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Quantitative Aptitude/Logical Reasoning

Corporate & International Relations

Amrita Vishwa Vidyapeetham

Analysis of TCS Placement Papers

Quants Funda

TABLE OF CONTENTS Introduction 1. Number System 2. Percentages 3. Averages 4. Problems on Ages 5. Profit & Loss 6. Ratio Proportion 7. Time, Speed & Distance 8. Time & Work 9. Heights & Distance 10. Sets & Matrices 11. Functions 12. Sequence & Series 13. Statistics 14. Clocks & Calendar 15. Geometry 16. Logical Reasoning 17. Data Interpretation 18. Miscellaneous Formula Booklet Questions taken from students’ forum Theory, Examples & Explanations Questions taken from students’ forum Theory, Examples & Explanations Questions taken from students’ forum Theory, Examples & Explanations Questions taken from students’ forum Theory, Examples & Explanations Questions taken from students’ forum Theory, Examples & Explanations Questions taken from students’ forum Theory, Examples & Explanations Questions taken from students’ forum Theory, Examples & Explanations Questions taken from students’ forum Theory, Examples & Explanations Questions taken from students’ forum Theory, Examples & Explanations Questions taken from students’ forum Theory, Examples & Explanations Questions taken from students’ forum Theory, Examples & Explanations Theory, Examples & Explanations Questions taken from students’ forum Theory, Examples & Explanations Questions taken from students’ forum Theory, Examples & Explanations Questions taken from students’ forum Theory, Examples & Explanations Questions taken from students’ forum Theory, Examples & Explanations Questions taken from students’ forum Theory, Examples & Explanations Questions taken from students’ forum

2 Corporate & International Relations

Amrita Vishwa Vidyapeetham

Analysis of TCS Placement Papers

Quants Funda

The book “Analysis of TCS Placement Papers” is an attempt to provide you with a mirror to previous years’ papers. Only practicing with questions is not enough because of its unpredictability. Learning concepts can make you tackle all sorts of problems with ease. The Review of topics is designed to familiarize you with the mathematical skills and concepts likely to be tested. This material includes many definitions and examples with solutions. Note, however, this review is not intended to be comprehensive. It is assumed that certain basic concepts are common for all examinees. Emphasis is, therefore, placed on the more important skills, concepts, and definitions, and on those particular areas that are frequently asked. If any of the topics seem especially unfamiliar, we encourage you to consult appropriate mathematics texts for a more detailed treatment of those topics. All the Best

3 Corporate & International Relations

Amrita Vishwa Vidyapeetham

2048 c. the remainder is r2.318=________ .The number 362 in decimal system is given by (1362)x in the X system of numbers. What is the max possible 3 digit prime number? 9. 7. the remainder will be r1 × r2 Back to Table of Contents 4 Corporate & International Relations Amrita Vishwa Vidyapeetham . then find the value of log 0. If log 0. What is the largest prime number that can be stored in an 8-bit memory? 5. Represent 222 in base 5 number system 8. the remainder is ‘r1’ and if ‘a2’ is divided by n.Analysis of TCS Placement Papers Quants Funda Tata Consultancy Service Quantitative Aptitude Number System (Base Conversion. instead of that number divided by 3. Examples & Explanations Number Theory Finding Remainders of a product (derivative of remainder theorem) If ‘a1‘is divided by ‘n’. Logarithms. The base 5 representation of the decimal number 2048 is 3.What is the largest prime number stored in 7 bit memory? Theory. the remainder will be r1 – r2 If a1 × a2 is divided by n. Find the value of X? 11.317=________ and log 0. Which is the largest prime number that can be stored in a 9-bit memory? 4.2668 10. Find the value of the 678 to the base 7.A sales person multiplied a number by 3 and get the answer is 3. Then if a1+a2 is divided by n. the decimal number 194 is equal to 1234? 6. Prime Numbers) Questions taken from students’ forum 1.What is the largest prime number stored in 6 bit memory? 13. Which is the power of 2n? a. the remainder will be r1 + r2 If a1 – a2 is divided by n. What is the answer that he actually has to get? 12. 2. In which base system. 2068 b.319.

If 33 is divided by 14. – 1 is nothing but 4. So 363 can be written as (33)21. Then their sum. the remainder – 1 means 13. If 252(21 × 12) is divisible by 5. the remainder is – 1. the remainder is 4 and 9 can be written as 9 = 5 × 2 – 1. 12 – 21 = – 9 and 12 × 21 = 252 all are divisible by 3. What is the remainder if 725 is divided by 6? If 7 is divided by 6. the remainder is 1. Similarly – 2 is equivalent to 3. So remainder = 1 × 1 × 1…. the remainder is 4 (44 = 43 × 4. then a1 + a2 is also divisible by n a1 – a2 is also divisible by n and If a1 × a2 is also divisible by n. But if the divisor is 5. so the Remainder = 4× 2 = 8 = 1) If 44 is divided by 7. if 9 is divided by 5.1 Sol. the remainder is 11 Back to Table of Contents 5 Corporate & International Relations Amrita Vishwa Vidyapeetham . the remainder is 125 (because 725 = 7× 7 × 7… 25 times. so the Remainder = 1× 4 = 4) The remainders of the powers of 4 repeats after every 3rd power. 25 times = 125). the remainder is 1 (43 = 42 × 4. Finding Remainders of powers with the help of Remainder theorem: Ex. So here – 1 is the remainder. (14 – 1 = 13) By pattern method Ex. if 363 is divided by 14. If 41 is divided by 7. the remainder will be 3 (1 + 2). (41 = 4 = 7 × 0 + 4) If 42 is divided by 7. So – 1 is equivalent to 4 if the divisor is 5. So.. the remainder will be (1 × 2 = 2). So if 725 is divided by 6. the remainder will be 1 – 2 = – 1. If 9(21 – 12) is divided by 5. since the remainders are repeating after every 3rd power. 9 = 5 × 1 + 4.e. the remainder is 1 and if 12 is divided by 5. If ‘a1’ and ‘a2’ are divisible by n. So. 12 is divisible by 3 and 21 is divisible by 3. i. as in the case of finding the last digit. Ex.4 Sol.Analysis of TCS Placement Papers Quants Funda Ex. the remainder is 4. (OR) If 43 is divided by 7. Ex. 12 + 21 = 33. So 433 = (43)11 is divided by 7. the remainder of 433 is equal to the remainder of 43 ( since 33 is exact multiple of 3) = 1. So the remainder is (– 1)21 = – 1. the remainder is 2.3 Sol. the remainder is 1. So. If two numbers ‘a1’ and ‘a2‘ are exactly divisible by n.2 Sol. the remainder is 2 (42 = 16 = 7 × 2 + 2) If 43 is divided by 7. difference and product is also exactly divisible by n. What is the remainder. If 21 is divided by 5. Then if (21 + 12 = 33) is divided by 5. Find remainder when 433 is divided by 7. If the divisor is 14.

Since each of them is divisible by 6.g.g If p = 3. + nCn – 1 × a1 × bn – 1 + nCn × bn Where nC0. a. 2p + 1 = 7 is a prime number (p!)2 + (– 1)p = (3!)2 + (– 1)3 = 36 – 1 = 35 is divisible by (2p + 1) = 7.5 Sol. c. the expansion can be written 6x + 1. The first term of the expansion has only a. If (a + b)n is divided by a then the remainder will be bn such that bn < a. nC1. e. In general. Hence. the remainder will be 125 = 1. b. nC2. Ex. 6x + 1 when divided by 6 leaves the remainder 1. and therefore. Corollary If (2p + 1) is a prime number (p!)2 + (– 1)p is divisible by 2p + 1. (OR) When 7 divided by 6. e. their sum is also divisible by 6. e. So. (n – 1)! + 1 is divisible by n. can be written 6x. in the binomial expansion. Similarly if n = 7 (n – 1)! + 1 = 6! + 1 = 720 + 1 = 721 which is divisible by 7. where x is any natural number. So when 725 is divided by 6. Wilson’s Theorem If n is a prime number.Analysis of TCS Placement Papers Quants Funda Application of Binomial Theorem in Finding Remainders The binomial expansion of any expression of the form (a + b)n = nC0 an + nC1 an – 1 × b1 + nC2 × an – 2 × b2 + .. What is the remainder if 725 is divided by 6? (7)25 can be written (6 + 1)25.…. So. There are (n + 1) terms. The 26th term is (1)25. The last term of the expansion has only b. the remainder is 1.e. All the other (n – 1) terms contain both a and b. i.…are all called the binomial coefficients. 6x denotes the sum of all the first 25 terms. Let take n = 5 Then (n – 1)! + 1 = 4! + 1 = 24 + 1 = 25 which is divisible by 5. Property If “a” is natural number and P is prime number then (ap – a) is divisible by P. d. There are some fundamental conclusions that are helpful if remembered. all the first 25 terms will have 6 in it. If 231 is divided by 31 what is the remainder? Back to Table of Contents 6 Corporate & International Relations Amrita Vishwa Vidyapeetham .

2. you need to divide repeatedly by 2. 5. the decimal value of 11012 is 1 × 23 + 1 × 22 + 0 × 21 + 1 × 20 = 13. 2. To do this conversion. 5. 1101 2 is a binary number. 6. Convert 35710 to the corresponding binary number. keeping track of the remainders as you go. 7). 5. 1. 9. Binary system (0. B. 2. 1. B = 11 … F = 15. 7. 3.6 Sol. that is N(p-1/2) = kp+1 or kp-1. E. 6. where. 8. we end up with these remainders: Back to Table of Contents 7 Corporate & International Relations Amrita Vishwa Vidyapeetham . F) where A = 10. Base Rule and Conversion This system utilizes only two digits namely 0 & 1 i. powers of 2 are used as weights in a binary system and is as follows: 1 × 23 = 8 1 × 22 = 4 0 × 21 = 0 1 × 20 = 1 Thus. 1) 2. 3. Corollary Since p is prime. Watch below: As you can see. e.Analysis of TCS Placement Papers Quants Funda (231/31) = (231-2+2)/31 = So remainder = 2 Fermat’s Theorem If p is a prime number and N is prime to p. Hexa-decimal system (0.e. k is some positive integer. 6. to find the decimal value of the binary number. A. 4. Therefore (N(p-1/2)+1)(N(p-1/2)-1) = M(p) Hence either N(p-1/2)+1 or N(p-1/2)-1 is a multiple of p. p – 1 is an even number except when p = 2. 1. 3. Conversion from decimal to other bases We will study only four types of Base systems. 4. C D. 7. 1. 8. 9) 4. the base of a binary number system is two. Octal system (0. Let us understand the procedure with the help of an example Ex. Decimal system (0. then (N)p-1 – 1 is a multiple of p. after dividing repeatedly by 2.g. 3. 4.

This method of conversion will work for converting to any non-decimal base. Ex. Convert the octal no 3456 in to decimal number. which is an indicator of the base. Convert (1101)2 to decimal base (1101)2 = 1 × 23 + 1 x 22 + 0 × 21 + 1 × 20 = 8 + 4 + 1 = 13 So (1101)2 = (13)10 Ex. starting from bottom and wrapping your way around the right-hand side and moving upwards.Analysis of TCS Placement Papers Quants Funda These remainders tell us what the binary number is! Read the numbers outside the division block. 3456 = 6 + 5 × 8 + 4 × 82 + 3 × 83 = 6 + 40 + 256 + 1536 = (1838)10 Ex. Sol. (357)10 convert to (101100101)2. Just don't forget to include the first digit on the left corner. You can convert from base-ten (decimal) to any other base. when a number is converted from any base to the decimal base then we write the number in that base in the expanded form and the result is the number in decimal form.10 What is the product of highest 3 digit number & highest 2 digit number of base 3 system? (1) (21000)3 (2) (22200)3 (3) (21222)3 (4) (21201)3 (5) None Back to Table of Contents 8 Corporate & International Relations Amrita Vishwa Vidyapeetham . Thus. Conversion from other bases to Decimal We write a number in decimal base as 345 = 300 + 40 + 5 = 3 × 102 + 4 × 101 + 5 × 100 Similarly. = (3456)8 Ex.7 Sol.8 Sol.9 Convert (1838)10 to octal.

What is the remainder. What is the remainder. the remainder is 0. Convert (721)8 to binary. Ex. The highest 3 digit & 2 digit numbers are 222 & 22 222 = 2 + 2 × 3 + 2 × 32 = 26 22 = 2 + 2 × 3 = 8 ∴ Product = 26 × 8 = 208 Convert back to base (21201)3 Answer: (4) Ex. write each digit of octal no. as 3 digits of binary which gives equivalent value. 7 = 111. if 2429 + 3429 is divided by 29? an + bn is always divisible by a + b.13 Sol. 2429 + 3429 is always divisible by 24 + 34 = 58. B = 11. Since 23 = 8. 1 = 001 ∴ (721)8 = (111 010 001)2 Back to Table of Contents 9 Corporate & International Relations Amrita Vishwa Vidyapeetham .e. it is always divisible by 29. can be written as 4 digit binary no: A = 1010. if is odd. F = 1111 (FBA)10 = (111110111010)2 Ex. What is the value of (FBA)16 in binary system? A = 10.Analysis of TCS Placement Papers Quants Funda Sol.11 Sol. F = 15 Since 24 = 16. So. B = 1011. the required answer is the remainder of 123 is divided by 10. So. So. i. 8 Ex. 2 = 010. While converting each digit of the decimal.14 Sol. if 12243 is divided by 10? 12243 The remainder repeats after every 4th power.12 Sol.

Precisely we can say that the universal cyclicity of all the numbers is 4 i. to calculate the unit digit for any exponent of a given number we have to follow the following steps Step 1: Divide the exponent of the given number by 4 and calculate the remainder. after 4 all the numbers start repeating their unit digits.e. Unit Digit Chart Power From the above table we can conclude that the unit digit of a number repeats after an interval of 1. Step 3: If the remainder is zero. 5 × 5 ends in 5 & 625 × 625 also ends in 5. then the unit digit will be same as the unit digit of N4. If anyone asks you to find the unit digit of 33.Analysis of TCS Placement Papers Quants Funda CYCLICITY At times there are questions that require the students to find the units digit in case of the numbers occurring in powers. Therefore. it will be hard to calculate easily. you will easily calculate it also you can calculate for 35 but if any one ask you the unit digit of 17399. 2 or 4. Back to Table of Contents 10 Corporate & International Relations Amrita Vishwa Vidyapeetham . Step 2: The unit digit of the number is same as the unit digit of the number raise to the power of calculated remainder. But it’s very simple if we understand that the units digit of a product is determined by whatever is the digit at the units place irrespective of the number of digits. Now let’s examine the pattern that a number generates when it occurs in See the last digit of different numbers.g. E.

Number of factors = (4 + 1) (2 + 1) = 5(3) = 15 Number of Ways of Expressing a Given Number as a Product of Two Factors When a number is having even number of factors then it can be written as a product of two numbers in (a+1)(b+1)(c+1)/2 ways. 3. Factors A factor is a number that divides another number completely. On dividing. 6. We notice that the exponent is 99. 2. 4. Now these 24 pairs of 4 each do not affect the no. Find the last digit of (173)99. Now. 144 (24.e. Factors of 24 are: 1. and r are prime numbers and a. the number at the units place is 33 = 27. (173) 99 ≈ (173)3. at the units place so. 2. 99 by 4 we get 24 as the quotient & 3 as the remainder. {Because (p + 1) (q + 1) (r + 1) in the case of 148 is equal to 6}. q.where a. N = pa × qb × rc Where p. Examples: 1.g.32) can be written as a product of two different numbers in [(4 + 1)( 2 + 1) −1]/2 i.bq. b. e. 148 can be expressed as a product of two factors in 6/2 or 3 ways. 24. 7 ways Sum of the factors of a number: If a number N is written in the form of N = ap. But if a number have odd number of factors then it can be written as a product of two different numbers in [(a+1)(b+1)(c+1)-1]/2 ways and can be written as a product of two numbers (different or similar) in [(a+1)(b+1)(c+1)+1]/2 ways.Analysis of TCS Placement Papers Quants Funda Let us consider an example Ex.1 Sol. and c are the no. b & c are prime numbers and p. 12. then the number of factors of n is found by (a + 1) (b + 1)(c Example: Find the number of factors of 24 × 32. q & r are positive integers. then the sum of all the factors of the number are given by the formula Sum of factors = Back to Table of Contents 11 Corporate & International Relations Amrita Vishwa Vidyapeetham . Number of Factors If we have a number.cr . of times each prime number occurs . 8.

Analysis of TCS Placement Papers Quants Funda Factorial Factorial is defined for any positive integer. we can have one additional 3 in the denominator. The denominator will have all 3’s. we have an additional 3 in the denominator. Here. 27. i. (n! = n(n – 1)!) Finding the Highest power of the number dividing a Factorial Ex.. The same can be done in the following manner also. i.2 Find the largest power of 3 that can divide 95! without leaving any remainder.OR Find the largest power of 3 contained in 95!.e. Since we cannot divide the quotient any more by 3 we stop here. 6. we can have three more 3’s in the denominator.90. 18. 9. 93. It is denoted by L or !.e. we have 95 × 94 × 93 …. i. Please note that this method is applicable only if the number whose largest power is to be Back to Table of Contents 12 Corporate & International Relations Amrita Vishwa Vidyapeetham . × 3 × 2 × 1. 31 + 10 + 3 + 1 which gives 45 which is the highest power of 3. etc. Divide this 10 by 3 we get a quotient of 3. Since there is one multiple of 81 in 95. Since there are 3 multiples of 27 in 91 (they are 27. Similarly. So we can take 10 more 3’s in the denominator. 45. In general. Hence for every multiple of 9 in the numerator. Thus “Factorial n” is written as n! Or n! is defined as the product of all the integers from 1 to n.e. Thus n! = 1. which give 45. First look at the detailed explanation and then look at a simpler method for solving the problem. will still have one more 3 left.Corresponding to each of these multiplies we can have a 3 in the denominator which will divide the numerator completely without leaving any remainder. i. after canceling out a 3 above. Divide 95 by 3 you get a quotient of 31.e. in successive division. So 345 is the largest power of 3 that can divide 95! without leaving any remainder.e. 331 can definitely divide 95! Further every multiple of 9. Divide this quotient of 3 once again by 3 we get a quotient of 1. Next. Divide this 31 by 3 we get a quotient of 10. we have these 95 numbers in the numerator. 81 we can have one more 3 in the denominator. the number 95 is being successively divided by 3. When we write 95! in its full form. Hence the total number of 3’s we can have in the denominator is 31 + 10 + 3 + 1.e. corresponding to every multiple of 34 i. n. the divisor need not be the same (as it is here).2. 9…. When we divide 95! by a power 3. 54 and 81). Add all the quotients 31 + 10 + 3 + 1. 18…. There are 10 multiples of 9 in 95 i. Sol.81. 9. Add all the quotients. {Note that this type of a division where the quotient of one step is taken as the dividend in the subsequent step is called “Successive Division”.3. The 95 numbers in the numerator have 31 multiples of 3 which are 3. 90. for every multiple of 33 we can take an additional 3 in the denominator. …..

3128 = 4 × 782 = 4 × 2 × 391 = 23 × 17 × 23 Back to Table of Contents 13 Corporate & International Relations Amrita Vishwa Vidyapeetham . We find that 197 is the largest power of 2 that can divide 200!. Answer 6 Ex. Since two 2’s taken together will give us a 4. We know that 12 can be written as 3 × 4. If the number is not a prime number. So. Ex. the smaller of the two. Then the smallest.Analysis of TCS Placement Papers Quants Funda found out is a prime number.. since 4 itself is not a prime number. among the largest powers of all these relative factors of the given number will give the largest power required. Since the largest power of 3 and 4 that can divide 200! are 97 an 98 respectively. We first have to find out the highest power of 2 that can divide 200!. find the largest power of each of the factors separately first. half the power of 2 will give the highest power of 4 that can divide 200!.3 Sol. Resolve 12 into a set of prime factors. the last digit of 7270 is the last digit of 72 = 9. Half this figure-98-will be the largest power of 4 that can divide 200!. How many factors do 1296 have? 1296 = 4 × 324 = 4 × 4 × 81 = 24 × 34 Number of factors = (4 + 1) (4 + 1) = 25. we cannot directly apply the successive division method.5 Sol. So. if n is even. Last digit of 7 powers repeat after every 4. To find out the highest power of 4. 97 will be the largest power of 12 that can divide 200! without leaving any remainder. Ex. Find the largest power of 12 that can divide 200! Here we cannot apply Successive Division method because 12 is not a prime number. then we have to write the number as the product of relative primes. What is the last digit of 234 × 334 × 434 Given = (24)34 Last digit of 4n is 6.6 Sol.7 If x is the sum of all the factors of 3128 and y is the no of factors of x and z is the number of ways of writing ‘y’ as a product of two numbers. What is the right most non zero digit of (270)270 The required answer is the last digit of 7270. we will find out the largest power of 3 that can divide 200! and the largest power of 4 that can divide 200! and take the LOWER of the two as the largest power of 12 that can divide 200!. Ex. then z = ? Sol. i.4 Sol.e. Ex.

3. which are less than N if N = ab × bq × .. Sum = Ex.... where a. b.-. How many cofactors are there for 240. where n is the number of prime factors to N....(a.are Prime no.10 Sol.9 Sol.s) = 64 Ex. which are less than N is N/2 (number of co primes to N. What is the least value ‘n’ will take? (1) 110 (2) 120 (3) 130 (4) 140 (5) 145 Back to Table of Contents 14 Corporate & International Relations Amrita Vishwa Vidyapeetham .. 5544 = 11 × 504 = 11 × 9 × 56 = 11 × 9 × 8 × 7 = 23 × 32 × 7 × 11 Answer: = 24-1 = 23 = 8. which are less than N.11 If n! have 35 zeroes at the end. 320 = 119680 In how many ways 5544 can be written as a product of 2 co primes? If N = ap × bq × .Analysis of TCS Placement Papers Quants Funda = 15 × (17 + 1) (23 + 1) =3×5×9×2×8×3 = 24 × 34 × 5 y = (4 + 1) (4 + 1) (1 + 1) = 2 × 52 z = 1/2 { (1 + 1) (2 + 1) } = 3 Ex.. . 2. (Because. 7 & 11 are four different prime factors).. which are less than 240? 240 = 16 × 15 = 24 × 3 × 5 Number of co primes to N. What is the sum of all the co primes to 748? Which are less than N? 748 = 4 × 187 = 22 × 11 × 17 Sum of all the co primes to N. b.are prime numbers N can be written as a product of two co primes in 2n-1 ways..8 Sol. . Ex.

Find the % change in Y if N is increased by 1%? . What is the right most non zero digit in 4040/2020 = The required answer is the last digit of 260 = 6 Percentages Questions taken from students’ forum 1. Answer: (5) Ex. What will be the fuel economy if they were used combined (in %)? 4.12 ‘N’ is a five digit number. If the size of the program is 3. 20% and 10%. Since the last digit of N35 is 2 The last digit of N3 is 2. 535 should exactly divide n! by trail & error. Since the number of zeroes are 35. The last digit of N35 is 2. take n = 140. Given Y = . The answer should be 145. If the length of a rectangle is increased by 30% and the width is decreased by 20%. which is possible only for 8. Answer: (4) Ex. B and C are the mechanisms used separately to reduce the wastage of fuel by 30%. If A. then the area is increased by_________%? (a) 10% (b) 5% (c) 4% (d) 20% (e) 25% Back to Table of Contents 15 Corporate & International Relations Amrita Vishwa Vidyapeetham . So.Analysis of TCS Placement Papers Quants Funda Sol. The size of a program is N. What percent of 60 is 12? 5. What is the last digit of N? (1) 2 Sol. there are 34 zeroes.13 Sol. And the memory occupied by the program is given by M = increased by 1% then how much memory now occupied? 2. (2) 3 (3) 7 (4) 8 (5) Cannot be determined The last digit repeats after every 4th power.

So we can say that multiplying factor (M. Ex. A fraction whose denominator is 100 is called ercentage and the numerator of the fraction is called the rate percent. Assume the third number is 100.2 Two numbers are greater than the third number by 25% and 20% respectively. By what percent A earns more or less than C? From (1) and (2) we have i. (4) 550 (5) None of these The required answer is Answer: (2) Ex.Analysis of TCS Placement Papers Quants Funda Theory.e. 20/100 rupees for each Rupee.3 Sol. So the required answer is Answer: (3) = 96%. Let’s start with a number X Back to Table of Contents 16 Corporate & International Relations Amrita Vishwa Vidyapeetham . and it is generally denoted by %. What is 90% equal to? (1) 750 Sol. (b) Multiplying Factor While dealing with %age increase or decrease picture the following scale in your mind with reference as 100% ( = 1) in the center. A is earning 20% more than B. 20 for every hundred rupees he invested in the business. Examples & Explanations Percentages What is the meaning of percent? The terms percent means “for every hundred”. So the first number is 125 and the second number is 120. An increase by x% implies the value lies on the right hand side of 100% & vice versa.e.85. A is 4% less than C.1 84% of a particular total is 630 marks. Ex. when we say a man made a profit of 20 percent we mean to say that he gained Rs. What percent of first number is the second number? (1) 92% (2) 94 % (3) 96 % (4) 98 % (5) None of these Sol. Thus. (2) 675 (3) 450 = 675. i.c. The abbreviation of percent is p.F) of 10% increase is 1.1 and that of 15% decrease is 0. who earns 20% less than C.

e increases by 21% of the original value. X decreased by 300% would become X – 3X = − 2X Ex.1% would become X – 0. then the overall percentage change in their product is given by the formula Ex. Why? Let us see If Original population = P After 1st year = After 2nd year = I. X decreased by 0.01 X = 0. During last month its cost was Rs.1X 2. So the % reduction in consumption = (c) Successive Percentage change: The population of a city increases by 10% in one year and again increases by 10% in the next year.01X 3. Assume initially. X decreased by 1% would become X – 0. This successive change in the percentage can be calculated in the shortcut way as explained below: Let us consider a product of two quantities A = a x b.Analysis of TCS Placement Papers Quants Funda 1. Assume the consumption last year is 1 kg.24. The very common answer is 20% which is wrong.1 % would become X + 0.001 X = 1.9X 5. X increased by 1% would become X + 0.001X 4. So the concentration of milk is So the percentage decrease = Back to Table of Contents . Find by how much percent a family should reduce its consumption. out of which x lts is milk. and then it cost Rs. to keep the expenditure the same.001 X = 0. By what percentage does the concentration of milk reduce? Sol. 27 per kg. X decreased by 10% would become X – 0.01 X = 1. X increased by 0.4 Coconut oil is now being sold at Rs. 24. Sol.99X 6. But now for Rs. X increased by 200% would become X + 2X = 3X 8.5 If the volume of a milk and water solution is increased by 25% by pouring only water. 24 per kg.1 X = 1.1X = 0. X increased by 10% would become X + 0. Now it is 17 Corporate & International Relations Amrita Vishwa Vidyapeetham . then what is the net increase in the population in two years. there is 100 lts of solution.999X 7. If a & b change (increase or decrease) by a certain percentage say x & y respectively. only kg of oil will come.

Analysis of TCS Placement Papers

Quants Funda

This formula also holds true if there are successive changes as in the case of population increase or decrease. But care has to be taken when there are either more than 2 successive changes or there is a product of more than 2 quantities as in the case of volume. In these cases we have to apply the same formula twice. (i) If there is successive increase of x% and y%, then the net change will be (ii) If there is successive discount of x% and y%, then the total discount will be (a) If there is x% increase and then x% decrease, then the net change (b) If the values are different, then net change Ex.6 If A is increased by 20% and B is decreased by 20%, then both the quantities will be equal. What percentage of B is A. Sol. If A is increased by 20%, it will be come 1.2 A. and B is decreased by 20%, it will become 0.8 B. It is given 1.2 A = 0.8 B, A = 0.66 B. A is 66.66% of B. Ex.7 Sol. If A is 3 times to B then B is what percentage of A. A = 3B A = B.

Ex.8 Sol.

If ‘x’ is increased by 20% & 25% successively, then its value increases by 30. What is the value of X? If X is increased by 20%, it will become 1.2X or X If it is again increased by 25%, its value becomes =

It is given that 30.

Ex.9

A man spends 30% of his salary for food and 20% of the remaining on rent and 20% of the remaining on other expenses. If he saves Rs. 8960, what is his salary?

Sol.

