Little Black Book of Operations Tradecraft

Parabellum Concepts


CIA Secret Weapons Systems – Page 3 Logistics of a Black Bag Job – Page 9 NSA Employee Manual – Page 12 A Study of Assassination – Page 29 Surveillance Recognition – Page 42


Exploding wine bottles, guns constructed out of pipes, bullets made of teeth, aspirin explosives: they sound like props from a second-rate spy story. Horrifyingly enough, they are real. The CIA has spent a great deal of its time-and your money--developing countless bizarre weapons for assassination, sabotage, and mass destruction. If that's news to you, it's because the CIA doesn't want these products, some of which are quite easy to put together, to fall into the "wrong hands." As for whether they are in the right hands now--judge for yourself. The CIA has developed many exotic and sophisticated devices intended for use in interrogation, sabotage, and assassination. These weapons are necessary--if you grant that what the CIA itself does is necessary. If the CIA wants to eliminate a key KGB agent operating in Hungary, it faces certain problems. It would be virtually impossible to slip a deadly weapon, such as a gun or bomb, past Hungarian customs officials. Thus, the CIA assassin must assemble his weapon from commonly obtainable materials after he crosses the border. The CIA agent might decide to construct a urea nitrate explosive, commonly known as a urine bomb. This weapon is quite deadly, easily exploded, and consists primarily of nitric acid and urine. The urine bomb is one of literally hundreds of murderous weapons in the CIA arsenal. "The New York Times" of September 26, 1975 revealed the existence of guns that shoot cobra-venom darts. Then there was the shoe polish compound intended to make Fidel Castro's beard fall out, so that he would lose his "charisma." And CIA laboratories in Fort Monmouth, New Jersey developed the famous rifle that shoots around corners. Some CIA weapons are designed to kill many people--deadly germs can be released in subways; others are intended to kill a single, specific individual--the Borgia ring contains deadly poison to be

4 slipped into a victim's drink; and still others are standard weapons supplied for such missions as overthrowing the Allende government in Chile in 1973. The information about CIA weapons that you will read in this article generally has not been made public before. It was not intended to be. But your tax dollars pay for these devices; it is your right to know about them. There is a booklet, written in 1977 and distributed to a select group of U.S. mercenaries, titled "CIA Improvised Sabotage Devices." This instructional guidebook, part of "the Combat Bookshelf," was published by Desert Publications, P.O. Box 22005, Phoenix, Arizona 85028. If you want to know how the CIA turns a cigar box into an explosive that can destroy a 10,000-gallon capacity storage tank, then "CIA Improvised Sabotage Devices" is what you should read. You will need it if you want to build the "Water-Drip Electric Delay," a bomb that requires little more than wood scrap, a tin can, and a battery. The "Pocket Watch Electric Delay" requires little more than a watch, a screw, and a battery. The "Mousetrap Electric Release" is another bomb, this one requiring a mousetrap, a trip wire, a battery, and little else. It is described as "an excellent device to use with bazooka rockets against trucks, tanks, or locomotives." The "Chemical Instantaneous Initiator" is made from a sugar-chlorate mix and is effective in sabotaging trains. The "Martini Glass Shaped Charge" is a bomb that also can be made out of a beer can. You might want to try to construct the "Vehicle Booby Trap." The "Potassium Chlorate and Sugar Igniter" and the "Sawdust, Moth Flakes, and Oil Incendiary" can be made with only what you see in their titles. For these and more than fifty other CIA devices, step-by-step instructions on how to make them and illustrations of what they should look like when completed are given. Turn a wine bottle into a bomb. Build a land-mine rocket. Manufacture napalm in your basement. Even the simple how-tos of causing a dust explosion can be found in "CIA Improvised Sabotage Devices." Why is the CIA so deeply involved in sabotage techniques? The CIA might think it is in this country's interest to delay scientific work being done by another nation. Or, the CIA might want to disrupt a nation's economy in the hope that the resulting chaos will lead to civil unrest and the overthrow of the existing government (some of this actually happened in Chile). The original John Rockefeller used such tactics against his competitors. He simply had their refineries blown up. Another pamphlet the CIA would not like you to see is titled "How to Kill," written by John Minnery, edited by Robert Brown and Peder Lund, and published by Paladin Press, Box 1307, Boulder, Colorado 80306. The reason the CIA would prefer that you not see

Paladin Press doesn't want you to know that." "Why not? You're a publisher." "Were you CIA?" "I was MACV [Military Armed Forces Command Vietnam]." Lund said. involved in CIA mercenary activity in Africa?" "I don't know anything about that.5 this eighty-eight-page pamphlet. which published a book called "OSS Sabotage and Demolition Manual." "Wasn't that a murder operation?" "No. they're a good group." "That's my problem." "Have you ever heard of Desert Publications?" I asked. Paladin Press. "If they recommend you. aren't you?" "We're afraid our publications might fall into the wrong hands. but how else could they have published the "OSS Sabotage and Demolition Manual?" The Office of Strategic Services was the precursor of today's CIA. "They don't seem to have a phone number. I'll send you our material. and Desert Publications besides. at the least." Lund said. which is unavailable at bookstores and newsstands. "if your organization." I said. You must publish books." is widely regarded by journalists as an organization with close ties to mercenary groups and the CIA. Can I order them?" "No." "What are the right hands?" I asked. This writer's call to Colorado yielded the following conversation: "How could you publish the "OSS Sabotage and Demolition Manual." "Well." The Phoenix Program was designed for a job that the CIA euphemistically described as "eliminating the Viet Cong ." "Were you in the Special Forces?" "July 1967 to July 1968 in Vietnam. Also." "What do you say?" "We did joint operations with CIA on the Phoenix Program." I said. "You're called the Paladin Press." "Listen. "A fine outfit. It was snatching people." "You weren't affiliated with CIA?" "I didn't say that. was not dealing with former OSS agents? And what about "How to Kill?" "I don't talk to journalists. editor and publisher of Paladin Press. is because it contains a number of "ingenious" methods of doing what the title says. "wasn't your group." I asked Peter Lund. "I don't talk to journalists.

as proved by every realistic report. it was a rampant reign of terror run out of CIA headquarters at Langley. and its enamel shell would allow it to penetrate into the brain. the weapon is an electrified grid in the urinal basin." In reality. The program killed--and *none* of these killings occurred in combat--18. The drain cover is . or a metal grill. charged grid. the . Virginia. The intention here is also to hide the cause of death because the examiner in his search for a projectile will disregard bone fragments. "a specially loaded bullet made from a human tooth (bicuspid) could be fired under the jaw or through the mouth into the head. screen must be added by the assassin." This reporter's investigation revealed that the "Hot Wire" was child's play compared to certain other CIA weapons devices. how to construct a nail grenade. and the shock will kill him. horrific techniques of causing people to die." One last example from "How to Kill" should give you the flavor of the book: Lesson Nine: Hot Wire "Essentially. makes contact with the . I was able to obtain Volumes One and Two of the "CIA Black Book" on improvised munitions. ranging from the Bertrand Russell Tribunal to the Dellums Committee to admissions by CIA agents themselves. "What happens when the subject uses the urinal should be obvious now. For instance. Described in detail in the "Black Book" is the previously . they describe how to make high explosives from aspirin. But what about Peder Lund. connected to the electrical system of the washroom by means of . volumes that are stamped "for official use only" on almost every page.6 infrastructure. the author of "How to Kill" as he proceeded to just that. and how to turn a Coke bottle into a bomb. This can take the form of a screen cover for the drain ." wrote John Minnery. The subject's urine. "How to Kill. It is obvious why the CIA would like these books to remain secret. If the urinal is completely porcelain.000 people." outlined a surfeit of murder methods. With elaborate instructions." The Phoenix Program was a naked murder campaign. The tooth is a very hard bone. Former CIA director William Colby later termed the program "effective. For example: "Without getting too deeply into the realm of the bizarre. an insulated cord that is hidden behind the plumbing. a perfect conductor of electricity. which is a salty liquid and . editor and publisher of Paladin Press? The book he edited and published. mostly women and children.

killing has to be done at close range. Thus. The blood arrester is a cloth wrapped near the tip of the ice pick. A disadvantage to this method is that the snake might bite an innocent third party who just happens to open the package. `sanitized' and perfect for assassinations. in effect. and mix it with the nitric acid. Another hard-to-trace method of killing is to mail a snake to the victim. or. The pamphlet "How to Kill" explained it all: "As most of these devices are homemade. It would be unacceptable for Castro's murder to be laid at the door of the CIA. The advantage is that once the snake has struck. like the injection of an air bubble into the bloodstream. Also described in the "Black Book" is how to construct a pipe pistol. They are.7 mentioned urea nitrate explosive. A number of attempts have been made on Fidel Castro's life--some with the CIA and the Mafia cooperating--and some of them may have failed because of restrictions imposed on the potential assassins. where weapons are prohibited. In its own way. which." Being a contract killer for the CIA is not all roses." Instructions for the preparation of this weapon assure the maker that animal urine will do as well as human. a valuable weapon is the ice pick with a blood arrester attached. This would make Castro a martyr in the eyes of his countrymen. or where customs in the hostile country are stringent. "the piss bomb. this precludes the possibility of their being traced. is a gun constructed out of a pipe. a method that would suggest death by natural causes must be found. so these can be made from local materials. as it is known to the pros. the whole thing is perfectly logical. Jack Ruby. Sometimes. Some methods of killing. the evidence can simply slither away. a throat cutter gauntlet knife (razor sharp and only an inch or so in length). the important thing is to have ten cups of it. George De Mohrenschildt. a cyanide gas pistol. When the pick is shoved into the . You cannot kill in just any way. as the CIA knows. as the name indicates. will often go unnoticed by medical examiners. This is known as killing by long distance. Other weapons include a cooking syringe filled with poison that can be stabbed into "the subject's" stomach. and other potential witnesses into the assassination of John Kennedy. boil it down to one cup. and a mixture of fertilizer and aluminum powder that can be made into a powerful bomb. Why build murder weapons out of such weird material? Is the CIA insane? No. For this purpose. Abundant speculation and considerable evidence suggest that the CIA or some other government agency arranged for the "natural" deaths of David Ferrie.

