University of Wales

Trinity Saint David

Dissertation

MBA SBMA7049-L

“Evaluating Business Incubation Services : A Case Study of Business Incubation Program (BIP) in Nepal”

UWL MBA Entrepreneurship

Submitted by Uran.joshi@gmail.com

Submitted to Dr. Stanley Lees

Declaration i

This dissertation is submitted in fulfillment of the MBA Entrepreneurship of University of Wales Trinity Saint David at College of Technology London. I hereby declare that this dissertation is result of my own research and inputs ,all sources are duly acknowledged and no portion of the work referred to in this dissertation has been submitted in support of any application for another degree or qualification of this or any other university or institute of learning.

………………………………………………… Uran Joshi UWL MBA Entrepreneurship 26th October 2010

Acknowledgment

ii

I would like to take this opportunity to express my appreciation to my Supervisor Dr. Stanley lees for attention, guidance and insight. My gratitude also goes to Ms. Rakshya Aryal, Mr. Rabindra Kumar Neupane, Er. pradeep Jha for support and valuable suggestions during research. I would also like to express special appreciation to Ms. Heema Rai, Mr. Harish Bhusal ,Mr. Shashi Bhattari and all Participant Incubatees of BIP for their full support in this research. I would also like to thank specially to Mrs. Simona and Mr. Adeel for full support in my study. Lastly, I sincerely would like to thank my Parents, my Family and Friends , Mr. Saurav Joshi, Ms. Mamta Amatya, for motivation and support during my study period.

Uran Joshi uran.joshi@gmail.com London,United Kingdom 26th October ,2011

iii

Business Support. Selection of clients was found to be based on strict criteria that are in alignment with the available resources and reasonable cost for development. The business support was found to be reactive and episodic. The mediation service provided by incubator was found to be rated highly by incubator (provider side) but was perceived less by incubatees side. business registration services were provided to all where as other business services were provided according to individual need. financial management .marketing management Accounting and taxation. The graduation policy was found to be flexible. The users of physical infrastructure provided by Business incubator was seen low. Selection. small and medium enterprises.the firm was graduated. business support provided. The methodology consisted of data collection by questionnaire with selected key-informant from incubator and participant incubatees. The major reason for not using was being enterprises located in different places of country. The research also aims to examine and identify the problems of growth facing by new start up firms in Nepal. Mediation . infrastructure services provided. All the mediation service was provided according to individual need of incubatees.Abstract Government from both developed and developing countries has recognized the mechanism of business incubation as way to support the development of micro.Graduation are found to be the main incubator model components of business incubation This research aims to focus on evaluating the selection process . with mutual agreement between incubator and incubatee . Infrastructure. mediation and networking provided and graduation policy of ―Business incubation Program(BIP)‖ operated by Government of Nepal. After a certain period . The leadership training. iv . A business incubation service is an appropriate tool for economic development which helps in job creation on one hand and less business failures on the other hand.

............................. 30 Figure 31-Perceived Effect of Business Incubation on Incubatees ................Error! Bookmark not defined......................................................... 25 Figure 14-Perceived Quality of Business Support by Incubatees .........................List of Figures Figure 1..........................................Perceived Mediation by Incubatees.................. 27 Figure 21-Financial resource problem as perceived by Incubator.... 23 Figure 8-Importance of Selection criteria as perceived by Incubator ................. Figure 27-General management Problem perceived by Incubator ....... Error! Bookmark not defined............................. Figure 11..and Samuelson framework(Campbell et al............................Error! Bookmark not defined................... 28 Figure 26-operational/production problem perceived by Incubatees......Kendrick.... Error! Bookmark not defined.......Perceived Quality of Infrastructure service by Incubator........ Figure 24................ Figure 17-Incubatees Views on Mediation statements ............... 11 Figure 5-Age of Incubatees .....................Error! Bookmark not defined........... Figure 19-Important criteria for Graduation as Perceived by Incubator ...Business Incubation Framework for Research (incorporating Churchil and Lewis Growth Stage....... Figure 12-Perceived Quality of Infrastructure service by Incubatees . (Churchill and Lewis............. Figure 22-Financial resource problem as perceived by Incubatees ......... Figure 23-Marketing resource problem perceived by Incubator .......Error! Bookmark not defined.... v ........................................... Error! Bookmark not defined.......... Figure 16..... Error! Bookmark not defined.......................... 22 Figure 7-Educational background..................... 25 Figure 15-Perceived Mediation by Incubator ...................... 29 Figure 30-Owner related problems perceived by Incubatees .................................. Error! Bookmark not defined....... Figure 20-Important criteria for graduation as Perceived by Incubatees ..........1985) ................... Figure 25-operational/production problems perceived by Incubator ................... 24 Figure 10-Infrastructure users ..................................................................... 29 Figure 29 -Owner related problems perceived by Incubator ..................................... 2007) .......................Error! Bookmark not defined................... Error! Bookmark not defined..............................Error! Bookmark not defined.....Campbell...........................Error! Bookmark not defined..... 24 Figure 9-Importance of Selection criteria as perceived by Incubator .. 1983 .......................................Stages of Business Growth ( Greiner 1972) .......Marketing resource problem perceived by Incubatees .... 8 Figure 4 .......................................Error! Bookmark not defined............ 28 Figure 28-General management Problem perceived by Incubatees ..................... 4 Figure 3...... 22 Figure 6-Gender ratio ................................... Figure 18-Incubatees Views on Mediation Statements ....................................................... 4 Figure 2 -Stages of Business Growth....................... Figure 13-Perceived Quality of business Support by Incubator ........Error! Bookmark not defined... Figure 32-The success of business incubation perceived by Incubator ....

20 Abbreviations I/NGO ITPF DoCSI BIP FNCCI KUSoM NAST ITPF MoEST International/National Governmental Organization Information Technology Professional Forum Department of Cottage and Small Industries Business Incubation Program Federation of Nepal Chamber of Commerce & Industry Kathmandu University...measure of success of incubatee as perceived by Incubatees ........... Error! Bookmark not defined.. Science & Technology vi ..Figure 33. 2007) .Business Incubation Program Board Members. List of Table Table 1. School of Management National Association of Science & Technology Information Technology Professional Forum Ministry of Environment...source (BIP.........

...........................1........................................................ 8 2.........................................................1 Business Growth ................ 1 Chapter 2........................... iv List of Figures ................................................... .............................................2 Background..................................................................4...................................................3 Business Incubator ................. 10 Chapter 3....................5 Measure of Incubator Success ............. v List of Table .......................................................................... 6 2.............................................................................. 3 2............................................1 Selection ........................... 1 Research Strategy ..................4 Business Incubation .......................................................4...................... vi Chapter 1 .......................................................... vi Abbreviations ...................................... Literature Review ........................3 Business support.... 6 2....... Error! Bookmark not defined. 2......................................................1 Factors Related to Business Growth ...................................................................................................2 Business Incubation: Tool for Business Growth .......................................7 Business Incubation Framework for Research ..........................................5 Graduation ......... 8 2.................. 1 1......... 3 2............................................... 9 2..................................................................................................................... 9 2.................................... 10 2................................................................................................................... Introduction ..........................................................4.........................................................4......................... 9 2..................... 12 3................................. 12 3................4.................... Methodology ..............................1 Positivism..................1 1........................1 Research Philosophy ...1................................................................................................................................................. 2..............................................Table of Contents Acknowledgment ............................................4 Mediation ............ Error! Bookmark not defined................................................................................................................................................ 13 vii ........................................................................... ii Abstract .................................................................................................................. 7 2............................6 Measures of Incubatee success..2 Infrastructure ...........................

................................................. 4..............................................................................................................2 Survey.................................................................................................2 Summary of Data Collection Experience......................... 32 6.......................... 21 4................................. 30 5..................2 Selection Policy ............................. 30 Chapter 6: Conclusion and Recommendation .....................4....... 3..3 Recommendations.. 22 4............. 14 3.......................................................3..............................................................1 Experiment ....................... 20 4.............4 Research Conduct ......................................................... 17 3.................................................. 26 4.........9 Measure of Success of Business Incubation by Incubator................................................. 26 4.............................................................2.....................................3.................................................................................. 21 4................................................. 15 3............................3 Infrastructure ............................................ ......................................................... 30 Chapter 5: Discussion and limitations ............1 Primary Data Collection......1 Business Incubation program (BIP) .....................3.........1...............3.......................................................................................................3 Research Strategy ..................................2 Limitations .....3.......................................................... 3....................................... 24 4............3....... 16 3...3 Findings ......................................................................................................................................... 15 3......................3....................... 32 viii ..............................................2 Realism ..............5 Mediation .....................................................................................2 Secondary Data Collection ...................................................................3.3.. 30 5..........................1 Incubatee Background Information ........................... Error! Bookmark not defined.....................3.....................................3 Phenomenology ...2 Purpose of Research .................................3..............7 Problems of Growth .......2...............................................................1 Conclusion...............................................3........ 16 3.................. Error! Bookmark not defined......1 Exploratory Studies ...........3...................................................................................6 Graduation Criteria .......4 Business support...........................................................3 Case Study .............................................................................................................Error! Bookmark not defined................2...................................................5 Methodology in practice .............. 30 4...........8 Perceived Effect of Business Incubation on Incubatees ................... 14 3................................................... 15 3.. Error! Bookmark not defined....................... 32 6................ 18 Chapter 4: Findings .............. 16 3..................................... 20 4.....................................................................3 Explanatory Studies .................... 32 6........................10 Measure of Success of Incubatee firm as perceived by Incubatees..... 23 4...................... 15 3...................................................................2 Descriptive Studies .............................................................2 Reflections.............. 15 3..1.... 4.1 Discussion ........................................................3................4.... 24 4...............................................