Let his salary be ‘K’. If he spent 30% on food, he will be left with 70% of K i.e. 0.7K or 20% on rent and 80 left with 80%. i.e After spending 20% of this on other expenses he will be left with 80% of this. i.e.

on this, he spends

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18 Corporate & International Relations

Amrita Vishwa Vidyapeetham

Analysis of TCS Placement Papers

Quants Funda

It is given as Rs.8960 K = 20000 Ex.10 Last year an employee used to save 40% of his salary. But now his salary is increased by 50% and expenses also increases by 20%. What is his percentage savings now? Sol. Assume ‘X’ was the salary of the employee last year. Since his savings were 40%, his expenses were 60% i,e, 0.6X. At present, his salary is 1.5X and expenses are 1.2(0.6X) = 0.72X Savings = 1.5X – 0.72X = 0.78X % Savings = Ex.11 A man earns X% on the first Rs. 2000 and Y% on the rest of income. If he earns Rs. 700 from Rs.4000 and Rs. 900 from Rs. 5000 income; find X%. Sol. We can form two equations from the above information as

Equation (1) 3 – Equation (2) 2

X =15%

Averages

Questions taken from students’ forum

1. In Madras, temperature at noon varies according to more or less in 4pm to 9pm. 2. Low temperature at the night in a city is 1/3 more than ½ hinge as higher temperature in a day. Sum of the low temp and highest temp is 100C. What is the low temperature? 3. Hansie made the following amounts in seven games of cricket in India: Rs.10, Rs.15, Rs.21, Rs.12, Rs.18, Rs.19 and Rs.17 (all figures in cores of Rs). Find his average earnings. 4. A truck contains 150 small packages, some weighing 1 kg each and some weighing 2 kg each. How many packages weighing 2 kg each are in the truck if the total weight of all the packages is 264 kg?

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, where t is elapsed time. Find how much temperature

19 Corporate & International Relations

Amrita Vishwa Vidyapeetham

Analysis of TCS Placement Papers

Quants Funda

**Theory, Examples & Explanations Averages
**

Definition Simple Average (or Mean) is defined as the ratio of sum of the quantities to the number of quantities. By definition, Average = Putting in symbols, Here represent the n values of quantity under consideration and is the mean. Average or Mean is said to be a

measure of central tendency. Ex.1 If a person with age 45 joins a group of 5 persons with an average age of 39 years. What will be the new average age of the group? Sol. Total age will be 45 + 5× 39 = 240. And there will be 6 persons now. So the average will be 240/6 = 40. (or) Since 45 is 6 more than 39, by joining the new person, the total will increase by 6 and so the average will increase by 1. So, the average is 39 + 1 = 40. Ex.2 Two students with marks 50 and 54 leave class VIII A and move to class VIII B. As a result the average marks of the class VIII A fall from 48 to 46. How many students were there initially in the class VIII A? Sol. The average of all the students of class VIII A is 46, excluding these two students. They have 4 and 8 marks more than 46. So with the addition of these two students, 12 marks are adding more, and hence the average is increasing 2. There should be 6 students in that class including these two. This is the initial number of students, Ex.3 The average of x successive natural numbers is N. If the next natural number is included in the group, the average increases by:(1) Depends on x (3) Both (1) and (2) Sol. (2) Depends on the starting number of the series (4) (5) None of these

The average of consecutive numbers is the middle number. If one more number is added to the list, the middle number moves 0.5 towards right. So the answer is (4).

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20 Corporate & International Relations

Amrita Vishwa Vidyapeetham

Find the average marks for the entire class X? Sol. The average weight of class A is 38 and that of class B is 40. 25 & 26 i. More the ratio of a quantity more will be the inclination of the average from mid value towards the value with more ratios. which is the average of 5th & 6th no. then the average speed over the entire distance (X1 +X2) is given by If both the distances are equal i. We can do the question by using both the Simple average & weighted average method. If the same value is added to half of the quantities and same value is subtracted from other half quantities then there will not be any change in the final value of the average. 3. X2. N3. Average Speed = But if the time taken are equal i.e. each has 20 students.5. Ex. then the mean also increases or decreases by the same quantity. If each number is increased / decreased by a certain quantity n. X3. Average Speed Average Speed = If d1.e. Average = Real Facts about average 1. t1 = t2 = t then.Analysis of TCS Placement Papers Quants Funda Weighted Mean If some body asks you to calculate the combined average marks of both the sections of class X A and X B. Xn respectively. There are two classes A and B.4 The average marks of 30 students in a section of class X are 20 while that of 20 students of second section is 30. 25.. then the mean also gets multiplied or divided by the same quantity.6 The average of 10 consecutive numbers starting from 21 is: The average is simply the middle number. N2. So to calculate weighted average we have to know the number of students in both the sections.e. …. what is the weight of Y? Back to Table of Contents = 24 =24 21 Corporate & International Relations Amrita Vishwa Vidyapeetham . If each number is multiplied/ divided by a certain quantity n. Ex. and then the average weight of both the classes will be equal. when both sections have 60% and 70% average marks respectively? Then your answer will be 65% but this is wrong as you do not know the total number of students in each sections. Nn be the weights attached to variable values X1. d2 are the distances covered at speeds v1 and v2 respectively and the time taken are t1 and t2 respectively.……. The weighted average is just like a see-saw. If weight of x is 30 kg. i. usually denoted by For any two different quantities taken in different ratios. Then the weighted arithmetic mean. d1 = d2 = d then. 2. = By the weighted mean method.5 Sol. Let N1.e.. X and Y are two students of classes A and B respectively. Average Speed = Ex. If they interchange their classes.

We can say that the average of last 10 nos is 20 more than the average of first 10 nos. then the total ages of both the classes are equal. after interchange. Weight of apples except heaviest & lightest = 0. what is the weight of heaviest apple? Sol. the required answer is 20. 38 × 20 – x + y = 40 × 20 – y + x .28 kg Heaviest + lightest = 4 – 3. Back to Table of Contents 22 Corporate & International Relations Amrita Vishwa Vidyapeetham . 2(y – x) = 2 × 20. 3) Less than the average weight of C.72 kg. Where as the average of last 10 numbers is the average of 25th & 26th no.2 kg.52 kg. What is the difference between the averages of first and last 10 numbers? The average of first 10 numbers is the average of 5th & 6th no. Total weight of the apples is 0. Ex. the average is 0. It is given lightest = 0. What is X? Sol.7 The average weight of 10 apples is 0.8 While finding the average of ‘9’ consecutive numbers starting from X. If the heaviest and lightest apples are taken out. if X & Y are interchanged. y must be 50 years old. the total should increase by 20. Since the average is 8 more than the actual. a student interchanged the digits of second number by mistake and got the average which is 8 more than the actual. the second no will increase by 72 (9 × 8) by interchanging the digits. 20 & 25 students each.41 kg. Since the average of class ‘A’ is increasing by 1. the average of each class will be 39. The first no is 18.Analysis of TCS Placement Papers Quants Funda Sol. If the lightest apple weights 0. x must be replaced by ‘y’.28 = 0.41 × 8 = 3. ∴ b – a = 8. who must be 20 years elder to ‘x’. X = 18 There are 30 consecutive numbers. 25th number is 20 more than the 5th number. then 10a + b + 72 = 10b + a.. The groups A & C are combined to form group D. y = x + 20 = 50 (OR) Since both the classes have same number of students.2 kg. Ex. 2) More than the average weight of C. Heaviest is 0. 4) Less than the average weight of B. Total weight of class A = 38 × 20. C of 15. Ex. If ab is the second no. These students are divided into three groups A. 9(b – a) = 72. So.4 × 10 = 4 kg. Since the second no is 19. 5) Cannot be determined. Instructions for next 3 examples: There are 60 students in a class. So. So. Since all are consecutive numbers.72 – 0. Ex. The possible number ab is 19.4 kg. B.10 What is the average weight of the students in group D? 1) More than the average weight of A.9 Sol. and class B = 40 × 20.2 = 0.

A power unit in bank of the river of 750 meters width. Since the number of students in group A & C together is 15 + 25 = 40. 5) None of these Sol. 2.per meter. Ex. Given two pencils cost 8 cents. the average weight of each group is same. Answer: (3) Ex. Average of both cannot increase or decrease.12 If all the students of the class have the same weight. Since each student has same weight (1) & (4) are right. which of the following is necessarily true? 1) The average weight of both groups increases 2) The average weight of both groups decreases. 15/. since all the students have same weight. But (3) is false. Find the total of laying the cable. Sol.12/. 2) Total weight of A & C is twice that of B. there are only 20 students. 3) The average weight of D is greater than that of A. Find the cost of 5 pencils? Back to Table of Contents 23 Corporate & International Relations Amrita Vishwa Vidyapeetham .11 If one student from group A is shifted to group B. So option (2) is also correct. but we don’t know the average weight of any class.Analysis of TCS Placement Papers Quants Funda Sol.per meter and cost of cable on the bank is Rs. who shifted from A to B. which of the following is false? 1) The average weight of all the four groups is same. we can’t find the answer. 4) The average weight of group A decreases and that of group B increases. Answer: (3) Problems on ages (Word Problems) Questions taken from students’ forum 1. Options (1) & (2) are not possible. 4) The average weight of class remains same even the students shifts from one group to other. It depends on the weight of the student. The cost of the cable below water is Rs. A cable is made from power unit to power a plant opposite to that of the river and 1500mts away from the power unit. We know only the no of students in each class. whether the average of A increases & B decreases or A decreases & B increases or both remains unchanged. The average weight of the whole class does not change. Option (4) can be eliminated because we are not sure. because. 5) None of these. Option (3) is always true because even the student shifts from one group to other. Where as in B. 3) The average weight of class remains the same.

. If we draw the graph of the expression y = x2 – 2x + 1. The general form of a quadratic equation is ax2 + bx + c = 0. Factor Theorem: If α is a root of equation f (x) = 0. There are two trees in a lawn. then number of roots is two. Theory. 2x2 – 5x2 + 1 = 0 etc. remainder is zero). What is the height of the smaller tree after 2 years? 5. For example. 2x + 5 = 0.32. 3 pens and 3 erasers cost? 7. Father’s age is 5 times his son's age. Next year he will be only twice her age. then α is called a root of the polynomial equation f (x) = 0. then the polynomial f (x) is exactly divisible by x – α (i.How much will 3 pencils. Four years back the father was 9 times older than son. If f(x) is linear the number of roots will be one. Linear Equation: A linear equation is 1st degree equation. 4 pens and 2 erasers is Rs. Its general form is ax + b = 0 Quadratic Equation: A quadratic equation is 2nd degree equation. are polynomial equations. x2 – 2x + 5 = 0. Examples & Explanations Linear Equations /Word Problems/Problems on ages General Theory of Equations Polynomial equation: A polynomial which is equal to zero is called a polynomial equation. Given the cost of 1 pencil. Back to Table of Contents 24 Corporate & International Relations Amrita Vishwa Vidyapeetham . For example. Theorem: Every equation f (x) = 0 of nth degree has exactly n roots. if it is quadratic.22 and the cost of 5 pencils. The sum of the digits of a two digit number is 8. the digits are reversed. Find the number? 6. then we would note that the graph cuts the x-axis at two points. 2 pens and 4 erasers is Rs. When 18 is added to the number. x2 – 5x + 6 = 0 is divisible by x – 2 because 2 is the root of the given equation. Root of a polynomial equation: If f (x) = 0 is a polynomial equation and f (α) = 0. One grows at a rate 3/5 of the other in 4 years. How old will Pandit be after five years? 4.e. This is because it has two real roots. Remainder Theorem: If we divide polynomial f(x) by (x – α ) then f( α ) is the remainder.Analysis of TCS Placement Papers Quants Funda 3. Find the fathers' present age. If the total growth of trees is 8 ft. One year ago Pandit was three times his sister's age.

b. Its general form is a x + b = 0 and root is – . a. Linear Equation A linear equation is 1st degree equation. a. It has only one root. d are real constants (iii) (iv) Any pair of values of x and y which satisfies ax + by + c = 0 is called its solution.. A pair of linear equations in two variables say x and y is said to form a system of simultaneous linear equations in two variables. In other words. b ≠ 0. We know that the solution of ax + b = 0.Analysis of TCS Placement Papers Quants Funda For example. a ≠ 0 is x = . We say x = is a root of the equation ax + b = 0. c are constants (real numbers). b ≠ 0. Linear Equation in two variables: A general linear equation in two variables x and y is usually written in the following forms: (i) ax + by + c = 0 where a ≠ 0. c are real constants (ii) ax + by = d where a ≠ 0. a linear equation in one variable is an equation of the type ax + b = 0. b. LINEAR EQUATION OF ONE AND TWO VARIABLES Linear Equation: The equation which when reduced to its simplest form contains only the first power of the variable is called linear equation or simple equation. The general form of a system of linear equations in two variables x and y is a1x + b1y + c1 = 0 a2x + b2y + c2 = 0 Set of Equations Consistent System (means have solution) Inconsistent System (means have no solution) Dependent System (has infinitely many solutions) Condition Independent System (Only one/Unique Solution) Condition Back to Table of Contents 25 Corporate & International Relations Amrita Vishwa Vidyapeetham . b. or ax = c. where a. a ≠ 0 and x is a variable. f(x) = x2 – 5x + 7 = 0 is divided by x – 2 the remainder is f(2) where f(2) = 22 – 5 × 2 + 7 = 1.

and a. Answer: (C) 2. The quadratic form is generally represented by ax2 + bx + c = 0 where a ≠ 0. (A) 24 years these (B) 22 years (C) 21 years (D) 25 years (E) None of Sol. c are constants. the average age of the family is the same today.g. Total age of 4 members now = 100 + 40 = 140 Sum of ages of children = 150 – 140 = 10 years Let x be the age of youngest child. Ten years ago. but these values may be equal to each other. Sum of ages of three members = 20 × 3 = 60 years. b. With the addition of one more person. Let’s the age of fourth members = X Now 60 + X = 21 × 4 = 84. If the average age of three persons is 20 years. Find the age of the fourth member. Answer: (A) Quadratic Equation Quadratic Equation in “x” is one in which the highest power of “x” is 2. e.Analysis of TCS Placement Papers Quants Funda Word Problems Questions based on word problems can be solved with the help of linear questions: Examples: 1. x2 – 6x + 4 = 0 3x2 + 7x – 2 = 0 A quadratic equation in one variable has two and only two roots. What is the age of the youngest child if they differ in age by 2 years? (A) 3 years Sol. average age of all four becomes 21 years. So age of fourth member (X) = 24 years. The equation is generally satisfied by two values of “x”. Total age of 4 members 10 years ago = 25 × 4 = 100. the average age of a family of four members was 25 years. (B) 2 years (C) 4 years (D) 8 years (E) 5 years Present total age = 25 × 6 = 150. x + x + 2 = 10 x = 4. Two children having been born. which are and Back to Table of Contents 26 Corporate & International Relations Amrita Vishwa Vidyapeetham .

Rules: 1. x1 & x2 are rational and unequal.70 Theory.P. A shopkeeper bought a watch for Rs.500.Analysis of TCS Placement Papers Quants Funda Nature of Roots The term (b2 – 4ac) is called the discriminant of the quadratic equation ax2 + bx + c and is denoted by D.30 (e) 8 kilo for Rs. 3. If (x1 + x2) and x1 × x2 are given then equation is x2 – (x1 + x2) x + x1 x2 = 0. if D = 0. and conjugates of each other. is the price at which one buys anything S. x1 & x2 are imaginary. P = product of roots.340 (b) 2 kilo for Rs. if D is a perfect square. Examples & Explanations Profit. Profit & Loss Questions taken from students’ forum 1. The most economical prices among the following prices is: (a) 10 kilo for Rs. If x1 and x2 are the two roots. x1 & x2 are real and equal.160 (d) 20 kilo for Rs. 4.130 (c) 4 kilo for Rs. then sum of roots = x1 + x2 = – b/a and product of roots = x1 x2 = c/a. 2.400 and sold it for Rs. Formation of equation from roots: 1.P. unequal.What is his profit percentage? 2. 2. Loss & Discount Definition Cost Price: Selling Price: C. then (x – x1) (x – x2) = 0 is the required equation. if D < 0. x2 – Sx + P = 0 where S = sum of roots. If x1 and x2 are the two roots of ax2 + bx + c = 0. if D > 0. x1 & x2 are real and unequal. is the price at which one sells anything Back to Table of Contents 27 Corporate & International Relations Amrita Vishwa Vidyapeetham .

S.1 A person sells 36 oranges for one rupee and suffers a loss of 4%. Since he got 4% loss. P.) • Gain % = (Gain × 100)/C. Discount You always come across different offers attracting the customers such as “Buy 1 get 2 Free” or “Buy 3 get 5 Free” or “SALE 50% + 40%”.P.P / (100 – loss %) Ex.P / (100 + gain %) • Given the M. This is the price of the product as displayed on the label. Find how many oranges per rupee to be sold to have a gain of 8%? Sol.P.P.66% only. 28 Corporate & International Relations Amrita Vishwa Vidyapeetham .96)*(1/36) = 1/32 rupee.96X = 1/36 To get 8% gain he has to sell it for 1.08X= (1. Loss % = (Loss × 100)/C. P.Analysis of TCS Placement Papers Quants Funda Profit/Loss: This is the difference between the selling price and the cost price.P. – Discount %) x M. The percentage of the discount offered in the first case is not 200% but it is 66. Since he is giving 36 apples for one rupee. This is the profit as a percentage of S.P. So for one rupee. Back to Table of Contents This is the increment on the cost price before being sold to a customer. P. not on the number of items purchased. he has to give 32 oranges to get a gain of 8%. The discount is always on the number of items sold. the selling price of an orange is 1/36 rupee.P.P.P. In case of successive discounts we can treat the problem as the problem of successive percentage change and can use the formula Net discount = E. C.P. S. Loss = (C. C. • Given the cost & the gain percent. If the difference is positive it is called the profit and if negative it is called as loss. = (100 + gain %) × C. Profit/Loss %: Margin: Marked Price: Discount: This is the profit/loss as a percentage of the C. = (100. Let ‘X’ is the cost price of each orange. This is the reduction given on the marked price before selling it to a customer.08/0.P.g. P.P. the selling price of each orange is 0. / 100 • Given the cost & the loss percent. / 100 • Given the M.). = (100 – loss %) × C. Normally is in % terms only. Can you calculate the discount offered to you? Most of us are not aware about the offer given to us. – S. = (100 – Discount %) x M. & the discount. If the trader wants to make a loss he can offer a discount on the cost price as well Markup: Formulae • Gain = (S.: 40% + 30% discount = = (70 – 12) % = 58%. – C.P. & the discount.

Two different articles sold at same selling price Overall % loss = Ex.P = 1. his selling price should be (15/16)th of the CP So loss is (1/15)th of the SP = (1/15)(1875+1875) = Rs.28%.5 C.125 C. a trader still makes a profit of 14. The first one is sold at 25% profit and the other one at 25% loss.P So profit percentage = 12. 1875.3 After allowing a discount of 11.2 The price of a trouser is marked 50% more than its cost price and a discount of 25% is offered on the marked price of the trouser by the shopkeeper.6 Instead of a meter scale. what is the profit or loss the shopkeeper is making? On the other hand if the faulty balance reads 900 grams for every 1000 grams. Ex.P S.P of the item and the percentage rise in the markup price is on the C.P = 0.Analysis of TCS Placement Papers Quants Funda Markup Price It is also known as list price or Tag price which is written on the item. M.25 % loss. Ex. Faulty Balance Sometimes traders may sell their products at the rate at which they purchased or even less than the actual cost incurred to them. Even in this transaction they make profit by cheating on volume. 250. So it is = 28. is he still making profit? If not why? Ex.P of the item. It is loss of = 6. What is the % loss or gain in this deal? Sol. Discount of 11.56% more than the CP. At how much percent above the cost price does he mark on his goods? Sol.28% means 1/7 So selling price = So MP = CP.5 %. If the weighing balance of a shopkeeper reads 1000 grams for every 900 grams.11% means a discount of 1/9 and 14.4 where x is the percent profit or loss on the transaction. If he offers a discount of 20% on the cash payment. What is the total loss or gain (in rupees) in the above example? Since he got 6.P = 1.75× 1. what is his overall profit percentage? Back to Table of Contents 29 Corporate & International Relations Amrita Vishwa Vidyapeetham .11%.5 Sol. So.5 C. Find the percentage of profit/loss. The markup price written is always greater than the actual C. a cloth merchant uses a 120 cm scale while buying. but uses an 80 cm scale while selling the same cloth.25 % loss means (1/16)th loss. Sol. Each of the two horses is sold for Rs. Percentage increase in the Markup price = Ex.

When the merchant is buying he is using a scale of 120 cm instead of 100 cm thus multiplying factor for him in this transaction = 120/100 = 6/5 ……. B sold it to Mr. 400.(1) When selling the cloth the merchant is measuring 80 cm for every 100 cm . Profit earned by A is 20% of X = Rs.8 A cloth merchant allows 25% discount on a saree and still makes 20% profit. 100/80 rupees = 5/4 rupee.(2) For the discount offered by the merchant the multiplying factor = 80/100 = 4/5 ……. 800. 1. 160. he gained Rs.P = 800 + 160 = Rs. If Mr.P = 960 (since he is giving 25% discount) M. B at 20% profit. So he gets a loss of Back to Table of Contents 30 Corporate & International Relations Amrita Vishwa Vidyapeetham . X.7 Mr. so multiplying factor of this transaction is = 100/80 = 5/4 = ……. (3) Net profit = Hence making a profit of 20% in the whole transaction . The first type of chocolate costs Rs. He makes a profit of 20% and it is given as Rs. 2880 to Mr. B. 1. This is given as Rs. 1. Then he sold it to Mr. 1280 Ex. A purchased the article for Rs.P = 160 So C. Assume that Mr.2X = 1. the Average cost per chocolate is But he is selling each chocolate at Re. 2000.44X.75 M. 100/120 = 5/6 rupee Since he purchased both the chocolates in equal number. what is the profit in rupees earned by Mr. 960. B sold it to Mr. 100. Ex. So X = Rs. By selling a saree. The second type costs Rs. A purchased an article and sold it to Mr. C for Rs. What is the marked price of that saree? Sol. So S.P = Rs. Mr.9 A man purchased some chocolates at 80 per Rs 100 and same number of chocolates of other type at 120 per Rs. B for Rs.Analysis of TCS Placement Papers Quants Funda Sol. what is his profit/loss percentage? Sol.P = Rs. 160. A? Sol.2X and Mr. He sold each chocolate per 1 rupee each.2 × 1. C at 20% profit. C paid Rs. Ex. And 0. 20% of C. 2880.

Find the C's share? Theory. Examples & Explanations Ratio Proportion Concept If a and b (b ≠ 0) are two quantities of the same kind. (ii) Ratio exists only between two quantities. the ratio thus. the fraction becomes 3/4. if 1 is added to both the numerator and the denominator. R and S in the ratio of 2:1. Reciprocal Ratio For any ratio a : b. Compounded ratio of (a: b. Basics of Ratio (i) As ratio is a relation between two quantities so ratio is independent of the concrete units employed in the quantities compared. B and C in the ratio 2:3:4. Find the fraction. The former (numerator) ‘a’ is called the Antecedent of the ratio and latter (denominator) ‘b’ is called consequent. the reciprocal ratio will be Back to Table of Contents 31 Corporate & International Relations Amrita Vishwa Vidyapeetham . It is usually expressed as a: b. c: d and e: f) II. obtained is called their compounded ratio. Compounded Ratio When two or more ratios are multiplied term wise. In a mixture.1260 is divided between A. both the quantities must be in the same units. Composition of Ratio I. the fraction becomes 1/2. then Ratio is the relation which one quantity bears to another of the same kind in magnitude. In order to make S to 25% of the mixture. a and b are said to be the terms of the ratio.Analysis of TCS Placement Papers Quants Funda Ratio Proportion Questions taken from students’ forum 1. Instead if numerator is subtracted from the denominator. Rs. 4. how much part of R should be added? 2. In a fraction. Now in two quantities a and b the fraction a/b is called the ratio of a to b. 3. What number should be added to or subtracted from each term of the ratio 17: 24 so that ratio becomes equal to 1: 2.

Let the required number be x. What is the mean proportional to Let the mean proportion of and be x Ex. 1. if the ratio of the first to the second is same as the ratio of the second to the third. b. 37 + x and 50 + x are in proportion 19 + x : 26 + x = 37 + x : 50 + x (19 + x) (50 + x) = (37 + x) (26 + x) x2 – x2 + 69x – 63x = 962 – 950 x2 + 69x + 950 = x2 + 63x + 962 Back to Table of Contents 32 Corporate & International Relations Amrita Vishwa Vidyapeetham . 3rd and the 4th proportion respectively. b and c are known as 1st. According to question.Analysis of TCS Placement Papers Quants Funda The application of it is in calculating the ratio of the wages distributed among the workers. we write a : b : : c : d 2. 2nd and 3rd proportion respectively.2 What should be added to each of the numbers 19. c are in continued proportion then second quantity ‘b’ is called the mean proportional between ‘a’ and ‘c’ and a. Continued Proportion: Three quantities are said to be in continued proportion.1 Sol.e. Proportion When two ratios are equal. which is equal to the reciprocal ratio of number of days taken by them to complete the work.e. 26 + x. 37. 26. Thus a. b and c are in continued proportion if a : b = b : c (or) Mean Proportion: If a. Then b2 = ac (or) b = Ex. The term a. c and d are known by the name 1st. the four terms involved. if . 2nd. 19 + x. and they are said to be in proportion. the terms b and c are called the Means. b. the terms a and d are called Extremes and. The ratio of a to b is equal to the ratio of c to d i. taken in order are called proportional. If a : b : : c : d Then we have ad = bc i. 50 so that the resulting number should be in proportion? (1) 2 (2) 3 (3) – 2 (4) – 5 Sol.

000 : 7. Money invested by Saman for 12 months = Rs.e. Remember: If X is directly proportional to Y. 99.25.000 × 12 : 75.Analysis of TCS Placement Papers Quants Funda Hence the resulting number = 2.000 Money invested by Manu for 9 months = Rs.000 × 9 . Three months later Amandeep joins the firm with a capital of Rs.75. This operation is called componendo and Dividendo. then as A increases B also increases proportionally or in other words the proportional change occurs in the same direction.50. 50.000 Share of Saman: Manu: Amandeep = 50. In general when A is directly proportional to B. 50. 1.000 = 600 : 675 : 750 = 8 : 9 : 10 Total profit = Rs. c & d such that they are in proportion i.000 : 6. This means the distance-traveled doubles if the time taken doubles provided speed remains constant. time taken to travel a distance is directly proportional to the distance traveled when the speed is constant.3 Saman begins business with a capital of Rs. Back to Table of Contents 33 Corporate & International Relations Amrita Vishwa Vidyapeetham .36. At the end of the year the firm makes a profit of Rs.25. Profit of Amandeep = = Rs. 25. then = Constant. 99. 850 PROPORTIONS Direct Proportion If A is directly proportional to B.000.000 × 6 = 6. Ex. 75000 Money invested by Amandeep for 6 months = Rs. Examples of Direct proportion are Time & Distance problems. How much of this sum should Amandeep receive? Sol.495. (ii) If then Partnership & Share If there is profit in the business run by two partners A and B then. 1. a : b : : c : d then. 1. 75000. Basics of Proportion (i) Let us take four quantities a.000 and after 3 months takes Manu into partnership with a capital of Rs. b.495.00.

If 6 men can build a wall in 9 days then 60 men can build a similar wall in ______ days? Work = Men x Days Back to Table of Contents 34 Corporate & International Relations Amrita Vishwa Vidyapeetham . B decreases proportionally i. X = k1+yk2 Ex. 200. the cost per head is Rs. Hence this is the problem of proportion. i. If 10 persons attend the party the cost per head is Rs 250 and if 15 people attend.e. For example: With simple interest the amount increases with increase of the number of years but not proportionally while on the other hand interest doubles or triples after 2nd and 3rd years. Ex.5 The cost of New Year party organized in TCY is directly related to the number of persons attending that party. Number of men required & rate of work done (amount of work remaining same). Time & Speed problems for same distance. Examples of Indirect proportion are Price & Quantity (expenditure remaining same). 3500 Indirect/Inverse Proportion A is in indirect proportion to B if as A increases. So the increment in amount is in direct relation while increment in interest is direct proportion.e. the proportional change occurs in the opposite direction. What will be the total cost of the party if 20 persons attend it? Sol.4 If 6 men can lay 8 bricks in one day. (2) 40 men (3) 60 men (4) 50 men direct Since the time is same so to do more work we need more persons. In general if A is in indirect proportion to B. then AB = constant. then how many men are required to lay 60 bricks in the same time? (1) 45 men Sol.6 Sol.Analysis of TCS Placement Papers Quants Funda Direct Relation In these types of cases an increase in one causes increase in the other but the increase is not proportional as in the case of direct proportion. Ex. Remember: If X is in direct relation to Y then. This is the problem of direct relation Let the total cost of party is Cost = K1 + K2 N (where K1 & K2 are fixed and variable costs and N is number of persons) 250 x 10 = K1 + 10K2 ………(1) 200 x 15 = K1 + 15K2 ………(2) Solving them we get K1 = 1500 and K2 = 100 So total cost for 20 persons = 1500 + 20 x 100 = Rs.