8 victim. double the O. ethyl mercury. rifles. radiator cleaner." W. an early researcher into the uses of LSD. not as a weapon.000 doses in a gram. People who see the victim fall will probably think he has had a heart attack. "Operation Mind Control" described the CIA's use of drugs: "In 1953. the assassin uses this valuable ten or fifteen seconds to escape unnoticed. through the CIA. employed germ warfare during the Korean War.S. In any case. the spurting blood is absorbed by the blood arrester. considerable evidence exists that the United States. "named names. The CIA obviously intended to `corner the market' on LSD so that other countries would not be ahead of the U. A Marine Corps colonel named Frank H. also causing a delayed death.D. Finally. Schwable signed a germ warfare confession and. Here is a partial list of the poisons the CIA has become expert at administering: oil of bitter almonds. cited missions. and it destroyed the rice crop. affecting not only enemies of the United States. heated by a flame. as well. These poisons and many others are listed in "How to Kill. but their testimony was dismissed as brainwashing. if possible. Use common sense in the application of these potions and. It was used with considerable success in Vietnam. necessary.'" Dr. It slowed troop movements with heavy rains. Poison is a quiet killer. cadmium." Perhaps the most frightening weapon of all is the one that can be used to alter weather and climate. the research should be done by medical people and not by soldiers or intelligence agencies. While the onlookers try to help the victim. that meant the CIA wanted 100 million doses. ant paste. used in vapor form. Cantharides (Spanish Fly). but also the entire planet. Often it is advisable to use what is called in the trade a "quiet weapon. was horrified by what the CIA was doing: "I had perfected LSD for medical use. Bowart. It can make you insane or even kill you if it is not properly used under medical supervision. the CIA made plans to purchase ten kilograms of LSD for use in `drug experiments with animals and human beings. Albert Hoffman.H. in his book.' Since there are more than 10. and death is delayed four hours. and freon.H. A number of captured pilots testified that germ warfare was used. or taken orally by him by adding it to his food. in their potential for `LSD warfare." Silenced weapons can include pistols. Bowart. The danger is that these climatological changes may become permanent. according to W." The author then cautions the reader: "Unless otherwise stated. and even machine guns. these poisons are either to be injected into the subject. .

who can say it is not necessary? One danger. Everyone involved must be physically and mentally alert. What you have read on these pages is pretty revolting stuff. 4. 6. Identify the mode of transportation. when men are trained to kill in every conceivable way. 7." Schwable later repudiated his confession. A. Identify the subject. is that these terrible weapons have been introduced into our body politic and have produced strange and terrible fruits on our own native soil. local police. Start the bag job . 2. incidentally. aware of their surroundings. The United States. Perform a trial run. No bag job should start or continue if any member of the team is out of radio contact. 5.C. of course. and a team player. A bag job is a tremendous strain on the nerves. When assassination becomes government policy. Determine target's place of employment and type of employment. maids. must be in radio contact with one another or in contact with a reasonable relay. D. Identify the landlord if the residence is not a privately owned home or condominium." can even the President of the United States consider himself safe? The Logistics of a Black Bag Job by Wes Swearingen. bad judgment... may have neutralized may have neutralized one of your teammates and may monitor your movements by radio. Emotions can run high in . There is no room for error. such as another member of the organization under investigation. (A locked door should never be taped open as was done by the infamously incompetent Watergate burglars during the break-in in 1972 at Democratic Party headquarters in Washington. FBI Whistleblower 1. or a thief. Yet. Identify other residents of the household. A hostile force. A successfully planned and executed bag job will never give you any surprises that you cannot handle. Determine whether target has any other visitors in the residence such as relatives. if the world ought to be saved from Communism. when morality is set aside for a "higher good. etc. or heroes. The successful execution of a bag job depends upon everyone doing their job correctly. and a number of countries believed them. 8. was later charged with using nerve gas in Vietnam. 3.9 described meetings and strategy conferences. All members of the surveillance team. regardless of their position. But the charges of germ warfare were taken up in front of the United Nations. attentive and aggressive.

10 these tense situations. The inside team will announce to the outside person some description of the events taking place inside. The surveillance team will follow the subject and any members of the residence. F. and have confidence that the others can do likewise. and there are no apparent obstacles. the inside person may announce that the game is being called for lack of . C. this could be the front door. When the "ball players" are ready to begin the "game. then the plan is ready for a trial run. or other similar portable equipment with a retail price of around $300." E. no less than two surveillance agents should be used per person." those agents designated to telephone the residence of any neighbors in a position to observe the front should place their calls at a precise moment as instructed by the "outside man. back door. The "outside man" or "lookout" will call the "inside team" into position and will alert the various surveillance agents that the "ball players" are approaching the field. The "pickup man" will deliver the inside team to the front door or to the most suitable location to avoid attention.The trial run will consist of an immediate search of all rooms for friends. If no alarms are noted. For example. The "inside team" approaches and examines the entrance for obvious alarm systems. D. unless school children are involved. physically. Once all members of the residence have been surveilled away from the residence or accounted for in another location." H. in which case one agent per child will suffice. Radio transmissions can be received by anyone with the proper equipment. The radio person of the inside team will immediately announce to the outside person that "the players are on the field. In the case of very young children. Depending upon the persons to be followed. a nearby alley. housekeepers. B. The inside team is dropped off and the "pickup man" departs the immediate area to stand by for further instructions through the outside person or lookout. such as a 200-channel scanning radio. or anyone associated with the subject to be sure the "field" is clear. relatives. it is sometimes advisable to have two agents so as to avoid the appearance of being a child molester. G. or a parking garage. and emotionally. and each member of the team must be able to control himself mentally. so communications must be innocuous. the inside team will make the surreptitious entry into the residence or office. The inside team on the trial run will consist of the lock picker and one radio person. if a quick observation reveals no information available for future bag jobs.

" . If the surveillance team does not find out what happened until the end of the day or the next day. they will announce the completion by saying something like. morale will suffer and future bag jobs may be compromised because the surveillance team will feel they are not qualified to be kept informed of current events.. If prospects look good." this alerts the inside team that a regular bag job of one or two hours can be handled by the surveillance team with no problem." It is important to keep the surveillance agents advised of events as they happen so they feel they are part of the action. the photographer may be called in through some phrase such as "Send in the press photographer. that is. we may need photographs for a starting line-up for future games. etc. the bag job can be done with one quick photographic session. "Head for the barn. have the pickup man ready to transport the players back home. Once an examination of the inside layout is clearly in mind and notes have been taken on placement of various articles on the desk. "Weather permitting. "The game is in the bottom of the ninth with two men out and the count is two and two. I. the inside person will ask the outside person to check with the other players to see if three or four innings can be played. A Polaroid camera is ideal for this purpose." The outside person may then relay the message to all surveillance units that they may. the outside personannounce something like. in file cabinets. the relief pitchers can go a full nine innings. If the surveillance team has everyone under control. When the inside team is through.11 interest in today's game or poor attendance. the ball game can be played. A progress report from the inside should be given to the outside person every few minutes. Photographs may be needed to rearrange articles after completion of the bag job depending upon the inside condition and the number of records to be examined. If the situation is such that a quick "game" can be played.

Although you will be busy during the forthcoming weeks learning your job. meeting co-workers. INTRODUCTION In joining NSA you have been given an opportunity to participate in the activities of one of the most important intelligence organizations of the United States Government. The program is designed to develop an appreciation of the need to protect information vital to the national defense. Since this information may be useful only if it is kept secret. and to foster the development of a level of awareness which will make security more than routine compliance with regulations. the information to which you will have access at NSA is without question critically important to the defense of the United States. At times.12 NSA Employee Manual SECURITY GUIDELINES This handbook is designed to introduce you to some of the basic security principles and procedures with which all NSA employees must comply. and becoming accustomed to a new work environment. you are urged to become familiar with the security information contained in this handbook. security practices and procedures cause personal inconvenience. extends beyond these regulations. The total NSA Security Program. At the same time. It is based upon the concept that security begins as a state of mind. While it is impossible to estimate in actual dollars and cents the value of the work being conducted by this Agency. you have also assumed a trust which carries with it a most important individual responsibility—the safeguarding of sensitive information vital to the security of our nation. and provides guidelines for answering questions you may be asked concerning your association with this Agency. Please note that a listing of telephone numbers is provided at the end of this handbook should you have any questions or concerns. it requires a very special measure of protection. The specific nature of this protection is set forth in various Agency security regulations and directives. It highlights some of your security responsibilities. however. They take time and effort and on occasion may make it necessary for you to voluntarily forego some of your usual personal .

and its success depends on the cooperation of all Agency personnel. “NSA. If you are employed as a linguist. NSA personnel are also cautioned neither to confirm nor deny any specific questions about NSA activities directed to them by individuals not affiliated with the Agency.13 prerogatives. The ramifications of the practice of anonymity are rather far reaching. Described below you will find some examples of situations that you may encounter concerning your employment and how you should cope with them. If you are employed as a secretary. and organization. However. as that would only succeed in drawing more attention to yourself. “What do you do?” It is a good idea to anticipate this question and to formulate an appropriate answer. activities. Basically. or in a clerical. In an open society such as ours. Do not act mysteriously about your employment. engineer. you may reply. if necessary. Beyond the situations cited. you may tell your family and friends that you are employed at or assigned to the National Security Agency.” When you inform someone that you work for NSA (or the Department of Defense) you may expect that the next question will be. But your compensation for the inconvenience is the knowledge that the work you are accomplishing at NSA. you may not disclose to them any information concerning specific aspects of the Agency’s mission. the Agency mission is best accomplished apart from public attention. this practice is necessary because information which is generally available to the public is available also to hostile intelligence. ANSWERING QUESTIONS ABOUT YOUR EMPLOYMENT Certainly. or other capacity identifiable by a general title which in no way indicates how your talents are being applied to the mission of the Agency. There is no valid reason to deny them this information. it is suggested that you state this general title. Therefore. You should also ask them not to publicize your association with NSA. Philip T. anonymity means that NSA personnel are encouraged not to draw attention to themselves nor to their association with this Agency. computer scientist. an appropriate reply would be that you work for the Department of Defense. I extend to you my very best wishes as you enter upon your chosen career or assignment with NSA. Pease Director of Security INITIAL SECURITY RESPONSIBILITIES ANONYMITY Perhaps one of the first security practices with which new NSA personnel should become acquainted is the practice of anonymity. within a framework of sound security practices. you may say that you are a linguist. contributes significantly to the defense and continued security of the United States of America. administrative. Should strangers or casual acquaintances question you about your place of employment. If questioned further as to where you are employed within the Department of Defense. However. your judgement and discretion will become the deciding factors in how you respond to questions about your employment. you should not indicate the specific language(s) . technical.

