firm’s chief executive officer. • The advancement to positions of greater responsibility within the firm depends. and d) a process for dealing with non-compliance. key management. • Engagement performance. upon performance quality and adherence to ethical principles. • Ethical requirements. • Supervision of engagements includes identifying matters for consultation or consideration by more experienced engagement team members during the engagement. • Monitoring. c) monitoring.
provision of tax-planning advice is allowed by IFAC independence rules. Consideration should also be given to whether the non-assurance services should be provided only by personnel not involved in the audit engagement and with different reporting lines within the firm. The Code implies that the firm can only be involved in the design and implementations of an automated accounting system if some specific conditions are met (see page 609). Assisting the client to develop projections and/or forecasts for the company’s new products and other non-assurance work would be strictly limited by the principles of not performing a management function. No. • Developing an automated accounting system. not auditing one’s own work. take care not to assume audit client responsibility or make management decisions.Solutions to Problems 19-15 Wareham may identify the following areas as being potential avenues for non-assurance services. The audit firm should not assume management accounting system functions and make management decisions. regular communications between the firm and the audit committee or other governance body regarding independence issues related to the provision of the non-assurance services should take place. however. For example. Independence may not be impaired if the service (1) is an extension of the firm’s audit service conducted in accordance with the ISAs or (2) assistance in the performance of an audit client’s internal audit activities or undertaking the outsourcing of some of the activities. b. be given to whether the provision of such advices would create a threat to independence. and not performing an advocacy role. the auditor can review the professional qualifications of the applicants and provide advice on their suitability. a. The firm should not assume audit client responsibility for internal audit activities and management decisions. The IFAC Code allows an auditor to provide such advisory services to an audit client. given certain specific conditions are met (see pages 608-609). Independence would be not considered impaired because the auditor’s role is advisory in nature. The auditor should. Consideration should. 19-16 The auditor and audit firm should in all situations apply the threat and safeguard approach inherent in the conceptual framework. Generally. 6 . The auditor should also adhere to guidance and comply with the specific provisions in the IFAC Code of Ethics. • Providing tax-planning advice. Because the client is a listed company. No. If the service from the firm involves either the design or the implementation of an accounting system. The auditor should limit his or her supervisory activities to initial instruction and training of personnel and avoid direct supervision of the actual operation of the system or related activities that would constitute undue involvement in with management functions. however. • Developing projections and/or forecasts for the company’s new products. The auditor’s independence is not impaired under these circumstances provided the client makes all significant management decisions related to the hiring of new personnel and the design and implementation of the system. • Provision of the internal audit services. appropriate safeguards should be applied.
This would be a violation of the Code because McDermott’s employer is the source of the revenues for the entities being audited. a parent) has a direct financial interest in an enterprise of which the auditor is participating in the engagement. b. This is an example of conflict in the application of fundamental principles. Yes. Yes. integrity/professional behaviour and confidentiality. b. e. However. Yes. Yes. Yes. Shares in a blind trust would be considered an indirect financial interest. 19-17 a. such as regulators. 7 . Independence under the Code is impaired because a member has a direct financial interest in a client during the period of the audit engagement. Yes No Yes Yes 19-18 a. If a member in industry uses confidential information obtained from an employer for his or her personal benefit. Independence under the Code is impaired because the note for unpaid fees might be regarded as equivalent to a loan prohibited from the member to the client. d. the accountant should consult his lawyer prior to any disclosure. Interpretation of the Code indicates that an auditor’s independence would be considered impaired if a close relative (e. A close business relationship between the auditor and the audit client may cause self-interest or intimidation threats. Yes. The Code states that auditor would not be independent unless the common financial interest is immaterial and the relationship is clearly insignificant to the client and/or the auditor. No safeguards would reduce the threats created by the joint purchase of the auditor and client to an acceptable level. whichever is later. No. Interpretation of the principles and the Code’s guidance on resolution of conflicts between principles indicate that the professional accountant in business should communicate the problem to third parties. c. Yes.c. d. (In a blind trust a fiduciary third party has complete management discretion. f. Yes.) Thus. The Code states that the auditor should not have a direct financial interest or a material indirect financial interest in the audit client. disclosure of the information is considered an act discreditable to the principle of confidentiality. d. Signing such a letter would be a known misrepresentation of fact in violation of the Code’s principle of professional behaviour as well as the principle of professional competence and due care. For recurring engagement the period of the engagement ends with the notification by either party that the professional relationship has terminated or the issuance of the final audit report.g. g. c. the independence of the auditor would be considered impaired whether or not the financial interest is placed in a blind trust.