................................................ 32 Bibliography . 49 APPENDIX E -Records of Meeting ..................... 50 APPENDIX F-Introduction Letter ...........Key-Informant (Incubator) Survey Questionnaire .............6............................................................List of Participant Incubatee...........................................List of Key.............................................. 44 APPENDIX C........................................................ 33 APPENDIX A.......................................................................................................................................Informant .................................. 48 APPENDIX D ........4 Contribution .........Participant Incubatee Survey Questionnaire ................................. 36 APPENDIX B..................................... 55 ix .........................................................................

other one was suggested as Information Technology Park at Banepa . To create demand for further business incubation services in other parts of Nepal through the demonstrative success of new enterprises. It was administered by Government Development Committee Act.) in the country for the possible use by clients. The programs ranges from technical and management training. is running in DoCSI premises located at Kathmandu.the activities targeted for enterprise development are under government programs or through donor assisted projects. The environment and need assessment study suggested about possible Business incubation program. Notably . Kathmandu was established in 2007 under the lead role of Department of Cottage and Small Industry. etc. To improve and upgrade system and process in the areas of small and micro industries through innovation and new technology. The study suggested some models for BIC development . Technical and Research Centers. The initiation was taken by preparing a business plan to operate ―Business Incubation Program‖ (BIP) under the DoCSI. The objectives of initiating the Business Incubation Program are to:      To graduate successful enterprises providing incubating facilities. Nepal. the objective was to study the feasibility of Business Incubation Center (BIC) concept and identify possible stakeholders. To create and enhance network of experts & mentor in management. libraries. counseling. the one and only Business Incubation Program in Nepal. Government of Nepal. To create and enhance network of resource (laboratories. Information Technology Professional Forum (ITPF) initiated to assess the enterprise environment and design. information providing. infrastructure facilities through public sector. According to Nepal (2006). Introduction 1. and network for nurturing the economic growth of Nepal. incubating space. Academic Sector. I/NGOs and experts in the field of incubation. Communication and other technical skills to be utilized by clients. 1. one was suggested as Business incubation center in Kathmandu under Department of Cottage and Small Industries. In year 2003. credit facilities. Since then. Government of Nepal.project of The World Bank. finance. which would run under fund from Government. Business Sector.Chapter 1 . ITPF conducted a study named as Business Incubation Initiative in Nepal Project .with grant assistance by infoDev Incubator Initiative . marketing. finance. According to Incubator Initiative Planning Grant (2006) the Business Incubation Center.The objectives of this study mainly are : 1 . 2013 with a governing board comprising representation from the government. In 2004-2005 .1 Background There have been some isolated and uncoordinated activities for enterprises promotion services in Nepal for past few decades.2 Research Strategy This study aims to evaluate Business incubation services and analyze the service provided with focus on case study of Business Incubation Program running in Nepal .

chapter 6 summarizes the study with conclusion and some recommendations as thought important. Lastly.    -To critically review the literature on incubation and business growth -To develop a instrument for evaluating the business incubation services in Nepal -To explore the challenges and opportunities to incubator organization and tenant companies -To recommend conditions in which business incubation services can provide greater benefit towards promoting successful enterprises in Nepal and other developing countries. Chapter 4 consists of findings from data collection which are interpreted and evaluated with weighted factor analysis. The study first aims to review the literature with focusing on business growth and the factors related to business growth of small business. Further analysis and discussions over the issues around the literature review and in practice seen are discussed with limitations of study in chapter 5. The methodology incorporates interview administered questionnaire for Primary data collection with selected key–informants from Incubator and Participant Incubatees of Business Incubation Program. The study will also study working framework models and success measures of business incubation suggested by various authors . 2 .

and Growth through Collaboration.and problems of businesses. nature of firm. The former are predominantly lifestyle businesses ( Burns and Dewhurst. Binks and Bruce. Growth through Coordination. Such an understanding of growth pattern of small firms and the factors that trigger growth aspirations or conversely hamper growth can aid in assessing current challenges. or life cycle . Greiner (1972) offers a five-stage framework for business development but considering the managerial changes faced by founder.increase employment and grow into a medium-sized or large firm. Growth through Delegation. Growth through Direction. 2007). and the strategic decisions taken by firm are three key influence on growth rate of small independent firms. managerial abilities and resources.1996). Much of early theoretical work on business growth and development of small firms are attempted in terms of stage . during the start-up period and the need for delegation and changes in their managerial roles (Churchil and Lewis. The phases are Growth through Creativity. achieve growth .1 Business Growth Freel (1999) as cited by Beaver. The latter type will be concerned with growth and expansion. Those small firms who desire to achieve growth and enterprise development will be affected by different factors related opportunity sets. 1999). The most commonly cited stage models of business growth are those developed by Greiner(1972) and Churchill and Lewis(1983).models of firm growth. There are common problems which arise at similar stages of business development. Literature Review 2. It can help in anticipating the key requirements at various points. They don‘t display any aspiration to grow or develop beyond a certain size and complexion and mainly concerned with survival and maintenance of lifestyle.Chapter 2. These common problems can be organized into a framework which helps to deeper understanding of nature . Growth models are useful in benchmarking and draw lessons for survival and growth of firms characterized with similar business features and operating in similar business climate (Poutziouris. 2002 states that the person or entrepreneur that enters small business ownership can be classified as the one who go into self-employment to pursue their own interest and the one who go into small business ownership with desire to develop business. 3 . Storey (1994) as cited in Beaver (2002) mentions the background and access to resources.

(Churchill and Lewis. 2007) 4 . 1 represents the stages of business growth of Greiner model. Figure 2 -Stages of Business Growth.Stages of Business Growth ( Greiner 1972) Fig.Figure 1. If crisis cannot be overcome then there is possibility of failure. The length of time in each phase depends on nature of firm and industry. Each growth phase is followed by crisis that shows need of changes in way of managing business if it has to continue to grow.

In this stage. retrenchment to the Survival Stage may be possible prior to bankruptcy or a distress sale. III-G is often the first attempt at growing before commitment to a growth strategy. the company has very good economic condition. Indeed. people and financial management issues. Stage I: Existence In this stage the problem faced by business is obtaining customer and delivering of product. Stage II: Survival In this stage .owner closes the business as capital runs out . The company can stay in this stage for long time unless the external business environment changes. If company is unable to get sufficient customer acceptance or cannot deliver product . If the III-G company is unsuccessful. The company‘s first strategy is to remain alive. The size and product market penetration is above average and earns profit. Success. the III-G company proceeds into Stage IV. earns marginal returns on invested time and capital . Survival. The business provides and satisfies the customers sufficiently with products or service. The owner arranges cash using borrowing power and risks for financial growth. the company grows in size. The owner can either exploit the company‘s achievements and expand or keep the company stable and profitable. a key issue is whether to use the company as a platform for growth—a sub stage III-G company—or as a means of support for the owners as they completely or partially disengage from the company—making it a sub stage III-D company. and Maturity. If not.Thus. Most of companies remain at survival stage. those companies who can remain in business become stage II survival business. In success –growth sub stage the owner assesses the resources and decides for growth of company. The five stages are Existence. now the key problems have shifted to relationship between revenue and expenses than mere existence.the business is now a workable business entity. and eventually leave business after the owner retires or gives up. The owner is thus far more active in all phases of the company‘s affairs than in the disengagement aspect of this phase. and reduce its competitive abilities. the owner is the one who performs the entire important task and makes decision. the profitability also increases and moves to stage III. Take-Off.Churchill and Lewis (1983) model Fig 2 link marketing. 5 . The key factor which affects the success or failure in different stages of its life is developed as attributes of Owner-manager and Resources. Stage III: Success There are alterative options for owner in this stage. If it is successful. the causes may be detected in time for the company to shift to III-D. In this stage.