” You may not. however. you may be required to submit a resume/job application. Fort George G. You Should not draw undue attention to your language abilities. Remember. or to participate in extensive employment interviews. In such situations you may state. instruct them to request such information by correspondence addressed to: Director of Civilian Personnel. If your training at the Agency includes language training. In such circumstances. your obligation to protect sensitive Agency information extends beyond your employment at NSA. and you may not discuss how you apply your language skill at the Agency. Maryland 20755. . would likely generate further questions which may touch upon the classified aspects of your work. However. the nature of this training may not be discussed with persons outside of this Agency.6000. if you are a civilian employee. you must report (in advance) the anticipated part-time work through your Staff Security Officer (SSO) to the Office of Security’s Clearance Division (M55). Military personnel should use their support group designator and address when indicating their current assignment. Therefore. in conversation with outsiders. If you contemplate leaving NSA for employment elsewhere. These professional titles. VERIFYING YOUR EMPLOYMENT On occasion. Should you leave the Agency before preparing such a resume. The use of service specialty titles which tend to suggest or reveal the nature of the Agency’s mission or specific aspects of their work. For example. personnel must provide information concerning their employment to credit institutions in connection with various types of applications for credit. In many instances the nature of the training is not classified. it is suggested that such job titles be generalized. you should have your resume reviewed by the Classification Advisory Officer (CAO) assigned to your organization. you may develop one and send it by registered mail to the NSA/CSS Information Policy Division (Q43) for review. in some situations the specialized training you receive will relate directly to sensitive Agency functions. Once again. discuss the specific nature of your analytic work. you might indicate that you are a “research analyst. If you are considering part-time employment which requires the use of language or technical skills similar to those required for the performance of your NSA assigned duties. there is a good chance that you will receive some type of job-related training. generalize your job title. and intelligence research analyst. Meade. such as cryptanalyst. your explanation for the source of your linguistic knowledge should be that you obtained it while working for the Department of Defense. National Security Agency. signals collection officer. that you are employed by NSA and indicate your pay grade or salary. In such cases. if given verbatim to an outsider. Your CAO will ensure that any classified operational details of your duties have been excluded and will provide you with an unclassified job description. ANSWERING QUESTIONS ABOUT YOUR AGENCY TRAINING During your career or assignment at NSA.14 with which you are involved. If any further information is desired by persons or firms with whom you may be dealing.

This office serves at the Agency’s official media center and is the Director’s liaison office for public relations. The Agency does not normally make a practice of issuing public statements about its activities.” You should the notify Q43 of the attempted inquiry. If you are asked about the activities of NSA. rank. There should be no doubt in your mind about the reality of the threats. The NSA Classification Manual should be used as guidance in determining proper classification. or its allies must be promptly reported by you to the Office of Security. the best response is “no comment. The Information Policy Division must approve the release of all information for and about NSA. No person is entitled to classified information solely by virtue of office. contact the Classification Advisory Officer (CAO) assigned to your organization. its mission. equipment. books. The “need-to know” policy means that classified information will be disseminated only to those individuals who. or security clearance. in addition to possessing a proper clearance. have a requirement to know this information in order to perform their official duties (need-to-know). or potential for. communications. Secret and Top Secret. magazines. If after review of this document you need assistance. (This includes any handwritten notes which contain classified information). . public references to NSA are based upon educated guesses. proper caveat notations are assigned to such material. or documents within the Agency are responsible for ensuring that the proper classification. NSA personnel must refrain from either confirming or denying any information concerning the Agency or its activities which may appear in the public media. NEED-TO-KNOW Classified information is disseminated only on a strict “need-to-know” basis. Any information that comes to your attention that suggests to you the existence of. facilities and people. activities. You are now affiliated with the most sensitive agency in government and are expected to exercise vigilance and common sense to protect NSA against these threats. when appropriate. GENERAL RESPONSIBILITIES ESPIONAGE AND TERRORISM During your security indoctrination and throughout your NSA career you will become increasingly aware of the espionage and terrorist threat to the United States. In order to protect the aspects of Agency operations.S. downgrading information and. or the Information Policy Division (Q43). position. and personnel. Your vigilance is the best single defense in protecting NSA information. both in the community and with other government agencies. CLASSIFICATION Originators of correspondence. operations. For the most part. The three levels of classification are Confidential. espionage or terrorism against the U.15 THE AGENCY AND PUBLIC NEWS MEDIA From time to time you may find that the agency is the topic of reports or articles appearing in public news media—newspapers. The NSA/CSS Information Policy Division (Q43) represents the Agency in matters involving the press and other media. radio and TV.

PREPUBLICATION REVIEW All NSA personnel (employees. NSA-derived. retire. remember that is does contain “FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY” information which should be protected. or activities of NSA. you must submit this type of material for prepublication review. or public statements that may contain classified. Like most people. Determination of “needtoknow” is a supervisory responsibility. Even when you resign. or otherwise end your affiliation with NSA. books. PERSONNEL SECURITY RESPONSIBILITIES Perhaps you an recall your initial impression upon entering an NSA facility. functions. concrete barriers. is exempt from the requirement for public disclosure of information concerning government activities and which.g. they represent only a portion of the overall Agency security program.” Appropriate administrative action will be taken to determine responsibility and to apply corrective and/or disciplinary measures in cases of unauthorized disclosure of information which bears the “FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY” caveat. FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY Separate from classified information is information or material marked “FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY” (such as this handbook). The unauthorized disclosure of information marked “FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY” does not constitute an unauthorized disclosure of classified defense information. The recipient must be advised that the information or material is not to be disclosed to the general public. should not be given general circulation. contact the Information Policy Division (Q43) for an explanation of prepublication review procedures. This designation is used to identify that official information or material which. you probably noticed the elaborate physical security safeguards—fences. . military assignees.. This means that if there is any doubt in your mind as to an individual’s “need-to-know. Department of Defense and NSA regulations prohibit the unauthorized disclosure of information designated “FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY. In fact. for a significant reason.” you should always check with your supervisor before releasing any classified material under your control. While you may take this handbook home for further study. speeches. mission. Reasonable care must be exercised in limiting the dissemination of “FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY” information. and contractors) must submit for review any planned articles. Each holder of “FOR OFFICAL USE ONLY” (FOUO) information or material is authorized to disclose such information or material to persons in other departments or agencies of the Executive and Judicial branches when it is determined that the information or material is required to carry our a government function. etc. Material which bears the “FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY” caveat does not come under the regulations governing the protection of classified information. although unclassified. classifiable. Your obligation to protect this sensitive information is a lifetime one. e. information relating to the organization. resumes. or unclassified protected information. identification badges.16 All NSA personnel have the responsibility to assert the “need-to-know” policy as part of their responsibility to protect sensitive information. For additional details. However. Security Protective Officers. While these measures provide a substantial degree of protection for the information housed within our buildings.

the Agency has an extensive personnel security program which establishes internal policies and guidelines governing employee conduct and activities. any intent to cohabitate with or marry a non-U.17 vast amounts of information leave our facilities daily in the minds of NSA personnel. Accordingly. you should be careful not to allow these associations to become close . In particular. all of which are designed to protect both you and the sensitive information you will gain through your work at NSA. Additionally. (Individuals designated as Staff Security Officers are assigned to every organization. A policy concerning association with foreign nationals has been established by the Agency to minimize the likelihood that its personnel might become subject to undue influence or duress or targets of hostile activities through foreign relationships. no matter how brief or seemingly innocuous. must be reported as soon as possible to your Staff Security Officer (SSO). future reassignments both at headquarters and overseas may be affected. a waiver must be granted in advance of a marriage to or cohabitation with a foreign national in order to retain one’s access to NSA information. siblings. a listing of Staff Security Officers can be found at the back of this handbook). Intelligence Community and by virtue of your access to sensitive information. citizens which are characterized by ties of kinship. The marriage or intended marriage of an immediate family member (parents. Experience has indicated that because of the vital information we work with at NSA. or affection are prohibited. or other countries which pose a significant threat to the security of the United States and its interests.S.S. Accordingly. you are a potential target for hostile intelligence activities carried out by or on behalf of citizens of foreign countries. Any contact with citizens of these countries. Naturally. you are prohibited from initiating or maintaining associations (regardless of the nature and degree) with citizens or officials of communist-controlled. close and continuing associations with any non-U. If a waiver is granted. A waiver to this policy may be granted only under the most exceptional circumstances when there is a truly compelling need for an individual’s services or skills and the security risk is negligible. A comprehensive list of these designated countries is available from your Staff Security Officer or the Security Awareness Division. your affiliation with the Agency and the nature of your work should not be discussed. children) to a foreign national must also be reported through your SSO to the Clearance Division (M55). These policies cover a variety of topics. ASSOCIATION WITH FOREIGN NATIONALS As a member of the U. During the course of these casual social associations. Do not act mysteriously or draw attention to yourself (and possibly to NSA) by displaying an unusually wary attitude. Special safeguards are therefore necessary to protect our personnel. and this is where our greatest vulnerability lies. Casual social associations with foreign nationals (other than those of the designated countries mentioned above) which arise from normal living and working arrangements in the community usually do not have to be reported. you are encouraged to extend the usual social amenities. citizen must be reported immediately to your Staff Security Officer. obligation. Agency personnel may become potential targets for hostile intelligence efforts. Again.S. As an NSA affiliate.