500 k = 500 Required answer = (A + C) – (B + D) = (8k + 4k) – (6k + 3k) = 3k = Rs. D share Rs. We can write from the given information that. Multiply with 24 = 8 : 6 : 4 : 3. Ten years ago. present ages are 3k + 10 and 4k + 10. D = 3k. for every 2 rupees x takes. The ratio is given as 4 : 5. z will take 5 rupees. C earn Rs. Ratio of the efficiencies is A : B = 100 : 160 = 5 : 8. k = 10 Percentage of A = 3k + 10 = 40 years. 10.500 in the ratio and D together? Sol. How much money z will get? Sol. the required ratio = 8 : 5 : 7 . the number of days taken by B = Ex. it is 4 : 5. now. they have to distribute the money? Sol. B. B is 60% more efficient than A. Since efficiency is inversely proportional to the number of days. y will take 3 rupees and for every 4 rupees y takes. Take A = 8k. x : y = 2 : 3 ………(1) and y : z = 4 : 5 ………(2) Equation (1) × 4 x : y = 8 : 12 Back to Table of Contents 35 Corporate & International Relations Amrita Vishwa Vidyapeetham . What is the present age of A? 10 years ago. 100 more than C. A = 300 + B = 100 + C So. Total = 21k = 10. So. The given ratio is .9 Three friends A. C. Sol.Analysis of TCS Placement Papers Quants Funda Ex. 300 more than B and Rs. in what ratio. Ex.10 Four friends A.11 xyz has to distribute Rs. 2000 together. 3500 such that. how much more money A and C together get than B Ex. If they want to distribute this money such that ‘A’ should get Rs.8 Sol. the ratio of ages of A and B is 3 : 4.7 A can do a piece of work in 12 days. 1500 Ex. Find the number of days required for B to do the same piece of work. C = 4k. So. A = 300 + B and C = 200 + B A + B + C = 2000 B = 500 A = 800 and C = 700 So. let their ages be 3k and 4k. B = 6k. the ratio of days taken to complete the job is 8 : 5. B.

00a m and after 30 min staying at a destination. The size of the bucket is N kb. should not exceed 8 hours driving in a day Average speed of forward journey is 40 mph.Analysis of TCS Placement Papers Quants Funda Equation (2) × 3 y : z = 12 : 15 x : y : z = 8 : 12 : 15 z will get Time. A car is filled with four and half gallons of oil for full round trip. Ans: Between I and J. A programmer sends a program to receiver. There it waits for 10 milliseconds. Where do the two ships meet? ||---g---||---h---||---i---||---j---||---k---||---l---|| Where P. Due to traffic on Sundays. And response will be back to programmer in 20 milliseconds. G. What is the fuel consumed in coming up? 3. If the second person was travelling at a speed of 35 mph. l denote the distance between the ports. H. it returned back to the bus stand with 50% faster speed. L are the various stops in between the distances denoted by || . How much time the program takes to get a response back to the programmer. Wind flows 160 miles in 330 min. At the same rate how much far will it move in 3 hrs? 9. J. At what time it retur4ns to the bus stand (11. the return journey average speed is 30 mph.00)? 6. Given that with 4/5 full tank the vehicle can travel 12 miles. A person who decided to go weekend trip. closer to J 10. Find the speed limit. 8. A bus started from bus stand at 8. K. k. Another person was also fined for exceeding the same speed limit by twice the same.1 kb per millisecond. j. Back to Table of Contents 36 Corporate & International Relations Amrita Vishwa Vidyapeetham . I. How far he can select a picnic spot? 4. A storm will move with a velocity 150 km towards the center 2 hr. a ship started from P and moves at a speed of I miles per hour and another ship starts from L and moving with H miles per hour simultaneously. Fuel consumption is 1/4 gallons more in going than coming. Refer to the figure below. The bucket fills at the rate of 0. Find the distance travelled with1/3 of full tank. 5. The values g. h. A person was fined by traffic police for exceeding the speed limit by 10 mph. after it is sent? ANS: 30MILISECOND 2. Time required for 80 miles is _________? 7. Speed & Distance/ Boats and streams Questions taken from students’ forum 1. i. Given that A is travelling at 72 km/hr on a highway and B is travelling at a speed of 25 meters per second on a highway. The destination is 27 miles from the bus stand. Find the difference in their speeds in m/sec.

Average velocity = 6. = v1 – v2 If both the vehicles are moving in the opposite direction then their Relative velocity = R. For the same distance. the time is inversely proportion to the speed of the object. v2 and v3 then.V. 2. These types of problems can be solved as the problems of percentage. Speed & Distance 1. Average velocity = If x1 & x2 are the distances covered at velocities v1 & v2 respectively then the average velocity over the entire distance (x1 + x2) is given by 4. Let v1 and v2 be the velocity of the two vehicles and let v1 > v2 If both the vehicles are moving in the same direction then their Relative Velocity = R. When time is constant the ratio of speeds of the object is equal to the ratio of the distance covered by them i. If the distance is covered in three equal parts with different speeds v1. they can average only 30 miles per hour on the return trip. = v1 + v2 3.Analysis of TCS Placement Papers Quants Funda 11. A family. A car travels 12 km with a 4/5th filled tank. second half of the distance at a velocity v2 then. A man travels first half of the distance at a velocity v1.V. they can average 40 miles per hour on the way to their destination. By leaving early in the morning. = 5. Examples & Explanations Time. 7. Due to the heavy Sunday traffic. planning a weekend trip. How far will the car travel with 1/3 filled tank? 12. What is the farthest distance from home they can plan to go? (a) 120 miles or less (b) Between 120and 140 miles (c) 140 miles (d) Between 140 and 160 miles (e) 160 miles or more Theory. decides to spend not more than a total of 8 hours driving.e. Average velocity Back to Table of Contents 37 Corporate & International Relations Amrita Vishwa Vidyapeetham . The fundamental relationship between Distance (s). time (t) and speed (v) is given by: s = v x t.

Time taken to cross the platform = (iii) For two trains having lengths l1 & l2 and traveling in the same direction with speeds v1 & v2 respectively (v1 > v2). For the same distance. a lamp-post. Time taken to cross each other completely = (iv) Similarly. the time will become 5/4 of original time.e. So.1 If I decrease my speed by 20% of original speed. we assume the length of the object to be infinitely small. for two trains traveling in the opposite direction: Time taken to cross each other completely = (v) If two trains/Object start at the same time from two points X & Y and move towards each other and after crossing they take a & b hrs respectively to reach opposite points Y and X. Ex. This is given equal to 7 minutes. What is the ratio of the speeds of the trains? Sol. The trains meet at Nagpur which is at a distance of 700 kms from Mumbai. a stationary man. So Usual time = 7 × 4 = 28 minutes and New time = 28 + 7 = 35 minutes. Since speed is decreased by 20% i. provided its length isn’t mentioned) Time taken by the train to cross Pole = (ii) However.2 A train leaves Calcutta for Mumbai. 1/5 of the original. running at 60 kmph in the opposite direction? Back to Table of Contents 38 Corporate & International Relations Amrita Vishwa Vidyapeetham . Therefore new time increase by 1/4 of the original. What is my usual time and new time of reaching office? Sol. the ratio of their speeds is 9: 7. the time taken by the train to cross the platform is same as the time taken by the train to cross a distance equal to its own length plus the length of the platform at its own velocity. a distance of 1600 kms at the same time a train leaves Mumbai to Calcutta. it is clear that when the first train travels a distance of 1600 – 700 = 900 km.3 A train 110 m long travels at 60 kmph. running at 40 kmph in the same direction? (f) To pass another train 170 m long. From the problem. I reach office 7 minute late. the second train travels a distance equal to 900. How long does it take? (a) To pass a telegraph post by the side of the track? (b) To pass a man running at 6 kmph in the same direction as the train? (c) To pass a man running at 6 kmph in the opposite direction? (d) To pass a station platform 240 m long? (e) To pass another train 170 m long.Analysis of TCS Placement Papers Quants Funda Ex. when a train approaches a platform. Trains (i) When a train approaches a stationary object (a tree. then Ex. New speed will become 4/5 of the original speed.

Analysis of TCS Placement Papers Quants Funda Sol. (a) Speed of train = Time taken to cross the telegraph post = (b) Speed of man = Time taken to pass the man = Length of the train/ Relative velocity = (c) Time = Length of the train/ Relative velocity = (d) Time = (Length of the train + Length of platform) / Relative velocity = (e) Speed of the second train = mps Time = Sum of the length of the two trains/ Relative velocity = (f) Time = Sum of the length of the two trains/Relative velocity = Boats & Streams Let Speed of boat in still water = b km/hr Speed of stream = w km/hr Speed of boat with stream (Down Stream).4 A man can row 4.5 km/hr in still water.5 km/hr. Downstream speed is twice to that of upstream. What is the rate of the current? Sol. U = b Speed of boat in still water. So b + u = 2(b – u) u = = 1. It takes him twice as long to row upstream as to row downstream. b = (D + U) Speed of stream. Speed of boat in still water (b) = 4. Back to Table of Contents 39 Corporate & International Relations Amrita Vishwa Vidyapeetham . It is given upstream time is twice to that of down stream. w = (D – U) Ex.5 km/hr. D = b + w Speed of boat against stream (Up stream).

6 [Here. as a warm-up exercise. Unlike on a straight track. Saurav would be at the starting point and after every 360 sec Sachin would be at starting point.5 m/s. they would meet again even if Saurav is faster than Sachin. the gap between them will keep widening. they would meet at the starting point. after every 225 sec. he will take a lead and as they keep running. The circumference of the track is 500 m (i. Back to Table of Contents 40 Corporate & International Relations Amrita Vishwa Vidyapeetham . every half an hour. 360) = 1800 sec = 0.Analysis of TCS Placement Papers Quants Funda Circular Motion Circular Motion with two people Ex.5 + 5 = 7. when Sachin has made 1 full round. Let us first calculate the time Saurav and Sachin take to make one full circle. Hence. the first meeting if both are moving in the same direction and after both have started simultaneously occurs after Time of first meeting = Method 2: For every round that Sachin makes. [Hence. would be the smallest multiple of both 225 and 360 which is the LCM of 225 and 360. time for the first meeting = Circumference / Relative speed = Ex. In general. The time when they will be together again at the starting point simultaneously for the first time. When will they be together again for the first time? Sol. Time taken by Saurav = Time take by Sachin = Hence. Saurav would have made 2 rounds because the ratio of their speeds is 1 : 2.e. is Sachin’s speed. they would both be together at the starting point for the first time after LCM (225. If the two are moving in the opposite directions. Hence.+ Suppose in the earlier problem when would the two meet for the first time if they are moving in the opposite directions? Sol.5 Sachin and Saurav. then Relative speed = 2. Thus. ½ km). Therefore. Method 1: Since Saurav is faster than Sachin.5 hr. Saurav is a better athlete and jogs at 18km/hr while Sachin jogs at 9 km/hr.7 If the speeds of Saurav and Sachin were 8 km/hr and 5 km/hr. The same problem could be rephrased as “In what time would Saurav take a lead of 500 m over Sachin”? Every second Saurav is taking a lead of over Sachin in Therefore. Saurav would have taken a lead of 1 round. they would meet for the first time after 200 sec. then after what time will the two meet for the first time at the starting point if they start simultaneously? Sol. are jogging on a circular track. They start from the same point at the same time and in the same direction. they would meet after Ex.

for the first time at the starting point? Sol. (b) If we need to find the time after which all of them would be at the starting point simultaneously for the first time. we have to calculate the relative time of the meeting of any one (A or B or C) among the three with other two runners and then calculate the LCM of these two timings. for the first time? b. and C are running along a circular track of length d meters with speeds Va . At a relative speed of 3 km/hr. B. Ex. to complete one circle. to complete one circle. And to calculate when they all meet for the first time at the starting point. Hence.Analysis of TCS Placement Papers Quants Funda Note: From the solution you could realise that it is immaterial whether they move in the same direction or in the opposite. Saurav takes 225 sec. To find the time when all the three will meet for the first time. he would meet Laxman after every If all the three have to meet. In the first case. they would all meet for the first time after 30 min. they would meet after every [LCM (10. Circular motion with three people: If three persons A. At a speed of 5 km/hr. Laxman moves at 3 km/hr. (a) Break the problem into two separate cases. This will be the time when all the three runners will meet for the first time. we shall use the same method as in the case involving two people. At a speed of 8 km/hr. Saurav moves at the relative speed of (8 – 5) = 3 km/hr with respect to Sachin. At a speed of 3 km/hr.Vb .8 Let us now discuss the cases of circular motion with three people: Laxman joins Saurav and Sachin. and all of them run in the same direction from the same point simultaneously in a track of length 500 m. Sachin at 5 km/hr and Saurav at 8 km/hr.Vc respectively. Laxman would take 600 sec. When will all of them be together again? a. At a relative speed of 5 km/hr. Sachin takes 360 sec. Back to Table of Contents 41 Corporate & International Relations Amrita Vishwa Vidyapeetham . we have to take the LCM of the timings taken by all the runners separately to cover one full circular motion. 6)] min = 30 min or ½ hour. to complete one circle. he would meet Sachin after every In the second case. Saurav moves at the speed of (8 – 3) km/hr = 5 km/hr with respect to Laxman.

relative velocity = 12. So. And they take 20 seconds to cross each other. the distance between will be 120 × 5 m = 600 m.5 m/s If they are moving in opposite directions. The speed of the faster train is twice the speed of the slower train. After how many hours will the policeman catch the thief? Sol.m. The faster train takes 60 sec to overtake the slower train. If they move in the same direction. 45 kmph = 10 m/s.12 Two trains are moving in opposite directions with the respective speeds of 36 kmph and 45 kmph.5m/s.m. When the policeman starts a chase. 360.5 Since the velocity in the second case is times the velocity in the first case.. At what time does he catch the man? Sol.5 = 22. Speeds = 36 kmph. = 1800sec. They will cross each other in 20 seconds. ( 2 p.13 Two trains are moving in the same direction.5 – 10 = 2. B covers 5 m extra than A and so. i. the thief starts running. Distance covered by the thief in 1h = 40 km Distance covered in Now. If they are moving in the same direction at the same speed.11 A and B started moving simultaneously from P towards Q and their respective speeds are 36 kmph and 15 m/s respectively.10 A man steals a car at 1 : 30 pm & drives at 40 kmph. 20 × 9 = 180 sec = 3 min. how much time will they take to cross each other? Sol. Ex. they will take 9 times more time to cross each other. At 2 pm the owner starts chasing his car at 50 kmph. So in 2 mins = 120 sec. 600) sec. 12. If they move in opposite directions. relative velocity = 10 + 12. Ex. the distance between them will be 5 m. time taken to catch the thief = Relative velocity = 50 – 40 = 10 kmph ( Both are moving in same direction) Time = 4 p. they would meet for the first time at the starting point after LCM (225. Speed of A = 36 kmph Speed of B = 15 m/s So in 1 sec. Ex.e.9 A thief is spotted by a policeman from a distance of 200 m. What is the distance between them after moving for 2 minutes after starting from P? Sol. how much time will they take to cross each other? Back to Table of Contents 42 Corporate & International Relations Amrita Vishwa Vidyapeetham . Speed of thief is 10 Kmph and that of policeman is 12 kmph.Analysis of TCS Placement Papers Quants Funda Hence. Ex. + 2) Ex.

if they want to reach the midpoint simultaneously Ex. Train B starts at city P towards city Q.16 A river flows at a speed of 1. then total time taken to go upstream and downstream The distance covered both ways is 12 km.5 kmph in still water. what is the distance between cities. The speeds of the boatman upstream and downstream are 1 kmph and 4 kmph respectively. 1 hour after train A with a speed of 60 kmph. If they move in the same direction. If both the trains reach station Q simultaneously. Whereas B can cover this distance in So B has to wait for (50 – 37. the distance as d. Assume. relative speed = 2v – v = v. Since. A and B are 6 m/s and 8 m/s respectively. If the distance covered each way = x km. The midpoint means exactly 300 m from both the sides. relative velocity = 2v + v = 3v. P and Q? Sol.Analysis of TCS Placement Papers Quants Funda Sol. Ex. How much time after A starts for P. Back to Table of Contents 43 Corporate & International Relations Amrita Vishwa Vidyapeetham . so 2v is the speed of the faster train.5) = 12.15 Two friends A and B are moving towards Q and P respectively from P and Q respectively.5 kmph and a boatman who can row his boat at a speed of 2. A can walk this 300 m at a speed 6 m/s speed in 50 sec.5 sec.e. does B have to start for Q so that they meet at the exact midpoint of P and Q? Sol. the velocity is three times. If they move in opposite directions. The distance between P and Q is 600 m and the speeds of the friends. the time required is i. What is the total distance covered by the boatman? Sol.14 Train A starts from city P to city Q with a velocity of 40 kmph. (Since train B takes 1 hour less than that of train A) Therefore d =120 km Ex. takes hours to go a certain distance up stream and return to the starting point. Assume ‘v’ is the speed of the slower train.

If all the contestants reach the goal at the same time then the race is called a dead heat race. in which winner reaches the finishing line.g. (2) A and B start together at P: This means both the runners have started from the same starting point. By how many seconds will B win if he has 30 metres start? B runs 330 metres in 44 seconds. e. Back to Table of Contents 44 Corporate & International Relations Amrita Vishwa Vidyapeetham . In a contest with 2 participants. (i) The winner can give/allow the loser a start of t seconds or x metres. The point from which the race begins is called the starting point. The path on which the contests are held is called a race course. Ex. The ratio of the speed of the runners is the ratio of the distance covered by them in the time. A finishes at Q. (b) Headway/Start race: This means that runner A has started from the “K” distance behind runner B but at the same time. one is the winner and the other is the loser.g. A can run 330 metres in 41 seconds and B in 44 seconds.17 Sol. (3) A gives B a start of X metre: This means that A stands at starting point and B is X meter forward of the starting line at the starting of the race. The point where the race ends is called the winning post or the goal. sailing or rowing is called a race. If we know that distance and time taken we can cover the speed of the looser? Winner's (A) time = Loser's (B) time – t A and B starts together at P. driving.e. mans they started from the same point but A start 3 sec after. (4) A beats B by t seconds This states that after coming of A at the finishing point B will take more t seconds to cover the left distance. but t seconds before B finishes. There are two types of races (a) Handicap Race: In this type of races 1st runner gives 2nd runner benefit of running for some time before 1st start the race. start distance = x metres and start time = t seconds. i. The person who first reaches the winning post is called the winner. beat distance = x metres and beat time = t sec Interpretation from the statements given in the problems concerned with race (1) A beats B by X meter: This means that the winner of the race is A and B is X meters behind A when he crosses the finishing line. i.Analysis of TCS Placement Papers Quants Funda Races & Games of Skill Races: Any contest of speed in running. A gives B a start of 10 m means before starting A is on starting point and B is 10 meter forward from A and they start the race at the same time. (ii) The winner can beat the loser by t seconds or x metres. A can give B a handicap of 3 sec. riding. e.e.

Analysis of TCS Placement Papers

Quants Funda

B runs (330 – 30) metres in But A runs 330 metres in 41 seconds So, B wins by (41 – 40) seconds, i.e. 1 second. Ex.18 Sol. In one kilometer race, A beats B by 36 metres or 9 seconds. Find A's time over the course. Here A is the winner and B is the loser. The time taken by B to cover the distance of 36 metres = 9 seconds. Time taken by B to cover 1 kilometer = (1000 × 9)/36 = 250 sec. Therefore time taken by A to cover 1km = 250 – 9 = 241 seconds. Alternative method: Using formula:

Escalator Let us understand this concept with the help of an example. Ex.19 In an escalator Rajesh covers 4 steps with 3 steps of Suresh in the same time in a static escalator. When the escalator is moving Rajesh takes 24 steps while Suresh takes 21 steps to reach the top of the escalator. What are the total numbers of steps in the escalator? Sol. Assume that S be the number of steps of escalator that helped Rajesh and Suresh for the same time. Then, For every 4 steps of Rajesh, Suresh will take 3 steps.

So for 24 steps Rajesh take, Suresh will take 18 steps. But Suresh has taken 21 steps which are of the original steps. These extra steps taken are the result of extra time consumed by him and helped by the escalator. So, the equation will become Total number of steps in the escalator = 24 + S = 24 + 18 = 42 steps. Ex.20 In a 100m race, A can beat B by 10m, and C by 20m. If B and C run with the same velocity, By how many meters can B beat C in a 900 m race? Sol. From the first line of the question we can understand that when A runs 100m, B runs 90 m and C runs 80 m. So B can beat C by 10m in a 90 m race. So in a 900m race, B can beat C by 100m. Ex.21 A can beat B by 44 metres in a 1760 meter race, while in a 1320 metres race, B can beat C by 30 metres. By what distance (in meters) will A beat C in a 880 meter race? Sol. When A runs 1760 metres, B runs 1716 metres.

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45 Corporate & International Relations

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Analysis of TCS Placement Papers

Quants Funda

When B runs 1320 metres, C runs 1290 metres. When B runs 1716 metres, C runs 1290 (1719/1320) = 1677 metres. A 1760 B 1716 C 1677

When A runs 880 metres, C runs 1677 (880/1760) = 838.5 metres. A beats C by (880 – 838.5) = 41.5 metres. Ex.22 Both A and B run a 2 km race. A gives B a start of 100 m and still beats him by 20 seconds. If A runs at a speed of 20 km per hour, find B's speed in kilometres per hour. (1) 17 Sol. (2) 18 (3) 19 (4) 19.5

A covers a distance of 2 km. in (2/20) hour i.e. 360 sec. B covers the distance of (2000 – 100) i.e. 1900 m in 360 + 20 i.e. 380 sec. B's speed = (1900/380) = 5 m/s =

Ex.23

J is

times as fast as K. If J gives K a start of 150 m, how far must be the winning post so that the race ends in a (2) 440 m (3) 550 m (4) 200 m

dead heat? (1) 100 m Sol.

Race ends in a dead heat, i.e. times taken by J and K are the same.

Time & Work

Questions taken from students’ forum

1. A can do a piece of work in 20 days, where as B can do it in 12 days. In 9 days B does take to finish the remaining work? 2. A man, a woman, and a child can do a piece of work in 6 days. And it is also known that a man alone can do it in 24 days and woman alone can do it in 16 days. Find the number of days taken by a child to complete the work (working along)? 3. A can copy 50 papers in 10 hours while both A & B can copy 70 papers in 10 hours. Then for how many hours required for B to copy 26 papers?

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of the work. How many days will A

46 Corporate & International Relations

Amrita Vishwa Vidyapeetham

Analysis of TCS Placement Papers

Quants Funda

4. A is twice efficient than B. A and B can both work together to complete a work in 7 days. How many days does A alone take to complete the work? 5. A finish the work in 10 days. B is 60% efficient than A. How many days does B take to finish the work? 6. A work is done by two people in 24 min. One of them can do this work alone in 40 min. How much time required to do the same work by second person? 7. A finishes the work in 10 days and B in 8 days individually. If A works for 6 days then how many days should B work to complete remaining work? 8. Given 20 men take 15 days to complete a job. Find the number days required for 5 men to complete the work?

**Theory, Examples & Explanations Time & Work
**

To start with, let’s take an example. If 2 men take 10 days to build a wall, 1 man will take 20 days (not 5 days) to build the same wall. The question arises why? The reason is simple that man and time are inversely proportional to each other. When men will decrease the number of days required to complete the work will increase. Here men become half, so time will double and will complete the work in 20 days. -------- (1), Where M & D are number of men and number of days

respectively. If we further break number of days to hours, then total hours = DH, where H are number of hours per day. Now, our formula becomes To elaborate it further, let’s say M men take D days to build a room. Now if work is doubled (they have to build two rooms of same size) in same D no. of days, obviously they have to double their strength Or we can say that no. of men are directly proportional to the work to be finished. In mathematics, we can write it as M W, -------------------------------------- (2)

Where W is the work to be finished. By combining (1) and (2), we get (or) , Where K is constant of proportionality (or)

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47 Corporate & International Relations

Amrita Vishwa Vidyapeetham

Work = LCM of 10 & 15 = 30 units One day work of Manni = One day work of Gopi = One day work of both = 5 units So number of days taken = Simultaneous Working Problems It is always a good way if we try to solve such type of questions with the help of LCM approach.1 If Manni and Gopi finish a work in 10 and 15 days respectively. Type II: Where the efficiency is mentioned. Here the work done is not 1(unity) but the LCM of the time taken by number of persons. Let us understand this with the help of an example. B joins him. C starts the work and after 1 day.2 A. 12.Analysis of TCS Placement Papers Quants Funda This is our general formula to solve time & work problems. Here the case of unit day’s or one day’s concept is utilized. 15) = 60 units Back to Table of Contents 48 Corporate & International Relations Amrita Vishwa Vidyapeetham . After 1 day of B. We can say that Unit time work = Work done in unit time is known as efficiency of the worker or we can say. Let total work is LCM (10. It is also known as Work Equivalence Method. Ex. then what is the one-day work done by A? The answer is one-tenth part of the total work. Majority of time & work questions can be divided into two types. while B left two days before completion of work. LCM Approach In this type of approach the total work is considered as the LCM of the time taken by the individuals and then unit time work is calculated. Let us understand the concept with the help of an example. Ex. what will be number of days taken by both of them to complete the work when both work together? Sol. Here the Rule of Fractions or the proportion (direct or indirect) concept can also be used. Let the total work is equal to the LCM of number of days of Manni & Gopi taken to do the work respectively. Concept of unit time If A does a work in 10 days. What will be the total number of days taken to complete the work? Sol. Type I: Where efficiency of individual’s is not mentioned (as in the above example): These are the cases where the man-days concept is utilized. 12 and 15 days. B and C can finish a work independently in 10. that if a worker takes less number of days (than second worker) to finish a work. A also joins them but leave 3 days before completion of the work. he will be more efficient.

The rest of the process is almost similar. type of problems. What will be the number of days required to build the wall for the first time? Sol. Inlet: A pipe connected with a tank (or a cistern or a reservoir) is called an inlet. So.4 If A build the wall in 20 days and B can destroy that wall in 30 days and work on alternate days.3 A can build a wall in 20 days while B can build the same wall in 30 days. there are agents (the outlets) which perform negative work too. Let total work = 60 units 1 day work of A = 3 units and 1 day work of B = 2 units 2 days work = 3 + 2 = 5 units To do 60 units. In 1 minute. In how many minutes will the monkey reach the top of the pole? Ex. The work done by this is taken as positive work. days required = Negative Work Concept These types of problems revel about the problems of pipe and cistern in which one is inlet and other is outlet. Thus. Ex. if it fills the tank. If they work on alternate days in how many days. 6(N – 5) + 5(N – 3) + 4N = 60 Solving we have N = 7 days Alternate Days concept In these. Days of C = N According to the question we have. Back to Table of Contents 49 Corporate & International Relations Amrita Vishwa Vidyapeetham . we see the work done by two or more men on alternate days or hours. 1/20-1/30 = 1/60 th of the wall will be constructed. Thus. Where as B will destroy 1/30 th of the wall in 1 day and since they are working on alternate days. Pipes and Cisterns Pipes and Cisterns problems are almost the same as those of Time and Work problems. The only difference with Pipes and Cisterns problems is that there are outlets as well as inlets. Days of B = (N – 3). he can climb up by 3 m and in the next minute. then the pipe fills 1/6 th of the tank in 1 hour.Analysis of TCS Placement Papers Quants Funda I day work: Let total days taken = N Days of A = (N – 5). if a pipe fills a tank in 6 hrs. 57/60 th of the work will be completed and on the 115th day. A can build 1/20 th of the wall in 1 day. So it takes 115 days to construct the wall. So in 2 days. will the wall be completed if A start the job? Sol. A will come and completes the remaining 3/60 = 1/20 th work. in 57 × 2 = 114 days. Let us solve a puzzle “A monkey wants to climb a pole which is 24 m tall. he slips by 2 m.

If a man left the work after 5 days and again joined after 5 more days. Ex. How many more days than the estimated. how many days it takes for 10 men to complete the same work. in 1 day. Total time taken = 180 hours Ex. If both the pipes are opened simultaneously. Ex. A can do a work in 30 days. If both the pipes are opened imultaneously.8. the second day one more joined with him. C can do the work in 60 days. The next day one more joined. and B can do in 40 days. and c can do 1/X of the work. So it takes 5/4 more days to complete the work. Four men can do work in 15 days. One man started a work on first day. B can do 1/40 th of the work.7. B work for 20 days and C work for 10 days. This work can be done in 5/4 days by the 4 men. outlet. 10/30 + 20/40 + 10/X = 1. Part filled by A alone in 1 hour = 1/36 Part filled by B alone in 1 hour = 1/45 Part filled by (A + B) in 1 hour = 1/36+1/45 = 9/180 = 1/20 Hence. that can be completed Back to Table of Contents 50 Corporate & International Relations Amrita Vishwa Vidyapeetham . how much time will be taken to fill the tank? Sol.9. So the amount of work. Let us assume C require X days to complete the work. it takes to complete the work? Sol. Pipe A can fill a tank in 36 hours and pipe B can empty it in 45hours. Total Volume of the tank = 180 units (LCM of 36 and 45) 1 hour work of A = 5 units 1 hour work of B = – 4 units 1 hour work of A + B = 1 units So. how much time will be taken to fill the tank? Sol. If the work is completed in 15 days. Ex. After 15 days.Analysis of TCS Placement Papers Quants Funda Outlet: A pipe connected with a tank is called an. Two pipes A and B can fill a tank in 36 hours and 45 hours respectively. If A and B work together for 10 days and A left. Let us assume one man can do x amount of work in 1 day. A can do 1/30th of the work. if they work regularly? Sol. if it empties the tank and the work done by this is taken as the negative work.6. the work that is left is equal to the amount of work that can be done by 1 man in 5 days. A work only for 10 days. How many days C alone can complete the work? Sol. then C joined with B and completed the work in 10 days. Everyday one new person joined until the work gets completed. the remaining three work continuously till the end of work. So.5. So. Ex. both the pipes together will fill the tank in 20 hours. So. So X = 60 days.