it would not be unethical to use such information in determining the fair value of the loan owed to Sun City Bank. The Baptist Foundation of Arizona. b. • Train personnel. Savage should be able to define the tasks and evaluate the end product. Services that Savage may not perform: • Hire new personnel. Part B of the Code applies to professional accountants in public practice. If Johnson had obtained the information about the possible violations of environmental laws from appropriate sources. Services that Savage may perform: • Counsel on potential expansion plans. Part A of the IFAC Code of Ethics applies to all professional accountants who are members of an IFAC body. (b) the scope.e. The auditor has an obligation to use such information in assessing the entity’s ability to repay the loan. professionalism. Savage must be qualified to supervise and evaluate the work of specialist employees. Andersen’s fate was essentially sealed long before the firm was convicted on obstruction of justice charges. and (g) the fee. • Monitor client-prepared source documents and make changes in basic ITgenerated data without the concurrence of the client. (e) the manner in which results are to be communicated. c. Johnson & Associates audited one of the entities that received one of the large loans. Yes. its most important operating asset. No IFAC member body or firm is allowed to apply less stringent standards than those stated in the Code unless prohibited by law or regulation. The other auditor shall not disclose any confidential client information without the specific consent of the client. resulting in the loss of its clients. While Kmart could file for bankruptcy and reorganize its business. and integrity. 19-22 a. Solutions to Discussion Cases 19-20 a. Waste Management. Although supervision does not require that Savage be qualified to perform each of the specialists’ tasks. 8 . • Search for and interview new personnel. The accountant’s negligence makes or permits another to make false and misleading entries in the financial statements. (c) the approach. it would not be appropriate for Johnson to seek financial information about that entity from the other auditors in his firm. could not be repaired. The significant matters related to an engagement generally include (a) the engagement’s objectives. while Part C applies to professional accountants in business. Their reputation was damaged prior to the Enron scandal by a string of questionable practices and audit failures (involving Sunbeam. but Arthur Andersen’s primary asset was a reputation for competence. Andersen’s loss of reputation. 19-19 a. This would be a violation of the principles of professional behaviour and competence and due care. • Supervise the operation of the system. b. If Pina. (d) the role of all personnel. 19-21 Kmart has physical assets and trades in physical goods. (f) the timetable. and others) and was finished off by the Enron scandal and indictment.
This situation is not discussed in the Code. d. The Code advices on factors affecting the significance of the threats and possible safeguards in these situations.b. no violation has been committed. No violation of the Code exists as long as all of the services are performed in accordance with the Code’s independence rules and safeguards are applied to bring any self-interest threats to an acceptable level. for which another engagement partner was responsible. Generally the firm cannot continue an engagement if a former engagement partner of an audit client that is a listed entity had joined the client before an audited financial statement. If the appraisal service were performed on behalf of the client. a. 19-23 The auditor and audit firm should in all situations apply the threat and safeguard approach inherent in the conceptual framework. The Code advices on factors affecting the significance of the threats and relevant applicable safeguards in this situation. respectively. then this would violate the Code’s independence standards. had been filed. Some practitioners believe that the Code of Ethics should be applied the same to all professional accountants. A self-interest threat is created when the total fees generated by an audit client represent a large proportion of a firm’s total fees or of the revenue of an individual partner. IFAC has settled on a between position. e. while other parts are directed towards those in public practice and business. i. As long as Janay is not providing the appraisal service for the client. A self-review threat is present if Greg audits his own work in regards to the subsidiary when participating in the audit for the parent company. The auditor should also adhere to guidance and comply with the specific provisions in the IFAC Code of Ethics. This. (2) any amount owed to Adrian is not be of such significance to threaten the firm’s independence and (3) Adrian does not continue to participate or appear to participate in the firm’s business or professional activities. typically on a website of the body that does the quality control inspections. of course. No independence provisions of the Code are violated unless (1) Adrian is entitled to any benefits or payments from the firm other than those made in accordance with fixed pre-determined arrangements. b.e. This is situation where a member of the audit team of the firm has joined the audit client. c. independence is not impaired. This provision of the Code does not apply in Susana’s situation. is a judgment question. (Refer to Review Question 19-14. Compensating an audit partner on an audit team for selling non-assurance services to the audit client may also create a self-interest threat. For listed entities the Code prescribes that there should be regular communications between the firm and the audit committee (or other governance body if there is no audit committee) regarding relationships and other matters that might.) 9 . but only as part of the audit to verify the valuation assertion. information about the structure of the programmes will normally be accessible. while other do not. Internet Assignment 19-24 An effective quality assurance programme should be transparent. Thus. in the firm’s opinion. a part of the Code applies to all professional accountants. and not strictly for the purposes of verifying the client’s estimates for audit purposes. reasonably be thought to bear on independence.