This form provides space . your immediate supervisor and the Security Awareness Division (M56). you should report this to your Staff Security Officer immediately. UNOFFICIAL FOREIGN TRAVEL In order to further protect sensitive information from possible compromise resulting from terrorism. In this way. you should report that through your Staff Security Officer to the Clearance Division (M55). Therefore. the Agency has established certain policies and procedures concerning unofficial foreign travel. including the “penpal” variety. consulates or other official establishments of a foreign government. If at any time you feel that a “casual” association is in any way suspicious. this correspondence should escalate in its frequency or nature. Whenever any doubt exists as to whether or not a situation should be reported or made a matter of record. you must consult with. military assignees. must be judged on the circumstances involved. you should decided in favor of reporting it. If. if you plan to visit a foreign embassy for any reason (even to obtain a visa). Correspondence with citizens of communist-controlled or other designated countries is prohibited. therefore. Your itinerary should be submitted on Form K2579 (Unofficial Foreign Travel Request). Agency policy discourages visits to embassies. “Operation of Amateur Radio Stations” (23 October 1986). and obtain the prior approval of. AMATEUR RADIO ACTIVITIES Amateur radio (ham radio) activities are known to be exploited by hostile intelligence services to identify individuals with access to classified information. interrogation or capture of Agency personnel by hostile nations and/or terrorist groups. Casual social correspondence. however.. CORRESPONDENCE WITH FOREIGN NATIONALS NSA personnel are discouraged from initiating correspondence with individuals who are citizens of foreign countries. or affection. consulates. All Agency personnel (civilian employees. Each case. coercion. and contractors) who are planning unofficial foreign travel must have that travel approved by submitting a proposed itinerary to the Security Awareness Division (M56) at least 30 working days prior to their planned departure from the United States.18 and continuing to the extent that they are characterized by ties of kinship. If you are an amateur radio operator you should advise the Security Awareness Division (M56) of your amateur radio activities so that detailed guidance may be furnished to you. the situation can be evaluated on its own merits. obligation. however. and you can be advised as to your future course of action. etc. all licensed operators are expected to be familiar with NSA/CSS Regulation 100-1. with other foreign acquaintances is acceptable and need not be reported. EMBASSY VISITS Since a significant percentage of all espionage activity is known to be conducted through foreign embassies. The specific limitations on contacts with operators from communist and designated countries are of particular importance.

From time to time. the Bahamas. however. the Office of Security needs the opportunity to research the organization and to assess any possible risk to you and the information to which you have access. from a personal safety and/or counterintelligence standpoint. and dates of departure and return. and a decision for approval or disapproval will be based on this assessment. or projects of which you may have knowledge due to your current assignment. “Security Requirements for Foreign Travel” (12 June 1987). While you do not have to report your foreign travel once you have ended your affiliation with the Agency. participate in bona fide public affairs such as local politics. travel to communist-controlled and other hazardous activity areas is prohibited. however. The requirement to protect the classified information to which you have had access is a lifetime obligation. mode of travel. While you may certainly participate in the activities of any reputable organization. Questions regarding which areas of the world currently pose a threat should be directed to the Security Awareness Division (M56). A listing of these hazardous activity areas can be found in Annex A of NSA/CSS Regulation No.19 for noting the countries to be visited. Bermuda. Your immediate supervisor must sign this form to indicate whether or not your proposed travel poses a risk to the sensitive information. Unofficial foreign travel to Canada. so it is important to obtain approval prior to committing yourself financially. criminal activity or insurgency poses an unacceptable risk to Agency employees and to the sensitive information they possess. After your supervisor’s assessment is made. travel may also be prohibited to certain areas where the threat from hostile intelligence services. and Mexico does not require prior approval. Additional information may be obtained from your Personnel Representative. NSA employees may. In this context. . However. you should be aware that the risk incurred in travelling to certain areas. A listing of these hazardous activity areas is prohibited. this form should be forwarded to the Security Awareness Director (M56). membership in any international club or professional organization/activity with foreign members should be reported through your Staff Security Officer to the Clearance Division (M55). Travel to these areas may be reported after the fact. The purpose of this policy is to limit the risk of travel to areas of the world where a threat may exist to you and to your knowledge of classified Agency activities. this travel must still be reported using Form K2579. Your itinerary will then be reviewed in light of the existing situation in the country or countries to be visited. 30-31. activities. remains high. Advance travel deposits made without prior agency approval of the proposed travel may result in financial losses by the employee should the travel be disapproved. MEMBERSHIP IN ORGANIZATIONS Within the United States there are numerous organizations with memberships ranging from a few to tens of thousands. so long as such activities do not violate the provisions of the statutes and regulations which govern the political activities of all federal employees. In most cases there are no security concerns or threats to our employees or affiliates. In addition to exercising prudence in your choice of organizational affiliations. you should endeavor to avoid participation in public activities of a conspicuously controversial nature because such activities could focus undesirable attention upon you and the Agency. terrorism.

or legal name changes. hashish. identification badges. Every person who enters an NSA installation is required to wear an . depressants. THE NSA BADGE Even before you enter an NSA facility. and every person employed by. cocaine. assign. properly using the secure and non-secure telephone systems. and may lead to criminal prosecution. and hashish oil). concrete barriers. and placing classified waste in burn bags.” limiting classified conversations to approved areas. as amended. This program is concerned not only with the Agency’s physical plant and facilities. or detailed to the Agency. the total combination of all these safeguards represents a formidable barrier against physical penetration of NSA. The term “drugs” includes all controlled drugs or substances identified and listed in the Controlled Substances Act of 1970. and the compartmentalization of physical spaces.20 CHANGES IN MARITAL STATUS/COHABITATION/NAMES All personnel. fences. Working together with personnel security policies. which includes but is not limited to: narcotics. determining “need-toknow. correctly wrapping and packaging classified data for transmittal. The use of illegal drugs or the abuse of prescription drugs by persons employed by. following established locking and checking procedures.” The physical security program depends on interlocking procedures. Such changes should be reported by completing NSA Form G1982 (Report of Marriage/Marital Status Change/Name Change). access control points. cohabitation arrangements. physical security safeguards include Security Protective Officers. USE AND ABUSE OF DRUGS It is the policy of the National Security Agency to prevent and eliminate the improper use of drugs by Agency employees and other personnel associated with the Agency. but also with the internal and external procedures for safeguarding the Agency’s classified material and activities. Such use of drugs either within or outside Agency controlled facilities is prohibited. assigned or detailed to the Agency may adversely affect the national security. stimulants. either employed by or assigned to NSA. safes. they provide “security in depth. you have a constant reminder of security— the NSA badge. may have a serious damaging effect on the safety and the safety of others. must advise the Office of Security of any changes in their marital status (either marriage or divorce). PHYSICAL SECURITY POLICIES The physical security program at NSA provides protection for classified material and operations and ensures that only persons authorized access to the Agency’s spaces and classified material are permitted such access. While any one of these safeguards represents only a delay factor against attempts to gain unauthorized access to NSA spaces and material. and following the instructions printed on the form. The responsibility for carrying out many of these procedures rests with the individual. must assume the responsibility for protecting classified material. Therefore. This means you. Included in your responsibilities are: challenging visitors in operational areas. hallucinogens ad cannabis (marijuana.

Red Clearance level is not specified. Blue Employees who are cleared to the SECRET level while awaiting completion of their processing for full (TS/SI) clearance. Should you lose your badge. thus avoiding publicizing your NSA affiliation. . Your badge is to be used as identification only within NSA facilities or other government installations where the NSA badge is recognized. the clip may be used to attach the badge to the wearer’s clothing. Your badge should be kept in a safe place which is convenient enough to ensure that you will be reminded to bring it with you to work. You should obtain a Department of Defense identification card from the Civilian Welfare Fund (CWF) if you need to identify yourself as a government employee when applying for “government discounts” offered at various commercial establishments. A good rule of thumb is to afford your badge the same protection you give your wallet or your credit cards. Orange (*) (or Gold) Fully cleared representative of other government agencies. or when passing an internal security checkpoint. your badge should be left at the main Visitor Control Center which services your facility. DO NOT write your Personal Identification Number on your badge. Your badge color indicates your particular affiliation with NSA and your level of clearance. remove your badge from public view. After you leave an NSA installation. For those Agency personnel working in proximity to other machinery or equipment. the badge should be held up for viewing by a Security Protective Officer. Black (*) Fully cleared contractors or consultants. These Limited Interim Clearance (LIC) employees are restricted to certain activities while inside a secure area. you must report the facts and circumstances immediately to the Security Operations Center (SOC) (963-3371s/688-6911b) so that your badge PIN can be deactivated in the Access Control Terminals. you may obtain a “non-retention” Temporary Badge at the main Visitor Control Center which serves your facility after a co-worker personally identifies your and your clearance has been verified. To enter most NSA facilities your badge must be inserted into an Access Control Terminal at a building entrance and you must enter your Personal Identification Number (PIN) on the terminal keyboard. In the absence of an Access Control Terminal. rubber tubing may be used to insulate the badge chain. If you plan to be away from the Agency for a period of more than 30 days. so assume the holder is uncleared.Fully cleared status means that the person has been cleared to the Top Secret (TS) level and indoctrinated for Special Intelligence (SI). If necessary for the safety of those working in the area of electrical equipment or machinery. Listed below are explanations of the badge colors you are most likely to see: Green (*) Fully cleared NSA employees and certain military assignees. Your badge should never be used outside of the NSA or other government facilities for the purpose of personal identification. In the event that you forget your badge when reporting for duty.21 authorized badge. * . but it must also remain attached to the chain. The badge must be displayed at all times while the individual remains within any NSA installation. NSA Badges must be clipped to a beaded neck chain.

certain items are prohibited under normal circumstances from being brought into or removed from any NSA installation. The corridor doors of these areas must be locked with a deadbolt and all classified information in the area must be properly secured after normal working hours or whenever the area is unoccupied. an all personnel within the areas must be made aware of the presence of uncleared individuals. All unknown. cafeterias. barber shop. consult the Physical Security Division (M51) or your staff Security Officer. These items have been groped into two general classes. magnetic tape. and drugstore. Deadbolt keys for doors to these areas must be returned to the key desk at the end of the workday. vu-graphs. The normal operational work spaces within an NSA facility are designated Secure Areas. Such items include carbon paper. there are certain types of items which must be treated as classified even though they may not contain classified information. Administrative and Secure. ITEMS TREATED AS CLASSIFIED For purposes of transportation. Classified information being transported within Agency facilities must be placed within envelopes. and used typewriter ribbons. These areas are approved for classified discussions and for the storage of classified material. This type of area would include the corridors. regardless of the visitors’ clearance level (as indicated by their badge color). Items in this category include: . PROHIBITED ITEMS Because of the potential security or safety hazards. visitor control areas. folders. credit union. Striped badges (“non-retention” badges) are generally issued to visitors and are returned to the Security Protective Officer upon departure from an NSA facility. storage and destruction. For further information regarding Secure Areas. the most sensitive material must be stored in the most secure containers. etc. and in which discussions of a classified nature are forbidden. restrooms.22 All badges with solid color backgrounds (permanent badges) are kept by individuals until their NSA employment or assignment ends. This special treatment is necessary since a visual examination does not readily reveal whether the items contain classified information. etc. Since uncleared. AREA CONTROL Within NSA installations there are generally two types of areas. computer floppy disks. or that materials are not inadvertently dropped enroute. punched paper tape. non-NSA personnel are often present in these areas. When storing classified material. Class I prohibited items are those which constitute a threat to the safety and security of NSA/CSS personnel and facilities. punched machine processing cards.) to enter Secure Areas. Escorts must be provided if it is necessary for uncleared personnel (repairmen. An Administrative Area is one in which storage of classified information is not authorized. briefcases. to ensure that its contents or classification markings are not disclosed to unauthorized persons. film. all Agency personnel must ensure that no classified information is discussed in an Administrative Area. unescorted visitors to Secure Areas should be immediately challenged by the personnel within the area.