So. Ex. Heights & Distances Questions taken from students’ forum 1. how much time it takes for A and B to complete the work. What is the height of the building with shadow up to C ft? Back to Table of Contents 51 Corporate & International Relations Amrita Vishwa Vidyapeetham . So. 16 × 3x = 48x will be completed.10.Analysis of TCS Placement Papers Quants Funda On 1st day = x 2nd day = 2x ……………. B can do 2x C can do 3x B and C together takes 10 days If A and B work on alternate days. 48x + x = 49x will be completed. 15th day = 15x Total = Σ15 x = 120 x But 10 men can do 10x work in 1 day. In 16 × 2 = 32 days 33rd day 34th day A will come and do x work.. If A can do x work in 1 day. B is twice as efficient as ‘A’ and ‘C’ is 50% more efficient than B. In 2 days x + 2x = 3x work will completed. B will come and complete the work in 1/2 day. So. answer = 33 1/2 days. if they work on alternate days starting with ‘A’? Sol. If B and C together can complete a work in 10 days. Total work = 50 x. 10 men take 12 days to complete the work. A building with height D ft shadow up to G ft on a neighbor building.

These ratios are called trigonometric ratios. sin2θ + cos2θ = 1 [Note sin2θ = (sin θ)2 and not (sin θ2)] 2. seconds. Back to Table of Contents 52 Corporate & International Relations Amrita Vishwa Vidyapeetham . Important Formulae For any angle θ: 1. 1 minute = 60 seconds. In this type of triangles. minutes. 1 + cot2θ = cosec2θ Range of Values of Ratios If 0 ≤ θ ≤ 360o. 1 + tan2 θ = sec2θ 3. radians. if θ be the angle between AC & BC If θ is one of the angle other then right angle. gradients.Analysis of TCS Placement Papers Quants Funda Theory. degrees. then the side opposite to the angle is perpendicular (P) and the sides containing the angle are taken as Base ( B) and the hypotenuse (H). then the values for different trigonometric ratios will be as follows. we can have six types of ratios. π radians = 180° = 200g 1 radian = 180°/π and 1 degree = π/ 180 radians. Where 1 degree = 60 minutes. The angle at the centre is of 1 radian Basic Trigonometric Ratios In a right triangle ABC. Examples & Explanations Heights & Distances Angles and their relationship Angles are measured in many units’ viz.

e. BC. – 1 ≤ cos θ ≤ 1 3. – ∞ ≤ Cosec θ ≤ – 1 & 1 ≤ Cosec θ ≤ ∞ Sign of Trigonometric ratios We divide the angle at a point (i. In the first quadrant all the trigonometric ratios are positive Values of trigonometric Ratio for some special angles: 00 Sin 0 300 450 600 900 1 Cos 1 0 Tan Properties of Triangle Sine rule 0 1 In any triangle ABC if AB.Analysis of TCS Placement Papers Quants Funda 1. a. – ∞ ≤ cot θ ≤ ∞ 5. we have the following rule. 360°) into 4 parts called quadrants. – ∞ ≤ tan θ ≤ ∞ 4. Area of Triangle Area = Where S = semi Perimeter Back to Table of Contents 53 Corporate & International Relations Amrita Vishwa Vidyapeetham . b respectively then we have R Circum – Radius = Cosine Rule In a triangle ABC of having sides of any size. – ∞ ≤ Sec θ ≤ -1 & 1 ≤ Sec θ ≤ ∞ 6. AC be represented by c. – 1 ≤ Sin θ ≤ 1 2.

"aggregate". The singularity matrix from a given set of matrices? (Hint det(A)=0) 2. *I don’t remember the exact question. 3. But on the other hand if we say Set of good player of cricket in India those has played at least 25 international games. A set is a well-defined collection of elements. "class" and is comprised of elements/objects/members. A = {a. What is the minimum possible number of students who speak both the languages? (a) 5 (b) 20 (c) 15 (d) 10 (e) 30 3. Roaster Form: A set is described by listing elements. Back to Table of Contents 54 Corporate & International Relations Amrita Vishwa Vidyapeetham . Representation of a Set A set can be described in two different ways. 2. 4. o. repetition of an element has no effect. separated by commas. Examples & Explanations Sets & Matrices Defining a Set "Set" is synonymous with the words "collection". i.Analysis of TCS Placement Papers Quants Funda Sets & Matrices Questions taken from students’ forum 1. A set can be described in any one of the following ways. u} is a set of vowels of English alphabets and a finite set and N = {2. Hindi and Telugu+ Theory. 2. 1. 2} is the same set as {1. For example. For example {1. What are the criteria of choosing an actress as beautiful and which player is said to be a good player of cricket. e. but it was about three languages Tamil. within brackets. For example.is a set of even natural number and is a infinite set. 30 speak Hindi and 20 speak English. Also.…. By well-defined elements it means that given a set and an element. 6. Three circles Venn diagram problems can be expected from this section. In the class of 40 students. 3}. the set of beautiful Actress of Bollywood or the set of Good Players of cricket in India are not sets as the world beautiful and Good are not well defined. it must be possible to decide whether or not the element belongs to the set. will be a set as the word Good is now well defined.

4.= N Z– = Set of all negative integers = {– 1. then subsets of P are φ. If A is subset of B.e. – 3. If A is a set then its Power set is denoted as P(A). {a.} Back to Table of Contents 55 Corporate & International Relations Amrita Vishwa Vidyapeetham . c}. Also every set is the subset of itself and it is improper subset of the set. b. c}. {b}. A = {x | x is the root of x2 + 5x – 6 = 0} Cardinal number of a set The number of elements contained in a set is known as the cardinal number of that set. (The symbol stands for "implies" and stands for “belongs to”). {b. B. {a. {a. and read as “Cardinal number of set A is 5”.e. – 2. b}. On the basis of cardinal number a set can be an Empty Set or a Singleton Set. Some Important Universal Sets: N = Set of all natural numbers = . such as Set of lady Prime-minister of India.. b. 3. If A = {a. And a set is singleton set if the cardinal number is 1 i. then P(A) = {φ. c}.. then A is called the subset of B. – 1. For example. which is read as "A is a subset of B" or "A is contained in B". c} i. b. {c}.…. Power Set The set of subsets of a set is the power set of the set. {b.a. If every element of A is contained in B. 3. For example. {a. 0. Thus a set that contains all sets in a given context is called the universal set. 2.…Z or I Set of all integers = . A set is said to be empty or void or null set if it has no elements and its cardinal number is 0. which is read as 'the set of all x such that P(x) holds'. Universal Set In any discussion in theory. Set Builder Form: A set can also be described by a characterizing property P(x) of its elements x. there happens to be a set U that contains all sets under consideration.. b}.1. b. {c}. {a}. c}} The cardinal number of any set A is 2n. where n = number of elements present in set A. it has 8 number of subsets and Empty set is the subset of every. 1. Subsets Let A and B be two sets. Such a set is called the universal set. It is denoted by the symbol φ or { } such as Set of odd numbers divisible by 2. c}. 2. {a.} Z+ = Set of all positive integers = . c}. c-. then we can say every element of A is present in B and every element of B is present in A. Every set has one improper subset and other subsets as proper subsets. If a set A has 5 elements then its cardinal number is written as n(A) = 5. If A B and also B A. in plane geometry the set of all points in the plane is the universal set. These types of sets having same number and identical elements are known as Equal sets. we write A If A B then a A a B.1. Let P = . In such a case the set is described by {x | P (x) holds} or {x: P(x) holds}. {b}. {a. {a}. 3. – 2.…– 3. it contains only one element. 2.Analysis of TCS Placement Papers Quants Funda 2..

i. 4. iii. Operations of sets Union of Sets: The union of two sets A and B. So. is a set containing all the common elements present in set A or in set B. iv. then A U B = {5. e. 9. 8. The union of set A and B is represented as A U B. ball.g . 2. 8} B. log 2 etc… are all irrational numbers. 7. So. 5. 11} and B = {car. 3.…Z0 = The set of all non-zero integers = {± 1.e. e. is a set containing all the elements present in set A or in set B. A B = {x | x A and x B} A or x B} Difference of sets: A – B is the difference of set A from set B and is defined as the set of elements present in set A but not in set B. ii. R –Q =The set of all irrational numbers. A‘= {x | x U and x A} (a) Also the Compliment of set A is defined as the difference of Universal set U and set A. . A A A A A=A φ=A U=U B=B A & & & & A A A A A=A φ=φ U=A B=B A Back to Table of Contents 56 Corporate & International Relations Amrita Vishwa Vidyapeetham . ± 3. 1. ……. . . 8}. 6.. then A B = {5.. = R = The set of all real numbers. A – B = {x | x A and x B} Complement of a set: The complement of set A in U the set of those elements which are present in Universal set but not present in set A.⇒ A‘ = U – A Facts and Rules: i. 7. ± 2. 7. 7. 7. So.0. sofa} Intersection of Sets: The intersection of two sets A and B. Compliment of A is denoted by A' The shaded part represents A'. house. car.} Q = The set of all rational numbers. So. The intersection of set A and B is represented as A For example A = {5. 11} and B = {3. 9. ball. 11. house. 9. 8. 8.Analysis of TCS Placement Papers Quants Funda W = Set of all whole numbers = . sofa). A U B = {x | x For example: A = {5.

Let us understand the concept of maximum and minimum values with the help of an example. n (A B) = 8.e. Let A & B denote sets of people who read paper A & paper B respectively and in all there are 100 people. And the people who read paper Hence the people who read paper A only i. Organized by any N. viii. It is also known that 30% of those who read A but not B.e. look into advertisements while 50% of those who read both A & B look into advertisements. Venn Diagrams Venn diagram is the pictorial representation of the set and also the operation involved in the sets.1 A n (A n (A A’ = & A B) A’ = φ B) = n (A) + n (B) – n (A B C) = n (A) + n (B) + n (C) – n (A B) B) – n (B C) –n (C A) + n (A B C) n (A – B) = n (A) – n (A In a certain city only two newspapers A & B are published. vi. vii. B) = 25 – 8 = 17. Ex. What % of the population reads an advertisement? Sol. n (A and asked to find the value of n (A B) = n (A) + n (B) – n (A B) and imagine that the value of n (A B) is not given B). then n (A) = 25.9 %. We often use circles to represent the sets and overlapping of the circles to represent the common elements in two or more sets. Now percentage of people reading an advertisement = [(30 % of 17) + (40% of + 12) + (50% of 8)] % = 13. look into advertisements and 40% of those who read B but not A.O on the cold drinks after effects found that 80% of the total people like Coca Cola and 70% like Limca. Maximum and Minimum elements in a set Let us consider the formula. It is known that 25% of the city population read A & 20% read B while 8% read both A & B. Ex. n(B) = 20. The universal set U is represented by interior of a rectangle and its subsets are represented by interior of circles within the rectangle.2 If in a Survey. n (A – B) = n (A) – n (A B only i.G. n (L) + n (C) – n (L 80 + 70 – X ≤ 100 57 Corporate & International Relations Amrita Vishwa Vidyapeetham . Limca 80 .X Coca Cola Here n (L C) ≤ 100% C) = n (L C) ≤ 100% Back to Table of Contents Using the formula. What can be the minimum and maximum number of people who drink both the drinks? Sol.Analysis of TCS Placement Papers Quants Funda v. n (B – A) = n (B) – n (A B) = 20 – 8 = 12.X X 70 . then we will get the range of the values.

00001 10 1. Find the equation of a curve that intersects x at -1 when y=0 and x=0 when y=3 goes upward? (Can Expect Choices) Theory.1 Sol. and f(2) = 22 = 4.Y= log10(X) 4.72 Find the relation between X and Y? Ans:. find f(a2) 58 Corporate & International Relations Amrita Vishwa Vidyapeetham . i. f(1) = 12 = 1. f( – 1) = 2( – 1)2 – 2 ( – 1) + 1 = 5 (b) We substitute a2 in place t. If g (0) = g (1)=1 and g (n)= g (n-1) + g (n –2). G(1)=1. So. G(0)=-1. X 0 Y 0.02 100 1. find f( – 1). Functions Questions taken from students’ forum 1. Also X ≤ 70% Minimum value = 50% and Maximum value = 70%.e. f(a) = a2. (a) We substitute – 1 in place of x. (a) If f(x) = 2x2 – 2x + 1. G(N)=G(N-1) . For Example. which is defined as f(x) = x2. there is a system. Back to Table of Contents (b) If f(t) = 3t – 1. if f(x) = x 2 . Find g (6) 2. Odd and Even Functions Odd function: A function f is said to be odd if it changes sign when the sign of the variable is changed. This can be represented by output= (input) 2 or f(x) = x2. Where x is input and f(x) is output. That means the output is a square of the given input. Examples & Explanations Functions Definition Suppose.72 1000 3.Analysis of TCS Placement Papers Quants Funda Solving we get X ≥ 50%. Ex. If f(– x) = – f (x). G(5)= ? 3. For example: f (x) = sin x . if we take any system. 0 ≤ x ≤ 2π is a odd function.G(N-2). which finds the square of the given input. if f(x) = x2. In general. Here f is called the function of x. f(a2) = 3(a2) – 1 = 3a2 – 1.00 9999 4. the output will be a function of input. That means a function is a relation between input and output.

Composite Functions A composite function is the function of another function. then K = = Ex.g: g (x) = 3x3 + 4x2 – 9 is a function in x which is neither even nor odd. If f is a function from A in to B and g is a function from B in to C. Ex. if f(– x) = f (x). NOTE: There are many functions which are neither odd nor even i. Find the value of f6(2).3 Sol.4 Sol. i. So.5 Sol. f6(2) = f2(2) + 3( 6 – 2) = 4 + 12 = 16 Ex.Analysis of TCS Placement Papers Quants Funda Even function: A function f is said to be an even function if it doesn’t change sign when the sign of the variable is changed. Then f (5) = f(2) = 2f(1) + 4 = 0 + 4 = 4 f(3) = 2 × 4 + 4 = 12 Back to Table of Contents 59 Corporate & International Relations Amrita Vishwa Vidyapeetham . if f(x) = 2x. and g(x) = x + 2. If f2(2) = 4. E. then their composite function denoted by ( g o f) is a function from A in to C defined by (g o f) (x) = g [ f(x)] e. f3(2) = f2(2) + 3 = 7 f4(2) = f3(2) + 3 = 10 f5(2) = f4(2) + 3 = 13 f6(2) = f5(2) + 3 = 16 Alternate Method: Since the function is increasing with constant value.g.For example f (x) = x4 + x2 and g (x) = cos x are even functions. Ex. We have.2 Sol. f (n + 1) = 2f (n) + 4 & f(1) = 0. then f(2) = ? f(2) = 2(2)2 – 3 = 5 f(x) = f(2) + f(3) = f(5) = if f(2) + f(3) = f(5).e it is not necessary for a function to be either even of to be odd. Then (gof)(x) = g [ f(x)] = g (2x) = 2x + 2 (fog)(x) = f [g(x)] = f(x + 2) = 2(x + 2) = 2x + 4 FACT: This shows that it is not necessary that (fog)(x) = (g of)(x). fn+1(x) = fn(x) + 3 So. Let a function fn+1 (x) = fn (x) + 3 .e. If f(x) = 2x2 – 3.

.P. For example 1. then f(1) = (1)2 = 1.. f(3) = (3)2 = 9. 7. Those sequences whose terms follow certain patterns are called progressions. Then gofog(3) is : gofog(3) = gof(32 – 3) = gof(6) = g(6 + 5) = g(11) = 112 – 3 = 118. f(2) = 22 = 4.+ f(20) = = = = 8270 Theory. 2.P) Harmonic Progression (H. 4. g(x) = x2 – 3. 2. – 5……… 1. If a1.Analysis of TCS Placement Papers Quants Funda f(4) = 2 × 12 + 4 = 28 f(5) = 2 × 28 + 4 = 60 Ex. a2. T2 = second term. f(x) = x + 5. T10 = tenth term and so on. There are three different progressions Arithmetic Progression (A.P) Arithmetic Progression (A. Ex.. 4. f(x) = 3x2 – 2x + 4 then f(1) + f(2) + .7 Sol. 16……… 8. The nth term of a sequence is usually denoted by Tn Thus T1 = first term. Examples & Explanations Sequence & Series A set of numbers whose domain is a real number is called a SEQUENCE and sum of the sequence is called a SERIES. f (10) = 102 = 100 and so on. ½…. 10. 4. 7.…… Also if f (n) = n2 is a sequence. a4… an … is a sequence. 1.6 Sol. 13 ……. 1. 8.P) Geometric Progression (G. then the expression a1 + a2 + a3+ a4+ a5 + …+ an + … is a series. a3. – 2. 4.) It is a series in which any two consecutive terms have common difference and next term can be derived by adding Back to Table of Contents 60 Corporate & International Relations Amrita Vishwa Vidyapeetham .

then the resulting sequence is also an AP. We get T1. 3. a + 2d. Therefore Tn+1 – Tn = constant and called common difference (d) for all n Examples: 1. multiplied or divided by the same non-zero number.1 Sol. d = common difference = Tn – Tn-1 Tn = nth term (Thus T1 = first term. The nth term of an A. P.P The sum of first n terms of an AP is usually denoted by Sn and is given by the following formula: N. 5/2. 18…. 11/2…… d1 = 3/2. Sn = Sum of the n terms.P. consisting of n terms be l. = – 1 – 3 = – 4. T4…. If in an A. then l = a + (n – 1) d Sum of n terms of an A. 6. is an A.Analysis of TCS Placement Papers Quants Funda that common difference in the previous term..P is given by the formula Tn = a + (n – 1) d Note: If the last term of the A.. P. T2 = second term. Putting 1.) l = last term. decreased. ……. 10. 4. a = first term. T3. T10 tenth term and so on. d2 = 3/2. -2.. 10. nth term of an A. 2. T2. 14.. 4. whose first term is 11 and the common difference d = 7 – 11 = 3 – 7. 2.2 Sol. 4…. 11. – 1 …… is an A. Here a = -6 and d = -2 –(-6) = 4 Therefore T8 = – 6 + 7 × 4 = 22 T12 = a + 11d = – 6 + 11 × 4 = 38 T16 = a + 15d = – 6 + 15 × 4 = 54 [T8 = a + 7d] [T12 = a + 11d] [T16 = a + 15d] Properties of an AP I. 2.. 3. 7. Where ‘l ’ is the last term of the series. a + 3d. -6. Ex. Then a. find 101st term. If each term of an AP is increased. P. whose first term is 1 and the common difference is d = (4 – 1) = (7 – 4) = (10 – 7) = 3. 7.P. 1. Find the series whose nth term is Is it an AP series? If yes. d3 = 3/2 As the common differences ae equal Therefore the series is an AP T101 = a+ 100d = 1+100*(3/2) = 151 Ex. are in A. 12th and 16th terms of the series.P. = 1. a + d. Back to Table of Contents 61 Corporate & International Relations Amrita Vishwa Vidyapeetham . Find 8th.

a. 5... Sol.P. 3. Ex. 7. Price after one year = 100 – D = T1 = a (say) Price after eight years = T8 = a + 7 (– D) = a – 7D = 100 – D – 7D = 100 – 8D By the given condition 100 – 8D = 20 Back to Table of Contents (a – d) + a + (a + d) = – 3 3a = – 3 a=–1 62 Corporate & International Relations Amrita Vishwa Vidyapeetham . 11… If you add constant let us say 1 in each term. you get 6. 18. you get 4. c are in A. 22…. Let the numbers be (a – d). Three numbers a.P. 20. – 1. In an AP. 10. – 4. with common difference 2 If you multiply by a constant let us say 2 each term. Assuming that the yearly depreciation is constant. the numbers are 2. and their product is 8. a. Original cost of pen = Rs. Find the numbers. This is an A.4 A student purchases a pen for Rs. (a + d). a + d. a + 3d For 5 numbers in AP are taken as a – 2d. Again this is an A. Three numbers in AP are taken as a – d. Then. 14. At the end of 8 years. 12.. If d = – 3. Thus. a + 2d IV. it is valued at Rs. if and only if 2b = a + c Ex. the numbers are – 4. – 1. 6. b.. For 4 numbers in AP are taken as a – 3d. a – d.3 Sol. 100. 2 or 2. Sum = – 3 Product = 8 (a – d) (a) (a + d) = 8 a (a2 – d2) = 8 (–1) (1 – d2) = 8 d2 = 9 d=±3 If d = 3.. 8.. of common difference 4 II.P. 10. 2.P. the numbers are – 4. a + d. a. III. – 4. The sum of three numbers in A. a – d. – 1. 100 Let D be the annual depreciation. the sum of terms equidistant from the beginning and end is always same and equal to the sum of first and last terms.P. is – 3. Find the annual depreciation. 9. a + d.Analysis of TCS Placement Papers Quants Funda For example: For A. – 1.

P. then we place a dot (. a2. To 64 terms = 1 = Recurring Decimals as Fractions If in the decimal representation a number occurs again and again.Analysis of TCS Placement Papers Quants Funda 8D = 80 D = 10.g. 0. 4 grains for the third and so on. a3… an… is called a geometric progression If = constant for all n N The General form of a G. a sequence. P. has infinite terms and –1 < r < 1 or Ex.5 (read as decimal 5 recurring). a1. 2 grains for the second. then sum of infinite G.P. Geometric Progression A series in which each preceding term is formed by multiplying it by a constant factor is called a Geometric Progression G. How many grains would have to be given to inventor? (There are 64 squares in the chess board). e. The constant factor is called the common ratio and is formed by dividing any term by the term which precedes it. Hence annual depreciation = Rs. Back to Table of Contents 63 Corporate & International Relations Amrita Vishwa Vidyapeetham . Required number of grains = 1 + 2 + 22 + 23 + ……. Sol. ar.5 Sol.) on the number and read it as that the number is recurring. Tn = nth term and Sn = sum of n terms General term of GP = Tn = ar n –1 Ex..P: If a G. In other words. The given sequence is clearly a G P with first term a = 1 and common ratio = r =(-1/2) Now T9 = ar8 = And Tn = arn-1 = (-1/2) n-1 Sum of n terms of a G. ar2.6 < 1.…ar n –1 Thus if a = the first term r = the common ratio. with n terms is a. 10.P is The inventor of the chess board suggested a reward of one grain of wheat for the first square.P: Where r>1 Where r<1 Sum of infinite G. doubling the number of the grains for subsequent squares. Find the 9th term and the general term of the progression.

P I. 4. 5 = 0. 32… If you multiply each term by constant let say 2. 8. It is always convenient if we select the terms in the following manner: No.4 = 0..P. This is a G.you get II. 64. ar3.4373737……….4 We have 0. In a GP.477777…… These can be converted into fractions as shown in the example given below Ex.you get If you divide each term by constant let say 2. SELECTION OF TERMS IN G. 16 . then the resulting sequence is also a GP.P 1.P Terms Common ratio 64 Corporate & International Relations Amrita Vishwa Vidyapeetham .0000037 + ……….P.. ar2.55555……. 0.00037 + 0.P.P. 2. b is called the geometric mean of a & c IV. b. If each term of a GP is multiplied or divided by the same non-zero quantity.037 + 0. 4. Three non-zero numbers a. 8. then the numbers are taken as a. of terms 3 4 5 If the product of the numbers is not given.. 16. ar. = 0.Analysis of TCS Placement Papers Quants Funda This mean 0. 32. This is a G. Find the value in fractions which is same as of 0. III. 16. Sometimes it is required to select a finite number of terms in G. Back to Table of Contents +………… 4. For example: For G. is 2. c are in G. 8. = 0. the product of terms equidistant from the beginning and end is always same and equal to the product of first and last terms as shown in the next example.4 + 0. if and only if b2 = ac.7 Sol. …. = = = Properties of G.

) A series of quantities is said to be in a harmonic progression when their reciprocals are in arithmetic progression. a+d. 5. The sum of n terms series is The infinite term series sum is Arithmetic Geometric Series can be solved as explained in the example below: Relation between AM. are in HP as their reciprocals 3. Is the form of Arithmetic Geometric Progression (A.g. a+2d…….Analysis of TCS Placement Papers Quants Funda Harmonic Progression (H. 1/(a+2d)…... 1/7.. …. are in AP nth term of HP Find the nth term of the corresponding AP and then take its reciprocal. 1/5.. we get AH = Back to Table of Contents – 65 Corporate & International Relations Amrita Vishwa Vidyapeetham . 1/(a+2d)…. GM and HM: A =Arithmetic mean = G = Geometric mean = H = Harmonic mean = Multiplying A and H. 7 ….P.Geometric Progression a + (a+d)r + (a+2d)r2 + (a+3d)r3 + …….G. 1/ (a+d). If the HP be 1/a. a+2d……. one should form the corresponding AP A comparison between AP and GP Description Principal Characteristic nth Term Mean AP Common Difference (d) GP Common Ratio (r) Sum of First n Terms Mean Arithmetic . 1/3.P) One part of the series is in Arithmetic progression and other part is a Geometric progression. Tn of the AP is a + (n-1)d In order to solve a question on HP. and 1/a. The corresponding AP is a. and a. 1/ (a+d). a+d. e.

P? a+3d = 6. = 1 +2x+ 3x2+4x3+….P are 6.8 Sol. 4… And 1.. x = x+2x2+3x3+…… ------------. What is the 12th term of that G. What is the sum of first 10 terms? a = 12.Analysis of TCS Placement Papers Quants Funda = Ex. If the first item of an A>P is 12. and 6th term is 27.10 Sol. 2.P are 1. The given series is an Arithmetic – Geometric series whose corresponding A. The first term of a G.12 Sol. if its sixth term is 6 t1 = t4 a = ar3 Back to Table of Contents 66 Corporate & International Relations Amrita Vishwa Vidyapeetham ..5.5 and 9.5 and a+5d = 9. 3.5 Ex. x. t4 = a+3d = 20 d =5 A. t6 = a +5d = 27 d =3 Therefore S10 = (10/2)[2*12 +(10 -1)3] = 255 Ex. What is the 9th term of that A. x3… respectively.P.(ii) Subtracting (ii) from (i). Find the sum of 1 +2x +3x2 + 4x3 + ….9 Sol. Whose first term is 5 and 4th term is 20? a = 5. What is the arithmetic mean of first 20 terms os an A.P.(i) -------------.P and G.5 a =2 and d =1.11 Sol. If the fourth and sixth terms of an A.P is x.P is half of its 4th term.5 Therefore t9 = a+8d = 14 Ex.M is the middle number = average of 10th and 11th number = 50+55/2 = 52. The common ratio of the G. we get x = 1 +[x+x2+x3+…… ] x) = 1 + = Ex. x2.

an = 2n + 1 then (a1 + a2 + ……. > 243 > 243 > 244 n >5 So. minimum possible value of n is 6. What is the sum of these five terms? a=2 ar4 = 162 r=3 S5 = 2(35 – 1)/(3-1) = 242 Ex.. Ex.15 The first term of a G.P are 2 and 162. + a20 = 21 + 1 + 22 + 1 + 23 + 1 …….Analysis of TCS Placement Papers Quants Funda r3 = 2 t6=ar5 = 6 t12 = ar11 = ar5 r6 = 24 Ex. ----------(1) rS = r2 + 3r3 + 5r4+ …….13 Sol. = = = = Ex. What is the value of r +3r2 + 5r3 + ……. + is 67 Corporate & International Relations Amrita Vishwa Vidyapeetham . S= Ex.P is greater than 243 then the minimum value of ‘n’ is Sol.. Assume S = r +3r2 + 5r3 + ……..14 Sol.P. -----------(2) (1) – (2) S(1 –r) = r + 2r2 + 2r3 + ……. If the 1st and 5th terms of a G. + a20) – a21 is: a1 + a2 + …….17 Sol.. + 220 + 1 Back to Table of Contents + + + ……. 2 and common ratio is 3.16 Sol. = r + 2r2 + 2r3 + ……. If the sum of fist n terms of this G.