it also gets advantage of small size with flexibility and entrepreneurial spirit. Gray (1993) also states that these models do not provide an explanation of why the firm was founded in the first place and what relation there is between the founding motivations and objectives and subsequent development. In most cases. Markley and McNamara (1995). attract external investors and professional support advisors. strategic planning . The classifications of various stages do not reflect the operational and strategic realities and capabilities of firms in relation its chosen market and sector. the business who are in success stage finds hard to achieve success in stage IV . One problem may be owner faces problem in delegating responsibility to others in a fast growing and increasingly complex enterprise. There is needed to be competent to handle organization (divisionalized-usually in either sales or production) in a growing and complex business environment. The need of professional services arises. Lumpkin and Ireland (1988). Other problem may be to satisfy the demand growth in cash and cash flow. They are unable to delegate effectively.Rice (1992).all changes should not stifle its entrepreneurial qualities.4. 2.. The models do not allow for a backward movement along the continuum or for the skipping of stages depending on the operating context of firm. (Nepal. durability and growth of new small firms overcoming problems can be ensured via business incubators as they provide managed business facilities . Gray (1993) acknowledges that if they are used with some selectivity. Most small business experiences little or no growth and therefore never reaches stage 3.they find problems in cash management. 2007) Notably. controlling the performance and managerial effectiveness. (2004b) assumes that 6 .1 Factors Related to Business Growth 2. they are capable of shedding some lights on aspects of the small business growth.5 described in the models.2 Business Incubation: Tool for Business Growth Business incubation models assume the philosophy that when there is guidance and support from fellow business experts and mentors. or finds the growth rate was too fast. The models do not permit firms to exhibit characteristics from one or more stage to become hybrids. McAdam and Marlow. Most researcher like Kuratko and LaFollette (1987). the business incubation houses can act as an incubator machine that provide essential environment to knowledge and resource constraint entrepreneurs for growth. it creates positive environment for entrepreneurs to thrive their business.Stage IV: Take-off In this stage the key problems are how to grow rapidly and how to finance that growth. The company can upgrade its motive by using tools like budgets. 2006). (Churchil and Lewis. as cited in Hackett and Dilts. Storey (1994) and Burns and Harrison(1996) has acknowledged some criticisms.1. Like a real Incubator for hatching chickens from eggs. Although highly critical. (2008) has emphasis that . Stage V: Resource Maturity The priority of the company in this stage is to get control over the financial success due to rapid growth .

. Peters et al. 2004b states that: ―A business incubator is a shared office space facility that seeks to provide its incubatees (i.e.business incubation services can be appropriate tool for economic development which will help in job creation on one hand and less business failures on the other hand. p. flexible rental space with a multitude of support services for its small business residents. business incubation) of monitoring and business assistance‖. small and medium enterprises.e. ‗‗portfolio-‘‘ or ‗‗client-‘‘ or ‗‗tenant-companies‘‘) with a strategic. 2005 defines business incubator as. Lalkaka (1997) explains the government from both developed and developing countries has recognizing the mechanism of business incubation as way to support the development of micro. (Monkman.     Shared office space which are for creating favorable condition to incubates A shared business support services Professional advice. value-adding intervention system (i. Hackett and Dilts.3 Business Incubator While defining Incubator . ―A business incubator is an organization that combines low-cost. mentoring and coaching Networking with external and internal business environment 7 . It shows that the motivations have been:            Creating local jobs Fostering entrepreneurial climate To Commercialize technology To diversify local economies To accelerate local industry growth To retain firms in community to encourage minority or women entrepreneurship To generate revenue To identify potential spin-ins or spin-outs To generate benefits for sponsors Revitalize distressed neighborhood To move people from welfare to work 2. Zimmerer and Scarborough.‖ From various authors‘ attention on business incubator. we can conclude that following components are the particular key elements.a large number of detailed and in many ways similar definitions have been put forward. 2004. 2009) has reported that there are various motivations for establishing business incubation services around the world. 83 mentions generally an incubator can be viewed as ―… a support environment for start-up and fledgling companies‖.

2. 8 . (Hackett and Dilts..and Samuelson framework(Campbell et al.industrial contact and service providers. 2004b emphasis the value of diagnosis of business needs and the selection and monitoring application of business service is important for provision of financing and access to incubation network as well.There should be early evaluation of company for prospective succesful business. They are generally designed for supporting mature firms .It requires good understanding of market and process of new business creation. Infrastructure. 2008 has tries to identify the business incubator concept as different from science parks . Business Support.1 Selection Selection refers to decisions concerning which ventures to accept for entry and which to reject. 2004) describes it as challege to differentiate firms which are promising and need business incubation.technology parks . Norrman and Anna.. 2004b.Campbell. (1985) as cited in Hackett and Dilts.infrastructure but is also a network of individuals and organization which includes incubator manager .immature potential ideas to develop into viable companies.Graduation seems to be the main incubator model components ( Hackett and Dilts. 2008) states that incubator should have clear vision for screeening of client .Moreover (UKBI. 2004). Selection. Mediation .staff . The effect can be seen ultimately in growth of business of tenant or incubatee as shown in figure 3 Figure 3. (Holovnia et al. It is worth while to carefully consider about selection criteria as it may have later on effect upon the resources and reputation as well. But business incubator are the ones who helps the ventures on early stages . They are distinguishable.incubatees. Peters et al.4 Business Incubation From the reviewed literature.Kendrick. It states that incubator can significantly reduce cost for start up to achieve growth by reducing the time span that it often takes.incubator management board.. 2.1985) Norman and Anna (2008) have suggested appropriate selection criteria as two approaches: Idea –focused approach and Entrepreneur-focus approach. 2010) focuses incubator as not only a mission statement .shared office facility. Campbell et al.4.

incubator managers try to identify a few potentially successful ventures .5 Measure of Incubator Success Framework developed by National Business Framework (NBIF) recognizes that there is no single model or template for running and structuring of business incubation . Picking-the-winners & idea.market and profit potential is a must. office facilities and administrative services that an Incubator provides. Relevant technological knowledge and knowledge regarding product .For an idea-focus approach. As discussed by Clarisse et al. take on a larger number of firms and rely on markets to provide the selection processes that over time will separate winners from losers. 1997) 2. This strategy will gather handpicked and well evaluated entrepreneurs and generally the idea is linked with research. spending maximum time etc have been some of factors guiding graduation policies. characteristics and driving forces of entrepreneurs. For entrepreneur-focus approach. This strategy will select highly screened ideas mostly within a narrow technological area and are found commonly started from institutions.. Most incubators seems to supply or provide generally same set of administrative services including office space. amenities.5 Graduation Graduation is related to exit policies. The ability to judge personality as well as knowledge of more general business development is also sought. outgrowing space. skills.     Survival of the fittest & idea. Combination of these two types of approaches of the selection component gives four ―selection strategies‖. Picking-the-winners & entrepreneur. In the ―picking-the-winners‖ approach.2 Infrastructure The infrastructure covers all the business premises. Monkman (2009) mentions that Graduation policies have become more sophisticated over the years. Most incubators have formal exit rules requiring incubatees to leave the incubator after 3-5 years selection.4.e. 2. equipments as well as office services like reception and clerical. This strategy will collect diverse ventures consisting of entrepreneurs/teams with strong driving forces. it is required to evaluate the experiences. (Rice. incubator managers should be able to evaluate the viability and feasibility of idea. incubator managers apply less rigid selection criteria. This strategy will gather a large no of idea owners with immature ideas which may be from wide range of fields. In the ―survival-of-the-fittest‖ approach. 2002). (2005) cited in Norrman and Anna. Survival-of-the-fittest & entrepreneur. 2.The combination of internal and external factors to each business incubation service are different so it is 9 . decisions concerning under what circumstances incubatees should leave the incubator. Graduation polices have been based on business-related benchmarks rather than time limits.4. i. (2008) other two approach: ―picking-the-winners‖ approach and ―survival-of-the-fittest‖ approach are other selection criteria. which are likely to result in very different incubator ―portfolios‖ of incubatees. Clients achieving milestones. (Lalkaka.

The growth and development seen also can be applied as measure of incubatee success.(OECD. This support can be very crucial for start up and growing a new business. infrastructure. 1990. 1996b. Campbell and Allen (1987) has set ‗‗milestones‘‘ for measures of incubator success as creation of a strong and responsive business consultation network. 2004b). 2008). The Indicator of measure of success may be different for different goals . and that ―goals vary from one organization to another‖. the fact is that ―no two incubators are alike‖ (Allen and McCluskey.7 Business Incubation Framework for Research This literature review has identified selection. p. The fact is that the incubator most of time has multiple stake holders with different interests and goal .(Hackett and Dilts. However . the use of selection criteria over incubatee result in selection bias.the no of employees may be good indicator if the goal is to create jobs while growth in sales may be indicator for measuring success of incubator whose goal is to commercialize new idea. business support.etc. 2010) Previous research has been found to focus primarily on identifying suitable criteria and indicators to measure outcomes.it may no t be meaning full to compare with non incubated ventures . The performance and success of 10 . and trade relation development of incubatees. The ultimate goal of business incubator is to help the start ups to achieve its growth and result in more start-ups with fewer business failures. one measure concern shown is while examining the incubatee survival rate . The incubators have objective and goals depending upon the sponsors and stakeholder‘s interest. Incubators articulate objectives differently depending upon their sponsor‘s interests‖ (Mian. 2004b) 2.Incubator goal may be set on following basis:     The incubator‘s primary financial sponsorship – Public/non-profit/university/privately Whether incubatees are spin-offs or start-ups. participation of financial institutions in capitalization of incubatees. According to (Hackett and Dilts. The growth measure may include increase no of jobs .spin-off/ start-up The business focus of the incubatees .for example .problem to have common ‗one size fits all ‘ Framework for benchmarking of business incubation environments. p. mediation and graduation (Hackett and Dilts. 64).Product development/Manufacturing/Mixeduse The business focus of the incubator – Property Development/Business Assistant. 2004b) as main incubator model components for business incubation. 2. .increase in sales over time. (UKBI. Incubator performance can be defined as the extent to which incubator outcomes correspond to incubator goals (Norrman and Anna. One of simple measure of incubatee success is graduation from incubator with developed sustainable business setup.6 Measures of Incubatee success.so incubator may have multiple goals according to stakeholders. 1997). 194) or at least make ―different priorities‖ within the same basic goals.