Class II prohibited items are those owned by the government or contractors which constitute a threat to physical. you may realize that other seemingly innocuous items are also restricted and should not be brought into any NSA facility. slides. vu-graphs b. Contraband or other illegal substances d. it is conducted in your best interest. as well as being a sound security practice. notebooks. Pagers EXIT INSPECTION As you depart NSA facilities. It is limited to any articles that you are carrying out of the facility and may include letters. incendiary substances. or TEMPEST security. . Prescribed electronic medical equipment is normally not prohibited. Explosives. reproduction or recording devices. is designed to preclude the inadvertent removal of classified material. technical. REMOVAL OF MATERIAL FROM NSA SPACES The Agency maintains strict controls regarding the removal of material from its installations. highly volatile materials. Recording equipment and media c. These items include: a. Approval by designated organizational officials is required before these items can be brought into or removed from NSA facilities. Transmitting and receiving equipment b. you will note another physical security safeguard—the inspection of the materials you are carrying. particularly in the case of classified material. The inconvenience can be considerably reduced if you keep to a minimum the number of personal articles that you remove from the Agency. Telephone equipment and attachments d. Personally owned photographic or electronic equipment including microcomputers. Computing devices and terminals e. cassette tapes. magazines. Remote control devices for telephone answering machines d. conducted by Security Protective Officers. Although this practice may involve some inconvenience. This inspection of your materials. Photographic equipment and film A more detailed listing of examples of Prohibited Items may be obtained from your Staff Security Officer or the Physical Security Division (M51). Magnetic media such as floppy disks. others must be treated as restricted since a visual inspection does not readily reveal whether they are classified. and VCR videotapes c. radioactive materials. and other such items. televisions or radios. newspapers. Firearms and ammunition b. Examples are: a. Additionally. briefcases. Some of these items pose a technical threat. or other hazardous materials c. but requires coordination with the Physical Security Division (M51) prior to being brought into any NSA building. gym bags.23 a. Negatives from processed film.

are made available by the Physical Security Division (M51) only to those offices which have specific requirements justifying their use. or Class II prohibited items to secure locations within the local area. magnetic media. These badges. If you do not have access to a Courier Badge and you have not been issued an Annual Security Pass. information storage media. A Courier Badge authorizes the wearer. The issuing official must also contact the Security Operations Center (SOC) to obtain approval for the admission or removal of a Class I prohibited item. car pool. A Property Pass is also to be used when an individual is removing personal property which might be reasonably be mistaken for unclassified Government property. Your home. to transport classified material. you may obtain a One-Time Security Pass to remove classified materials/magnetic media or admit or remove prohibited items from an NSA installation. and public places are not authorized areas to conduct classified discussions—even if everyone involved in . for official purposes. the individual who is acting as the courier must ensure that the material receives adequate protection. and delivering the material to authorized persons only. Even more basic than these procedures is the individual security responsibility to confine classified conversations to secure areas. ensuring the presence of a second appropriately cleared person when necessary. keeping the material under constant control. Use of this pass does not preclude inspection of the item at the perimeter control point by the Security Protective Officer or Security professionals to ensure that the pass is being used correctly. a One-Time Property Pass is used.24 Only under a very limited and official circumstances classified material be removed from Agency spaces. Depending on the material and circumstances involved. there are several ways to accomplish this. Materials carried by an individual who displays this pass are subject to spot inspection by Security Protective Officers or other personnel from the Office of Security. or a prohibited or classified item. Protective measures must include double wrapping and packaging of classified information. This pass is surrendered to the Security Protective Officer at the post where the material is being removed. These passes may be obtained from designated personnel in your work element who have been given authority to issue them. contact the Security Awareness Division (M56) for your courier briefing. This type of pass (which is not a Security Pass) may be obtained from your element custodial property officer. which are strictly controlled. specific authorization is required to permit an individual to hand carry classified material out of an NSA building to another Secure Area. When deemed necessary. It is not permissible to use an Annual Security Pass for personal convenience to circumvent inspection of your personal property by perimeter Security Protective Officers. An Annual Security Pass may be issued to individuals whose official duties require that they transport printed classified materials. If you are designated as a courier outside the local area. When there is an official need to remove government property which is not magnetic media. or Class II prohibited items between NSA facilities. EXTERNAL PROTECTION OF CLASSIFIED INFORMATION On those occasions when an individual must personally transport classified material between locations outside of NSA facilities.

USE OF SECURE AND NON-SECURE TELEPHONES Two separate telephone systems have been installed in NSA facilities for use in the conduct of official Agency business: the secure telephone system (gray telephone) and the outside. or the discovery that classified information may be lost. The secure telephone system is authorized for discussion of classified information. If you have any questions or concerns regarding security at NSA or your individual security responsibilities.25 he discussion possesses a proper clearance and “need-to-know. There is a Staff Security Officer assigned to each organization. non secure telephone system (black telephone). Personnel receiving calls on the secure telephone may assume that the caller is authorized to use the system. The outside telephone system is only authorized for unclassified official Agency business calls. or the Security Operations Center (SOC). Additionally. In order to guard against the inadvertent transmission of classified information over a non-secure telephone. you should be aware that there are many resources available to assist you. Staff Security Officers are appointed to the designated Agency elements to assist these organizations in carrying out their security responsibilities. REPORTING LOSS OR DISCLOSURE OF CLASSIFIED INFORMATION The extraordinary sensitivity of the NSA mission requires the prompt reporting of any known. or is not being afforded proper protection. or possible unauthorized disclosure of classified information. However.” The possibility that a conversation could be overheard by unauthorized persons dictates the need to guard against classified discussions in non-secure areas. Staff Security Officers also provide guidance to and monitor . Do not attempt to use “double-talk” in order to discuss classified information over the non-secure telephone system. indirectly. or by suggestion in personal diaries. or memoirs. Classified information acquired during the course of your career or assignment to NSA may not be mentioned directly. Any information coming to your attention concerning the loss or unauthorized disclosure of classified information should be reported immediately to your supervisor. All NSA personnel must ensure that use of either telephone system does not jeopardize the security of classified information. HELPFUL INFORMATION SECURITY RESOURCES In the fulfillment of your security responsibilities. suspected. you should avoid using the non-secure telephone in the vicinity of a secure telephone which is also in use. your Staff Security Officer. The discussion of classified information is not permitted on this system. you must ensure that the caller has a “need-to-know” the information you will be discussing. your supervisor should be consulted. and individual using the black telephone in an area where classified activities are being conducted must caution other personnel in the area that the non-secure telephone is in use. Likewise. records. their phone numbers are listed at the back of this handbook.

there are a number of professional. Appointments can be obtained by contacting M7 directly. When an individual refers himself/herself. L monitors the proper addressing. The Industrial and Field Security Division (M52) is available to provide security guidance concerning NSA contractor and field site matters. and packaging of classified material being transmitted outside of NSA. Counseling interviews are conducted by the Office of Civilian Personnel (M3) with any civilian employee regarding both on and off-the-job problems. couriers. weekends. in addition to their operational duties within their respective elements. and if necessary. M3 is also available to assist all personnel with the personal problems seriously affecting themselves or members of their families. and issues property passes for the removal of unclassified property. The NSA Office of Medical Services (M7) has a staff of physicians. marking. special access. TDY/PCS. clinical psychologists and an alcoholism counselor. The SDO. maintains records pertaining to receipt and transmission of controlled mail. representing the Office of Security. SECURITY-RELATED SERVICES In addition to Office of Security resources. 7 days a week. security passes.26 the activities of Security Coordinators and Advisors (individuals who. and is also responsible for the movement and scheduling of material via NSA couriers and the Defense Courier Service (DCS). technical security. the Physical Security Division (M51) will offer you assistance in matters such as access control. However. and amateur radio activities. keep in mind that you may contact any individual or any division within the Office of Security directly. 963-3371(s). the information discussed in the counseling sessions is regarded as privileged medical information and is retained exclusively in M7 unless it pertains to the national security. combination locks. the SOC is the focal point for all security matters for all Agency personnel and facilities (to include Agency field sites and contractors). Within the Office of Security. The Installations and Logistics Organization (L) maintains the system for the collection and destruction of classified waste. After normal business hours. keys. . identification badges. Counseling services. provides a complete range of security services to include direct communications with fire and rescue personnel for all Agency area facilities. The SOC is located in Room 2A0120. and the Security Protective Force. Do not hesitate to report any information which may affect the security of the Agency’s mission. clearance verification. All are well trained to help individuals help themselves in dealing with their problems. In cases of serious physical or emotional illness. information. facilities or personnel. are all available to NSA personnel. The Security Operations Center (SOC) is operated by two Security Duty Officers (SDOs). The Security Awareness Division (M56) provides security guidance and briefings regarding unofficial foreign travel. security related services available for assistance in answering your questions or providing the services which you require. assist element supervisors or managers in discharging security responsibilities). The SDO is available to handle any physical or personnel problems that may arise. OPS 2A building and the phone numbers are 688-6911(b). can direct your to the appropriate security office that can assist you. Additionally. and holidays. injury. with referrals to private mental health professionals when appropriate. 24 hours a day.

courier. etc. PCS. Security Week ham radio. TDY.) Foreign travel approval Military contractor orientation Special Access Office (963-5466s/688-6353b) M57 POLYGRAPH 982-7844s/859-6363b Polygraph interviews M509 MANAGEMENT AND POLICY STAFF 982-7885s/859-6350b STAFF SECURITY OFFICERS (SSOs) Element Room Secure/Non-Secure . keys. or other personal emergencies. GUIDE TO SECURITY M51 PHYSICAL SECURITY 963-6651s/688-8293b (FMHQ) 968-8101s/859-6411b (FANX) CONFIRM and badges Prohibited Items (963-6611s/688-7411b) Locks.27 hospitalization. special access. Security posters. brochures. etc. M3 informs concerned Agency elements and maintains liaison with family members in order to provide possible assistance. LIC. Similar counseling services are available to military assignees through Military Personnel (M2). safes and alarms SOC (963-3371s/688-6911b) Security/vehicle passes NSA facility protection and compliance Visitor Control Inspections Red/blue seal areas New Construction Pass Clearances (963-4780s/688-6759b) M52 INDUSTRIAL AND FIELD SECURITY 982-7918s/859-6255b Security at contractor field site facilities Verification of classified mailing addresses for contractor facilities M53 INVESTIGATIONS 982-7914S/859-6464B Personnel Interview Program (PIP) Reinvestigations Military Interview Program (MIP) Special investigations M54 COUNTERINTELLIGENCE 982-7832s/859-6424b Security counterintelligence analysis Security compromises M55 CLEARANCES 982-7900s/859-4747b Privacy Act Officer (For review of security files) Continued SCI access Contractor/applicant processing Military access M56 SECURITY AWARENESS 963-3273S/688-6535B Security indoctrinations/debriefings Embassy visits Associations with foreign nationals Briefings (foreign travel.