The responsible party is the person responsible for the subject matter (or subject matter information). neutral and understandable. RELATED SERVICES AND INTERNAL AUDITING SERVICES Answers to Review Questions 20-1 The Elliott Committee defines assurance services as independent professional services that improve the quality of information. 20-4 The assurance levels of IAASB assurance engagement standards are either reasonable assurance or limited assurance. reliable. To be suitable criteria have to be relevant. ISAEs are applied in assurance engagements dealing with subject matters and subject matters information other than historical financial information such as assurance of prospective financial information and sustainability information. for decision makers.e. and (2) can be subjected to procedures for gathering sufficient appropriate evidence to support a reasonable assurance or limited assurance conclusion. ISRSs are applied to compilation engagements and engagements to apply agreed upon procedures to information. Reasonable assurance means that the engagement assurance risk is reduced to an acceptably low level in the circumstances of the engagement. or its context.) Criteria are the benchmarks used to evaluate or measure the subject matter. i. ordinarily in the form of financial statements. ISREs are applied to reviews of historical financial information such as a review of interim financial statements. information that is the representation of management without undertaking to express any assurance on the information. 20-2 IAASB engagement standards are either within the scope of the IAASB framework for assurance engagements or are related services standards (ISRSs). In a limited 1 . An assurance service engagement can aid the decision maker in searching through the available information in order to identify which pieces of information are relevant for the required decision and in improving the quality of the information or its context. A practitioner refers to a professional accountant in public practice. The subject matter is the underlying phenomenon that is measured or evaluated. (The subject matter information means the outcome of the evaluation or measurement of a subject matter.CHAPTER 20 ASSURANCE. complete. The definition focuses on decision-making because good decision-making requires quality information that can be financial or non-financial. Related services are not considered assurance services. 20-3 An assurance engagement means an engagement in which a practitioner expresses a conclusion designed to enhance the degree of confidence of the intended users other than the responsible party about the outcome of the evaluation or measurement of a subject matter against criteria. A subject matter is appropriate if (1) it is identifiable and capable of consistent evaluation or measurement against the identified criteria. An agreed-upon procedures engagement is one in which a auditor is engaged by a client to issue a report of findings based on specific procedures performed on financial information. International Standards on Review Engagements (ISREs) or International Standards on Assurance Engagements (ISAEs). An assurance service engagement can also improve quality through increasing confidence in the information’s reliability and relevance. ISAs are applied to audits of historical financial information such as a financial statement audit. without expressing any assurance. The intended users are persons for whom the practitioner prepares the assurance report. Assurance standards are International Standards on Auditing (ISAs). In a compilation engagement the auditor is presenting.