mediation and networking provided and graduation policy of ―Business incubation Program(BIP)‖ operated by Government of Nepal. and mediation and networking. infrastructure services provided. business support. General management. development of sustainable business structure.e. i. How they organize and manage the incubation process . Similarly .However the criteria and indicator may depend upon goal and objectives.the criteria like graduation from incubation.different incubators is related to their incubator models. but also on how they are supplied. Figure 4 .creation of business network. In different growth stages of a firm. growth in sales of incubatee . Incubator can be measured as successful according to measured outcome . The research also aims to examine and identify the problems of growth facing by new start up firms in Nepal. incubator models. The criteria may be creation of job. business support provided. increase in number of jobs or 11 . operations/production. Business incubation Program (BIP) is the only non profit-mixed type Business incubator in Nepal which is nonprofits and run under lead role of Department of cottage industries. This research aims to focus on evaluating the selection process . finance and marketing are the known common growth constraints.Business Incubation Framework for Research (incorporating Churchil and Lewis Growth Stage. the success of incubator tenants is not only dependent on the nature of these services. 1983 Above literature review can be concluded in following notes and Business incubation framework (Fig-4) will guide for methodology and finding for this research . Various authors have endorsed emphasis that overcoming of these problems can be ensured via business incubator as they provide managed business infrastructure. there are several problems of growth which is developed as attributes of owner-manager and resources.however.

critical and does a scientific inquiry or investigation of problem. 2003). Methodology 3. Lewis and Thornhill. Lewis and Thornhill. 2007) ii.business research is conducted. Lewis and Thornhill. Even the purpose is answering a specific problem. The researcher who is more interested with finding facts is likely to have different approach and view on the way a research is to be performed than with the researcher who is interested with knowing feeling and attitudes. Is more related with nature of reality. it is a development of new knowledge so research philosophy is associated with development of knowledge and nature of that knowledge There are some important assumptions about the way of viewing world which research philosophy adopts.Ontology Ontology. Axiology Axiology studies about the judgments about values. iii. Heron(1996) (as cited in Saunders. (Sekaran.1 Research Philosophy With purpose of finding a solution or answer to a specific problem . the major influencing factor is the relationship between knowledge and process of development of knowledge (Saunders. The questions of assumptions researches make about the way world operates and the commitment held to specific opinion. (Saunders. and incubator manager-incubatee relationship are the measure of incubatee‘s success. It is organized . product innovation. These assumptions govern the research strategies and methods. Chapter 3.sales over time. 2007) states that researcher can show axiological skill by being 12 .data-based . There has to be some practical considerations of philosophy as well. 2007) The major ways of thinking about research philosophy are as follows:     Epistemology Ontology Axiology Epistemology i.Epistemology Epistemology is related with what is considered acceptable knowledge in field of study.

Value-freedom-. 13 .the objective criteria are more deciding factor rather than human beliefs and intrests for choice of ways of studying . 1997 eight features of positivism:         Independence.1. There are mainly three branches of research philosophies in practice. Hypothetico-deductive . science has listed Easterby-Smith et al. Generalization.regularities in human social behavior can be easily identified. Lewis and Thornhill.The concepts are needed to be worked in such a way that enables the facts to be measured quantitatively. problems facing. Cross-sectional analysis. measure of success which are hard to prove by scientific basis.modifying the theory in the light of findings. If necessary . Operationalization .1 Positivism This approach is based on philosophy of science and the approach is called as positivist approach.The final outcome of observations will point out truth or falsity of hypothesis. Casuality-.The problems can be well understood and can have better view if it is reduced to simple possible elements.The regularities in human social behavior can be generalized if sufficient size of sample is selected. Reductionism –. Robson(1993)as cited in (Saunders. My research deals with tangible and intangible services. I reject this research philosophy. It will either tend to confirm theory or indicate the need for modification. Positivism research philosophy is not quite applicable for my research as my research focuses on the evaluation of which cannot be scientifically proved as this philosophy supports . 1997)has listed five sequential stages through which positivist research goes:      Deducting a hypothesis from theory Expressing the hypothesis in operational terms Testing operational hypothesis Examining the specific outcome of the inquiry.By making comparisons of differences across the samples . Lewis and Thornhill. So.    Positivism Realism Phenomenology 3.compentent to demonstrate their values as foundation of making judgemnt aobut what research is being conductio and how they are doing it.the motive of social science should be to find out the casual explanation and basic laws that explain regularites in human behaviour.(1991) as cited in Saunders.The viewer is independent of what is being seen. policies.

Lewis and Thornhill. Lewis and Thornhill. 1997). (1991) as cited in Saunders.Each of these levels has the capacity to change the researcher‘s understanding of that which is being studied (Saunders. In order to be able to understand what is going on in social world. Dobson.2002 as cited in Saunders. 1997 points out that researchers in this tradition are more likely to work with qualitative data and use a variety of methods to collect these data in order to establish different views of phenomenon.would recognize the importance of mulit-level study.1.3. they are actually due to insufficient information.Another important point is direct realist perspective would suggest the world is relatively unchanging: that it operates in the business context.. The critical realist on the other hand. Phenomenology is characterized by a focus on the meaning that research subjects attach to social phenomena. (Saunders.3 Phenomenology Phenomenology is an approach which is based on the way people experience social phenomenon in the world they live. The meaning becomes clearer when two forms of realism are contrasted. and points out that our senses often deceive us. This assumption underpins the collection of data and the understanding of those data and the understanding of those data. Lewis and Thornhill. Researcher can find what is not seen through practical and theoretical processes of social sciences.This also has to deal with connection to society.2 Realism Realism is another epistemological position which relates to scientific enquiry. 3.phenomenology approach is good at understanding social processes however researcher may have to live with the uncertainity that clear patterns may not emerge. My research is to explore and evaluate on business incubation and business growth which comprises business services provided. The direct realist on the other hand views as illusion. Critical realist views that the experiences we have are sensations. Direct realism and critical realism approach will help me to understand theoretical and real understanding on the topic deeper. 2007).Both philosophy are of important for my research. 2007 further clears the critcal realist‘s position that knowledge of reality is a result of social conditioning and cannot be understood independently of the social actors involved in the knowledge derivation process. human behavior and experience for perfect understanding to the topic. (Saunders. Lewis and Thornhill. My research aims is to have insight and evaluate a business incubation service . This approach will help me in some part to assess perceived effect of 14 . Easterby-smith et al. problems of growth faced.1. Lewis and Thornhill. the social structures are to be understood which created the phenomena. measuring perceived effect and success. 2007) Direct realism and Critical realism are two parts of Realism. so I prefer this philosophy. Realism is branch of epistemology which is similar to positivism in that it assumes a scientific approach to the development of knowledge. an attempt by the researcher to understand what is happening and why it is happening. The information to be derived from understanding the topic are fact basis and judgment basis as well. level .

incubation but not as a whole .so I reject this approach as my primary approach for research.

3.2 Purpose of Research
Robson, (1993) as cited in Saunders, Lewis and Thornhill, 1997 has classified the purpose of research as exploratory ,descriptive and explanatory.

3.3 Research Strategy
The Research Strategy is a general plan of how to answer research question set. It will contain clear objectives, derived from research question; specify the source from which data collection is intended; consider the constraints which will be inevitable .crucially, it should reflect the fact for employing particular strategy. (Saunders, Lewis and Thornhill, 1997).Each strategy can be used for exploratory , descriptive and explanatory research. Some of these clearly belong to the deductive approach, others to the inductive approach. (Yin 2003 as cited in Saunders, Lewis and Thornhill, 2007).Robson(1993) lists the three traditional research strategies as:    Experiment; Survey; Case Study;

3.3.1 Experiment Experiment is a research which owes much to the natural science. it is also featured strongly for social science research ,psychology as well (Saunders, Lewis and Thornhill, 1997). In experiment, the link between variables can be studied, and the magnitude of effect of one independent variable can be studied upon another dependent variable. (Hakim 2000).Experiment typically involves:       Definition of a theoretical hypothesis; Selection of samples of individuals Allocation of samples to different experiments; Introduction of planned change on variables; Measurement on a small number of variables; Control of variables.