Film. Metal.28 A 2A0852B 963-4650/688-7044 B 3W099 963-4559/688-7141 D/Q/J/N/U 2B8066G 963-4496/688-6614 E/M D3B17 968-8050/859-6669 G 9A195 963-5033/688-7902 K 2B5136 963-1978/688-5052 L SAB4 977-7230/688-6194 P 2W091 963-5302/688-7303 R B6B710 968-4073/859-4736 S/V/Y/C/X C2A55 972-2144/688-7549 T 2B5040 963-4543/688-7364 W 1C181 963-5970/688-7061 GUIDE TO SECURITY-RELATED SERVICES Agency Anonymity 968-8251/859-4381 Alcohol Rehabilitation Program 963-5420/688-7312 Cipher Lock Repair 963-1221/688-7119 Courier Schedules (local) 977-7197/688-7403 Defense Courier Service 977-7117/688-7826 Disposal of Classified Waste Paper only 972-2150/688-6593 Plastics. etc 963-4103/688-7062 Locksmith 963-3585/688-7233 Mail Dissemination and Packaging 977-7117/688-7826 Medical Center (Fort Meade) 963-5429/688-7263 (FANX) 968-8960/859-6667 (Airport Square) 982-7800/859-6155 NSA/CSS Information Policy Division 963-5825/688-6527 Personnel Assistance Civilian 982-7835/859-6577 Air Force 963-3239/688-7980 Army 963-3739/688-6393 Navy 963-3439/688-7325 Property Passes (unclassified material) 977-7263/688-7800 Psychological Services 963-5429/688-7311 FREQUENTLY USED ACRONYMS/DESIGNATORS ARFCO S Armed Forces Courier Service (now known as DCS) AWOL Absent Without Leave CAO Classification Advisory Officer COB Close of Business CWF Civilian Welfare Fund DCS Defense Courier Service (formerly known as ARFCOS) DoD Department of Defense .

and whose death provides positive advantages to that organization. the decision to employ this technique must nearly always be reached in the field. No assassination instructions should ever be written or recorded. It should be assumed that it will never be ordered or authorized by any U. Headquarters. It is here used to describe the planned killing of a person who is not under the legal jurisdiction of the killer. This reticence is partly due to the necessity for committing communications to paper. and who has been sele cted by a resistance organization for death. a drug similar to marijuana. usually at the cost of their lives. though the latter may in rare instances agree to its execution by membe rs of an associated foreign service. who is not physically in the hands of the killer.S. who were assigned to carry out political and other murders. EMPLOYMENT Assassination is an extreme measure not normally used in clandestine operations. Decision and instructions . Consequently. at the area where the act will take place. said to have been used by Hasan-Dan-Sabah to induce motivation in his followers. who has been selected by a resistance organization for death.29 EOD Enter on Duty FOUO For Official Use Only M2 Office of Military Personnel M3 Office of Civilian Personnel M5 Office of Security M7 Office of Medical Services NCS National Cryptologic School PCS Permanent Change of Station PIN Personal Identification Number Q43 Information Policy Division SDO Security Duty Officer SOC Security Operations Center SPO Security Protective Officer SSO Staff Security Officer TDY Temporary Duty UFT Unofficial Foreign Travel A STUDY OF ASSASSINATION DEFINITION Assassination is a term thought to be derived from "Hashish".

only one person will be involved. If such concealment is desirable the operation will be called "secret" . guarded and open." Following these definitions. guarded and secret assassination. Ideally. Killing a political leader whose burgeoning career is a clear and present danger to the cause of freedom may be held necessary. or guarded. Chase assassinations usually involve clandestine agents or members of criminal organizations. They will also be affected by whether or not the assassin is to be killed with the subject hereafter. if concealment is immaterial. those where the victim is guarded will be termed "guarded. while that of Huey Long was lost. No report may be made. successful secret assassinations are not recorded as assassination at all. Persons who are morally squeamish should not attempt it. those where the subject is aware but unguarded will be termed "chase". Obviously. assassinations in which the subject is unaware will be termed "simple". rather than an accident or natural causes. But assassination can seldom be employed with a clear conscience.30 should be confined to an absolute minimum of persons. The assassin must not fall alive into enemy hands. Self-defense may be argued if the victim has knowledge which may destroy the resistance organization if divulged. JUSTIFICATION Murder is not morally justifiable. the assassination of Julius Caesar was safe. the act will be called "lost.. aware but unguarded. . [Illeg] o f Thailand and Augustus Caesar may have been the victims of safe. the act will be called "open". simple." It should be noted that no compromises should exist here. and terroristic. the adjective will be "safe. Assassination of persons responsible for atrocities or reprisals may be regarded as just puni shment. A further type division is caused by the need to conceal the fact that the subject was actually the victim of assassination." If the assassin is to die with the subject. while if the assassination requires publicity to be effective it will be termed "terroristic. CLASSIFICATIONS The techniques employed will vary according to whether the subject is unaware of his danger. whose output is available to all concerned." If the assassin is to escape. but usually the act will be pr operly covered by normal news services.

and revenge are about the only feasible motives. intelligent. When all necessary data has been collected. His safe evacuation after the act is absolutely essential. an effective tactical plan can be prepared. Since this requires advertising to be effective. courageous. it was unsound to depend on this when the act was p lanned. In lost assassination. He must not know the iden tities of the other members of the organization. It is preferable that the person issuing instructions also conduct any withdrawal or covering action which may be necessary. the resistance organization must be in a position to warn high officials publicly that their lives will be the price of rep risal action against innocent people. Since a fanatic is unstable psychologically. and physically active. He should have an absolute minimum of contact with the rest of the organization and his instructions should be given orally by one person only. Such plans must be modified frequently to meet changes in the tactical situation.31 THE ASSASSIN In safe assassinations. All planning must be mental. The spe cific technique . Such a threat is of no value unless it can be carried out. resourceful. In resistance situations. If special equipment is to be used. for although it is intended that he die in the act. PLANNING When the decision to assassinate has been reached. the assassin needs the usual qualities of a clandestine agent. no papers should ever contain evidence of the oper ation. While the Assassin of Trotsky has never revealed any significant information. TECHNIQUES The essential point of assassination is the death of the subject. so it may be necessary to plan the assassination of various responsible officers of the oppressive regime and hold such plans in readiness to be used only i f provoked by excessive brutality. He should be determined. based upon an estimate of the situation similar to that used in military operations. something may go wrong. assassination may be used as a counter-reprisal. religion. but here again contact should be as limited as possible. The preliminary estimate will reveal gaps in information and possibly indicate a need for special equipment which must be procured or constructed. it is clear that he must have outstanding skill with such equipment. such as firearms or drugs. Politics. the tactics of the operation must be planned. he must be handled with extreme care. the assassin must be a fanatic of some sort. A human being may be killed in many ways but sureness is often overlooked by those who may be emotionally unstrung by the seriousness of this act they intend to commit. Except in terroristic assassinations. it is desirable that the assassin be transient in the area.

If the assassin normally carries weapons because of the nature of his job. A hammer. All such improvised weapons have the important advantage of availability and apparent innocence. the assassin may accidentally be searched before the act and should not carry an incrimin ating device if any sort of lethal weapon can be improvised at or near the site. If the assassin immediately sets up an outcry. vigorous [excised] of the ankles. In chase cases it will usually be necessary to stun or drug the subject before dropping him. In simple cases a private meeting with the subject may be arranged at a properly-cased location. The obviously lethal machine gun failed to kill Trotsky where an item of sporting goods succeeded. A length of rope or wire or a belt will do if the assassin is strong and agile. stair wells. either before or after the act. 2. but very few are skillful enough to do it well. In all safe cases where the assassin may be subject to search. When successfully executed. either simple or chase. axe. the simplest local tools a re often much the most efficient means of assassination. tipping the subject over the edge. Accidents. in simple assassination. is a fall of 75 feet or more onto a hard surface. the contrived accident is the most effective technique. The attempt on Hitler's life failed because the conspiracy did not give this matter proper attention.32 employed will depend upon a large number of variables. fire poker. heavy and handy will suffice. but should be constant in one point: Death must be absolutely certain. Even in the lost case. wrench. The act may be executed by sudden. playing the "horrified wit ness". specialized weapons should not be used. unscreened windows and bridges will serve. It is possible to kill a man with the bare hands. Even a highly trained Judo expert will hesitate to risk killing by hand unless he has absolutely no alternative. Care is required to insure that no wound or condition not attributable to the fall is discernible after death. it causes little excitement and is only casually investigated. kitchen knife. . lamp stand. The most efficient accident. screw driver. it may still be desirable to improvise and implement at the scene to avoid disclosure of his ident ity. However. Bridge falls into water are not reliable. Techniques may be considered as follows: 1. or anything hard. no alibi or surreptitious withdrawal is necessary. Manual. Elevator shafts. For secret assassination.