internal control) and behaviour (e. based on the criteria.assurance engagement the risk is greater than for a reasonable assurance engagement. Financial forecasts are prospective financial information that presents an entity’s expectation on the information (e.g. timing and extent of procedures for gathering sufficient appropriate evidence in a limited assurance engagement are deliberately limited relative to a reasonable assurance engagement. essential procedures and report in an assurance engagement where the subject matter information is not historical financial information does not differ fundamentally from those in an audit. ordinarily the auditor of the entity. A reasonable assurance engagement report includes a positive form of expression of the conclusion. in all material respects. 20-9 Prospective financial information is either financial forecasts or financial projections. 20-7 ISAE 3000 is an ‘umbrella’ standard for assurance engagement other than audits or reviews of historical financial information.g. In a limited assurance engagement. 20-6 An audit of financial statements is an assurance engagement and financial statements are historical financial information. Stakeholders need information on the environmental.g.g.g. In other situations the practitioner. social and economic impact of companies’ activities that is reliable. e.g. based on the criteria.g. expected financial position. the financial position of the entity …. in an unmodified conclusion on a subject matter the practitioner states that based on his or her work nothing has come to the attention that causes the practitioner to believe that the responsible party’s assertion about the subject matter is not. social and economic performance. systems and processes (e. key performance indicators of efficiency and effectiveness. This explains why the nature of the basic principles. results of operations and cash flows). compliance with laws and regulations). in an unmodified conclusion on a subject matter the practitioner states that in his or her opinion the responsible party’s assertion about the subject matter is. the practitioner expresses the conclusion in a negative form. in all material respects. but at least sufficient for the practitioner to obtain a meaningful level of limited assurance. The practitioner should also obtain sufficient appropriate evidence that the expert’s work is adequate for the purposes of the assurance engagement.g. nothing has come to our attention that causes us to believe that the accompanying financial information does not present fairly. or sustainability reporting). The practitioner reduces assurance engagement risk by gathering evidence. may request a review report of the financial statements. e. e. but still acceptable in the circumstances of the engagement. Financial projections are prospective financial information 2 .’. Historical financial information is to one of several types of subject matter information. historical or prospective financial information). The nature. This includes assurance services related financial performance (e. The practitioner should be involved in the engagement and understand the work of the expert to an extent that is sufficient to enable the practitioner to accept responsibility for the conclusion on the subject matter information. The standard provides basic principles and essential procedures that could be used for on a broad range of assurance services. ‘Based on our review. may be asked to review the entity’s interim financial information. The assurance level in a review report is expressed in the negative form. non-financial performance (e. 20-8 Sustainability reporting includes information on companies’ environmental. 20-5 Entities that are not required to have their financial statements audited. They are based on assumptions reflecting conditions the responsible party expects to exist and the course of action it expects to take. in all material respects.
disclosed. transaction integrity and information protection. The internal auditing function can help management and the board identify and manage risk. and regulations. • Be familiar with the accounting principles and practices of the industry in which the entity operates.. used. 20-11 In an agreed-upon procedures engagement no assurance is expressed since the practitioner simply provides a report of factual findings based on the agreed procedures performed on financial information.. if reporting responsibilities are properly defined. and performing financial and operational auditing. These assumptions may not reflect the most likely or expected conditions. accurate.?’ A financial projection is sometimes prepared to present one or more hypothetical courses of action for evaluation. timely and authorized. Financial forecasts are expectations. 20-13 An organization’s internal audit function is used by management and the board of directors in the broad areas of evaluating risks. Additionally. rules. classify. and help ensure the compliance of the organization with applicable laws. and retained as committed or agreed. to collect. In addition. while forecasts can also be generally distributed. • Processing Integrity: System processing is complete. • Online Privacy: Personal information obtained as a result of e-commerce is collected. and summarize financial information. • Availability: The system is available for operation and use as committed or agreed. 20-12 In a compilation engagement the practitioner uses his or her accounting expertise. Solutions to Problems 20-14 a. financial projections can be used only for limited distribution to specified parties. • Confidentiality: Information designated as confidential is protected as committed or agreed. A review consists primarily of applying analytical procedures and making inquiries of members of management responsible for financial and accounting matters. 20-10 There are three broad categories of risks associated with electronic commerce: business practices. The practitioner should obtain the following knowledge about the entity: • General knowledge of the business and operations of the entity.based on one or more hypothetical assumptions about future events and the responsible party’s actions. as opposed to auditing expertise. evaluating compliance. • Be familiar with the form and content of the financial information that is appropriate in the circumstances. 3 . The primary difference between the two is that the financial projection is based on hypothetical assumptions and is intended to respond to a question such as ‘What would happen if. the internal audit function can assist the board in ensuring that executive management is exercising responsible and appropriate stewardship over the entity’s resources for the benefit of the entity’s stakeholders. Trust Services are built on five principles: • Security: The system is protected against unauthorized access (both physical and logical).
