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Published by: Ankita Pandey on Feb 12, 2012
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BY JYOTHSNA B Mtech Biotechnology Sem-1

gene transfer from one cell to another cell which is not its offspring. a) Horizontal gene transfer(lateral gene transfer) . . b) Vertical gene transfer .  There are two types of gene transfers.GENE TRANSFER  Gene transfer is the process in which the genetic material is transferred from one organism into the other organism.gene transfer from one cell to another cell which is from its ancestors.

. 2) Transformation ± Genetic recombination in which a DNA fragment from a dead. 4) Conjugation ± A process in which a bacterial cell transfers genetic material to another cell by cell-to-cell contact. degraded bacterium enters a competent recipient bacterium and it is exchanged for a piece of the recipient's DNA. 3) Transduction ± The process in which bacterial DNA is moved from one bacterium to another by a virus (Bacteriophage).MECHANISM 1) Plasmids ± Acts as vectors in transfer of genetic material.

PLASMIDS  Plasmid is a DNA molecule that is separate from.  Plasmids serve as important tools in genetics and biotechnology labs.000kbp.  Plasmid sizes vary from 1 to over 1. the chromosomal DNA.  They are double-stranded and circular. and can replicate independently of. where they are commonly used to multiply or express particular genes. TYPES conjugative plasmids (tra genes) non-conjugative plasmids .

Based on their function: 1) F-plasmids ± tra genes ± conjugation 2) R-plasmids ± genes resistance to antibiotics and toxins 3) Col-plasmids ± genes for bacteriocins and toxins 4) Degradative plasmids ± enable digestion of unusual substances 5) Virulence plasmids ± turns bacteria into pathogen .

. Plasmids may carry genes that provide resistance to naturally occurring antibiotics.

 The mechanism of transposition can be either "copy and paste" or "cut and paste".TRANSPOSONS  Transposons are sequences of DNA that can move or transpose themselves to new positions within the genome of a single cell. Types Retrotransposons DNA transposons .  They were first discovered by Barbara McClinkton in maize. for which she got Noble prize in 1983.

. Mechanism: Transposon (Transcription) RNA (Reverse transcription) DNA (Reintegration) Retrotransposon (Transposon copy)  The integration may occur randomly on the same chromosome or on different chromosome.Retrotransposons:  They are formed by RNA as intermediate.

it is a direct transposition of DNA to DNA.DNA Transposons:  No RNA intermediates. TYPES Replicative transposition Conservative transposition .

TRANSDUCTION  The process by which foreign DNA is introduced into another cell via a viral vector. TYPES Generalized transduction Specialised transduction .

The bacteriophage genome enters the bacterium. . The genome directs the bacterium's metabolic machinery to manufacture bacteriophage components and enzymes 3.Seven steps in Generalised Transduction 1. 2. A lytic bacteriophage adsorbs to a susceptible bacterium. Occasionally. a bacteriophage head or capsid assembles around a fragment of donor bacterium's nucleoid or around a plasmid instead of a phage genome by mistake.

The bacteriophages are released.Seven steps in Generalised Transduction (cont·d) 4. 5. The bacteriophage carrying the donor bacterium's DNA adsorbs to a recipient bacterium .

7. The bacteriophage inserts the donor bacterium's DNA it is carrying into the recipient bacterium . .Seven steps in Generalised Transduction (contd) 6. The donor bacterium's DNA is exchanged for some of the recipient's DNA.

2.Six steps in Specialised Transduction 1. . A temperate bacteriophage adsorbs to a susceptible bacterium and injects its genome . The bacteriophage inserts its genome into the bacterium's nucleoid to become a prophage.

. Occasionally during spontaneous induction.Six steps in Specialised Transduction (cont·d) 3. a small piece of the donor bacterium's DNA is picked up as part of the phage's genome in place of some of the phage DNA which remains in the bacterium's nucleoid. Every phage now carries that segment of bacterial DNA. As the bacteriophage replicates. the segment of bacterial DNA replicates as part of the phage's genome. 4.

6.Six steps in Specialised Transduction (cont·d) 5. The bacteriophage genome carrying the donor bacterial DNA inserts into the recipient bacterium's nucleoid. . The bacteriophage adsorbs to a recipient bacterium and injects its genome.



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