If the assassin is trained as a doctor or nurse and the subject is under medical care. The size of the dose will depend upon whether the subject has been using narcotics regularly. If the subject drinks heavily. though the latte r case is more accurately described as a murder. very exact timing is necessary and investigation is likely to be thorough. morphine or a similar narcotic can be injected at the passing out stage. and accurate dosage is problematical. If not. reliability is very lo w. as he can thus be sure of the subject's death and at the same time establish a workable al ibi. Specific poisons. . Poison was used unsuccessfully in the assassination of Rasputin and Kolohan. drugs can be very effective. and the cause of death will often be held to be acute alcoholism. but require exact timing and can seldom be free from unexpected observation. If the subject's car is tampered with. If the subject is deliberately run down. Arson can cause accidental death if the subject is drugged and left in a burning building. alcohol may be used [2 words excised] to prepare him for a contrived accident of any kind. It will be more reliable if the assassin can arrange to attempt rescue. In all types of assassination except terroristic. two grains will suffice. such as arsenic or strychine. The subject may be stunned or drugged and then placed in the car. Edge Weapons Any locally obtained edge device may be successfully employed.33 Falls into the sea or swiftly flowing rivers may suffice if the subject cannot swim. Falls before trains or subway cars are usually effective. Automobile accidents are a less satisfactory means of assassination. this is an easy and rare method. 4. Reliability is not satisfactory unless the building is isolated and highly combustible. 3. are effective but their possession or procurement is incriminating. but this is only reliable when the car can be run off a high cliff or into deep water without observation. An overdose of morphine administered as a sedat ive will cause death without disturbance and is difficult to detect. Drugs. A certain minimum of anatomical knowledge is needed for reliability. If the subject's personal habits make it feasible.

Firearms Firearms are often used in assassination. Their main advantage is their universal availability. 5. rear portion of the skull. They are [illeg]. The lower frontal portion of the head. if the blow is very heavy. either of the above methods can be used to insure death. These cases usually involve distance between the assassin and the subject. If the subject has been rendered unconscious by other wounds or drugs. A hammer may be picked up almost anywhere in the world. from th e eyes to the throat. Of course. The assassin usually has insufficient technical knowledge of the limitations of weapons. . Blunt Weapons As with edge weapons. or comparative physical weakness of the assassin. They may be difficult to obtain. the area just below and behind the ear. Since certainty of death is the major requirement. and nothing resembling a weapon need be procured. but modern medical treatment has made this no longer true. Blows should be directed to the temple.34 Puncture wounds of the body cavity may not be reliable unless the heart is reached. often very ineffectively. Baseball and [illeg] bats are very widely dist ributed. as with a woman. Their [illeg] is consistently over-rated. there are many cases in which firearms are probably more efficient than any other means. Abdominal wounds were once nearly always mortal. Another reliable method is the severing of both jugular and carotid blood vessels on both sides of the windpipe. and expects more range. 6. can withstand enormous blows without fatal consequences. Their possession is often incriminating. and the lower. firearms should be used which can provide destructive power at least 100% in excess of that thought to be necessary. Even a rock or a heavy stick will do. The heart is protected by the rib cage and is not always easy to locate. This can be done with the point of a knife or a light blow of an axe or hatchet. Absolute reliability is obtained by severing the spinal cord in the cervical region. However. and ranges should be half that considered practical for the weapon. Firearms have other drawbacks. blunt weapons require some anatomical knowledge for effective use. any portion of the upper skull will do. accuracy and killing power than can be provided with reliability. They require a degree of experience from the user. carried or subsequently disposed of.

even if the rifle and shooter are in total darkness. whereas most ammunition for military rifles is full jacketed and hence not sufficiently let hal.[illeg]. Other excellent calibers are . The propaganda value of this system may be very high.3 x 62 kk and others of this type. with extra heavy barrel and set triggers. though a skillful and determined team might conceivably dispose of a loyal gun crow without commotion and take over the gun at the critical time. The automatic feature of the machine gun should rather be used to increase reliability by placing a 5 second . An expanding.35 (a) The precision rifle. t he range may be extended to 250 yards. The . Machine guns may be used in most cases where the precision rifle is applicable. but because such a sight is much better in dim light or near darkness. hunting bullet of such calibers as described above will produce extravagant laceration and shock at short or mid-range. handling a powerful longrange cartridge. Absolute reliability can nearly always be achieved at a distance of one hundred yards.106 p.30 .270 Winchester. In ideal circumstances. a good hunting or target rifle should always be considered as a possibility. 8 x 60 MM Magnum. since ammunition available for them is usually of the expanding bullet type. These are preferable to ordinary military calibers. As long as the bare outline of the target is discernable. Ideally. this will require the subversion of a unit of an official guard at a ceremony.300 F. Magnum. Magnum is probably the best cartridge readily available. 375 M. his death is almost entirely certain. not only for accuracy. If a man is struck just once in the body cavity..B. the weapon should be able to group in one inch at one hundred yards. In guarded assassination. but in any case should be capable of maximum precision. but 21/2" groups are adequa te. Public figures or guarded officials may be killed with great reliability and some safety if a firing point can be established prior to an official occasion. .s. 9. The rifle should be a well made bolt or falling block action type. This was tried with predictable lack of success on Trotsky. . a telescope sight will work. The rifle may be of the "bull gun" variety. as this will adversely affect accuracy. Usually. Military ammunition should not be altered by filing or drilling bullets. The area fire capacity of the machine gun should not be used to search out a concealed subject. The sight should be telescopic. (b) The machine gun.A.

36 burst on the subject.45 caliber U. In ideal circumstances. (d) The Shotgun. a properly padded and targeted ma chine gun can do it at 850 yards. The assassination range of the sub-machine gun is point blank. but are handicapped by a small. While accurate single rounds can be delivered by sub-machine gunners at 50 yards or more. An effective technique has been devised for the use of a pair of submachine gunners. The sub-machine gun is especially adapted to indoor work when more than one subject is to be assassinated. this is a short range weapon and since it fires pistol ammu nition. this will be absolute lethal is the burst pattern is no larger than a man. is occasionally useful in assassination. as speed of execution is most desirable. This weapon. Under ordinary circumstances. by which a room containing as many as a dozen subjects can be "purifico" in about twenty seconds with little or no risk to the gunners. known as the "machine-pistol" by the Russians and Germans and "machine-carbine" by the British. weapons have a much larger margin of killing efficiency than the 9 mm European arms. as most machine gunners are trained to spot their fire on target by observation of strike. This will not do in assassination as the subject will not wait. it should deliver at least 5 rounds into the subject's chest. In the hands of a capabl e gunner. It is illustrated below. light protective which requires more kits for equivalent killing effect. Unlike the rifle and machine gun. this is not certain enough for assassination. the higher cyclic rate of some foreign weapons enable the gunner to cover a target quicker with acceptable pattern density.S. the 5MG should be used as a fully automatic weapon. While the U. To be reliable. The major difficulty is placing the first burst exactly on the target. The Russian SHG's have a good cyclic rate. A large bore shotgun is a most effective . This can be accomplished at about 150 yards. though the . Even with full jacket ammunition. sub-machine guns fire the most lethal cartridges. The Bergmann Model 1934 is particularly good in this way. (c) The Submachine Gun. The Danish Madman? SMG has a moderately good cyclic rate and is admirably compact and concealable. a high cyclic rate is a distinct advantage. particularly in the case of multiple subjects. much less powerful.S.

Its optimum range is just out of reach of the subject. While many well kn own assassinations have been carried out with pistols (Lincoln. . The barrel may be "sawed" off for convenience. In all cases. Since all powerful rifles have muzzle velocities of over 2000 feet per second. Ghandi). Churchill). The user should . the subject should be hit solidly at least three times for complete reliability.S. submachine guns and any sort of improvised carbine or rifle which will take a low velocity cartridge can be silenc ed. except that the shotgun is much more lethal and the pistol is much more easily conceale d. In cases w here the velocity of the bullet greatly exceeds that of sound. The pistol and the shotgun are used in similar tactical situations. the noise so generated is much louder than that of the explosion.37 killing instrument as long as the range is kept under ten yards.[illeg] (U. . Less powerful rounds can suffice but are less reliable. since this sound is generated outside the weapon. it is often used. Service) and . such attempts fail as often as they succeed. . they cannot be silenced. it should be as powerful as possible and fired from just beyond reach. Roosevelt.357 Magnum are all efficient calibers. partly because it is readily available and can be concealed on the person. but this is not a significant factor in its killi ng performance. Pistol bullets. The assassin should aim for the solar plexus as the shot pattern is small at close range and can easily [illeg] the head. usually travel slower than sound and the sound of their flight is negligible. (f) Silent Firearms The sound of the explosion of the proponent in a firearm can be effectively silenced by appropriate attachments. Therefore. the sound of the projective passing through the air cannot.S. but such experts are rare and not usually available for assassination missions.45 A. on the other hand. and partly because its limitations are not widely appreciated.32s and . If a pistol is used. a powerful pistol is quite deadly.25s should be avoided.455 Kly. In the hands of an expert. (e) The Pistol.44 Special. Sub-power cartridges such as the . . but anything from single balls to bird shot will do if the range is right. 00 buckshot is considered the best shot size for a twelve gage gun. (Truman. It should normally be used only on single targets as it cannot sustain fire successfully. pistols.45 Colt. However. While the handgun is quite inefficient as a weapon of assassination. Harding.

The silent feature attempts to provide a degree of safety to the assassin. though they have been widely publicized in this connection. Explosives. the death of casual bystanders can often produce public reacti ons unfavorable to the cause for which the assassination is carried out. In addition to the moral aspects of indiscriminate killing. and bad propaganda. closed-action carbine shooting a low velocity bullet of great weight. Bombs and demolition charges of various sorts have been used frequently in assassination. A telescopically sighted. silent or otherwise. Such devices. in terroristic and open assassination. . can provide safety and overcome guard barriers. Silent firearms are only occasionally useful to the assassin. but it is curious that bombs have often been the imp lement of lost assassinations. the charge must be very large and the detonation must be controlled exactly as to time by the assassin who can observe the subject. particularly in bone is quite loud. A small or moderate explosi ve charge is highly unreliable as a cause of death. The silent pisto l combines the disadvantages of any pistol with the added one of its obviously clandestine purpose. unreliable. Placing the charge surreptitiously in advance permits a charge of proper size to be employed. Because permissible velocity is low. Bombs or grenades should never be thrown at a subject. The charge must be too small and the assassin is never sure of: (1)reaching his attack position. it is sloppy. but requires accurate prediction of the subject's movements. The major factor which affects reliability is the use of explosives for assassination. and time delay or booby-trap devices are extremely prone to kill the wrong man. effective precision range is held to about 100 yards with rifle or carbine type weapons. while with pistols. At the time of writing. could be very useful to an assassin in certain situations. (2) placing the charge close en ough to the target and (3) firing the charge at the right time. While this will always cause a commotion and may even result in the subject's death. and that the sound of bullet strike.38 not forget that the sound of the operation of a repeating action is considerable. are most efficient just beyond arms length. but mere possession of a silent firearm is likely to create enough hazard to counter the advantage of its silence. 7. and built for accuracy. no such weapon is known to exist.