0.5. 2.-5 b) 5. Which of the following set of numbers has the highest Standard deviation? a) b) c) d) 1 -1 1 1 0 -1 1 1 1 -1 1 0 0 -1 1 -1 1 -1 1 0 0 -1 1 -1 2. 2. 5. X 0 F 3 Back to Table of Contents 1 5 68 Corporate & International Relations Amrita Vishwa Vidyapeetham .0. These data can be grouped into a frequency distribution by listing ach different value (x) and the frequency of occurrence for each value. 2. 4. Which will give good standard deviation a) (7.7) c)(1. 1. 1.7. 2.-5.5. 1. 3.-7. 4. 3. it is more convenient and informative to display the measurements in a frequency distribution. 4.5.5 3.-5. 0.-7. 5. the following values could represent the number of dependent children in each of 25 families living on a particular street.5.5.0. For example. 3.-1. 3.-5.-5. 3.1) Theory.5. 0. Examples & Explanations Statistics Frequency Distributions For some sets of measurements.-7.-5. 3.7) b)(7. Which of the following has the highest Standard deviation a)5. 2. 1.-5.-5 d) -5.Analysis of TCS Placement Papers Quants Funda = 2(220 – 1) + 20 = 221 + 18 Therefore Answer = 17 Statistics Questions taken from students’ forum 1. -5. 0.5 c) -5. 1.-5. 2.0. 2.5.

Ex. 7. 8. 30. = 160. 8. Sol. Another measure of central location is called the mode. the set of values 10. which is defined as the most frequently occurring value. The average (arithmetic mean) of n values is defined as the sum of the n values divided by n. Note that for the same set of values. the arithmetic mean and the median need not be equal. the median is defined as the middle value if n is odd and the sum of the two middle values divided by 2 if n is even. For example. 8. 14. 40. Find the value of x. Find mean of all factors of 10. If we order the n values from least to greatest. n = 40 = 160 × 40 = 6400 Back to Table of Contents 69 Corporate & International Relations Amrita Vishwa Vidyapeetham . Sol. In the example above. the values are 5. which is even. and 10 is 60 ÷ 6 = 10. The mean of 40 numbers is 160. the arithmetic mean of the values 5. 15. and 50 has arithmetic mean = median = 30.Analysis of TCS Placement Papers Quants Funda 2 7 3 6 4 3 5 Total 1 25 Measures of Central Location Two common measures of central location. 10 Ex. Factors of 10 = 1. although they could be. often called “average. 20. n = 6. Sol. 14.” for a discrete set of numerical values or measurements are the arithmetic means and the median. For the six measurements above. Ordered from least to greatest. the median is (8+10)/2= 9. Therefore. Ex. The arithmetic mean of 6. 2. and 15. 8. 5. 10. For example. x and 4 is 7. Find the correct mean. 8. 5. the mode is 8. It was detected on checking that the value of 165 was wrongly copied as 125 while computing the mean.

If n is even. Back to Table of Contents 70 Corporate & International Relations Amrita Vishwa Vidyapeetham . x2. 6. One part comprising all the values greater and the other. 48. 38.e. 18. 24. Correction = correct reading – wrong reading = 165 – 125 = 40 Correct Correct Geometric Mean The geometric mean is the nth root of the product of n items of a series. X2. 32.M of 4. (i) Arranging the data in ascending order of magnitude. 14 Sol. 30. i. 48. 17. 24. and odd number of items. Then median of the distribution may defined as that value of the variable which exceeds and is exceeded by same numbers of observations. ……. 35. Since. xn in ascending or descending order of magnitude. it is the value such that number of observations above it is equal to the number of observations below it. X3. ……. therefore median is the value of observation. The GM of 4.Analysis of TCS Placement Papers Quants Funda But 165 was wrongly copied as 125. 9 is If there are n numbers then GM = Therefore G.M is given by G. i. 8. Sol. 22.. 27.. Find the median 34. there are 9. 9 = Median The median is that value of the variable.e. 35 (ii) Find the median of the daily wages of ten workers. say. the median is only positional average its value depends on position occupied by a value in the frequency distribution Median of individual observations: In case of individual observations x1. then median is the AM of the values of =6 = = 6400 + 40 = 6440 (i) The following are the makes of 9 students in a class. and then their G. 27. x2. Step 2: Determine the total number of observations. observation observation. which divides the group in two equal parts. 21. 15. ……. 11.M = Ex. 9. 6. all the values less than median. 32. then median is the value of and Ex. $ 20. Xn are the given n observations. 25. xn to find the median we use the following algorithm. 34.. 38. 32. Thus if X1. Hence. 30. we have 21. Step 1: Arrange the observations x1. n Step 3: If n is odd.

So median = (15 + Calculation of Median F 8 10 11 16 20 25 15 9 6 N =120 c.f 8 18 29 45 65 90 105 114 120 Here N = 120 N/2 = 60.Analysis of TCS Placement Papers Quants Funda (ii) Arranging the wages in ascending order of magnitude. 2… n. 22.f. 11. i = 1. Mode Mode is the value which occurs most frequently in a set of observations and around which the other items of the set cluster densely OR the mode of a distribution is the value at the point around which the item tends to be most heavily concentrated Back to Table of Contents 71 Corporate & International Relations Amrita Vishwa Vidyapeetham . Therefore. we calculate the median by using the following algorithm Step 1: Find the cumulative frequencies (c. 17. Since. 20. there are 10 observations. 18. 14. 9. Median of discrete frequency distribution: In case of a discrete frequency distribution xi/f.) Step 2: Find N/2. median is 5. X 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 1 8 2 10 3 11 4 16 5 20 6 25 7 15 8 9 9 6 and observations. We find that the cumulative frequency just greater than N/2. Step 4: The value obtained in step III is the median Ex.) just greater than N/2 and determine the co-responding value of the variable. we have 8. 15.f. therefore median is the arithmetic mean of 17)/2 = 16. is 65 and the value of x corresponding to 65 is 5. 25. Obtain the median for the following frequency distribution: x: f: Sol. where N = Step 3: See the cumulative frequency (c.

or spread. Mean Deviation Mean deviation of a series is the arithmetic average of the deviations of various items from a measure of central tendency (either mean.D of 2. (2) finding the difference between that mean and each measurement. 12 is: Where d = i. (3) squaring each of the differences. Variate x 2 4 6 8 10 12 -5 -3 -1 1 3 5 25 9 1 1 9 25 The S.D. The value of the standard deviation for a set of n measurements can be calculated by (1) first calculating the arithmetic mean. The most commonly used of these other measures is called the standard deviation. and when two sets of measurements are compared. for a discrete set of numerical values or measurements take many forms in data analyses. (4) summing the squared values. which is defined as the greatest measurement minus the least measurement. median or mode) If X1. 8. (5) dividing the sum by n. 6. and finally (6) taking the nonnegative square root of the quotient. modulus value or absolute value of the deviation (After ignoring the Back to Table of Contents 72 Corporate & International Relations Amrita Vishwa Vidyapeetham . 4. Xn are n given observations then the mean deviation (M. The simplest measure of dispersion is called the range. (about an average A) negative sign) Ex. 10. the one with the larger dispersion will have the larger standard deviation. Since the range is affected by only the two most extreme values in the set of measurements. X3…….) about an average A.e.D. other measures of dispersion have been developed that are affected by every measurement. is given by M.. X2. The standard deviation cannot be negative. The standard deviation can be roughly interpreted as the average distance from the arithmetic mean for n measurements. Sol.Analysis of TCS Placement Papers Quants Funda Measures of Dispersion Measures of dispersion.

called minute’s spaces. Each hour space is further divided into 5 parts.Analysis of TCS Placement Papers Quants Funda Clocks & Calendar Questions taken from students’ forum 1. Examples & Explanations Clocks & Calendar The dial of a clock is a circle whose circumference is divided into 12 parts. Angle between hands of the clock at 3:25? 2. If we consider clock as a circular track and the two hands of clock minute hand and hour hand are just like two players running in the same direction. Let total length of the track is 360o and minute hand completes one full round in 1 hour while hour hand cover full round in 12 hours. This way. so the relative speed of both the hands with respect to each other = Time taken by minute hand to overtake hour hand = There are 4 types of problems on clocks: 1. the whole circumference is divided into 12 × 5 = 60 minute spaces. called hour spaces. Speed of hour hand = Speed of minute hand = = Since they are moving in the same direction. At what time between 4 and 5 o’clock are the hands of the clock at right angle/together? Theory. Back to Table of Contents 73 Corporate & International Relations Amrita Vishwa Vidyapeetham . To calculate the angle between the two hands when time is given.

m. It means that they are 20 min spaces apart.Analysis of TCS Placement Papers Quants Funda 2. Hence H = 5 and M = 25 We can apply the following direct formula to find the angle between the hands = Required angle = Alternative Method: Since at 5: 25 the minute hand will be at 5 and the angle between them will be same as the distance covered in degree by the hour hand in 25 minutes.m. Given time = 5: 25 p. where H is reading of hour. Now. Overall gain/loss Calculating the angle The angle between the two hands is given by the following formula Formula for the angle between the hands = Where H ---. Concept of slow and fast clocks.Hour Reading & M---Minute Reading Ex. 3. To calculate the time when both the hands will be at some angle. the minute hand must gain 20 minutes over the hour hand. are gained in 60 min. At what time between 4 and 5 o’clock are the hands of the clock together? Method 1: At 4 o’clock. the hour hand is at 4 and the minute hand is at 12. the two hands are together at an angle minutes. Ex. 4.2 Sol. we know that 55 min. Calculate the angle between the two hands of clock when the clock shows 5: 25 p. 20 min are gained in = Back to Table of Contents = = then the time is 1 min.1 Sol. then the time is then the time is then required time = 74 Corporate & International Relations Amrita Vishwa Vidyapeetham . Required angle = distance of hour hand = speed × time = Calculating the time To calculate the time when both the hands will be at some angle In one minute the net gain of minute hand over hour hand = If the gain is If the gain is If the gain is Note: If between H and (H+1) o’clock. To be together.

the two hands will be together at 5 In this case. the hands will be together at 21 Another formula: Between H and (H+1) o’clock.3 Sol. spaces between hour and minute hands. 5 Ex. Required time = Therefore. we know that 55 min spaces are gained in 60 min Therefore 5 min spaces are gained in Therefore they are at right angle at Alternate Method: As the hands of the clock are at right angle therefore Also time is between 4 and 5 o’clock. the min hand should have to gain 20 + 15 = 35 min spaces. At what time between 4 and 5 o’clock will the hand of clock be at right angle? At 4o’clock there are 20 min. Now. the hands will be together at Alternate method: Using the formula: Required time = Here = (Hands of clock are together) and H =4 = 21 min min past 4. = 21 min past 4 min past H. we know that 55 min spaces are gained in 60 min. there are two cases: Case I: When the minute hand is 15 min spaces behind the hour hand To be in this position. So.Analysis of TCS Placement Papers Quants Funda Therefore. no of hours = 4 Required time = = = 38 or 5 min Back to Table of Contents past 4 past 4 75 Corporate & International Relations Amrita Vishwa Vidyapeetham . To be at right angle. the min hand should have to gain 20 – 15 = 5 min spaces. they should be 15 min spaces apart. Now. Therefore 5 min spaces are gained in Therefore they are at right angle at Case II: When the minute hand is 15 min spaces ahead of the hour hand To be in this position.

Fast clock gains 1 min for every hour.] = day by a watch. Aug – 31. Apr – 30. it is said to be 10 minutes too fast.00 when the correct time is 9. For 61 minutes of fast clock. true time = Actual time in the true clock =5 Overall gain/loss After every 65 min = min the two hands will coincide. If the hands of a clock coincide every ‘X’ min.m. June – 30. Ex.4 Two clocks are set at 1 p. true time = 60 minutes For 300 minutes (5hrs) of fast clock. then Gain/Loss per [If answer is (+) then there will be gain and if (-) then there will be loss. 366 days (for a leap year) To find the number of weeks in an ordinary year: = 52 weeks + 1 odd day (remainder) To find the number of weeks in a leap year: = 52 weeks + 2 odd day (remainder) Leap year: It is so called as it comes after a leap of 3 years from the previous leap year. they will be at right angle at (5 Concept of slow and fast clocks Too Fast and Too Slow: min past 4 = 38 min past X or 5 min past 4 If a watch indicates 9. July – 31. Oct – 31. the fast clock will show 61 min.m. is given by CALENDAR There are 12 months in 1 year.10. Jan –31 (days). Back to Table of Contents 76 Corporate & International Relations Amrita Vishwa Vidyapeetham . Dec – 31 Total 365 (ordinary year). 29 (for a leap year). For every 60 min of true clock.20 when the correct time is 9. And if it indicates 9.Analysis of TCS Placement Papers Quants Funda Therefore they are at right angle 38 Another Formula: or 5 min past 4 Between x and (x + 1) o’clock the two hands are right angle at (5X In this case. Nov –30.10. May –31. Feb –28. Sol. it is said to be 10 minute too slow. Find the time when the fast clock shows 6 p. Sept –30. Mar –31.

2000 is a leap year. 3 odd days (ii) 5 × 3 = 15 days = 2 weeks + 1 day i. 1200 years etc.e..Analysis of TCS Placement Papers Quants Funda Method to find whether a given year is a leap year or an ordinary year Every year which is not a century year (i. (i) 200 years contain 5 × 2 = 10.e.e. 3 odd days. 1 odd day. e. 800. i. no odd day.e. which is not a multiple of 100) is a leap year if and only if it is completely divisible by 4.e. 100 year has 76 ordinary year and 24 leap year = [(76 × 52) weeks + 76 days] – [(24 × 52) weeks + 24 × 2 days] = 5200 weeks + 124 days = 5200 weeks + 17 weeks + 5 odd days = 5217 weeks + 5 odd days Therefore. (iii) 400 years contain 5 × 4 + 1 = 21. 1998 is not Odd day’s concept To find the number of odd days in a century A century.g.e. (ii) 300 years contain 5 × 3 = 15 i. the remainder ought to be 0). 1odd day.e. Similarly. Now.e. i... Odd days and their numeral values When we have to calculate the number of days on any particular Extra Days and their numeral Values 0 → Sunday 1 → Monday 2 → Tuesday 3 → Wednesday 4 → Thursday Back to Table of Contents 77 Corporate & International Relations Amrita Vishwa Vidyapeetham . 100 years contain 5 odd days. (iii) 400th year is a leap year therefore one additional day is added. i.. contain no odd day. Note: (i) 5 × 2 = 10 days = 1 week + 3 days i. 1996 is a leap year. 1900 is not. Every century year is a leap year if and only if it is completely divisible by 400 or is an integral multiple of 400 (i.

Total no. the above said day will be two days beyond Wednesday. So. Father of Nation Mahatma Gandhi died on 30th January 1948. 1992 was Wednesday. Monday for 1 odd day and so on. 12th Jan. Now for in 47 years we have 11 leap years and 36 normal years.e. 1993? If you recall.6 How does the number of odd days help us in finding the day of a week? (Please take care of this point) When a specific day is given: Suppose a question like: Jan 1. 6 being Saturday) Suppose someone asks you to find the day of the week on 12th January 1979. Sunday for 0 odd day.e. Back to Table of Contents 78 Corporate & International Relations Amrita Vishwa Vidyapeetham . When no specific day is given: Here.Analysis of TCS Placement Papers Quants Funda 5 → Friday 6 → Saturday Ex. it will be Friday. Ex. 1992 being a leap year it has 2 odd days. up to 1900 AD we have 1 odd day. i. the day was “Friday”. What was the day on which he died? Up to 1600 AD we have 0 odd days. So.5 Sol. from 0 to 6.. (i. 1600 years have 0 odd day. 1979 means 1978 year + 12 days Now. of odd days = 0 + 1 + 6 + 12 = 19 or 5 odd days. 300 years have 1 odd day 78 years have 59 ordinary year + 19 leap years = 6 odd days. Odd days from 1901 to 1947 = 11 x 2 +36 x1 = 22 + 36 =58 odd days = 8 weeks + 2 odd days Total odd days up to 31st December 1947 = 1 + 2 = 3 odd days 30 days of January contain only 4 weeks + 2 odd days So 30th January 1948 has total 5 odd days Day on 30th January 1948 = Friday. we count days according to number of odd days. What day of the week will it be on Jan 1.

Back to Table of Contents 79 Corporate & International Relations Amrita Vishwa Vidyapeetham . Parallel lines cut by a transverse: If two parallel lines L1 and L2 are cut by a third line called the transverse. 100 years has 5 odd days 200 years has 3 odd days 300 years has 1 odd day 400 years has 0 odd days.6) (B) (3. which triangle is not possible: (A) (2.5) [Ans: 6. rests are not.2. Polygon A closed plane figure made up of several line segments that are joined together is called a polygon. 2.12] 3.3.Analysis of TCS Placement Papers Quants Funda Points not to be ignored: 1.8. Find the pair of lines from the given set of options which satisfy the above condition? Note: Questions can be asked related to the sides of rectangle Theory. The sides are given.3. 2.4.5) (D) (3.3. Number of faces. The sides do not cross each other. And so on Geometry (2D & 3D)/ Coordinate Geometry Questions taken from students’ forum 1. Examples & Explanations Geometry (2D & 3D)/ Coordinate Geometry Properties of lines Intersecting Lines and Angles: If two lines intersect at a point. Parallel Lines: If two lines that are in the same plane do not intersect. Sum of slopes of 2 perpendicular straight lines is given. then opposite angles are called vertical angles and have the same measure. 400th year is a leap year or a century multiple of 400 is a leap year.4) (C) (3. Exactly two sides meet at every vertex.3) (E) (5. vertices and edges of a cube. Perpendicular Lines: An angle that has a measure of 90o is a right angle. the two lines are parallel.

Δ is the area. Triangles A triangle is a polygon of three sides. then abc = 4R Δ where R is the radius of the circum-circle. (Altitude is a perpendicular drawn from a vertex of a triangle to the opposite side. Each angle of an equilateral triangle must measure 60o. since the sum of the interior angles of any triangle must equal to 180o. It is also the point of intersection of perpendicular bisectors of the sides of the triangle. c. An equilateral triangle has three equal sides. In this type of triangle. The third side is called the base. 4.Analysis of TCS Placement Papers Quants Funda Types of Polygons: Regular: all angles are equal and all sides are the same length. The sum of the two sides is always greater than the third side. Equiangular: all angles are equal. Equilateral: all sides are the same length. Regular polygons are both equiangular and equilateral. the angles are also equal. The angles that are opposite to the equal sides are also equal. Sum of the three angles is 180o. Obtuse angled triangle: is a triangle in which one angle is always greater than 90o Acute angled triangle: In which all angles are less than 90o Right Angled Triangle: A triangle whose one angle is 90o is called a right (angled) Triangle. If a. Orthocentre: The point of intersection of altitudes. An exterior angle is equal to the sum of the interior opposite angles. (Median is the line joining the vertex to the mid-point of the opposite side. The medians will bisect the area of the triangle. 2. 5. are the sides of the triangle.) Circumcentre: The circumcentre of a triangle is the centre of the circle passing through the vertices of a triangle. An isosceles triangle has two equal sides. Properties of a Triangle 1. Incentre: The point of intersection of the internal bisectors of the angles of a triangle Back to Table of Contents 80 Corporate & International Relations Amrita Vishwa Vidyapeetham . A triangle with three sides of different lengths is called a scalene triangle. Centroid: (a) The point of intersection of the medians of a triangle.) (b) The centroid divides each median from the vertex in the ratio 2 : 1. b. The difference between any two sides is always less than the third side. so it can also be called an equiangular triangle. 3. The side opposite to the greatest angle is the greatest side and the side opposite to the smallest angle will be the shortest side.

if they are equal in all respects (equal in shape and size). if they have the same shape but not the same size. (e) The ratio of the internal bisectors is equal to the ratio of the corresponding sides. Test for similarity of triangles (a) AAA Similarity Test: Three angles of one triangle are respectively equal to the three angles of the other triangle. 2. 24. (b) SAS Similarity Test: Two sides of one are proportional to the two sides of the other and the included angles are equal. Similar Triangles Two figures are said to be similar. (c) The ratio of the circumradii is equal to the ratio of the corresponding sides. (5. in a right angled triangle ABC. (f) Ratio of areas is equal to the ratio of squares of corresponding sides. Properties of similar triangles: If two triangles are similar. Back to Table of Contents 81 Corporate & International Relations Amrita Vishwa Vidyapeetham . If two triangles are similar. 25).e. Pythagoras Theorem The square of the hypotenuse of a right-angled triangle is equal to the sum of the squares of the other two sides i. (c) AAS Test: Two angles and one side of one triangle are respectively equal to the two angles and one side of the other triangle. (7. 5). is a quadrilateral 1. In a quadrilateral. 12. the following properties are true: (a) The ratio of the medians is equal to the ratio of the corresponding sides. 40. (b) SSS Test: Three sides of one are respectively equal to the three sides of the other triangle. Quadrilaterals A polygon with 4 sides. 4. AC2 = AB2 + BC2 Pythagorean triplets are sets of 3 integers which can be three sides of a right-angled triangle. right angled at B. The area of the quadrilateral = ½ × one diagonal x sum of the perpendicular to it from vertices. The tests for congruency (a) SAS Test: Two sides and the included angle of the first triangle are respectively equal to the two sides and included angle of the second triangle. 13). sum of the four angles is equal to 360°. (d) The ratio of in radii is equal to the ratio of the corresponding sides. (9.Analysis of TCS Placement Papers Quants Funda Congruent triangles Two triangles ABC and DEF are said to the congruent. (b) The ratio of the altitudes is equal to the ratio of the corresponding sides. Examples of Pythagorean triplets are (3. 41) etc. the corresponding angles are equal and the corresponding sides are proportional. (d) RHS Test: The hypotenuse and one side of a right-angled triangle are respectively equal to the hypotenuse and one side of another right-angled triangle.

A diameter perpendicular to a chord bisects the chord. 2. If two chords of a circle are equal. Properties of the circle 1. Angles in the alternate segments are equal. y1) and B (x2. If PAB is a secant and PT is a tangent. 11. 7. If the two circles touch internally. If the two circles touch externally. 5. 2.Analysis of TCS Placement Papers Quants Funda Cyclic Quadrilateral: If a quadrilateral is inscribed in a circle. then PT2 = PA × PB 13. of a point In particular. is in particular. the mid-point of the segment joining A (x1 y1) and B (x2. their corresponding arcs have equal measure. 4. Angles inscribed in the same arc of a circle are equal. m2 ≠ 0. their centres and their point of contact are collinear. 10. then PA × PB = PC × PD 14. then PA × PB = PC × PD 12. if any one side is extended. it is said to be cyclic quadrilateral. the set of points in the plane which are at equal distances from O is a circle. When two circles touch. 1. the exterior angle so formed is equal to the interior opposite angle. y2) be two points. has the co-ordinates m1 ≠ 0. y2) in the ratio m1: m2 Internally. The length of the direct common tangent (PQ) CO-ORDINATE GEOMETRY Rectangular axes (general) (i) Distance formula: If A (x1. 6. In a cyclic quadrilateral. the distance between their centres is equal to sum of their radii. then P(x. 8. opposite angles are supplementary. Circles If O is a fixed point in a given plane. The angle inscribed in a semicircle is 90o. If two chords AB and CD intersect externally at P. Angle at the centre made by an arc is equal to twice the angle made by the arc at any point on the remaining part of the circumference. 9. If chords AB and CD intersect internally. the distance between the centres is equal to difference of their radii. In a cyclic quadrilateral. m1 + m2 ≠ 0 and externally. 0) is (ii) Section formula: The point which divides the join of two distinct points A (x1. y) form O(0. y1) and B (x2. 3. Equal chords of a circle are equidistant from the centre. y2) has the coordinates Back to Table of Contents 82 Corporate & International Relations Amrita Vishwa Vidyapeetham .

(d) Slope of a line making equal intercepts on the axis is − 1 or 1. Equation of a Line An equation of the form ax + by + c = 0 is called the general equation of a straight line. (a) Slope of a line parallel of x-axis is zero. One point form Equation of a line (non-vertical) through the point (x1. (e) Slope of the line through the points A (x1. Two. (c) Slope of a line equally inclined to both the axis is − 1 or 1.axis (i) Equation of any line parallel to x-axis is y = b. y1) and B (x2. y2) is Slope-intercept form Equation of a line (non-vertical) with slope m and cutting off an intercept c from the y-axis is y = m x + c. is – a / b. Equation of a line parallel to X axis or Y . where x and y are variable and a.Analysis of TCS Placement Papers Quants Funda Straight Line Slope of a line Slope of a non-vertical line L is the tangent of the angle θ. y1) and (x2. b ≠ 0. y2) is (f) Slope of the line ax + by + c = 0. which either of half ray of the line L makes with the positive direction of x-axis.points form Equation of a line (non-vertical) through the points (x1. then m1m2 = – 1. b being the directed distance of the line from the x-axis. In particular. y1) and having slope m is y – y1 = m (x – x1). In particular equation of x-axis is y = 0 (ii) Equation of any line parallel to y-axis is x = a. (g) Slopes of two parallel (non-vertical) lines are equal then m1 = m2 (h) If m1 and m2 be the slopes of two perpendicular lines (which are oblique). In particular equation of y-axis is x = 0. a being the directed distance of the line from the y-axis. b. (b) Slope of a line parallel to y-axis is not defined. c are constants. Intercept form Equation of a line (non-vertical) with slope m and cutting off intercepts a and b from the x-axis and y-axis respectively is Back to Table of Contents 83 Corporate & International Relations Amrita Vishwa Vidyapeetham .

d. 1. II only. Their dogs’ names are Jack. G and H). Their owners are Ms. They should not go together. c. Bookkeepers A and C are constantly finding fault with one another and should not be sent as a team to the new office. If D goes to the new office which of the following is (are) true? I. They should be separated. and Max. To do so they plan to separate certain individuals who do not function well together. a Boxer. Lad. B and C) and five secretaries (D. II and III. E. H must also go. a. and a Doberman win the top four prizes in the kennel show. I. C cannot go. which of the following must go to the new office? (a) B (b) D (c) E (d) G (e) H 5. Mr. Huntley. I and II only. b.Analysis of TCS Placement Papers Quants Funda Logical Reasoning Questions taken from students’ forum Directions for Questions from 1 – 5: The office staff of the XYZ Corporation presently consists of three bookkeepers (A. Directions for Questions from 5 – 8: An Airedale. which of the following cannot be a possible working team? (a) ABDEH (b) ABDGH (c) ABEFH (d) ABEGH (e) ABFGH 2. If A is to be moved as one of the bookkeepers. Edwards's not necessarily in that order. II. Under the guidelines developed. If C and F are moved to the new office. they should not be a team. e. Back to Table of Contents 84 Corporate & International Relations Amrita Vishwa Vidyapeetham . I and III only. Since D and F have been competing for promotion. Grossman and Mr. not necessarily in that order. IV. F. The following guidelines were established to set up the new office: I. how many combinations are possible? (a) 1 (b) 2 (c) 3 (d) 4 (e) 5 3. III. Kelly. If C is sent to the new office. Mr. a Collie. D and G have not been on speaking terms for many months. C and E function well alone but not as a team. Foster. which member of the staff cannot go with C? (a) B (b) D (c) F (d) G (e) H 4. A cannot go. Management is planning to open a new office in another city using three secretaries and two bookkeepers. I only. III. II.

L. How many B's are there followed by G which are not followed by S in the following series: BBGMPQBGSKOBGASBBGDEFBGSTI 3. No rooms carry two people. How many V’s are there under the condition that.. JACK C) Mr. LAD is a) Owned by Mr. O. 9. 3. -14. b) Owned by Mr. The top floor has only one room and all other floors have two rooms. 8. K. 24. N. LAD a) A only 8. L is living in a floor lower than I. Q is living in an upper floor than N. J. 7. Mr. FOSTER Directions for Questions: There are 9 people I. 77. S should be followed by V and should not be followed by F? VSFTWELBVSLLKSMSVFLSDI 2. K and N live on the same floor.15. 28 b. 4. EDWARDS c) Boxer d) Collie e) Wins third prize b) B only c) C only d) A and C only e) B and C only Letter Series 1. 63 [ANS: 238] [Ans: 15. In which of the following statements are the dogs correctly listed in descending Order of their prizes A) KELLY. No rooms are vacant. 10. 2. Grossman's dog a) Collie b) Boxer c) Airedale d) Wins second prize e) Kelly c) MAX d) JACK e) LAD 7. Edwards's dog b) Ms. 2. __ c. Find the number of Y followed by W but not followed by Z in the following series: YWRUDDYWZ Number Series Complete the sequence a. --. 35] [Ans: -27] Back to Table of Contents d.Analysis of TCS Placement Papers Quants Funda 5. --. 5. 85 Corporate & International Relations Amrita Vishwa Vidyapeetham . __. First prize is won by a) Mr. EDWARD'S Dog B) BOXER . AIREDALE. Lives in the third floor. -5. EDWARD'S Dog . AIREDALE. M. 11. And also some conditions were given to state which one is valid.. 48. Mr. P and Q living in a five storied building.11. 8 . 24. Mr.13. Note: Four questions were asked based on this paragraph about finding the floor and the specific person lives on. GROSSMAN'S Dog . 22. Huntley's dog 6. --e. 21.