that Eastern Star Bank (ESB) maintained effective internal control over financial reporting as of 31 December 2005 in accordance with control criteria included in the COSO internal control framework. Independent Report on Review of Interim Balance Sheet To the Shareholders of the Ajax Company Introduction We have reviewed the accompanying balance sheet of Ajax Company of 30 June. and performing such other procedures as we considered necessary in the circumstances. Our responsibility is to express a conclusion about ESB’s assertion. We believe that our assurance provides a reasonable basis for our conclusion. Fleisher & Schmidt. accordingly. This engagement was conducted in accordance with the International Standard for Assurance Engagement 3000 Assurance Engagements Other Than Audits or Reviews of Historical Financial Information. we do not express an audit opinion. Our responsibility is to express a conclusion on this interim balance sheet based on our review.b. A review is substantially less in scope than an audit conducted in accordance with International Standards on Auditing and consequently does not enable us to obtain assurance that we would become aware of all significant matters that might be identified in an audit. 2005 and a summary of significant accounting policies and other explanatory notes. Conclusion Based on our review. ESB’s management is responsible for maintaining effective internal control over financial reporting. testing and evaluating the design and operating effectiveness of internal control. Accordingly. Scope of Review We conducted our review in accordance with International Standard on Review Engagements 2410. or that the degree of compliance with the policies or procedures may deteriorate. Because of inherent limitations in any internal control. A review of interim financial information consists of making inquiries of persons responsible for financial and accounting matters and applying analytical and other review procedures. in all material respects. Independent Assurance Report To the Shareholders of Eastern Star Bank We have provided assurance on management’s assertion included in the accompanying management report on internal control. Review of Interim Financial Information Performed by the Independent Auditor of the Entity. 4 . misstatements due to errors or fraud may occur and not be detected. date and address 20-15 a. Also. included obtaining an understanding of the internal control over financial reporting. projections of any evaluation of the internal control over financial reporting to future periods are subject to the risk that internal control may become inadequate because of changes in conditions. and. nothing has come to our attention that causes us to believe that the accompanying interim balance sheet does not present fairly. Management is responsible for the preparation and presentation and of this interim balance sheet in accordance with International Financial Reporting Standards. the financial position of the entity as at 30 June 2005 in accordance with International Financial Reporting Standards.