3.3.2 Survey Survey is tends to be used for exploratory and descriptive research. This strategy is common and popular strategy in business and management study. It is commonly used to answer who, what, where, how much and how many questions.The data is collected by using a questionnaire. The data collected are standardized and easily comparable. The data collected are quantitative data and can be analysis quantitatively using descriptive statistics.In addition ,the data collected can also be used to give suggestion about possible reasons for relationships between variables . However , There are other data collection techniques as well for survey strategy. (Saunders, Lewis and Thornhill, 2007). 15

3.3.3 Case Study Case study is a strategy for doing research which involves an empirical investigation of particular contemporary phenomenon within its real life context using multiple source of evidence‘. Robson (2002:178).The case study strategy gives use good understanding of the context of research and processes that are going on.( Morris and Wood 1991). The case study strategy also can give answers to the what, how and why questions so it is also a common approach for research strategy. Case study strategy is most often used in explanatory and exploratory research. The data collection techniques like interviews ,observation, documentary analysis, questionnaire etc and are likely to be used in combination. (Saunders, Lewis and Thornhill, 2007). In case study strategy it is also likely to need to use and triangulate multiple sources of data. My research aim is to evaluate business incubation services. The theoretical framework for business incubation will be studied with help of a business incubation service provider .the problems and real challenges that business incubator faces would be under consideration for deeper understanding. A study on a real business incubator in practice will help me to observe and analyze the phenomenon and real perspective of business incubation. So, for my research I have chosen a case study strategy where questionnaire will be supplied for data collection to both incubator and incubatees.

3.4 Research Conduct
For any research data collection is one of important phase.The data which we collect will help to support our view for finding of research.The ways of collecting data are;   Primary data collection Secondary data collection

3.4.1 Primary Data Collection The new data which are completely new are primary data. The purpose of data is to answer the research questions or meet objectives of research.The ways to collect primary data are observation, semi structured interviews, in-depth interviews and questionnaires.The nature and area of research governs the selection of ways to collect data (Saunders, Lewis and Thornhill, 1997) Interview The discussion with a view of a purpose between two or more people is an interview (Kahn and Cannell, 1957, cited on Saunders, Lewis and Thornhill, 1997). The interview helps to collect a reliable data which are relevant to research questions and obtain the objectives.In structured interview ,the interview is based on predetermined and identical set of questions to sample interviewees.It is generally formal and standardized .the interviewer reads questions and answers from interviewee are recorded.

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In such interview, the respondents should not feel any partiality even in the tone of voice. Even voice inflection of interviewer may be cause of bias responses (Barath and Cannell, 1976, Benson, 1946).

The non-standardized interviews are semi-structured and unstructured interviews. The questions vary and have different themes in interview.It is generally suitable for omitting some questions for particular interview owing to the context and circumstances.The orders of questions, way of conversations can be changed in semi-structured interview. There is also chance of adding new question according to necessity (Saunders, Lewis and Thornhill, 1997) The unstructured interview doesn‘t have specific questions and time length and they are totally informal.This method is useful for exploring the depth of a general area of topic of interest so it is also called as in-depth interview. While using this method even research doesn‘t have pre-determined list of questions to ask but they have to be clear of area of topic to explore (Saunders, Lewis and Thornhill, 1997) Questionnaires One of best method to collect data is questionnaire method . There is room for being confident on same interpretation by respondents as it has standardized questions. (Robson, 1993, cited on Saunders, Lewis and Thornhill, 1997). Self administered questionnaires are one of best ways to collect data from respondents as they feel free to complete at their convenience.Questionnaires are also cost effective than face to face interview as there is no cost like travel and time .(Bachrack and Scoble, 1967). The self-administered questionnaires are sent by post and after it is completed by respondent, they return back by post or can also be delivered by hand and collected later at later time.The problem with mail survey is that there is low response rate which reduce accuracy in statistical analysis. There is also doubt that the returned questionnaire is same person or not. The interview administered questions on the other hand can be recorded either by using phone or structured interviews which can be taken by face to face interview with respondent.The physical presences will increase the reliability of data collected as physical presence dilutes the dilemma of whether the respondent is same person or not. however, there is also possibility that in presence of interviewer ,some respondent may response to please (Dillman, 1978, cited on Saunders, Lewis and Thornhill, 1997)

3.4.2 Secondary Data Collection The secondary data are the data which are collected by other for some purposes. (Hakim, 1982, cited on Saunders, Lewis and Thornhill, 1997)

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Lewis and Thornhill. these questions on the main subject matters are strong enough to give the answer to reach the objectives and finding of my research. I have used Interview administered questionnaires as collecting primary data. so these data are also used by many researchers. 1997) In my research. Pilot Testing Pilot testing includes steps of checking the questionnaire with experts or friends before the questionnaires is handed or supplied to respondent .Other secondary data are non-written data like taped interviews. There has to be test for data collection method for reliability and authenticity of collected data. My data collector assistant from made contact to incubator team and incubatee team. In my understanding.government like consensus of population are also reliable data for research 3. Question of reliability of finding My questionnaires include two separate sets of questions each for key-informant from incubator and participant incubatee which are related from sections of my literature review. I have chosen questionnaires as way of collecting data. After pilot testing. There are various things in practice while following the steps of methodology for the validity of data. Lewis and Thornhill. In addition . A prior written 18 . articles.These data can be useful to answer the questions and research topic. The pilot test was done with my supervisor and it was checked and approved. This pilot testing helps to confirm unambiguous and refined questionnaire which are without flaws so that respondents would be easily understand questions and answers the questions easily (Saunders. the questionnaires are handed to key-informant from incubator and participant incubatee by meeting in person .5 Methodology in practice The theoretical aspect of methodology is the foundation for any research which helps researchers to reach conclusion of the research objective and get the solution of research problem. so pilot test was done for validity and reliability of data collected.it is a vital step before the data collection takes place. information in websites.suggestions were also taken from friends by distributing to them for opinion. journals publications and the books published with information about organizations. One source is Documentary which can be records. Bryman (1989) cited on Saunders. It includes both quantitative and qualitative data. recorded audio and videos are also authentic source for research.The survey data which are collected by organizations . 1997). The data may be in published or may be raw.

Acknowledging this fact. Lewis and Thornhill.e. 19 . in this method. Choosing Samples I have used Snowball Sampling for selecting key-informants from incubator which is choosing sample through contact or network. The physical presence of interviewer and respondents confirms the respondent and other points. 1997).the questionnaires were pilot tested. For reliable and authentic data . Firstly we need to contact with one or two members and the same members later identify further members (Saunders. This blend of both aspects of methodology will help me to get better finding of my research . For participant incubatee selection. I have gone through careful planning to all aspects of research methodology. All of them were approached due to aim of research as sample was low in number i. interview administered questionnaires helped in increasing the reliability on the collected data. (Lee 1993 cited in Saunders. Thus. Lewis and Thornhill. there may be chance that the respondent is likely to suggest the other respondent who is in touch with them or like them which may lead to biasness. Theoretical and practical both aspects of Methodology have equal importance for research papers.. 2007). 16. An appointment was fixed at convenient location of respondent at convenient time before meeting and data was collected in meeting.acknowledgment letter was presented. However. shared experiences and related notes can also be taken at the same time which is helpful for analysis of data.

With a mission of being a center of excellence. logistics. Government of Nepal has formed a Business Incubation Board having members from different industrial. Current Board of Directors of this program is as follows: Table 1. testing and lab facilities.source (BIP. 2007) Business Incubation Program Board Members Name of organizations Director General. market and finance linkages and human resources who can mentor and guide clients to successfully transform start-up companies to a fast growing enterprise. 2006). (KUSoM) National Association of Science & Technology (NAST) Position Chairman Member Member Member 20 . The BIP. Kathmandu.1 Business Incubation program (BIP) Business Incubation Program is a non-profit making organization under the ownership of government but strictly operated as a private organization with an autonomous management set-up. It is primarily focusing on the provision of proactive support and guidance tailor made for its clients through a range of in-house as well networked services such as subsidized flexible accommodation. It will also be a dynamic process for the production of future generation of fast growing innovative enterprises that will be able to stand up with the best and compete in the global market (Incubator Initiative Planning Grant. ft. science & technology.Chapter 4: Findings 4. Department of Cottage & Small Industries (DoCSI) Federation of Nepal Chamber of Commerce & Industry (FNCCI) Kathmandu University.Business Incubation Program Board Members. within an available builtup space of over 6. professional and experts from different sectors to run and guide this program at top most level. School of Management. is located in the premises of DoCSI.000 sq.