HTTP b. In a certain format TUBUJPO is coded as STATION. Linux b. WAP b. ‘A’ moves 3 km east from his starting point.SOLARIS c. -5. then RBDJK can be coded as ________ 5. In the word ORGANISATIONAL. DB2 d. All blue are white Conclusion: I) Some blue are green II) Some white are green III) Some green are not white IV) All white are blue Odd man out Select the odd one out. 28 g. Java 2. then SHDVD can be coded as ________ If CSBWF is coded as BRAVE. third and forth. DB2 c. a. d. SMTP 3. of the word SIMULTANEOUSLY 3. 1. 11. ARP d. fifth and sixth words are interchanged up to the last letter. Oracle 4.?. a. All green are blue 2. Smalltalk c. 15. UNIX b. He then travels 5 km north. a. -14. HTTP Directions 1. 10. the third and fourth letters and so on. 4. The code of which string is FILTER 2. SQL SERVER d. What is the code formed by reversing the First and second letters. BAAN c. if the first and second. 13. SAP c. If TAFJHH is coded as RBEKGI. --- Blood Relations Syllogism 1. a. 21.Analysis of TCS Placement Papers Quants Funda f.SYBASE d. 9. From that point he moves 8 km to the east. a. 11.Eiffel. Ingress c. 22. a. then QMFBTF can be coded as ________ Back to Table of Contents 86 Corporate & International Relations Amrita Vishwa Vidyapeetham . forth and fifth. LINUX 6. what would be the tenth letter from right? 4. WAP 5. ARP d. SQL b. If VXUPLVH is coded as SURMISE. How far is ‘A’ from his starting point? Coding – Decoding 1. Lisp b.

3. (17 – 7 = 10) Answer: (3) Back to Table of Contents 87 Corporate & International Relations Amrita Vishwa Vidyapeetham .1 2. Answer: (2) 2. Prime number Series: Ex. The next prime number is 17. 17.Analysis of TCS Placement Papers Quants Funda Symbol based problems 1. 24. 5. 38. 11. 3. 5. (17 + 3 = 20). 7. (1) 29 (2) 31 (3) 37 (4) 39 Sol. Find the value of $%$6-%$%6 Where $ means Tripling % means change of sign Theory. (1) 19 Sol. 13. 5.4)+T(7. 23. Find the value of @@+25-++@1 Where @ denotes "square" + denotes "square root".5)+R(3. Ex. 14. Find the value of M(373. 11.2 (2) 21 (3) 20 (4) 18 The difference between the numbers is 3. Difference Series: Ex. Answer: (3) 45.1 2. (1) 12 (2) 14 (3) 10 (4) 9 Sol. Examples & Explanations Logical Reasoning TYPES: 1. … (1) 15 Sol. 41.7)+R(5. 17. 23. 2. 11. The prime numbers are written alternately. ….8) Where M denotes modulus operation R denotes round-off T denotes truncation 3.2 (2) 17 (3) 18 (4) 19 The given series is prime number series. 31.….…. 17. Answer: (2) 2. 8. The difference between the numbers is 7. Ex.

72 = 108. (2) 162 (3) 192 (4) 201 = 72. 243. Answer: (4) Ex. The numbers are multiplied by 4 to get the next number. 3072.…. The series is 02. 72. 64. 62 etc. 48. 1458.2 3. The next number is 62 = 36. 22 – 1. 1 (1) 12 Sol. 25. 192.1 720. (1) 274 (2) 486 (3) 1236 Sol. 24. (1) 768 (2) 384 (3) 2376 (4) 1976 Sol.….1 0. 54. (4) 1032 The numbers are multiplied by 3 to get next number.2 0. 36. 16. (1) 100 (2) 84 (3) 96 (4) 120 Sol. 144. 16. 108. Answer: (3) Back to Table of Contents 88 Corporate & International Relations Amrita Vishwa Vidyapeetham . (1) 130 Sol. 35. n2 – 1 Series: Ex. Ex. 42. (2) 62 (3) 63 (4) 64 The series is 12 – 1. 22. 9. 32 – 1 etc.….… (1) 60 Sol. 15. 4. 48. 6.….1 1. n2 Series: Ex.2 32. The next number is 102 = 100. ] Answer: (1) 6. Division Series: Ex. 48 Answer (2) 5. 120. 8.…. 162. 32 × =48.Analysis of TCS Placement Papers Quants Funda 3. 4. 49 (1) 28 Sol. Multiplication Series: Ex. (192 × 4 = 768) Answer: (1) 4.1 2. The next number is 82 – 1 = 63. 48. 3. 52…. 12. (2) 30 (3) 32 (4) 36 The series is 12. 32.…. 22. (162 × 3 = 486) Answer: (2) Ex. 2. 18. 108 = 162 (2) 18 (3) 20 (4) 6 Answer: (4) Number × 3/2 = next number. 24. 42.

344. (2) 48 (3) 49 (4) 51 The series is 12 + 1. 7. 22 + 2. 26. 52 – 5.…. (2) 343 (3) 365 (4) 400 The series is 13. n3 + 1 Series: Ex.1 2. 5. 32 + 1 etc. 216. 3 × 4. The next number is 5 × 6 = 30. assign numbers 1 to 26 to the letters of the alphabet as shown below. 27. Answer: (2) Another Logic: The series is 1 × 2. (2) 30 (3) 32 (4) 36 The series is 12 + 1. 42. The missing number is 73 = 343. 11.Analysis of TCS Placement Papers Quants Funda Another Logic: Difference between numbers is 3. n2 + n Series (or) n2 – n Series: Ex. Answer: (2) 10. 10. The next number = 52 + 5 = 30. n3 Series: Ex. Answer: (1) 8. 6. 28. (1) 50 Sol. 33 etc. 126. 32 + 3.1 2. 42 + 4 etc. The letter series mainly consists of skipping of the letters. The missing number is 83 + 1 = 513. 65. n2 + 1 Series: Ex.… (1) 256 Sol. 8. (2) 500 (3) 428 (4) 600 The series is 13 + 1.1 2. (1) 28 Sol. 17. 9. 64. The next number is (48 + 15 = 63). 37. 4 × 5. 65. 42 – 4. 125. 32 – 3. 217. The next number is 72 + 1 = 50. 5. 9. 23 + 1. The next number is 62 – 6 = 30.…. In some cases it is useful to assign the numbers in the reverse order. 20. Back to Table of Contents 89 Corporate & International Relations Amrita Vishwa Vidyapeetham . 23. 2 × 3.1 1. Another Logic: The series is 22 – 2. 13 etc. 33 + 1 etc.… (1) 513 Sol. 7. 9. 12. 22 + 1. Answer: (1) LETTER SERIES Introduction: In these types of problems a series of the letters of alphabet will be given which follow a pattern or a sequence. To solve these types of problems.

U. so the answer should be 21 + 5 = 26 i. K. E + 2 = G. C + 2 = E. D. 20. The series is (+ 2). Letters Position E 5th J 10th O 15th T 20th Y 25th Just remember the word EJOTY and its values i. 10. U = 21 i.2 A. 25 e.e.. Answer: (1) Back to Table of Contents 90 Corporate & International Relations Amrita Vishwa Vidyapeetham . (2) K (3) L (4) M G + 2 = I. If you are asked to complete the series F.e. __ Then from EJOTY. P = 16. 15. A + 2 = C. i. G.e.. After I skip J to get K. C. 5. + 3 etc.1 A. Answer: (2) Another Logic: Skip one letter is I + 2 = K. I. Z Various types of letter series are given below. B. … (1) J Sol. The series is + 1. G.g. A very important fact about the position of any alphabet is that both the sum of forward position and reverse position for any alphabet is always constant and equal to 27.… (1) P (2) N (3) O (4) L Sol. The missing letter is I + 2 = K.. the missing letter is K. . Such as Sum of both positions of H is (8 + 19 = 27) or for W is (23 + 4 = 27). K. Ex. We can also remember the relative positions of these alphabets by just remembering the word EJOTY. + 2.Analysis of TCS Placement Papers Quants Funda 1 2 A B Z Y 26 25 3 C X 24 4 D W 23 5 E V 22 6 F U 21 7 G T 20 8 H S 19 9 I R 18 10 J Q 17 11 K P 16 12 L O 15 13 M N 14 Here the table is showing both forward as well as reverse place value of any alphabet. you know that values of F = 6. K = 11. TYPE – 1 One Letter Series: Ex. Note: "Skip" process saves time. P.e. The missing letter is (K + 5) = P. difference is 5. E.

… (1) Q (2) R (3) U (4) S Sol. E. If numbers are assigned. D. H. H. J. L. E. Ex. the series becomes square series. Skip 4 letters after 'K' to get P. K. Ex. Skip Q.8 D. Ex. The missing letter is N + 3 = Q. 2.7 A.6 A. D. The missing letter is N + 3 = Q. G. Answer: (1) Ex. E. Answer: (3) Another Logic: Skip two letters to get the next letter. The series is alternately + 2 and + 3. 3 etc. the series becomes prime number series. F. C. The missing letter is Q. Answer: (4) Ex. then 1. 91 Corporate & International Relations Amrita Vishwa Vidyapeetham .Analysis of TCS Placement Papers Quants Funda Skip Process: First no letter is skipped. N.4 B. If numbers are assigned. P after N to get Q.… (1) P Sol. N. L. letters are skipped to get next letter. P after N to get Q. Answer: (4) Another Logic: Skip one and two letters alternately to get the next letter. The series is a series of Vowels.… (1) N (2) O (3) P (4) Q Sol.… (1) M (2) N (3) O (4) P Sol. I.3 B. P.5 B. The next prime number is 13 and the corresponding letter is M. If numbers are assigned.… (1) M (2) N (3) O (4) P Back to Table of Contents Sol. The next number is 52 = 25 and the corresponding letter is Y. O. (2) O (3) Q (4) R The series is + 3. I. I. the series becomes composite number series. K.… (1) U (2) V (3) X (4) Y Sol. Skip two letters O. Answer: (3) Ex. I. G.

MN. Answer: (1) TYPE – 3 Three Letter Series: This sequence consists of 3 letters in each term. CO. G. CDF. E. B.. the second letters follow another logic and the third letters follow some other logic. The second letters follow a sequence of B. CE. E. O.1 AM. And the third letters form a sequence of D.9 A. Answer: (3) Ex. F and the second letters are M. J etc. C. C. X. DP. G.3 AA. X.… (1) OP (2) NO (3) PQ (4) RS Sol.… (1) FG Sol. Answer: (2) Ex. (2) FR (3) GR (4) ER The first letters are A. the first two letters. E.… (1) IU (2) IQ (3) IR (4) IT Sol.… (1) U Sol. JK. I etc. C. C. Z. Also.… (1) IJK Sol. DE. EFH. I. D. Ex. Answer: (2) Ex. (2) IJL (3) HIJ (4) HIK The first letters follow a sequence of A. F. GH. EQ. GHJ. H. Answer: (3) TYPE – 2 Two Letter Series: The first letters of the series follow one logic and the second letters follow another logic. D. B. Q and R. EI. and Z. The first letters follow one logic. (or the same logic in all the three cases) Ex. GO. The first letters follow a sequence of A. H. D. L etc. Skip O to get next two letters PQ. F. Y. Answer: (2) Back to Table of Contents 92 Corporate & International Relations Amrita Vishwa Vidyapeetham . BN.2 AB. the next two letters and so on follow a logic. Y. After every set of letters one letter is skipped.Analysis of TCS Placement Papers Quants Funda The next composite number is 14 and the corresponding letter is N. (+ 2 series) and the second letters are vowels.1 ABD. B. (2) V (3) W (4) X The sequence consists of two series A. C. J. N. D etc. W etc. P.

The first letters form a series of C. E. F. O. OIE.… (1) QPH (2) QUH (3) QUI (4) QUK form prime Sol. The second letters form Vowels. Q etc. DLY. The first letters form a series of M. Answer: (4) Ex. W. Answer: (1) Ex. EMX. The codes are based on various principles/patterns such that the message can be easily be deciphered at the other end. D. NEC.… (1) JKL (2) IHG (3) DFE (4) IJK Sol. V etc. the letters of the alphabets are exclusively used. These questions can be broadly classified into 5 main categories. DEF.2 CKZ. The second term is the reverse order of first term. FED. X. especially in Defence Services. They are required to encode and decode words and sentences after observing the pattern and principles involved. CBA. as follows: (i) Coding with Letters of Alphabets (ii) Coding with Numerical Digits (Numbers) (iii) Mixed Coding (Both Alphabetical and Numerical) (iv) Coding with Arbitrary Signs / Symbols (v) Miscellaneous Type TYPE – 1 Coding with Letters of Alphabet: In these questions. .Analysis of TCS Placement Papers Quants Funda Ex. N. such questions are given to judge the candidates’ intelligence and mental ability. G etc. Y. Now-a-days.… (1) GOV (2) GOU (3) GNU (4) GNV Sol. FNW. L.. GHI. These letters do not stand for themselves but are allotted some artificial values based on some logical patterns/analogies. in certain competitive examinations.4 ABC. Answer: (2) CODING / DECODING Introduction: For conveying secret messages from one place to another. N. the third letters number series (if numbers are assigned to letters). In addition to the above types a number of other types can also be identified. M. and the third letters form a series of Z.3 MAB. O etc. By applying those principles or observing the pattern Back to Table of Contents 93 Corporate & International Relations Amrita Vishwa Vidyapeetham . coding is used. P. The second letters form a series of K. POG.

is written in actual code? N=O E=P T=C W=T O=R R=S K=Q Hence CROPS can be coded as TONER.4 If EWFGHONTISO stands for OBSERVATION. decode the following codes.3 If INLAND is coded as BSTRSI. how is CROPS written in that code. make codes of the following letters.5 If PROMISED is coded as RMNIOSTD. If NETWORK is coded as O P C T R S Q. The decoding is as follows: Back to Table of Contents 94 Corporate & International Relations Amrita Vishwa Vidyapeetham . The coding is done as follows: (1) BS (2) TRSI (3) BSS (4) RSI (5) RS (6) TRBI Ex. (1) IN (2) LAND (3) INN (4) AND (5) AN (6) LAID Sol. Ex. code the following letters.2 The code ‘TABLESTESF’ stands for the word ‘BELONGINGS’ how will you code the following : (1) LONG (6) SING Sol.1 Sol. These can be further classified into the following categories : Simple Analogical Letter Coding: These are also called arbitrary codes. (1) RATION (2) RATE (3) SEAT (4) NOT (5) NOTE (6) BEST Sol. The coding is as follows: (1) HNTISO (2) HNTG (3) FGNT (4) OST (5) OSTG (6) WGFT Ex. (2) ON (7) SINGS (3) GIN (8) GONE (4) SONG (9) IS (5) NO (10) GO then C=T R=O O=N P=E S=R The coding is done as follows: (1) BLES (6) FTES (2) LE (7) FTESF (3) STE (8) SLEA (4) FLES (9) TF (5) EL (10) SL Ex. There are 2 definite principles/pattern involved. the candidates are required to decode a coded word or encode a word. (1) RNST (2) MNIT (3) DOI (4) RMNST (5) SOM (6) INMT Sol. Codes are based on the analogy of one example from which different codes are to be formed. Ex.Analysis of TCS Placement Papers Quants Funda involved.

2 If POSTED is coded as DETSOP.e. B = CD. The candidates are required first to observe the specific pattern involved and then proceed with coding or decoding. Sol.1 Sol. how will you code “RACE”. the answers to the above questions will be follows: (1) LET (2) TORE (3) DOCK (4) DEEP (5) POT (6) BOSS Ex. i. A = BC.3 If A = E. (2) SNQD (3) CNBI (4) CDDO (5) ONS (6) ANRR reversed Here. how will be word SPEED be coded? A careful observation of the above example will reveal that letters of the first word have been If GREET is coded as FQDDS. A (5) B (1). try to code the following. etc. You have to match the words of column A with their respective coded word in column B. the word RACE will be coded as “STBCDEFG” Based on the above principle. but with different order. Ex. Column B goes with the codes for column A. Ex.Analysis of TCS Placement Papers Quants Funda (1) POSE Ex. C = B. each letter is allotted the value of its preceding letter in the sequence. The pattern of coding used here is BLADES = CMBEFT. (1) FPEGO If “CAT” is coded as “DEBCUV”. how will you code the following words.6 (2) ROME (3) DIM (4) PROSE (5) SIR (6) MORE Column A contains certain words numbered from (1) to (6). A (6) B (3). Based on this pattern. C = DE. the pattern of coding used here is B = A. A (1) B (2). decode the following codes: (1) KDS Sol. The pattern of coding is such that each letter has been allotted value of 2 letters following the sequence. Back to Table of Contents 95 Corporate & International Relations Amrita Vishwa Vidyapeetham . letters of alphabets are no doubt allotted artificial values but based on certain specific pattern/principles. Ex. Letter Coding on Specific Pattern: In such questions. A (3) B (6). as the case may be.4 Sol. (1) BLACK (2) ACT (2) EGX (3) BAT (3) FEX (4) CADRE (4) GEHVI (5) LOOT (5) PSSX (6) FOOL (6) JSSP Sol. Column (A) (1) BASE (2) BALE (3) SALE (4) SAD (5) BAD (6) BED Column (B) (1) CBE (2) CBTF (3) CFE (4) CBMF (5) TBE (6) TBMF A (2) B (4). A (4) B (5). Hence.

Column (1) (1) USJN (2) CPOF (3) MPPU (4) GFFU (5) TIPSU (6) XPSL Column (B) (1) WORK (2) SHORT (3) FEET (4) LOOT (5) BONE (6) TRIM A (2) B (5). The pattern of coding is Q = P.6 A (1) B (6). etc. the candidates will be able to solve the problem. U = T. BD = C. (1) REST (2) TELL (3) FEEL (4) DOES (5) LOST (6) BEDS TYPE – 2 Coding with Numerical Digits: The pattern of coding with numerical digits is similar to that of coding with alphabets except the use of numerical digits with the assignment of some artificial values. etc. A (5) B (2). The pattern of coding is such that the sequence follows the letters in between. Back to Table of Contents 96 Corporate & International Relations Amrita Vishwa Vidyapeetham . A (6) B (1). A (3) B (4). each pair of letters in the code. Pattern is AC = B. and N = 6. If TRAIN is coded as 23456. R = 3. S = R. A (4) B (3). (2) DATED (3) LATE (4) FAKES (5) MAIN (6) PLANE (1) G H B C U V F G S T (4) G H B C L M F G TU (2) E F B C U V F G E F (5) N O B C J K O P (3) M N B C U V F G (6) Q R M N B C O P F G Ex. These values have been allotted arbitrary.Analysis of TCS Placement Papers Quants Funda (1) FATHER Sol. Ex. how will you code TIN and RAIN? The answer will be 256 for TIN and 3456 for RAIN. Match the words of the column (A) with column (B) and indicate the first and last letters of the coded word in column A from the answer choices. I = 5. Sol. T = 2. A = 4. how will you code the following : (1) QSDFRTSU (4) CENPDFRT (2) SUDFKMKM (5) KMNPRTSU (3) EGDFDFKM (6) ACDFCERT Sol. The values are allotted based on some specific pattern which has to be discerned by the candidate in order to solve the problem in the quickest possible time.5 Column (A) contains coded words and column (B) contains equivalent decoded words given in a different serial order. CE = D. If “EGHJKMKM” is the code for “FILL”. based on logical relationship.

how will you code the following words? (A) DOES Choices: (A) (B) (C) (D) (E) (F) Sol. L = 4. Based on this analogy. Decode the following codes (1) 4 5 3 2 7 (2) 6 5 2 7 (2) BASE (3) 4 5 2 7 (3) CASE (4) 6 7 7 (4) BEE (5) 4 7 5 2 7 (5) CEASE (6) 3 2 7 (6) USE Back to Table of Contents Sol.1 If SELDOM is coded as “1 2 4 3 6 5”. E = 2. There are no set of principles or patterns involved.3 The code 6 7 4 5 3 2 7. V = 6. you’ll observe O = 1.2 If “1 3 4 8 2 6 7 5 9” is the code for “O B S E R V A N T” how will you code the following words? (A) SERVANT Choices: (A) (B) (C) (D) (E) (F) (1) 4 8 2 6 7 5 9 (2) 4 8 2 6 7 6 0 (3) 4 8 2 6 7 5 0 (4) 4 2 8 6 7 5 9 (1) 4 1 3 8 2 (1) 3 8 9 5 (1) 1 7 6 9 8 (1) 1 7 2 9 8 (1) 9 1 5 8 4 (2) 4 1 3 8 1 (2) 3 8 5 9 (2) 1 7 6 8 9 (2) 1 2 7 9 8 (2) 5 1 9 8 4 (3) 4 3 1 8 2 (3) 3 5 8 9 (3) 1 6 7 9 8 (3) 1 2 7 8 9 (3) 5 9 1 8 4 (4) 4 1 3 2 8 (4) 9 8 3 5 (4) 9 8 7 6 1 (4) 8 9 2 7 1 (4) 8 4 9 1 5 (B) SOBER (C) BENT (D) OVATE (E) ORATE (F) NOTES Sol. A = 7. E = 8 R = 2. N = 5 and T = 9. (A) (1) (B) (2) (C) (3) (D) (2) (E) (2) (F) (3) Ex. the correct answer will be. (1) 3 6 2 1 (1) 1 4 6 2 (1) 4 3 2 (1) 3 6 4 1 (1) 4 6 2 3 (1) 6 2 3 (2) 6 2 3 1 (2) 1 6 4 2 (2) 3 2 4 (2) 3 6 4 2 (2) 4 6 3 2 (2) 2 3 6 (3) 1 6 3 2 (3) 1 4 2 6 (3) 4 2 3 (3) 3 6 2 4 (3) 6 3 2 4 (3) 6 3 2 (4) 6 2 1 3 (4) 1 6 2 4 (4) 4 2 6 (4) 3 6 4 1 (4) 4 3 6 2 (4) 6 3 4 (B) SOLE (C) LED (D) DOLE (E) LODE (F) ODE If SELDOM stand for code 124365 which means S = 1. Based on this analogy the correct answers will be : (A) (1) B) (1) (C) (2) (D) (3) (E) (2) (F) (2) Ex. Candidates are required to study the examples given before getting started with the exercise. D = 3. stands for B E C A U S E. B = 3. and M = 5. S = 4.Analysis of TCS Placement Papers Quants Funda Analogical Coding with Numerical Digits: Analogical coding with numerical digits involves the method of coding where the letters of alphabets are allotted numerical values and the pattern of coding is based on the analogy of the example given in the question. Ex. (1) CAUSE 97 Corporate & International Relations Amrita Vishwa Vidyapeetham . In the example. O = 6.

g. Y = 2. Z = 1. B = 6. C 6 S 22 D 7 T 23 E 8 U 24 F 9 V 25 G 10 W 26 H 11 X 1 I 12 Y 2 J 13 Z 3 Back to Table of Contents K 14 L 15 M 16 N 17 O 18 P 19 98 Corporate & International Relations Amrita Vishwa Vidyapeetham . For instance. how will you code the following words : (1) FATE Sol. C = 8 or any other pattern following a particular sequence). decode the following codes. etc.) Random Sequence (e. (1) 1-3-20-5-4 (6) 7-1-9-14 Backward Sequence: Ex. A B 4 5 Q R 20 21 (2) CANADA (3) GERMANY (4) NEPAL (5) PERU (6) KENYA The pattern of assignment is read as given in the following table. etc.4 If 4 0 6 5 4 2 5 7 is the code for S T A N D I N G. A = 1. Forward Sequence: Ex. B = 3 or A = 4.1 If FRANCE is coded 9-21-4-6-8.) Backward sequence (e. etc. A = 26. B = 2. (2) DATE (3) MATE (3) 14-26-7-22 (4) RATE (4) 9-26-7-22 (5) GATE (5) 20-26-7-22 (2) BAIL (3) RACE (2) 2-1-9-12 (4) FRAME (3) 18-1-3-5 (5) GLAD (6) GAIN (4) 6-18-1-13-5 (5) 7-12-1-4 (1) 21-26-7-22 (2) 23-26-7-22 Random sequence: The sequence will not follow a specific pattern of assignment as in other cases but will surely show a pattern at a strict analysis. C = 3.Analysis of TCS Placement Papers Quants Funda Ex. A = 2. Ex. alphabets A to Z are assigned the numeric codes from 1 to 26 where each letter gets the assignment in the pattern as follow A = 1. The sequence is classified as follows : Forward sequence (e. If ‘PACE’ is code as 16-1-3-5. (1) 4 0 6 7 (2) 6 5 4 (2) AND (3) 4 0 6 2 5 (3) STAIN (4) 42 5 2 5 7 (4) DINING (5) 4 6 5 4 (5) SAND (6) 4 0 2 5 7 (6) STING Sol. code the following words after discerning the principle/pattern involved in this example : (1) INDIA Sol. B = 2.g.g. (1) STAG Coding with Specific Pattern: This is the pattern of coding which exhibits the natural correlation of Arabic numbers with alphabetic letters. The pattern can be established by various ways but in every case a set principle/pattern is involved which has to be discovered by careful examination of the example given in the question. If GREAT is coded as 20-9-22-26-7. how will you code the following : (1) ACTED Sol.

hence the answer is (1). (A) LATE Choices: (A) (B) (C) (D) (E) (F) (1) 38 (1) 32 (1) 22 (1) 23 (1) 41 (1) 42 (2) 59 (2) 30 (2) 23 (2) 22 (2) 51 (2) 29 (3) 56 (3) 34 (3) 21 (3) 20 (3) 21 (3) 31 (4) 58 (4) 36 (4) 24 (4) 24 (4) 30 (4) 30 (B) MAKE (C) ICED (D) ACT (E) FACT (F) LAND Sol. (1) 3-0-0-12 (4) 7-18-0-0-13 Ex. (F) LAND = 12 + 1 + 14 + 4 = 31 hence the answer is (3). (D) ACT = 1 + 3 + 20 = 24 hence the answer is (4). find the sum with all the letters put together.2 (2) 6-4-17-4-7-4 (6) 14-8-17-2-4 (3) 10-8-21-16-4-17-2 (4) 17-8-19-4-15 If BREAD is coded as “2-18-0-0-4”. how will you code the following? (1) COOL (2) COME (3) BROOM (4) GROOM (5) SHEETAL (6) CREAM A strict analysis of the question reads that the vowels ‘E’ & ‘A’ are assigned the code ‘0’. Based on the answers are follows: Remaining letters of alphabet will follow the same order. (E) FACT = 6 + 1 + 3 + 20 = 30 hence the answer is (4). etc.e. (B) MAKE = 13 + 1 + 11 + 5 = 30 hence the answer is (2).Analysis of TCS Placement Papers Quants Funda Based on above pattern. i. B = 2. Back to Table of Contents 99 Corporate & International Relations Amrita Vishwa Vidyapeetham . C = 3. the answers will be follows : (1) 12-17-7-12-4 (5) 19-8-21-24 Ex. C = 3. B = 2. Sol. (C) ICED = 9 + 3 + 5 + 4 = 21 hence the answer is (3). If 6 – 12 – 1 – 19 – 8 = FLASH and 6 – 15 – 15 – 12 – 9 – 19 – 8 = FOOLISH. (A) LATE = 12 + 1 + 20 + 5 = 38. TYPE – 3 Mixed Coding (Letters + Digits): Mixed coding takes the pattern of coding with both the letters of alphabets and numerical assignment. The rest of the letters follow the regular sequence of numerical assignment.3 (2) 3-0-13-0 (5) 19-8-0-0-20-0-12 (3) 2-18-0-0-13 (6) 3-18-0-0-13 above pattern.e. D = 4 etc. The candidates are required to study the analogy given in question. the i.