If the practitioner becomes aware of material misstatements in Cheaney Rental Properties income statements. Auditor. consumers want to know that the entity behind the Web page is ‘real’. Consumers are reluctant to engage in electronic commerce for several reasons. availability. in all material respects. If such amendments are not made and the financial 5 . A material weakness is a condition that precludes the entity’s internal control system from providing reasonable assurance that material misstatements will be prevented or detected on a timely basis. or processed incorrectly. Auditor. the following material weakness exists in the design or operation of the internal control system of EBS in effect at 31 December 2005: EBS does not have adequate loan procedures for ensuring the adequacy of collateral for loans. c. In other words. in all material respects. date and address b. the consumer is concerned that private information will be stolen. [Standard introductory. based on control criteria included in the COSO internal control framework. In our opinion. and inherent limitations paragraphs. scope. lost. Four steps would be taken to complete the examination of management’s assertions: • Obtain an understanding of Rhett Corporation’s electronic commerce business practices and its controls over the processing of electronic commerce transactions and the protection of related private customer information.] As discussed in management’s assertion. 20-17 a. The process for providing WebTrust assurance is as follows: Rhett Corporation would have to meet all of the Trust Services Principles as measured by the relevant criteria. Your firm can provide assurances about Rhett Corporation’s security. and confidentiality by completing a WebTrust engagement. based on control criteria included in the COSO internal control framework. • Perform other procedures that are considered necessary. The seal is managed by a third party service organization. EBS maintained effective internal control over financial reporting as of 31 December 2005. Your firm would conduct an assurance engagement using guidance provided by ISAE 3000 Assurance Engagements Other Than Audits or Reviews of Historical Financial Information. processing integrity. • Test and evaluate the operating effectiveness of the controls. how can the consumer be sure that the entity follows good business practices and that they will not be defrauded? Second. This results in EBS failing to meet the control criteria for proper valuation. 2005. b. date and address 20-16 a. Lastly. except for the effect of the material weakness described in the preceding paragraph on the achievement of the objectives of the control criteria. duplicated. online privacy. EBS maintained effective internal control over financial reporting as of 31 December. Once the WebTrust seal is obtained. consumers are worried that electronic transactions will be changed.In our opinion. First. it is displayed on Rhett Corporation’s web site. • Selectively test transactions executed in accordance with the disclosed practices. the practitioner should try to agree appropriate amendments with the entity.
and can be subjected to procedures for gathering sufficient appropriate evidence to support an assurance conclusion. the income statement of Cheaney Rental Properties for the year 200X. in accordance with the International Standard on Related Services applicable to compilation engagements. the use of the assurance report (whether expressing reasonable or limited assurance) may be restricted to specified users. Auditor. The practitioner and the client must first agree on the assurance level of the engagement and on any restriction on the use of the assurance report. b. • The practitioner has access to sufficient appropriate evidence to support the practitioner’s conclusion. A practitioner may perform reasonable assurance or limited assurance engagement to evaluate an entity’s written assertion that it was in compliance with environmental laws and regulations. Further. Management is responsible for these financial statements. date and address Solution to Discussion Case 20-18 a. The practitioner should plan and perform an assurance engagement to obtain sufficient appropriate evidence about whether the entity’s written assertion was in compliance with environmental laws and regulations. as well as compliance with company policies and procedures. including independence and professional competence are satisfied. Independent Accountant’s Compilation Report To the Board of Directors of Cheaney Rental Properties On the basis of information provided by management we have compiled. • The compliance assertion is capable of consistent evaluation or measurement against the identified criteria. the practitioner should withdraw from the engagement. In a limited assurance engagement sufficient appropriate evidence is obtained as part of a systematic engagement process that includes obtaining an understanding of the subject matter and other engagement circumstances. In a reasonable assurance engagement sufficient appropriate evidence is obtained as part of a systematic engagement process that includes: • Obtaining an understanding of the specified compliance requirements by 6 . We have not audited or reviewed the income statement and accordingly express no assurance thereon. • The responsible party will provide the compliance assertion in writing to the practitioner. but in which procedures are deliberately limited relative to a reasonable assurance engagement (typically analytical procedures and inquiries of management). • The procedures to be applied to the compliance assertion are expected to result in reasonably consistent findings using the criteria. as well as compliance with company policies and procedures. Before accepting the engagement the practitioner should in addition ascertain that: • Relevant ethical requirements. • The environmental laws and regulations as well company policies and procedures are suitable as criteria.information is considered to be misleading.