Department of Cottage & Small Industry (DoCSI) Member Member MemberSecretary The work of management team is supervised by one of Director level personnel as Program Chief appointed by DoCSI. So. The data collection assistant was a graduate of rural development and was well-informed about the research methodology. Researcher was unable to be physically involved in data collection due to being in United Kingdom. Nepal and data collection method was selected as face to face questionnaire response collection. So. The participants were allowed to rate them . The number of participating incubatees was 12. As the research subject was in different country. The participants from business incubator and incubatees were 3 and 12 respectively. To collect data from incubator management side. So. 4. the questions and statements were on 4 point scale. 4. 4 of them were out of contact (2 of them were graduated incubatees and were not in contact with BIP recently. the DoCSI is funding this program from its regular annual program budget. The questionnaires are in English and the respondents are native Nepali language speakers. 21 . Remaining 2 incubatees were out of Kathmandu due to personal reasons. A daily communication was set between researcher in United Kingdom and data collection assistant in Nepal to coordinate and facilitate data collection process.Business incubation program helped to make contact with incubatees for data collection. An acknowledgment letter for data collection was provided to Business Incubation program . suggestions. The Data collection assistant translated each English medium question into Nepalese while performing the questionnaire session and the answers was again noted down in English language.Information Technology Professional Forum (ITPF) Ministry of Environment.2 Summary of Data Collection Experience Two set of questionnaire were prepared to be filled by pivot management persons from Business incubator and another to be filled by incubatees. comments and various personal experiences were also noted down during the filling of questionnaire. 3 key informant was selected who were involved directly into business incubation process. Altogether there were 16 incubatees with whom attempts were made to contact. A data collection assistant was carefully selected to help in data collection. number of key informant for Incubator (N) was 3 and number of participant ( N) was 12 for incubatees. Science & Technology (MoEST) Director. Currently. Program Chief and Management team are liable to present progress reports to BIP board members.) All the issues.3 Findings In 2 sets of questionnaires for incubator and incubatees .

5 of them were under business incubation since 2008 and remaining 6 were under business incubation since 2009. All the questions were with 4 point scale so. The Weighted factor was assigned to each choice in question .3. Similarly minimum response range for incubatees was 12 and maximum was 48 as N=12. mediation service i. Gender Figure 6-Gender ratio 22 . b.1 Incubatee Background Information a.Good-3. 4. the population of 15-64 age groups is 61.1% (CBS.lowest weight was assigned to least agreeing choice . Number of response N was less than 12.but N=12 was taken as number of respondent for all of graphical representation. For response range of Incubator .3.Average-2.Excellent-4) Each question was then multiplied with Frequency of response which gave a minimum and maximum range.some incubatees did not respond as they had not deal with such business support. Therefore The weighted factor was given as 2. In Nepal.5< 4) for those unanswered responses and weighted factor analysis was carried on.5 of them were incubated as first batch in 2007 since the program started and are graduated from Business Incubation Program . The response range hence was dependent on value of N (no of respondent).For convenience of analysis . For Some choices of questions .minimum was 3 and maximum was 12 as N=3. Nepal 2011).4 weighted factor with starting from value of 1 with least agreeing choice toward most agreeing choice with value of 4. .5 (1<2. High percentage of 18-34 age groups in business incubation was encouraging. Each choices were assigned as 1.Weighted Factor Analysis was used for each set of questions.e. (For example-Poor-1. highest weight was assigned to most agreeing choice.2. Age Figure 5-Age of Incubatees Age of Incubatees 13% N=16 18-34 35-50 51-above 25% 62% The total number of Incubatees under business incubation are 16 till date.Similarly.

2 Selection Policy Selection of clients was based on strict criteria that are in alignment with the available resources and demand reasonable cost for development. In Nepal. The number of incubatee with graduate level of education was found to be 6 and 2 incubatee were with under high school level of education. Between the time of business plan development.3. management team assessed their needs and prepared a work plans for serving them according to their needs. After passing through a broad selection criteria. 23 . Women participation is generally low in all business activities where majority of women are active in house-hold activities. Virtual and In-house. BIP Nepal support both type of incubates i. 4. Women are always encouraged to actively participated in all business activities by government and nongovernment organizations. BIP Nepal provided a pre-incubation course for developing business plan of its incubatees.Education background Figure 7-Educational background Educational background 12% 38% 50% N= 16 Under High School High school Graduate The number of incubatee with high school education was found to be 8.e.There were only 3 females among total number of Incubatees.Gender ratio N=16 19% 81% Male Female The number of women in business was relatively less . c.

The incubatee‘s perceived quality about fax. and computer much due to low penetration of technology into business. employment history was found to be assumed less important.4 Business support 24 . plans to implement and market potential was highly agreed upon as important .5 9.25 7.very important- Figure 9-Importance of Selection criteria as perceived by Incubator The response on importance of factors for selection gave knowledge on factors which were thought more important than others. these were used less .However. There was also suggestion by Key informant on basis of day to day activities that criteria of selection should also focus in commitment and willing to pay additional services.moderate-2.3 Infrastructure The views about majority of infrastructure by incubatees were also nearly same as rated by key-informants from incubator but for fax. 4. type of firm.3. Family background.Important-3. Phone and computer. and range of desired support was also seen as important.Figure 8-Importance of Selection criteria as perceived by Incubator Selection criteria as perceived by Incubator Expected earning/expenditure Plans to implement Use of information technology Technical knowledge Creativity of idea Stage of idea/business Business proposal Family Background Selection Criteria 3 5. the incubatees were of less need of these infrastructure so even these were available. 4. Nepal. Business proposal. it wasn‘t same. available resources and cost. The incubatees who were into production industries showed dissatisfaction over R& D facilities and stated that improvement in this particular infrastructure was vital and would help in their businesses .In. and computer was also as of other infrastructure. phone. small business do not use fax. Some factors were agreed more important than others.75 12 Response Range (N=3) Note-weighted factor: doesn’t matter-1.3. stage of idea.

25 . marketing management.25 7.weighted factor: Poor-1.Excellent-4 Figure 11-Perceived Quality of Business Support by Incubatees Perceived Quality of Business Support by Incubatees Business registration services Secretarial services Export assistance Accounting and taxation Entrepreneurial development Legal issues HR management Marketing management Financial management Leadership training and coaching Business services 12 21 30 39 48 Response range (N=12) Note.Excellent-4 The leadership training.weighted factor: Poor-1. financial management.Good-3. As most of incubatees were startup with sole enterprises. HR management was felt less important by incubatees. most of time entrepreneur requested help dealing with crisis or problem. HR management .legal issues.75 12 Response range (N=3) Note. Some of incubatees were more satisfied for business support regarding Branding and patent.Average-2. The business support was found to be reactive and episodic.Average-2.Figure 10-Perceived Quality of business Support by Incubator Perceived Quality of Business Support by Incubator Business registration services Secretarial services Export assistance Accounting and taxation Entrepreneurial development Legal issues HR management Marketing management Business services Financial management Leadership training and coaching 3 5. It was less continual and proactive as there was less intense intervention by incubator manager. export assistance. The key informant from business incubator tends to agree that the quality of business services was of average quality. business registration services were provided to all where as other business services were provided according to individual need. Export assistance. Accounting and taxation.Good-3.5 9. and Secretarial services were found to be provided according to individual need.

due to approach and mediation from Business Incubation program. Mediation has helped increase the visibility. Agree-3. I also got technical support as incubation team arranged for an expert's visit to my field”. I am satisfied that I got various trainings/exposures. But it has helped morally being firms under Business incubation. Otherwise. credibility and understandability of incubates in the eyes of external actors. Mediation has helped incubatee to understand and interpret regulations and law .Even both side agreed that the mediation was not at desirable level.the firm was graduated. 2010. Strongly Agree-4 The key informants from incubator and participant incubatees were seen agreeing on mediation statements on questionnaire . Incubatees has experienced they got faster services when approached to external companies.5 Mediation Incubatees Views on Mediation Statements Mediation has helped incubatees obtain legitimacy and social acceptance. One example I can take of Registration of company. Business incubation has been in priority of New Industrial Policy of Nepal.An incubatee view . It also took me only 3 hours to do so. i could do the registration with the mandatory sum of 1000 as the communication was done between BIP and government authority for business registration.6 Graduation Criteria The graduation policy was found to be flexible. But since incubation office mediated. Mediation 12 21 30 39 48 Response range Note: Weighted factor: Strongly Disagree-1. After a certain period .with mutual agreement between incubator and incubatee .3. As a direct effect of mediation. government offices for administrative and registration works. 4. 4.“Incubation is good and would encourage many more entrepreneurs if it was publicized a little more.” Since Business incubation is a new concept it has not been able to influence change in regulation and laws .Recently. it would take 2-3 days minimum. Mediation has been able to influence changes in regulations and laws. it would have taken me around Nepalese Rupees 6000 to register company. 26 .3. Disagree-2. An Incubatee view-“ Incubation has made my work faster and saved me cost .

c. The response from incubator on Time under incubation was seemed perceived highly while incubates preferred it as low importance.I feel that I could graduate from incubation after I am able to establish a brand name for my produced bag products and gain some recognition in the market for it ” . There seemed to be contrast in view on Time under incubation as an important factor. The key-informant from incubator and participant incubatees were seen much agreed on limited market information systems and research and Limited awareness and capacity for marketing as marketing resources problems faced in small business operation in Nepal.Weighted factor: Not at all-1. Operational/Production problems 27 . Important-3. Very Important-4 Trading as independent business was perceived as an important factor to graduate by both key-informant from incubator and participants from incubatees. Growth in business is sought by most of business operating in Nepal. “An Incubatee View.Figure 12-Important criteria for graduation as Perceived by Incubatees Important criteria as Perceived by Incubatees Trading as independent business Time under incubation Profitability Sales turnover Graduation criteria 12 21 30 39 48 Response Range N=(12) Note. Both key-informants from incubator and participant incubatees perceived day to day survival focus as less important problem for growth. Other local problem faced by some incubatees were tax imposed by local authorities for marketing and promotion campaign. The incubatees were ready to be under business incubation for longer period if it gives positive result in their growth. Less Important-2. display board /hoarding board which added extra cost to their products.