(2). V A N D A N A CODE CNDAAA KAEYN SNOITAN VNAAADN Back to Table of Contents 100 Corporate & International Relations Amrita Vishwa Vidyapeetham . Only after the analysis of the pattern applied in coding. how will you code the following (1) FADED (6) DREAM (2) LOCATE (3) BAILED (4) FAILED (5) PRESS Ans. (3). Example: Study the five different ways of coding marked (1). C A N A D A 2.2 Decode the following: (1) R 9 L 5 D (6) B 1 I 12E4 (2) A 3 I 4 (3) 5A20I14G (4) B 1 I 12 (5) K 9L 12 Ans. N A T I O N S 4. (4) & (5). (1) RILED (6) BAILED (2) ACID (3) EATING (4) BAIL (5) KILL Ex.3 Decode the following: (1) F 1 D 5 D (4) D 5 A 12 I 14 G (2) A 9 D 9 N 7 (5) O 2 S 5 R 22 E (2) A I D I N G (5) O B S E R V E (3) R 5 Q 21 I 18 E 4 (6) A 3 I 4 (3) R E Q U I R E D (6) A C I D Ans.Analysis of TCS Placement Papers Quants Funda Ex. (1) F A D E D (4) D E A L I N G TYPE – 4 Miscellaneous Types Decoding the Rule Applied: This part of coding test required a careful examination of rules followed to code a certain word. Can you find out the rule of coding applied in the question that follows. K E N Y A 3. A specific rule has been applied to codify each of them.1 If “A – 3 – T – 5 – D” stands for ACTED and “D1T5D” stands for “DATED”. (1) F1D5D (6) D 18 E 1 M (2) L15C1T5 (3) B 1 I 12E4 (4) F1I12E4 (5) P 18E 19S Ex. (1) N C E F R A (2) F A C R N E FRANCE (3) E C N A R F (4) A C E F N R (5) F E R C A N WORD 1. you can decode them.

w 101 Corporate & International Relations Amrita Vishwa Vidyapeetham . if we taken (2) and (3). C A R E E R 8. V. (1) 8. (2) 10. G) common and there corresponding small letters will be (m. we find that ‘w’ is not present is column II of either (2) or (3) and D is not there in column II of either (2) & (3) the or conclude that D = w and therefore R = k. (4) 7. e 1. (5) 9. An example has been given below: Example In the following question the capital letters in column I are codified in small letters in column II. (2) NAMHDRAV AIORUSV EERCAR PNOOPIUTLA MDCNEIIE ADEIPTTU 5. (3) 4. carrying on with this finding. M E D I C I N E 10. Column (I) 1. b) though not in the same order. I. A P T I T U D E Answers: 1.Analysis of TCS Placement Papers Quants Funda 5. D I G I T 2. (3) 6. (2) 2. G I T A R 5. z. Here in such questions some alphabets/letter are underline in column I and the corresponding codes in column II has been jumbled up thus making the question more difficult to correspond. L I V E R Keys: Explanation If we compare question (1) & (2) we find that there are 3 alphabets (T. (5) 3. E & R. (4) Contrasting and Marking Comparisons: A set of words are given in column I and codes have been formed in column II. we see in question (3) and (5) there are two common elements in column I. y 4. Back to Table of Contents Column (II) wbzbm mbzxk xkyox mtzbk bexok 2. Study the column (I) and (II) together and determine the small letters for the corresponding underlined capital letter in column (I). P O P U L A T I O N 9. Now. we have now. m 3. V A R D H M A N 6. Therefore. z 5. To find the formula to decode these type of question some logical rule/principle is found by comparing or making contracts in all the questions. T I G E R 3. F E V E R 4. V A R I O U S 7. The small letters are not arranged in the same order on the capital letters. Either ‘w or k’ is D’s code Now. This leaves us with (D and R) with small alphabets (w and k).

1 If DOLLY is 68. Therefore. we cannot conclude anything more from these clues. then how much will be SEEMA? (1) 65 Sol.Analysis of TCS Placement Papers Quants Funda Since E comes twice in (3). Now. I comes twice. hence the answer is (3). some of which are summarized below to help solve these tests. but can fit in above observation to see what relation capital letters have with small letters. G = z and T = m Mathematical/Algebraic Operations The code is always the sum of letters with the assignment of numbers put in the regular order. therefore code for E = x which leads to V = 0 and F = y in question is (1). Ex. The order reads either in a forward sequence or a backward sequence. (2) 86 (3) 43 (4) 33 The coding is the sum of forward sequence of alphabets DOLLY SEEMA 4 + 15 + 12 + 12 + 25 = 68 19 + 5 + 5 + 13 +1 = 43. So we are left with ‘T’ and ‘G’. then how much will be SHEETAL? (1) 119 (2) 98 (3) 125 (4) 100 Sol. Ex. which are either ‘z’ or ‘m’. Mother's or father's son: Brother Back to Table of Contents 102 Corporate & International Relations Amrita Vishwa Vidyapeetham .2 If NEERAJ is 109. hence the answer is (1). The coding is the sum of backward sequence of alphabets: NEERAJ SHEETAL 13 + 22 + 22 + 9 + 26 + 15 = 109 8 + 19 + 22 + 22 + 7 + 26 + 15 = 119. BLOOD RELATIONS Introduction: In these tests the success of a candidate depends upon the knowledge of the blood relations. this leads to I = b. Consider the table given below.

(viii) C is brother of A. one Engineer. (i) A. one Pilot. one Student and one Housewife. (v) B is a pilot and is mother of C. How is A related to D? Back to Table of Contents (2) Three only (3) Three or Four (4) Two or Three 103 Corporate & International Relations Amrita Vishwa Vidyapeetham . (iii) There are two married couples in the family.Analysis of TCS Placement Papers Quants Funda Mother's or father's daughter: Sister Mother's or father's brother: Uncle Mother's or father's sister: Aunt Mother's or father's father: Grandfather Mother's or father's mother: Grandmother Brother's son: Nephew Brother's daughter: Niece Uncle or aunt's son or daughter: Cousin Sister's husband: Brother – in – law Brother's wife: Sister in – law Son's wife: Daughter – in – law Daughter's husband: Son – in – law Husband's or wife's sister: Sister – in – law Husband's or wife's brother: Brother – in – law EXAMPLE: Directions for questions 1 – 3: Read the following information to answer the given questions. Which of the following statements is definitely true? (1) C is the brother of the Student (3) A is the Engineer (2) F is the father of the Engineer (4) E is the father of the Pilot 2. one Lawyer. (ii) There is one Doctor. E and F are six family members. is father of A. (vi) D is grandmother of C and is a Housewife (vii) E is father of F and is a Doctor. who is a lawyer. (iv) F. D. B. C. 1. How many female members are there in the family? (1) Two only 3.

Either granddaughter or grandson. Two or three.Analysis of TCS Placement Papers Quants Funda (1) Grandson Solutions 1 – 3: (2) Granddaughter (3) Either granddaughter or grandson (4) grandmother 1 Either A or C is Engineer. Answer: (4) 3. A class is a group or collection of objects. Class Containing Classes: All those females that fall into class of nieces are contained in class of females. Answer: (3) LOGICAL DIAGRAMS Introduction: There are three types of logical diagram tests generally asked by the examiner. no class of doctors can entirely contain the class of females. Answer: (2) 2. all having something in common. Class Partially Containing Other Classes: Consider two classes. in the above figure. There are three possible relationships between any two different classes. the two-joined circles indicate that there are three classes. Since not all doctors are females. Females Nieces 2. These are explained below. B and D (sex of A is not known). doctors and females. a class of females will include all daughters and nieces in a group. 1. F is father of both A and C. The idea that one class may contain another is the most Fundamental logical principle underlying the logical diagram questions. Back to Table of Contents 104 Corporate & International Relations Amrita Vishwa Vidyapeetham . questions are based on the concept of class. TYPE – 1 In Type 1. The partial containment of one class by another class can be picturised in the following way: Doctors Females A B C Now. For example.

(A) 3. Players. Asians Back to Table of Contents 105 Corporate & International Relations Amrita Vishwa Vidyapeetham . Boys Diagram II 1. Females Doctors Girls It will be helpful to familiarize yourself with the various patterns of three-circle relationships. but not females. Though more than seven patterns are possible. Here are the seven most common patterns. and doctors-girls. Females. but not doctors.e. Girls Males Females Now. Males. Doctors. For example. i. Those who are doctors. each of these classes will stand in one of the three types of relationships to the other. since no female can come into the class of males and also no male can be included into the class of females. Females. Those who are females. People. you can represent all of these relationships by intersecting the three circles as in the figure below. with no new principles of relationships between classes. Butterflies. Insects. Mothers. Diagram I 1. Instead of three different diagrams. Those who are lady doctors. (B) 2. Mosquitoes 2. these are the patterns based on which questions are frequently asked. Lady Doctors 2. three different two-circle diagrams for females-girls.Analysis of TCS Placement Papers Quants Funda 1. Classes Independent of Each Other The classes of all males and all females exclude each other. doctors-females. In actual logical diagram tests. let us take three different classes. Fathers. (C) 3. you will be working with three circles rather than two.

Girls Diagram V 1. Hair. Cats. Sisters. Gates. a variety of questions can be asked. Mosquitoes. Mangoes. Aunts. Fathers Diagram VII Cousins. 2. Back to Table of Contents 106 Corporate & International Relations Amrita Vishwa Vidyapeetham . Barriers 1. Another to find and measure the portion that represents a particular statement. there are two sets of principles: 1. Men. Professionals Based on these principles. Bachelors. Teachers. Wheat 2. Students. Fruits. Teachers 2. Birds Diagram VI Entrances. Doctors. Congressman. Dogs. Fathers. Nieces 1. Girls Diagram IV insects. Nail.Analysis of TCS Placement Papers Quants Funda Diagram III 1. Teeth 2. Females. One to choose the figure that represents the logical relationship among the items (in the figure). Males. TYPE – 2 In this type of questions. Grapes 1.

Educated female outside Delhi citizens who are also employed. represents educated represents unemployed. The conclusions are supposed to follow from the question statements. (iii) No Muslim is an Indian as well as a Pakistani. Here you’ll be provided with a set of given statements which will be followed by another set of deductions / conclusions. 2. Some Pakistanis are Muslims. Uneducated unemployed males who are citizens of Delhi.Analysis of TCS Placement Papers Quants Funda Example: In the adjoining figure. (iv) Some Muslims are neither Indians nor Pakistanis. and represents citizens of Delhi. The candidates are required to practice such questions and find out by themselves whether answering/solving such type of questions is easier by using the techniques of “Logical Reasoning” or “Logical Diagram” questions. (ii) Some Muslims are Indians as well as Pakistanis. Some Indians are Muslims. these reasoning questions become easier to understand if we solve them by making use of methods/ tips of logical diagram. Find out which of the numbers denote the following: 1. II and III follow 107 Corporate & International Relations Amrita Vishwa Vidyapeetham . and the statements (or assumptions) are to be taken as true even if they seem to be at a variance with commonly known facts or universal truths. Example: Statements: 1. Answers: (1) 2 (2) 7 TYPE – 3 In this type of logical diagram question. Conclusions: (i) Every Muslim is either an Indian or a Pakistani. you’ll be able to see through reasoning yourself and deduce the right answer. 2. you have to choose your answer from one of the following alternatives (1) Only II follows Answer: (3) Back to Table of Contents (2) Only III follows (3) Either II or III follows (4) Only I. represents males. Now. These are the “Logical Reasoning” questions falling under “Logical Diagrams” type questions.

Answer: (3) MATHEMATICAL OPERATIONS These types of problems are common to be asked in good competitive examinations. Greater to (>) denotes (+)” etc are the type of statements given and on the basis of those statements we have to solve a given problem. Also. = 18 × 12 ÷ 4 – 8 + 6 Now applying the concept of BODMAS to solve the above expression we get = 18 x 3 – 8 + 6 = 54 – 2 = 52 Answer: (4) Ex: Some symbols have been given different meaning. Ex. Let us understand this in much wider concept with the help of an example. Indians Muslims Pakistanis Indians Muslims Pakistanis Fig (i) Fig (ii) Now. then 1 8 B 1 2 P 4 M 8 Q 6 =? (1) 108 Sol. ‘B’ denotes ‘multiplied by’. If ‘P’ denotes ‘divided by’. which can not be possible so this figure is not a proper explanation of the statements. ‘Q’ denotes ‘added to’. ‘M’ denotes ‘subtracted from’. fig (i) infers that there are some Muslims who are Indians and are some who are Pakistanis. (2) 46 (3) 17 (4) 52 (5) None of these 18B12P4M8Q6 According to the given information put the signs assigned for each alphabet we get. Read them correctly carefully and find out the correct one out of the four alternatives SIGNS > Stands for ÷ v Stands for × < Stands for + ^ Stands for – Back to Table of Contents 108 Corporate & International Relations Amrita Vishwa Vidyapeetham . there are Muslims who are neither Indian nor Pakistani and fig (ii) denotes – there are some who are Pakistani. some who are both Indian and Pakistani. In these some mathematical operations are inter – changed among themselves such as if divide (÷) denotes multiplication (×).Analysis of TCS Placement Papers Quants Funda The following diagrams give a clear idea of what can be concluded from the above statements. So only figure (i) is true and statement 3 is true among all the statement.

find which of the two conclusions I and II given below is/are definitely true? Give your answer as – (1) if only Conclusion I is true. ‘P # Q’ means ‘P is not smaller than Q’. J # B Conclusions: I. 5 v 4 < 2 + 10 v 2 < 2 gives 5 x 4 + 2 = 10 x 2 + 2 22 = 22 Answer: (1) EXAMPLE: Directions for questions 1 – 5: In these questions. M * B. $. Statements: V # D. (2) if only Conclusion II is true.Analysis of TCS Placement Papers Quants Funda + Stands for = – Stands for > × Stands for < (1) 5 v 4 < 2 + 10 v 2 < 2 (4) 9 v 3 – 1 + 6 > 8 ^ 9 Sol. F $ K Conclusions: I. V @ F 3. (3) if only Conclusion I or II is true. (4) if neither Conclusion I nor II is true. # and % are used with the following meanings as illustrated below: ‘P @ Q’ means ‘P is neither greater than nor equal to Q’. Statements: W # D. D @ F II. ‘P $ Q’ means ‘P is neither smaller than nor equal to Q’. D % M. Now in each of the questions given below. T % J (2) 8 v 4 – 2 + 5 > 7 ^ 6 (3) 8 v 6 – 3 + 4 > 7 ^ 6 2. *. D * K. M * F Conclusions: Back to Table of Contents 109 Corporate & International Relations Amrita Vishwa Vidyapeetham . ‘P * Q’ means ‘P is not greater than Q’. 1. ‘P % Q’ means ‘P is neither smaller than nor greater than Q’. assuming the given statements to be true. T & M II. the symbols @. Statements: T % B. (5) if both the Conclusion I and II are true.

completion of incomplete pattern. paper cutting. M ≤ Q Answer: (4) 2. V ≥ D. T $ M II. The first unit contains a pair of related figures and the second unit contains one figure and a question mark in place of the fourth figure. K Conclusions: I. H @ K II. the problem figures and the answer figures. K $ J. mirror image. K < T ⇒M≤J<K<T⇒M<T ⇒T>M⇒T≤M⇒T$M Also J < T ⇒ J ≥ T ⇒ J @ T Answer: (5) VISUAL REASONING Instructions: These are problems that are in the form of figures. The problems may be in the form of series. drawings and designs. K @ T Conclusions: I. spotting the hidden designs or construction of square. M ≤ Q. analogies. F % D 4 Statements: H * R. K > J. paper folding. M ≤ F ⇒ D ≤ F ⇒ D L F or D = F ⇒ D ≥ F or D = F ⇒ D @ F or D = F Answer: (3) 4. You have to establish a similar relationship between two figures and point out which one of the answer figures should be in place of the question mark. there are two sets of figures viz. cube turning. figure perception. J ≥ B ⇒ T ≤ J. classification. J @ T Solutions 1 – 5: 1. K $ R 5 Statements: M * J. D @ F II. Back to Table of Contents 110 Corporate & International Relations Amrita Vishwa Vidyapeetham . D = M. Answer: (4) 5 M ≤ J. F > K ⇒ D ≥ K < F ⇒ F ⇒ D ≥ F ⇒ D @ F Answer: (1) 3 W ≥ D. Analogies: In these questions. R $ N. N @. T = B. The problem figures are presented in two units. turning. D ≤ K.Analysis of TCS Placement Papers Quants Funda I.

That is the elements in the second figure are double the elements in the first figure. One figure is not like the other four. That means they change from left to right in a specific order. Problem Figures ? Answer Figures Classification: In classification the problem figures themselves are the answer figures. Out of the five given figures tour are similar in a certain way. The first figure has one square and the second has two squares. The third and fourth figures should also have the same relationship as the first and second have. You have to identify the “odd man out”. Thus the circle is the “odd Man out”.Analysis of TCS Placement Papers Quants Funda Problem Figures ? Answer Figures Consider the above problem figures. Series: The four figures given at the left are the problem figures. That means that the fourth figure should have two circles. The second figure is related to the first figure in a certain way. of the five figures tour are straight lines whereas one is a circle. In the figures given below. If the figures continue to change in the same Back to Table of Contents 111 Corporate & International Relations Amrita Vishwa Vidyapeetham . The problem figures make up a series. The next five are the answer figures.

For example: The drawing on the left in each of the following figures represents a cube. that to the second question is (4) and to the third question is (3). Therefore the answer is (4). The number of squares in the given figure is (1) 12 2. Point out which one of the four could be the cube on the left turned to a different position. Cube turning: In this type of problems we have to deal with different positions of the same cube. Thus if the line continues to fall its fifth position would be lying flat i. Four other drawings of the cube are lettered (1). the line across the problem figures is falling down. After studying all the choices. (2) 10 (3) 14 (4) 15 The number of rectangles excluding squares in the above figure is (1) 12 (2) 13 (3) 14 (4) 17 3. it will be horizontal. (2). The cube on the left may have been turned over or around or over and around. The number of triangles in the figure is (1) 54 (2) 48 (3) 69 (4) 70 Upon studying the figure one can easily state that the answer to the first question is (3). There is a different design on each of the six faces of the cube.Analysis of TCS Placement Papers Quants Funda order what would the fifth figure be? In the example below.e. one can infer that the answer is (3). Back to Table of Contents 112 Corporate & International Relations Amrita Vishwa Vidyapeetham . we have to count number of figures hidden in the given design For example: 1. (3) and (4). Figure perception: In this type of problems.

we have to find the number opposite a given number on the die. For Example: Find the simple figures hidden in this complex figure. The procedure for finding such a number will be clear from the example given below. After looking at these figures. Choose the correct image in the second mirror. To get the position of second figure.Analysis of TCS Placement Papers Quants Funda Problems on Dice: Sometimes we are given figures showing the same die in various positions. Back to Table of Contents 113 Corporate & International Relations Amrita Vishwa Vidyapeetham . A simple figure is given. Mirror Images: In this type of problems the reflection of a design is seen in mirrors placed in different manners. One has to identify it in more complex figures. When one is at the top. ∴ Answer is (2). So 6 is on the side opposite to the 1. For Example: A plane mirror is kept horizontally below the figure and then one kept on its side. we have to rotate the dice in the first figure two times in clockwise direction. Hidden Figure Test: Hidden figure test is one more type of problem that one may encounter in visual reasoning. which number will be at the bottom? (1) 3 (2) 6 (3) 2 (4) 1 (5) 4 In both the figures 2 is at the top. After rotating the dice two times in the same direction. 6 comes in the place of 1. By inspection one can say that the figure (4) is hidden in the above figure. Two positions of a block are given below.

scheduling the activities etc. Grouping games 3. GROUPING GAMES In grouping games.) in order. top to bottom. Mapping games SEQUENCING GAMES In these types of games you have to put the entities (persons. activities etc. people. In a sequencing game.g. Hybrid games 5. you may be asked to arrange/schedule the entities from north to south. It can be a selection or distribution problem e. Matching games 4. Sequencing games 2. Tips for Sequencing and Grouping games Use short hand language to write the rules Back to Table of Contents 114 Corporate & International Relations Amrita Vishwa Vidyapeetham . After reading and analyzing the statement. left to right. LOGICAL GAMES LOGICAL GAMES involve puzzles in which the relationships among the groups of objects. you’ll be asked to answer three to seven questions bout the relationships given. teaching. selecting players or dividing the people into groups. which require you to accurately interpret the information given as well as draw logical inferences about relationships. schedules etc. are given. you may be asked to organize the entities into groups or teams etc. or Monday through Friday etc. In selection games you start with a large pool of entities and you have to select a smaller group from these.Analysis of TCS Placement Papers Quants Funda In the given problem the image of the question figure in the mirror kept horizontally below the figure is The image of this in the mirror kept at the side of the first mirror is ∴ Answer is (1). seating arrangement. cities. The analytical games can be categorized as follows: 1. These puzzles may deal with such things as making a group.

“must be”.Analysis of TCS Placement Papers Quants Funda A and B both cannot be there A is done before B Two things are done between A and B B is done two days/hours after A AB A<B A _ _ B or B _ _A A_B “Picturizing a problem is more important than making the diagram of the problem. Because answer to question like “Which must be true” or “Which of the following may be true” will be different. Short handing and diagram forming are only the tools to enhance your thinking and solve the question. Get the overview of the problem Establish the entities. This means if A is present. and the items should be designated simply by their first letter. Take time to understand the rules. Answer: Read the question carefully and try to pre-phrase the answer.. For example if A attends the seminar. Back to Table of Contents 115 Corporate & International Relations Amrita Vishwa Vidyapeetham . peoples etc. then B also attends it. Try to start the diagram with definite or concrete relationship/condition Pay close attention to words like “could be”. It’s unnecessary wastage of time. “may”. Note: Don’t write the full name of cities. “except”. B should also be present. Short hand the rules (brief and clear) 4. Assemble the entities Use a simple diagram 3. Note the action 2. “not”.” 1. Don’t get confused with the one-way relationship. Do not interpret it as if B is present A should also be present. “necessarily”. Consider individual rules. Picturize the problem mentally (understanding). Combine rules Try deducing from the given set of rules 5. Use the elimination with the help of deductions you have made.

If in a row or column. then put cross marks (×) in all the remaining boxes in that row or column. Don’t panic. If in a row or column. Method to solve these types of problems: 1. 3. 5. HYBRID GAMES It is a mixture of sequencing and grouping games. Try making as many deductions as possible. Read the statement.Analysis of TCS Placement Papers Quants Funda Grouping games require us to answer the same basic questions: Who’s in and who’s out? Which group can include X. Mostly. all the boxes except one have cross marks (×). 3. the number of entities already chosen. then put tick mark (√) in that box. Draw a table with name of the person vertically and quality or other parameter horizontally 2. 2. MATCHING GAMES In this type of problem some persons with some pet names or professions or states or cities or names of their wives etc. 3. See what entities can. 5. 4. Organization is the key to hybrid games. Put the tick mark (√) if some quality or parameter is applicable. Put the cross mark (×) if quality or parameter is not applicable. Pay close attention to numbers: the number of entities in each group. these are considered to be the most difficult types of games. and who else can or cannot reside in a group with X? Tips to solve grouping game problems: 1. As in other games there is no one ‘correct diagram’ for hybrid games. Notice whether the game asks you to put ALL of the entities into groups or asks you to select SOME of the entities for a smaller group. You have to match the correct ones. are given but not in same order. 1. See what entities can. the total number of entities available. a tick mark (√) appears. and not all hybrid games are difficult. For ambiguous entity names or to differentiate group names from entity names. must or cannot be in what groups. But not every game is a hybrid. must or cannot be in the same group as other entities. 2. use upper case and lower case letters. 4. PROBLEMS SEQUENCING GAMES GAME 1 Back to Table of Contents 116 Corporate & International Relations Amrita Vishwa Vidyapeetham .

so C must be first or second and Q can’t be at first position) Back to Table of Contents 117 Corporate & International Relations Amrita Vishwa Vidyapeetham . second or third) Rule III: (not together) Rule IV: CQ ( C is immediately before Q. 1. Build this right into your diagram Rule II: Q < H (As H is at 4th position. 4. Topic Q must be taught before topic H. and also number the slashes like this:– 1 – 2 – 3 – 4 – 5 – 6 – 7 – 8 (2) W and V (3) R and H (4) B and R Rule I is concrete rule .H is fourth and W is sixth. The topic must be taught one at a time in accordance with the following guidelines: H must be the fourth topic and W must be the sixth topic. Q must be first. What is the maximum number of topics that can be taught between the topics C and R? (1) Two (2) Three (3) Four (4) Six 3. Topic B and topic V cannot be taught consecutively. P. Exactly two topics must be taught between topic P and topic Q. Topic P must come immediately between which of the following pairs of topics? (1) Q and H (2) C and W (3) R and B (4) H and W 2. Which of the following pairs of courses cannot be taught consecutively? (1) Q and V Solutions: Since you’re asked to arrange eight topics in order. of his subject. R.Analysis of TCS Placement Papers Quants Funda A professor plans his teaching schedule to deliver eight topics B. (4) Topic R is taught third. Q. H. (2) Topic V is taught third. (3) Topic P is taught eighth. If Topic B is taught seventh. second or third. V. which of the following must be true? (1) Topic C is taught second. and W. it makes senses to visualize the game by drawing eight slashes. Rule I & II tell us Q must be first. Topic C must immediately precede topic Q.C.

But if Q is taught third. so only C Q _ _ P Sequence is possible. All are possible except choice (3) i. Kailash CANNOT be in which one of the following bogies? (1) bogie 1 (2) bogie 2 (3) bogie 3 (4) bogie 6 2. one child per bogie.Analysis of TCS Placement Papers Quants Funda Rule V: Exactly two topic between P and Q (Sequence can be P _ C Q or C Q _ _ P Now first not possible because Q must be second or third.either B or V must be taught third. Kailash must be closer than Raman to the front of the dragon bogies. and Raman. Since you are looking for most topics between two. R and H. By combining all the rules and deductions now the problem can be visualized as follow: B/V/R C 1 Q 2 B/V 3 H 4 P 5 W 6 _ 7 _ 8 Answer to the problems: 1. Rule III said that B and V can’t taught consecutively . Onkar. Puneet.and 8th. The six children are Kailash. and if Puneet is in bogie 6. and 8th. Raman must be in which one of the following bogies? (1) bogie 1 (2) bogie 2 (3) bogie 3 (4) bogie 4 Back to Table of Contents 118 Corporate & International Relations Amrita Vishwa Vidyapeetham . Answer: (4) C is definitely taught first and R can either be taught seventh or eighth. numbered 1 to 6.The only slot left are 3rd. Answer: (3) GAME 2 Hardy’s world ride is composed of six dragon bogies. If Onkar and Namarita are in adjacent bogies.Since B and V must be separated .Therefore . 1. Answer: (4) 2. Mohit must be in bogie 1 or 6. C must be first and P must be fifth which is possible. 7th. Onkar and Puneet must be in adjacent bogies. so R will be taught eighth (C Q B/V H P W V/B R) 3. If Q is taught second. C must be second and P must be sixth which is not possible as W must be taught sixth. Six children must be put into the six bogies.) Q can only be taught second or third. Answer: (2) 4. If B is taught seventh then V must be taught third. But that’s not all. Namarita.they can’t taught 7th. Mohair.e.

and if Puneet is in bogie 6. O. bogie no – 6. These can be casted as K. Rule. Raman must be in which one of the following bogies? Sol. So K cannot occur last i. Mohit must be in bogie 6 if which of the following children is in bogie 2? (1) Namarita Solutions: Step –1: Establish the entities There are Kailash. express simple rules in visually direct shorthand. Kailash CANNOT be in which one of the following bogies? Sol. which one of the following CANNOT be true? (1) Mohit is in bogie 6 (3) Onkar is in bogie 2 (2) Namarita is in bogie 3 (4) Kailash is in bogie 5 4. Rule – III: Kailash must be closer than Raman to the front of the dragon bogies K < R Step – 4: Answers to the questions 1. So O must be at 5 (Rule no – II) and N must be at 4 (ON or NO given in the question) Back to Table of Contents 119 Corporate & International Relations Amrita Vishwa Vidyapeetham .I: Mohit must be in bogie 1 or 6 can be abbreviated as 1 M or – – – – – M OP or PO 2 – 3 – 4 – 5 – 6 – Rule – II : Onkar and Puneet must be in adjacent bogies. R follows K. As K < R. P. Onkar. Namarita. Answer: (4) 2. If Puneet is in bogie 1. and Raman.Analysis of TCS Placement Papers Quants Funda 3.e. M. N. R. Puneet. Mohit. Step –2: Visualise the problem This is a sequencing game which can be visualized with six slots: 1 – 2 – 3 – 4 – 5 – 6 – (2) Onkar (3) Puneet (4) Raman Step –3: Consider the individual rules Abbreviate wherever possible. If Onkar and Namarita are in adjacent bogies. As P is on 6 no.

Tej will not be chosen if Uday is chosen.true ---.true (2) Namarita is in bogie 3 ---. Mohit must be in bogie 6 if which of the following children is in bogie 2? If R will be in bogie no 2 then K must be in bogie no 1 (Rule – III: K < R) 1 K 2 R 3 – 4 – 5 – 6 M Therefore M must be in bogie no 6 (Rule – I) Answer: (4) GAME 3 The coach of the Sports Club must choose two two-person Badminton teams for an upcoming tournament.not possible (As K < R) ---. 3 Answer: (3) 3. Daman and Eshaan. Daman and Sahil will be chosen only if the two are in different teams. Back to Table of Contents 120 Corporate & International Relations Amrita Vishwa Vidyapeetham . who are experienced players. Tej. the other must also be chosen. Sahil. At least one experienced player must be in each team in the tournament. If Puneet is in bogie 1.may be possible Answer: (4) 4.Analysis of TCS Placement Papers Quants Funda 1 M 2 – 3 – 4 N 5 O 6 P Also K < R so K must be in bogie no. and Rajiv. The players available are Chahail. 2 and R in bogie No. which one of the following CANNOT be true? 1 P 2 O 3 – 4 – 5 – 6 M Possible arrangements are P O K R N M or P O K N R M and P O N K R M Let’s check the options (1) Mohit is in bogie 6 ---. and Uday. If either Chahail or Tej is chosen.may be possible (3) Onkar is in bogie 2 (4) Kailash is in bogie 5 (5) Raman is in bogie 4 ---. who are novices.