• If control risk is to be assessed below the maximum. using a combination of inspection. where applicable. inspection of the entity’s documents. and observation of the entity’s activities and operations. (These three companies 2004 assurance reports are discussed in the following. obtaining corroborating information. • Knowledge about the specified compliance requirements obtained through discussions with appropriate individuals outside the entity (e. tests of the operating effectiveness of controls. Ernst & Young assures the sustainability reports of BP and Statoil. regulations. Philips and Statoil. (See also b.) Evaluating the sufficiency and appropriateness of evidence obtained. rules. supervisory. timing. confirmation. • Knowledge about the specified compliance requirements obtained through discussions with appropriate individuals within the entity (e. the practitioner would evaluate the effectiveness of the system as follows: • By obtaining an understanding of the relevant portions of the internal control system over compliance sufficient to plan the engagement and to assess control risk for compliance with specified requirements. • By obtaining an understanding of the design of specific internal controls by performing inquiries of appropriate management. On its home page Global Reporting Initiative (GRI) informs on organisational stakeholders that use the GRI Guidelines.) b. compliance officer. b. recalculation. A number of these stakeholders are companies that also have their sustainability reporting assured. and if reliance of internal controls are planned. including. including developing overall responses and determining the nature. or grant or contract administrators). below. while KPMG assures the sustainability report of Philips. Such further procedures involve substantive procedures. including BP. including published requirements. Based on that understanding. Responding to assessed risks. Solution to Internet Problems 20-19 a. by performing tests of controls to support the assessed level of control risk.g.• • • • considering the following: • Laws. legal counsel. internal auditors. • Knowledge about the specified compliance requirements obtained through prior engagements and regulatory reports. the chief financial officer. Performing further procedures clearly linked to the identified risks. assessing the risks that the subject matter information may be materially misstated. observation. a regulator or third-party specialist). If the entity maintained an internal control system which monitored the entity’s compliance with environmental laws and regulations. analytical procedures and inquiry. contracts and grants that pertain to the specified compliance requirements. 7 .g. and extent of further procedures. reperformance. and staff personnel.
20-20 a. SSL is a standard encryption protocol used on the Internet to provide a secure connection.’ This link provides information on the exam and suggests the following groups would benefit from the designation: • Chief audit executives. d. discussed in the preface to KPMG’s assurance report (‘Auditor policy’) and the IFAC Code of Ethics for Professional Accounts is referred to in their report. • Lays a foundation for continued career improvement and advancement. • Demonstrates your proficiency and commitment to professionalism. When a user clicks on the VeriSign seal they are referred to a validation page that confirms that the entity is a licensee of the VeriSign privacy program. click on the ‘Publications’ link. This page details the following five advantages of the CIA certification: • Distinguishes you from your peers. Bean uses the VeriSign SSL Certificate to secure customers’ private information. L. Lands’ End uses Secure Socket Layers (SSL) and L. The VeriSign seal is different from WebTrust. but we could not identify any form of third-party assurance on the companies’ Web sites as of December 2005. It should be noted that Timberland. b. • Managers who need to update their business knowledge to craft successful 8 . Ernst & Young assures the sustainability report of BP against AccountAbility’s AA1000 Assurance Standard. 20-21 a. In the title of its assurance report neither KPMG nor Ernst & Young include the phrase ‘independence’. From the home page. The VeriSign seal (and use of SSL) does not provide any assurances similar to those provided by WebTrust. • Audit managers and audit staff. Timberland. • Educators and students. On the same page is a link to ‘Certified Internal Auditor. As of 2005. Lands’ End and L. L. Following the ‘Internal Auditor’ link takes you to a page with a ‘mission’ link. and Land’s End all provide very detailed information on security and privacy issues. • Gives you personal satisfaction of achievement. Ernst & Young and KMPG use IAASB ISAE 3000 in their assurance of the sustainability reports of Statoil and Philips. The mission is stated as follows: ‘Our mission is to share information and practices and provide news analysis and commentary that internal audit practitioners and other interested professionals from around the world need to do their jobs in the modern organization. Ernst & Young refers to independence in the scope paragraph of their assurance report. click on the ‘Certification’ link. however. VeriSign Inc. The basic elements of an assurance report as required by ISAE 3000 are listed on page 641.’ b. Bean all sell products over the Internet. Independence is. Comparing the content of the assurance reports of Ernst & Young (Statoil) and KMPG (Philips) reveals that the reports generally include the basic elements of reporting according to ISAE 3000.c. operates the VeriSign SSL Certificate services that enable and protect interactions across data networks. L. • Carries weight with internal staff and external clients. From the home page. L. Bean. This page identifies Internal Auditor as the official magazine of the IIA.
9 . Anyone who wants to create economic value for themselves and their organization. Anyone who is responsible for making corporate decisions.• • business strategies.