Agree-3. Strongly Agree-4 d. Disagree-2.25 7.5 9.5 9.75 12 Response Range (N=3) Note: Weighted factor: Strongly Disagree-1. General management Problems Figure 14-General management Problem perceived by Incubator Perceived by Incubator -Lack of technological sophistication -Corruption -Policy instability -Ineffective government bureaucracy -Government stability -Lack of government support -Crime and theft General management Problem 3 5. Disagree-2.Figure 13-operational/production problems perceived by Incubator Perceived by Incubator -Inadequate educated workforce -Poor work ethics -Inadequate supply of infrastructure services -Limited knowledge in manufacturing and distribution process Operational/production problems 3 5. Agree-3.75 12 Response Rate (N=3) Note: Weighted factor: Strongly Disagree-1.25 7. Strongly Agree-4 28 .

75 12 Response Range (N=3) Note: Weighted factor: Strongly Disagree-1.25 7. Disagree-2. and Ineffective government bureaucracy as major general problems of growth for new start-up in Nepal. Policy instability. etc. Disagree-2.Figure 15-General management Problem perceived by Incubatees Perceived by Incubatees -Lack of technological sophistication -Corruption -Policy instability -Ineffective government bureaucracy -Government stability -Lack of government support -Crime and theft General management… 12 21 30 39 48 Response Rate (N=12) Note: Weighted factor: Strongly Disagree-1. e. Other general social problems that incubatees faced were found to be forceful charity. and force full charity by local mafia. Agree-3. Strongly Agree-4 29 . political labor union disrupting work. Agree-3. Corruption is also seen as big problem than crime and theft .5 9. Strongly Agree-4 The key-informant from incubator and participant incubatees has pointed out Lack of technological sophistication. Owner Related Problems Figure 16 -Owner related problems perceived by Incubator Perceived by Incubator -Family history -Gender -Lack of trainings -Lack of management abilities -Lack of motivation for growth -Lack of entrepreneurial culture -Resistance to modern management practice Owner Related Problems 3 5.

The incubatees felt that these owner related problems were also problems for growth which can be overcome by training and support to interested ones.Figure 17-Owner related problems perceived by Incubatees Perceived by Incubatees -Family history -Gender -Lack of trainings -Lack of management abilities -Lack of motivation for growth -Lack of entrepreneurial culture -Resistance to modern management practice Owner Related Problems 12 21 30 39 48 Response Range (N=12) Note: Weighted factor: Strongly Disagree-1.8 Perceived Effect of Business Incubation on Incubatees 4.3.1 Discussion 5. Gender and family history wasn‘t perceived as much bigger problem of growth by both key informants from incubator and participant incubatees. Disagree-2. Strongly Agree-4 Lack of entrepreneurial culture and resistance to modern management were found to be agreed by both key informants from incubator and participant incubatees.3. One of important limitation this research has is it doesn‘t discuss about the role of business incubation manager . The literature review can point out other issues of Business incubation which were not discussed and was discarded. 4. lack of management abilities and lack of motivation growth were perceived more by participant incubatees as owner related problems.various authors Holovnia et al.2 Limitations The study had time constraint as it was to be conducted for 4 months. Lack of training.Jim Robbins(2002) 30 . Agree-3.10 Measure of Success of Incubatee firm as perceived by Incubatees Chapter 5: Discussion and limitations 5. (2008)..

Another limitation in this research is that this research doesn‘t discuss about financial sustainability of business incubation center itself. 31 . It is not able to raise the enterprise development issues and efforts running in nepal from private initative or by non governmental organisation. The strategies that business incubation center incorporates for being financial sustainable have effects on business incubation process and a different framework or working model may arise as various authors like Richards 2002 has stated.have highlighted the effect of experience and capabilites of manager in Business incubation Process. The activities for enterprenurship development from them is scattared and unorganised but not negligible to ignore for Nepal. The case study Business Incubation Center was government funded and the research was focused in evaluating the services provided and exploring the topic. This study has limted to business incubation service by Government of Nepal.

Even the social factor like celebration of festival in between the data collection period interrupted the data collection process. I would approach the primary respondents early .2 Reflections If I were to do this research again. There was always fear that the questionnaire may not be well perceived by the respondents. This study can help any interested individuals or organization to find about progress of business incubation scenario in Nepal.1 Conclusion This research study leads to us following conclusion. 6. the research study made me learn about the procedure of doing research. 32 . Conducting a research staying in United Kingdom and exploring over the case study over another country. Some questions were seen less relevant to incubatees who were still under incubation.4 Contribution This research is the first research study over the Business Incubation Program (BIP).Chapter 6: Conclusion and Recommendation 6. I learned to coordinate with organization. I would approach the research in some different ways. Nepal initially had some sort of lack of confidence and fear for not being able to grasp the real scenario. This study can also help researchers interested to find about initiatives in entrepreneurial development environment in Nepal. So it was pilot tested before it was handed to respondents.3 Recommendations 6. 6. The stakeholders of Business Incubation Program can use this study to find about business incubation services provided.i learned to consider the factors which can delay the research process. Personally. The data collection could be more refined with use of different sets of questionnaires for graduated and under-incubation incubatees as there were seen some mixed responses. I learned the skill for forward plan and proposal planning also. I learned the skill for preparing an original piece of work on a defined and relevant topic. This early consideration would have increased my sample size. I feel the study of evaluation of business incubation services could also be done with focusing in supply and demand of business incubation services.

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APPENDIX A-Key-Informant (Incubator) Survey Questionnaire PART-1 Key.informant Person nameDesignationSelection criteria 36 .

Others (please 3. specify)…………….Please rate the importance of following factors used for Selection Criteria.1. Selection process. Referral b. Please tick the choices as appropriate Doesn’t Matter Moderate Important Very Important Family background Business proposal Stage of idea/business Creativity of idea Technical knowledge Use of information technology Plans to implement Expected earning/expenditure Range of desired support required Expected duration of support Market potential /commercialisation of idea Previous training experience Employment history Patents/intellectual property Type of firm Available resources and cost Reservation by government 37 . c. How selection is done for Tenant Company? a.

Please rate the service as appropriate Free Paying Poor Average Good Excellent Loan equipment for business purposes 38 .Please rate the following infrastructures provided by incubator. Cost of use Please tick as appropriate Furnished Unfurnished Please tick as appropriate Free Paying Poor Average Good Excellent Office space Meeting room Cost of use Please tick as appropriate Shared Individual Please tick as appropriate Free Paying Poor Average Good Excellent Phone Fax Computer/ Internet/e mail Business postal address Cost of use.(marginalised/female /ethnic group) Any comment (please specify) ……………………………………………………………………………………………. Infrastructure 1.

simulating and testing new products such as labs. Leadership training and coachingb. Financial managementc.HR managemente. Accounting and taxation 39 . servers)- Any comment-(please specify) ………………………………………………………………………………………………… Business support 1. Entrepreneurial -development Poor Average Good Excellent g. Marketing managementd.Please rate the following business services provided Please rate the service as appropriate Provided Services (please tick Business as appropriate) service provided Provide Provided Never d to all according to individual need provided Poor Average Good Excellent a.(laptops/projector/cameras)R & D facilities(facilities for designing. Legal issues f.

Others (Please specify) ………………………………………………………………………………………………… …. Mediation regarding partners- 40 . c. Business registration services k. Secretarial services j. 3. Reactive and episodic.Any comment(please specify) ……………………………………………………………………………………………….What is preferred approach to provide Business support ? please tick as appropriate a.ad hoc counselling).. Export assistance i. d. Mediation and networking 1. Please rate the service as appropriate Provided Services (please tick as Mediation appropriate) and networking Provided Provided Never to all according provided provided to individual need Poor Average Good Excellent a. Others (please specify)…………… …………… 2. b.h. Proactive and episodic counselling (manager engages entrepreneurs in informal .(entrepreneur requests help dealing with crisis or problem ) . Continual and proactive counselling ( under review and intense –aggressive intervention by incubator manager).Please rate the mediation and networking provided.

Mediation regarding financiersf.Mediation regarding suppliers d. Please tick as appropriate Strongly Disagree SD Disagree Agree Strongly Agree SA D A a. Others (please specify)……… ………………. b. Mediation regarding customersc. Mediation has helped incubatee to understand and interpret regulations and law . Mediation has been able to influence 41 . Mediation regarding equity investmentg.b.. 2. Mediation regarding employeese.Please Rate as appropriate for following statement.