Back to Table of Contents (2) Chahail (3) Sahil (4) Tej 121 Corporate & International Relations Amrita Vishwa Vidyapeetham . Team 2: Chahail and Tej (2) Team 1: Chahail and Eshaan. and Uday i. Daman and Sahil will be chosen only if the two are in different teams. 2. Sahil. U Step –2: Visualise the problem This is a grouping game which can be visualized with two two person teams : GAME 3 The coach of the Sports Club must choose two two-person Badminton teams for an upcoming tournament. If Uday is not chosen for the expedition. D & E Novices are Rajiv. Tej. Tej. Team 2: Daman and Uday 3. (3) Uday and Chahail cannot both be chosen (2) Daman and Tej cannot both be chosen. 1. If Sahil is chosen and Tej is rejected for the tournament. Sahil. and Rajiv is chosen for team 1. Which one of the following must be true? (1) Chahail and Rajiv cannot both be chosen. and Uday. (4) If Eshaan is chosen. Sahil cannot be chosen. Daman and Eshaan. Team 2: Tej and Rajiv (3) Team 1: Daman and Chahail. R. which ones of the following must be the members of one of the teams? (1) Sahil and Daman (3) Daman and Rajiv (2) Sahil and Chahail (4) Daman and Uday 4. Which of the following is NOT an acceptable selection for the teams? (1) Team 1: Daman and Rajiv. who are experienced players. Daman.e. and Rajiv. who are novices. S. which one of the following must be in team 2? (1) Eshaan Solutions: Step –1: Establish the entities Experienced players are Chahail. and Eshaan can be abbreviated as C. Team 2: Eshaan and Tej (4) Team 1: Eshaan and Sahil.Analysis of TCS Placement Papers Quants Funda Eshaan will not be chosen if Rajiv is chosen. T. At least one experienced player must be in each team in the tournament. The players available are Chahail.

Analysis of TCS Placement Papers Quants Funda If either Chahail or Tej is chosen. Sahil cannot be chosen. This is not true if we can make T1 / T2 ES DU & T1 / T2 ES CT Back to Table of Contents 122 Corporate & International Relations Amrita Vishwa Vidyapeetham . If we choose C then T will also be there. T1 / T2 –– –– Step –3: Consider the individual rule Abbreviate where possible. Eshaan will not be chosen if Rajiv is chosen. Step – 4 Answers to the questions 1. T should also be chosen (Rule-III). This is not true because we can choose C & R together. This is also possible . Rule – II: Both Daman and Sahil will be chosen only if they are in different teams. This option must be true (4) If Eshaan is chosen. the other must also be chosen. CT or TC Rule – IV: Tej will not be chosen if Uday is chosen. But U and T cannot be together (Rule IV). D | S Rule – III: If either Chahail or Tej is chosen. express simple rules in visually direct shorthand Rule – I: At least one experienced players must be in each team in the tournament. Check the options: (1) Chahail and Rajiv cannot both be chosen. the other must also be chosen. Fourth person will be D (Rule no – I & Rule no – V) T1 / T2 CT DR (2) Daman and Tej cannot both be chosen. This is not possible because if C is chosen. Tej will not be chosen if Uday is chosen.SEE group made in option (1) (3) Uday and Chahail cannot both be chosen. Rule – V: Eshaan will not be chosen if Rajiv is chosen.

Panipat. which one of the following must be in team 2? If R is chosen. which one of the following must be the members of one of the teaming teams? If T is rejected then C can’t be chosen (Rule V). then experienced player with R will be C and D (E can’t Rule V) As C and T are always together. Orissa. Answer: (4) MAPPING GAMES Mapping games revolve around things like roads.Analysis of TCS Placement Papers Quants Funda (5) If Uday is chosen. messages relay thing with TO/FROM relationships GAME 4 A telecommunication company has six satellite towers in cities: New Delhi. If E is chosen then R can’t be chosen so the fourth person left is U. signals can be directly sent only from: New Delhi to Panipat Panipat to New Delhi New Delhi to Quilon Back to Table of Contents 123 Corporate & International Relations Amrita Vishwa Vidyapeetham . If Sahil is chosen and Tej is rejected for the tournament. Rajkot and Shimla Because of an antiquated technology. Not possible (Rule no IV) Answer: (3) 2. But at least one-experienced players must be in each team in the tournament. Possible teams are T1 / T2 SU DR Answer: (4) 4. Possible teams are T1 / T2 RC DT & T1 / T2 RD CT So T must be in team 2. So T must be chosen. Quilon. If Uday is not chosen for the tournament. So D & E must be chosen. and Rajiv is chosen for team 1. Tej must also be chosen. Which of the following is NOT an acceptable selection for the teams? All options except option (2) are possible (Rule V: 3.

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Quilon to Panipat New Delhi to Shimla Rajkot to New Delhi Orissa to Rajkot Shimla to New Delhi A “relay” occurs when a tower receives a signal from another tower and sends it on to a third. A tower can relay a signal from one tower to another in any combination allowed by the above conditions. 1. Which tower cannot receive signals from any other tower? (1) New Delhi (2) Orissa (3) Panipat (4) Quilon

2. Which of the following would require exactly one relay? (1) a signal sent from New Delhi to Shimla (3) a signal sent from Quilon to Orissa 3. A signal cannot possibly be sent from (1) Shimla to Quilon (3) Panipat to Rajkot (2) Rajkot to Panipat (4) Shimla to Panipat (2) a signal sent from Orissa to Quilon (4) a signal sent from Rajkot to Quilon

4. If the telecommunication system at Panipat fails, so that Panipat may send but not receive signals, which of the following would be IMPOSSIBLE? (1)Sending a signal from Orissa to New Delhi (3) Sending a signal from Orissa to Quilon (2) Sending a signal from Quilon to New Delhi (4) Sending a signal from Shimla to Quilon

5. Quilon would be able to send signals to all other cities either directly or by relay if which of the following capabilities were added to the original list? (1) Sending signals from Orissa to Quilon (3) Sending signals from Quilon to Shimla Solutions: Step – 1: Establish the entities There are six cities, which can be abbreviated as N, O, P, Q, R and S Step – 2: Visualise the problem This is a mapping game which can be visualized with a diagram.

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Step – 3: Consider the individual rule Rule No

8 S N

1 P

5 6 O 1. New Delhi to Panipat 2. Panipat to New Delhi 3. New Delhi to Quilon 4. Quilon to Panipat 5. New Delhi to Shimla 6. Rajkot to New Delhi 7. Orissa to Rajkot 8. Shimla to New Delhi Solutions: Step – 4 Answers to the questions R 3 Q 4

2

1. Which tower cannot receive signals from any other tower? (2) Orissa (see the diagram) 2. Which of the following would require exactly one relay? (1) a signal sent from New Delhi to Shimla ----- No relay (2) a signal sent from Orissa to Quilon ----- 2 relays (O – R – N – Q) (3) a signal sent from Quilon to Orissa ----- Not possible (4) a signal sent from Rajkot to Quilon ----- 1 relay (R – N – Q) Answer: (4)

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3. A signal cannot possibly be sent from (1) Shimla to Quilon ---- Possible (S – N – Q) (2) Rajkot to Panipat ---- Possible (R – N – P) (3) Panipat to Rajkot ---- Not possible (S – N – Q) (4) Shimla to Panipat ---- Possible (S – N – P) Answer: (3) 4. If the telecommunication system at Panipat fails, so that Panipat may send but not receive signals, which of the following would be IMPOSSIBLE? Now diagram reduces to

S

N

P

O

R

Q

(1) Sending a signal from Orissa to New Delhi --- possible (O – R –N) (2) Sending a signal from Quilon to New Delhi --- not possible (3) Sending a signal from Orissa to Quilon --- possible (O – R –N –Q) (4) Sending a signal from Shimla to Quilon --- possible (S – N –Q) Answer: (2) 5. Quilon would be able to send signals to all other cities either directly or by relay if which of the following capabilities were added to the original list?

S

N

P

O

R

Q

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forming dead ends? Back to Table of Contents 127 Corporate & International Relations Amrita Vishwa Vidyapeetham . This will form a hub at the center of your map.draw a map! After drawing your map. S but not to R and O. So Q would be able to send signals to all other cities only when O would be able to receive signals. think about its structure. The roads run directly between: Village A and Village B Village B and Village C Village B and Village D Village D and Village C Village D and Village E There are no other roads that provide access to any of the villages. Which entities are centrally positioned. forming nodes or hubs? Which are relatively cut off. So Answer is (4). A B D E C We can see from the diagram that there are only two possible ways to travel from village A to village E that are: A – B – D – E and A – B – C – D – E Remember to: Start your map with an entity frequently mentioned in the rules. 1. Keep track of connections. N.Analysis of TCS Placement Papers Quants Funda Q can send signals to P. Another example of Mapping Game Five villages linked by roads. not locations. (that is only in option (2) & option (4) ) But sending signals from R to O does not link O & Q. How many different ways are there to travel by road from village A to village E without going through any village twice? (1) 1 (2) 2 (3) 3 (4) 4 Sol. Now --.

3. Two of the persons are males and other two are females. 4. 3 is a male. If person at No. Which one of the following must be true for a person at No. (4) Person does not wear a cap. 4 position. 2 is a male. Doctor is at No. (2) No. (3) A female engineer without cap. 4. (4) A male engineer without cap. The persons in a queue are standing according to the following conditions. 1. (1) No. one is lawyer and one is engineer. (4) Both doctors are male. numbered 1 through 4 from first to last. 4 position is a male who wears a cap. (3) Person is a lawyer. Exactly one of four is wearing a cap. (2) A male doctor wearing a cap. One of the doctors is wearing a cap. 3 position? (1) She is a female. 3 position.Analysis of TCS Placement Papers Quants Funda GAME 5 Exactly four persons stand in a queue on the wait for their turn for collecting entrance ticket at ticket counter at a cinema theater. If the two doctors stand in line immediately adjacent to each other. 2. (2) Engineer is a female. (2) He is a male. Two out of four are doctors. 2 position. 1? (1) A female doctor wearing a cap. 1 or No. then all of the following must be true EXCEPT. 1 is a female. At least one male stands in line between the two females. (3) Engineer is at No. then which one of the following must be false? (1) A female wears a cap. (3) Person at No. Solutions: Step –1: Establish the entities M Stands for Male F Stands for Female D Stands for Doctor L Stands for Lawyer E Stands for Engineer Back to Table of Contents 128 Corporate & International Relations Amrita Vishwa Vidyapeetham . (4) Doctor is at No. If the two males stand in line immediately adjacent to each other. and if person at No 2 is a male. The person wearing a cap is either at No. then which one of the following correctly describes person at No.

Analysis of TCS Placement Papers Quants Funda Step – 2: Visualise the problem This is a hybrid game which can be visualized with a diagram 1234 –––– Step – 3: Consider the individual rule Two of the persons are males and other two are females. ---. 4. Which one of the following must be true for a person at No.May be true (2) He is a male. Step – 4 Answers to the questions 1.1 or No. and one is engineer. ---. ---.. The person wearing a cap is either at No . _ D _ _ Cap or Cap At least one male stands in line between the two females.Must be true (5) Person wears a cap. one is lawyer. 2 position.May be true (4) Person does not wear a cap. Two out of four are doctors.False Back to Table of Contents 129 Corporate & International Relations Amrita Vishwa Vidyapeetham .May be true (3) Person is a lawyer. ---. One of the doctors is wearing a cap. ---. Doctor is at No.3 position? (1) She is a female.

If the two doctors stand in line immediately adjacent to each other. 1 is a female.1? Back to Table of Contents 130 Corporate & International Relations Amrita Vishwa Vidyapeetham . ---.4 position. ---. FMMF DD–– or FMMF –D–D Cap Cap (1) A female wears a cap. then which one of the following correctly describes person at No.May be true Answer: (4) 4.Definite true (4) Both doctors are male. F MFM – D – D Cap (1) No.true Answer: (3) 3.may be possible (4) Doctor is at No. -----.true (3) Engineer is at No.Analysis of TCS Placement Papers Quants Funda Answer: (4) 2. and if person at No 2 is a male. -----..May be true (2) Engineer is a female.May be true (3) Person at No. ---. -----. ---.true (5) Exactly one person stands in the between the two doctors -----. ---. -----. then which one of the following must be false.3 is a male. then all of the following must be true EXCEPT.4 position is a male who wears a cap. 2 is a male.true (2) No. If person at No. 3 position. If the two male stand in line immediately adjacent to each other.False (5) Lawyer is a female.

The following questions were asked based on the given details. So this conditional statement is equivalent to “If not B. Pie chart. Be careful while applying this approach.”.. the user of that data has to understand it properly.Analysis of TCS Placement Papers Quants Funda Answer: (1) A female doctor wearing a cap IF – THEN (Conditional Statement) Here’s an If-Then RULE. how many fresh candidates can be added in the next year? Theory. then Amit must not attend it. “If A then B”: It means if given A. Average number of persons joined from 1995 . For example: “If Amit attends the seminar then Ajay must attend it”. “and “if B then ……. We can deduce from it that if Ajay does not attend the seminar. Examples & Explanations Data Interpretation Data plays an important role in day to day life.1999 2. It also means that if we have not given B then A must not be true. then whether Ajit attends the seminar or not that we can’t tell. it can be represented in precise form in a number of ways. 1. Once data is represented in precise form. containing company’s recruitment details and classified based on Number of persons joined and left who left every year. This is going to be very helpful for the Grouping and Hybrid Games section. If 10% of people leave the office in 1998 then. then B must be true. But if Ajay attends the seminar then Amit may or may not attend it or if Amit does not attend the seminar. Which year has large differences in number of persons (Joined & Left) 3. The process of interpreting the data from its precise form is called Data Interpretation. etc… can be expected There was a question based on Data table. then Not A” but we can’t tell “if not A then …. If data is too large. Data Interpretation Questions taken from students’ forum Questions based on Bar Diagram. Back to Table of Contents 131 Corporate & International Relations Amrita Vishwa Vidyapeetham .

5. Different ways of representing data: 1. 4. Three-Variable Graphs 7. Bar Charts 5. Rate of growth of the population of all the cities together in any given year over the previous year. we can find the following: 1. 1. Pie Charts 3. The rate of growth of population of any city in any given year over the previous year. From the above table. To understand it better. Back to Table of Contents 132 Corporate & International Relations Amrita Vishwa Vidyapeetham . 6. The data can be represented in a single table or in combination of tables. PERT Chart 8. Data Table: Here the entire data is represented in the form of a table. 3. look at the following example. The city. Percentage change in the population of any city from one year to another. Two-Variable Graphs 4. For a given city. we shall study these methods in detail. 2.Analysis of TCS Placement Papers Quants Funda Now we will discuss different ways of representing data and we will see how we can extract the data from the given representations. which has maximum percentage population growth in the given period. finding out the year in which the percentage increase in the population over the previous year was the highest. Venn Diagrams 6. Population of a particular city with respect to that in any other city for a given year. Data Tables 2. Combination of 2 or more charts Now.

The above pie chart can also be represented as below We can find the following from the above pie chart. Look at the following graph. Two-Variable Graphs Here the data will be represented in the form of a graph. Car sales in India in different years (in 000’s) Back to Table of Contents 133 Corporate & International Relations Amrita Vishwa Vidyapeetham . Pie Chart In this. Look at the following Pie-chart representing crude oil transported through different modes over a specific period of time. 3. The oil that has been transported through any mode if the total transported amount is known. Generally it represents the change of one variable with respect to the other variable.Analysis of TCS Placement Papers Quants Funda 2. 1. the total quantity is distributed over one complete circle. This circle is made into various parts for various elements. 2 The proportion of oil transported through any mode with respect to any other mode. The total oil transported. Each part represents share of the corresponding element as portion of the total quantity. if the oil transported through any particular mode is known. 3. These parts can be represented in terms of percentage or in terms of angle.

The number of people who can speak both Punjabi and Hindi. we can find 1.Analysis of TCS Placement Papers Quants Funda From the above graph. The number of people who can speak only English. From the above Venn diagram. 1. Rate of growth of total sales of the cars (all the brands) in a given period. 3. we can calculate. The number of people who can speak exactly one or two languages. Proportion of the sales of any brand with respect to those of any other brand in the given year. 4. 2. 3. Here also we can deduce all the parameters as we could do in the case of two-variable graph. The number of people who can speak all the three languages. Percentage change in the sales of any brand in any year over the previous year. Back to Table of Contents 134 Corporate & International Relations Amrita Vishwa Vidyapeetham . The following Venn diagram represents the number of people who speak different languages. 2. Venn Diagrams If the information comes under more than one category. we represent such data in the form of a Venn diagram. The number of people who can speak only Punjabi. 5. Bar Chart Bar Chart is also one of the ways to represent data. The data given in the above graph can also be represented in the form of bar chart as shown below. 5.

Find the local arrival time? 2.M from a place at 180N 100E and landed 10 hrs later at a place with coordinates 360N 700W. z. y. The graph represents percentage of GRE. 1] is stored 3000. z. GMAT and CAT students in three institutes x. y. Find the local arrival time? a) 6:00 am (b) 6:40am (c) 7:40 (d) 7:00 (e) 8:00 [Hint: Every 1 deg longitude is equal to 4 minutes. with each element occupying 4 bytes of memory. GMAT. Find the physical quantity represented by 6. CAT) in each of the institutes x. 7].M from Northeast direction and travels for 11 hours to reach the destination which is in North West direction. My flight takes off at 2 A. Three-Variable Graphs Look at the following example to understand the concept. In a two-dimensional array X [9. Given the latitude and longitude of source and destination. Find the local time of destination when the flight reaches there? 3. Find the physical quantity represented by 5. A plane moves from 9˚N 40˚E to 9˚N 40˚W. A Flight takes off at 2 A. 5]. else subtract time] Ans: (e) 8:00 4. If the plane starts at 10:00 am and takes 8 hours to reach the destination. If X [1. If the direction is from west to east add time.Analysis of TCS Placement Papers Quants Funda 6. Find the address of X [8. The above diagram gives the percentage of students of each category (GRE. Miscellaneous Questions taken from students’ forum 1. Back to Table of Contents 135 Corporate & International Relations Amrita Vishwa Vidyapeetham .

You will be given the bit position values for A. If A [1. In a two-dimensional array A [9.Analysis of TCS Placement Papers Quants Funda 7.7] is ---------8. 5]? 11. B and C and using the relation (A table. 7] is placed in the memory. A. B and C are 8 bit numbers. with each element occupying 2 bytes of memory.1] address is 1245 and then address of X [5. 7]. Find the memory of A [8. A-11011011 B-01111010 C-01101101 Find (A-B) u C 10. Then find the corresponding decimal number and choose the right option. First vertex X [1. Which of the following are orthogonal pairs? a) 3i+2j b) i+j c) 2i-3j d) -7i+j 9. 1] is stored in 3000. B) [Ans: 3106] C you have to construct the truth Back to Table of Contents 136 Corporate & International Relations Amrita Vishwa Vidyapeetham . If the vertex [5.

Analysis of TCS Placement Papers Quants Funda Formula Booklet 1. Percentage Change Change % = Total Successive Change% = 3. = Average Annual Growth Rate and C. S. Harmonic Mean = 2. G. R. Interest Simple Interest = Compound Interest = Population after n years P’ = 4. A. R. Growth Growth% = SAGR or AAGR = % % % % CAGR = % [Here. A. = Compound Annual Growth Rate] Back to Table of Contents 137 Corporate & International Relations Amrita Vishwa Vidyapeetham . G. G. A. R. = Simple Annual Growth Rate. Averages Simple averages = Weighted Average = Geometric Mean = Harmonic Mean = For two numbers. A.

x are bought and articles worth Rs. then for a positive quantity x. then the overall percentage profit is given by Percentage Profit = 7. If a > b>0. Discount Discount = Marked Price − Selling Price Discount Percentage = 8. then Total discount = 10. then the discount is equal to y and discount percentage is given by Percentage discount = 9. using false weights.Analysis of TCS Placement Papers Quants Funda 5. then a: b = c: d = (a + c): (b + d) If 0<a < b. Successive Discounts When a discount of a% is followed by another discount of b%. y are obtained free along with x articles. Buy x and Get y Free If articles worth Rs. Back to Table of Contents 138 Corporate & International Relations Amrita Vishwa Vidyapeetham . Ratios If a: b = c: d. then for a positive quantity x. Profit and Loss Profit = SP − CP Loss = CP – SP Percentage Profit = Percentage Loss = 6. False Weights If an item is claimed to be sold at cost price.

then and p.x w1 : x – x1 w2 Back to Table of Contents 139 Corporate & International Relations Amrita Vishwa Vidyapeetham . Alligation Rule The ratio of the weights of the two items mixed will be inversely proportional to the deviation of attributes of these two items from the average attribute of the resultant mixture. y is the quantity that is replaced and n is the number of times the replacement process is carried out. 13. q. Proportions If a: b:: c:d or .Analysis of TCS Placement Papers Quants Funda 11. x1 x2 x x2. then Alternendo Law Invertendo Law Componendo Law Dividendo Law Componendo and Dividendo Law If . then 12. r are real numbers. Successive Replacement Where x is the original quantity.

Speed and Distance Speed = Distance / Time Important Conversion Factors: 1 km/hr = m/s and 1 m/s = km/hr 15. Average Speed Average = = .Analysis of TCS Placement Papers Quants Funda 14. second half of the distance at a speed then. Relative Speed For Trains Time = For Boats and Streams Sdownstream = Sboat + Sstream Supstream = Sboat . Average Speed [Average speed is given A man travels first half of the distance at a speed by harmonic mean of two speeds] Savg = If the time is constant. then average speed is given by arithmetic mean of two speeds: S avg = 16. Time. It is also known as Work Equivalence Method] Back to Table of Contents 140 Corporate & International Relations Amrita Vishwa Vidyapeetham .Sstream Sboat = Sstream = 17. Time and Work/Pipes and Cisterns Number of days to complete the work = [This is our general formula to solve time & work problems.

C. Application of H.M.C.M of fractions = [Express all numbers as fractions in its simplest form] 21.F. Properties of Surds 22. of Fractions H. y and z) + r 20.M. The greatest natural number that will divide x. Application of L. and L.M. (y − r2) and (z − r3) 19. respectively.C.C.F of fractions = L.C.C. r2 and r3. of (x.C. Law of Indices If a and b are non – zero rational numbers and m and n are rational numbers.C.F. the Back to Table of Contents 141 Corporate & International Relations Amrita Vishwa Vidyapeetham . H.Analysis of TCS Placement Papers Quants Funda 18. of (x − r1). y and z leaving remainders r1. y and z leaving the same remainder r in each case is the L. is the H.F. The smallest natural number that is divisible by x.

Laws of Logarithms If If 24. ax +bx+c =0 are given by: 2 n n n 0 n n-1 1 n n-2 2 n 0 n 26. then a = b if m is odd and a = b if m is even 23. then m = n and m 0. then according to the binomial theorem: (x+a) = cox a + c1x a + c2x a +………. Roots of Quadratic Equation The two roots of the equation.Analysis of TCS Placement Papers Quants Funda If If . + cnx a Here. Binomial Theorem If n is a natural number that is greater than or equal to 2. 25. Algebraic Formulae 2 2 (a + b) (a − b) = a − b Back to Table of Contents 142 Corporate & International Relations Amrita Vishwa Vidyapeetham .

Sum of Important Series Sum of first n natural numbers Back to Table of Contents 143 Corporate & International Relations Amrita Vishwa Vidyapeetham . Harmonic Progression 30.Analysis of TCS Placement Papers Quants Funda (a + b) = a + 2ab + b 2 2 2 2 2 (a − b) = a − 2ab + b 2 2 2 2 (a + b + c) = a + b + c + 2ab + 2bc + 2ca (a + b) = a + 3a b + 3ab + b (a − b) = a − 3a b + 3ab − b a + b = (a + b) (a − ab + b ) a − b = (a − b) (a + ab + b ) a + b +c – 3abc = (a+ b + c) (a + b + c – ab – bc – ac) 27. Arithmetic Progression 3 3 3 2 2 2 3 3 2 2 3 3 2 2 3 3 2 2 3 3 2 2 3 2 3 28. Geometric Progression 29.

Analysis of TCS Placement Papers Quants Funda Sum of the squares of the first n natural numbers Sum of the cubes of the first n natural numbers = 31. Permutations 33. Partition Rule Number of ways of distributing n identical things among r persons when each person may get any number of things = Back to Table of Contents 144 Corporate & International Relations Amrita Vishwa Vidyapeetham . Factorial n! = 1 × 2 × 3 × … × (n − 1) × n n! = n × (n − 1)! 32. Combinations Important Properties: 34.

Analysis of TCS Placement Papers Quants Funda 35. Pythagoras Theorem For right triangle ABC AC = AB +BC 2 2 2 For acute triangle ABC AC = AB + BC – 2 (BC) (BD) 2 2 2 Back to Table of Contents 145 Corporate & International Relations Amrita Vishwa Vidyapeetham . Probability Probability of an event = Odds in favour = Odds against = 36.

semi perimeter (s) = When lengths of the base and altitude are given Back to Table of Contents 146 Corporate & International Relations Amrita Vishwa Vidyapeetham .Analysis of TCS Placement Papers Quants Funda For obtuse triangle ABC AC = AB + BC + 2*BC*BD 37. Area of Triangle When lengths of the sides are given 2 2 2 Area = Where.

Analysis of TCS Placement Papers Quants Funda Area = When lengths of two sides and the included angle are given Area = For Equilateral Triangle Area = For Isosceles Triangle Back to Table of Contents 147 Corporate & International Relations Amrita Vishwa Vidyapeetham .

then: 40. Angle Bisector Theorem 2 2 2 2 If AD is the angle bisector for angle A. Area of Quadrilateral For Cyclic Quadrilateral Area = Where. then: AB + AC = 2(AD + BD ) 39.Analysis of TCS Placement Papers Quants Funda Area = 38. Apollonius Theorem If AD is the median. semi perimeter (s) = Back to Table of Contents 148 Corporate & International Relations Amrita Vishwa Vidyapeetham .

Analysis of TCS Placement Papers Quants Funda If lengths of one diagonal and two offsets are given Area = If lengths of two diagonals and included angle are given Area = For Trapezium Area = Back to Table of Contents 149 Corporate & International Relations Amrita Vishwa Vidyapeetham .

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For Parallelogram

Area = bh For Rhombus

Area = For Rectangle

Area = lb

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For Square

Area = a

2

41. Polygon Number of Diagonals = The sum of all the interior angles = The sum of all exterior angles = 360 42. Area of Regular Hexagon

Area =

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43. Circle

Circumference C = Area (A) = Length of Arc (l) = Area of Sector = Perimeter of Sector = 44. Ellipse , where , where is in degrees. is in degrees.

If semi-major axis (OD) = a and semi-minor axis (OA) = b, Perimeter of the ellipse

Area of the ellipse

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H is the length of hypotenuse and the angle between base and hypotenuse.Analysis of TCS Placement Papers Quants Funda 45. Trigonometric Ratios For a right triangle. is 46. B is the length of base. Distance between Points Distance between two points and is given by AB = Back to Table of Contents 153 Corporate & International Relations Amrita Vishwa Vidyapeetham . if P is the length of perpendicular.

S. Cuboid S.) = L. = 2(lh + bh + lb) Volume (V) = lbh Body Diagonal (d) = Back to Table of Contents 154 Corporate & International Relations Amrita Vishwa Vidyapeetham .S. + 2 × Area of base Volume (V) = Area of base × height 48.A.S.) = Perimeter of base × height Total Surface Area (T.Analysis of TCS Placement Papers Quants Funda 47. = 2(lh + bh) T.A.A. Right Prism Lateral Surface Area (L.A.S.A.

Cube L.A.) = 2πrh T.A = 6a 2 Volume (V) =a 3 Body Diagonal (d) = 50.Analysis of TCS Placement Papers Quants Funda 49. Cylinder Curved Surface Area (C.A.S.S. = 2πrh + 2πr Volume (V) = πr h 2 2 Back to Table of Contents 155 Corporate & International Relations Amrita Vishwa Vidyapeetham .S.A = 4a 2 T.S.

S.A.A.A = L. Cone Area of Base Height C.S.Analysis of TCS Placement Papers Quants Funda 51.A = Perimeter of Base Slant Height T. = πrl T. Right Pyramid L.A + Area of base Volume (V) = 52.S. = πrl + πr Volume (V) = Slant height (l) = 2 Back to Table of Contents 156 Corporate & International Relations Amrita Vishwa Vidyapeetham .S.S.

A.S.Analysis of TCS Placement Papers Quants Funda 53. = 4πr T.A. Sphere C. = 4πr 2 2 Volume (V) = Back to Table of Contents 157 Corporate & International Relations Amrita Vishwa Vidyapeetham .S. Frustum of a cone Volume (V) = 54.

A.S.A.S. = 2πr T.Analysis of TCS Placement Papers Quants Funda 55.A = Volume (V) = Back to Table of Contents 158 Corporate & International Relations Amrita Vishwa Vidyapeetham . Spherical shell T. = 3πr 2 2 Volume (V) = 56. Hemisphere C.S.

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