Problems of growth facing by small firms 1. Financial resource problems-Lack of expertise in financial management 42 . Mediation has helped increase the visibility. d.changes in regulations and laws. Please rate as appropriate Strongly Disagree Disagree Agree Strongly Agree a. c. Graduation1. credibility and understandability of incubates in the eyes of external actors.Please rate the importance of following factors of problems of growth for new startup business in Nepal.Please rank the importance of the following factors for graduation from incubation. Please tick as appropriate Not at all less important Important Very important Sales turnover Profitability Time under incubation Trading as independent business Others (please specify)……………………. Mediation has helped incubatees obtain legitimacy and social acceptance.

c. General management problem43 .Access to finance -Cash and burrowing power -Tax rate -Inflation -Tax regulation -Others ( please specify)…………………………………………. b.... Marketing resource problems-Focus on day to day survival -Limited market information systems and research -Limited awareness and capacity for marketing activities -Others (please specify)…………………………………………. Operational/production problems -Limited knowledge in manufacturing and distribution process -Inadequate supply of infrastructure services -Poor work ethics SD D A SA -Inadequate educated workforce -Others (please specify)…………………………………………… … d.

Measure of success of incubator- APPENDIX B-Participant Incubatee Survey Questionnaire Part 2 Incubatee information 1. Owner related problems -Resistance to modern management practice -Lack of entrepreneurial culture -Lack of motivation for growth -Lack of management abilities -Lack of trainings -Gender -Family history -Others (please specify)…………………………………………….. Name2. Age44 .-Crime and theft -Lack of government support -Government stability -Ineffective government bureaucracy -Policy instability -Corruption -Lack of technological sophistication -Others (please specify)……………………………………………. e.

Gender .High school Enterprise Name Enterprise Est. 6.Please rank the following business service provided Please tick as appropriate Poor Average Good Excellent Leadership training and coachingFinancial managementMarketing managementHr managementLegal issues Entrepreneurial development Accounting and taxation Export assistance Secretarial services Business registration services Others ( Please specify) …………………………………………… 2.3. 7.Male Education . Date Enterprise industry type - Female Undergraduate Graduate Infrastructure Business support 1. 5. Any comments (Please specify)………………………………………………………………………………………… … Mediation and Networking 45 . 4.

credibility and understandability of incubates in the eyes of external actors.Please rate following statement as appropriate. Please tick as appropriate Poor Average Good Excellent Mediation regarding partners Mediation regarding customersMediation regarding suppliersMediation regarding employeesMediation regarding financiersMediation regarding equity investmentsOthers (please specify)……………………………………………. Mediation has been able to influence changes in regulations and laws. b. 3. c.1.Please rank the mediation and networking services provided by incubator.Any Comments-(please specify)………………………………………………………………………………………… . Mediation has helped increase the visibility. d. 2. Please tick as appropriate Strongly Disagree Disagree Agree Strongly Agree a. Graduation- 46 . Mediation has helped incubatees obtain legitimacy and social acceptance. Mediation has helped incubatee to understand and interpret regulations and law .

Would have been less successful/not so professional or as competitive .would be Less confident . 4. 6.Very little would have changed 7. businesses and network) 5.Please rate the following statement as appropriate Please tick as appropriate.Would not exist as a business/not trading 10.Would not have progressed the business as quickly: slower growth .Would have not learned about issues in business . Strongly Disagree Disagree Agree Strongly Agree 1. 2.Would have spent more money on equipment/would have had to get quite a large loan 8.Would not have been taken seriously by larger businesses 9.Please rate the following statement as appropriate 47 .Would be less productive at home/lack of credibility within family resulting in less family support.Problems of growth facing by small firms Perceived effect of incubation service provided to incubate 1.would have taken longer (staff. Measure of success of incubatee 1. 3.

-stages of growth.Informant 48 . 6. 7. Confidence in self and business has increased. Strongly Disagree Disagree Agree Strongly Agree 1. 8. The enterprise has grown over incubation period.The sales turnover and profitability has been positive under business incubation 2. APPENDIX C-List of Key.Please tick as appropriate. 3.There has been Positive Publicity to business. Business skill/professionalism is improved 5.Networking with peers has increased and productive. 2.There has been cost saving due to use of BI services.The firm has graduated leading to independent trading 4.Any Comments (Please specify)……………………………………………………………………………………….

BIP Association with BIP 2010.Integrated Management & Technology Research Center (Imatech) 3 Er.. Rabindra K Neupane -Ex Enterprise Development Officer .BIP 2007-2009 -Lecturer of Small Business Management. Government of NEPAL 2008-2010 APPENDIX D -List of Participant Incubatee 49 .SN NAME 1 Ms. FNCSI Nepal -Program Director.Rakshya Aryal DESIGNATION Enterprise Development Officer.going on. Pradeep Jha -Technical Officer. 2 Mr. Tribhuvan University -BDS Manager.

Dhakal 2008 Herbal production cosmetic 8 Saurav 2008 Online media content production Herbal production medicinal 9 Anamol Jadibuti Udhyog Mr.SN Tenant 1 Anima Research Centre Himalayan udyog firm owner Visual & Ms. Sangita 2008 house Lama Kathmandu macaroni Mr. ltd Prasai 5 6 7 Ever Green Herbal and Mr. Takka 2008 development Bahadur Nepali One peace fashion Ms. Service Sharma incubation period firm type Visual house production Anjana 2007-2009 2 agarbatti Mr. Nepal infopark Limited Pvt. Kashiraj Parisad Shiwakoti Bag Udhyog Pragati udhyog Jatropa plantation Bags production Eductional production materials Mr. Shiva Hari 2008 industry pv. Hari Gopal 2007-2009 Shrestha Madhukar 2007-2009 Incence-stick prodution Production of ecofriendly improved cooking stove Alternative energy appliance production Designer dress production Macaroni production 3 Matri bhumi chulo jadan Mr udhyog K.Man Bahadur 2009 saud 2009 10 11 12 Pahadi Kshyetra Bikas Mr. Gopal Kafle Cosmetic Products Pvt. Khadananda 2009 Shiwakoti Hastakala Mr.Ltd.C 4 Karnali technology Mr. Santi Raman 2009 Paneru APPENDIX E -Records of Meeting 50 . Mr.

25/7/2011 51 .4/7/2011 Summary of Discussion: -revise the focus of research and further development Work required by next meeting: -work on literature review more -focus on growth of companies Date of next meeting: 18/7/11 .28/6/2011 Summary of Discussion: -feedback of proposal given -acceptable with some modification -need to be precise about literature review and objective Work required by next meeting: -rewrite objective -literature review -foucus to find 2 author(book. 11:30 am Date.journals for base of research) Date of next meeting: 4/7/2011 .18/7/2011 Summary of Discussion: -body of literature review decided Work required by next meeting: -carry on literature review -topic business incubation need to be started Date of next meeting: 25/7/11 .16:30 pm Date.11:30 am Date.Date.

15/8/2011 52 .8/8/2011 Summary of Discussion: -summary model discussed Work required by next meeting: -prepare and arrange together summary model -send over email Date of next meeting:15/8/11 Date.2/8/2011 Summary of Discussion: -main points of literature review discussed Work required by next meeting: -explain all the elements /issues of literature review -put into model -send over email Date of next meeting:8/8/2011 Date.Summary of Discussion: -First half of literature review done Work required by next meeting: -look at important highlighted points -edit required parts Date of next meeting: 2/8/11 Date.

6/9/2011 53 .discussion over questionaire Work required by next meeting: -Draft judgment based questions that arises -draft Fact based questions that arises -send over email Date of next meeting:6/9/11 Date.2/9/2011 Summary of Discussion: .22/8/2011 Summary of Discussion: -Discussed questionnaires preparation -looked at various model of questionaire drafts Work required by next meeting: Draft questions related to research objective Date of next meeting:2/9/11 Date.Summary of Discussion: -looked at summary model -summarise model Work required by next meeting: -final refinement needed -send over email Date of next meeting:22/8/11 Date.

23/9/2011 Summary of Discussion -final discussion about questionaire was done Work required by next meeting: -final refinement needed to be done in questionaire -now focus in completing the methodology part. Date of next meeting:6/10/2011 54 .Summary of Discussion -questionaire and 4 point scale discussed Work required by next meeting: -Refinement over questionaire needed -send over email Date of next meeting:19/9/2011 Date.19/9/2011 Summary of Discussion: -Discussion over sets of questions -Discussion over layout of questions Work required by next meeting: -Refinement needed over questions -Modify question content -send over email Date of next meeting:23/9/2011 Date.

17/10/2011 Summary of Discussion: -discussion over findings.layout -amendment in topic of research -discuss over table of content Work required -complete remaining works APPENDIX F-Introduction Letter 55 .06/10/2011 Summary of Discussion: -discussion about interpreting data -discussion about weighted mean -discussion about bar chart Work required by next meeting: -complete weighted mean in data obtained -start making graphical representations Date of next meeting:10/10/2011 Date.make all bargraphs Date of next meeting:17/10/2011 Date.Date.10/10/2011 Summary of Discussion: -discussion about findings Work required by next meeting: -complete findings .

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