Homemade or improvised e xplosives should be avoided. 100 and 105 mm guns and howitzers are both large enough to be completely reliable and small enough to be carried by one man. however. to be ruptured by the explosion. shaped charge with the [illeg] filled with iron fragments (such as 1" nuts and bolts) will fire a highly lethal shotgun-type [illeg] to 50 yards. are particularly good. and penetration of fragments. they tend to be dangerous and unreliable. 81 or 82 mm mortar shells. provided the assassin has sufficient techn ical knowledge to fuse them properly. or the 120 mm mortar shell. 1" thick. 88. or the 120 mm mortar shell.39 Ten pounds of high explosive should normally be regarded as a minimum. 100 and 105 mm guns and howitzers are both large enough to be completely reliable and small enough to be carried by one man. An ordinary commercial or military explorer is efficient. Anti-personnel shells for 85. This will avid the disadvantages olitary or commercial high explosives are practical for use in assassination. Any firing device may be used which permits exact control by the assassin. pattern-size. If solid plates are used. . are particularly good. 90. While possibly powerful. and an exact replica of the proposed device should be fired in advance to determine exact range. Military or commercial high explosives are practical for use in assassination. and an exact replica of the proposed device should be fired in advance to determine exact range. they tend to be dangerous and unreliable. The charge should be so placed that the subject is not ever six feet from it at the moment of detonation. The latter can consist of any hard. Anti-personnel explosive missiles are excellent. however. The wise [illeg] electric target can serve as the triggering device and provide exact timing from as far away as the assassin can reliably hit the target. and this is explosive of fragmentation material. 90. as long as it is rigged for instantaneous action with no time fuse in the system. This reaction has not been thoroughly tested. 88. A large. Anti-personnel explosive missiles are excellent. Fragments should penetrate at lea st 1" of seasoned pine or equivalent for minimum reliability. A large. Anti-personnel shells for 85. The charge should be so placed that the subject is not ever six feet from it at the moment of detonation. cast iron. 81 or 82 mm mortar shells. Metal or rock fragments should be walnut-size rather than pen-size. shaped charge with the [illeg] filled with iron fragments (such as 1" nuts and bolts) will fire a highly lethal shotgun-type [illeg] to 50 yards. This reaction has not been thoroughly tested. [illeg] material as long as the fragments are large enough. While possibly powerful. Homemade or improvised explosives should be avoided. provided the assassin has sufficient technical knowledge to fuse them properly. gives excellent fragmentation.

though its reliability is somewhat lower and its procurement may not be easy. Any firing device may be used which permits exact control by the assassin. and also permit the assassin to fire the charge from a variety of possible positions. Fragments should penetrate at lea st 1" of seasoned pine or equivalent for minimum reliability. An ordinary commercial or military explorer is efficient. as long as it is rigged for instantaneous action with no time fuse in the system.40 pattern-size. and penetration of fragments. with critical evaluations of the following assassinations and attempts: Marat Lincoln Harding Grand Duke Sergei Pirhivie Archduke Francis Ferdinand Rasputin Madero Kirov Huey Long Alexander of Yugoslvia Trotsky Hedrich Hitler Roosevelt Truman Mussolini Benes Aung Sang [illeg] Abdullah Ghandi . EXAMPLES ([illeg] may be presented brief outlines. The wise [illeg] electric target can serve as the triggering device and provide exact timing from as far away as the assassin can reliably hit the target. The radio switch can be [illeg] to fire [illeg]. This will avid the disadvantages of stringing wire between the proposed positions of the ass assin and the subject.

" Drops (1) Finishes burst. re-enters room. Swings across group toward center of mass. Commands "shift". Covers group: kills survivors with two-round . Commands"Shift. "shift". fires individual bursts of 3 rounds. opens fire on opposite (2) On command. (2) Finishes burst. if necessary. 3. (1) Enters room quickly but quietly (2) Stands in doorway (2) Opens fire on first subject to react. Replaces empty magazine. (1) Covers group to prevent individual dangerous reactions. Replaces magazine. 2. side of target. back thru [sic] door. 4.41 CONFERENCE ROOM TECHNIQUE 1. Times burst to empty magazine at end of swing. Covers corridor. (1) On command "shift". Covers corridor. swings one burst across group. Drops back thru [sic] door.

and method of attack. for people to have a reasonable chance at detecting most forms of surveillance they would have to be somewhat familiar with the techniques used.S. (2) Leaves room. and terrorist organizations are often relatively sophisticated in their surveillance methods. Surveillance Recognition by U.42 bursts. covering front with full magazine. of State Surveillance is required for successful terrorist planning. (1) On command "GO". but. the type of surveillance conducted by terrorist organizations is not normally as elaborate as that done by intelligence organizations nor does it involve as many people or as much equipment. because people have had no training in detecting surveillance. location. All training programs designed to protect individuals from becoming victims of terrorism recommend that people be alert to surveillance. Covers rear with nearly full magazine. This . The purpose of surveillance is to determine (1) the suitability of the potential target based upon the physical and procedural security precautions that the individual has taken and (2) the most suitable time. Dept. This is excellent advice. vehicles and persons under observation in order to obtain detailed information. 6. Leaves propaganda. Any indications of surveillance should be reported immediately to the the security office of your organization and/or the police. Surveillance is defined as the process of keeping facilities. 5. in most instances it is insufficient. Fortunately. however. leads withdrawl. Detecting surveillance conducted by trained experts is not as easy as most Hollywood films would lead us to believe. unfortunately. Nevertheless. Commands "GO". Experience has taught us that terrorist attacks are generally preceded by pre-operational surveillance in which terrorists gather target intelligence.

any surveillant who feels that he or she has been . the types of vehicles to use. Generally. one surveillant may walk in front of the target. These items are less easily and. Two-person foot surveillance is more effective in that the second surveillant provides greater flexibility. where he or she is least likely to cause suspicion. In less congested areas the surveillant can maintain a greater distance. and the type of ruse to use that will give them an ordinary or normal appearance and plausible reasons to be in the area. This permits them to select positions of observation. therefore. There are basically three forms of surveillance: foot. The one complicating factor is the use of a disguise to make the surveillant look different (perhaps a uniform). One possible use of a disguise is a shopping bag or some other container for a change of clothes. Before undertaking surveillance most experts gather information about the subject from other sources. particularly if the shopping bag is from a store not found in the area or the container somehow seems out of place. or other government office may reveal useful facts about an individual such as the names of family members. etc. local police. one surveillant remains close to the target while the other stays at a greater distance. vehicle. The surveillants will also make a reconnaissance of the neighborhood in which the target lives and works. Foot surveillance with three or more people uses the most sophisticated techniques and is the most difficult to spot. Periodically the two surveillants change position so that if the target spots one of them. a description of vehicles and license numbers. Obviously. pay particular attention to shoes and slacks or skirts. and stationary (generally categorized as either mobile or static). The positions of the surveillants are frequently changed. photographs. Normally. Where a disguise is suspected. that one will soon be out of sight. spotting this form of surveillance is more complicated. One-person foot surveillance is rather complicated and fairly easy to detect. the surveillance of a person who has set routines and who takes few precautions will take less time. an address. particularly in congested areas. nor will the attack take place while surveillance is still in progress. to avoid losing him or her. A second surveillant remains behind the first on the same side of the street with the first surveillant in sight. Public records of information made available to the terrorist organization from a sympathetic individual within an organization. while another surveillant moves in close behind the target. one surveillant remains behind the target close enough to respond to any sudden moves. In areas where the target has few paths to choose. The second surveillant may follow the first on the same side of the street or travel on the opposite side. but the lack of other pedestrians makes the surveillant that much more noticeable.43 surveillance may last for days or weeks depending upon the length of time it takes the surveillants to obtain the information that they require. but individuals who are alert to the people in their vicinity will eventually detect the same surveillant over a period of time. most commonly at intersections. watch for people who seem to wait for you to push a button and then select a floor one flight above or below yours. less commonly changed. The people undertaking the surveillance will often not take part in the attack. Naturally. In elevators. A brief description of the most common techniques used for each of these forms and methods for detecting each one follows: One or more individuals may undertake foot surveillance. The surveillant directly behind the target may move to the opposite side of the street. the clothing to be worn. The surveillance must remain close to the target. A third surveillant travels on the opposite side of the street parallel with or just behind the target. With the additional surveillants. leading the target to think that he or she was mistaken.

and makes notes on the target's activities. The most effective are: 1.44 observed may drop out of the formation. or travel on parallel roads. be suspicious of that vehicle. If the same person is seen more than once over a certain distance. Surveillants will not normally look directly at the target. watches the target. boarding or exiting a bus or subway just before it starts. The other vehicle may follow behind the lead surveillance vehicle. watching reflections in shop windows or other reflective surfaces. of course. The distance between a surveillance vehicle and the target will vary depending on the speed at which the vehicles are traveling and the amount of traffic. watch for people who are taken by surprise. or give a signal to someone else. dropping a piece of paper to see if anyone retrieves it. precede the target vehicle. The use of this sophisticated technique requires that people be alert not only to those people behind them but also to those across the street and perhaps in front of them. and 9. Surveillants can try to overcome this advantage somewhat by changing seating arrangements within the vehicle. 4. and turning off onto side streets and then turning back to resume the tail. but they may do so if they are surprised or unaware that you are observing them. the inside dome light is made inoperative so that it will not illuminate the interior of the car when the door is opened. 2. The use of two or more vehicles permits surveillance to switch positions or to drop out of the surveillance when necessary. or make dangerous or sudden lane changes in an apparent effort to keep up with you. entering a building and leaving immediately by another exit. the surveillance can be resumed on foot while the driver remains with the vehicle. and sunglasses. 6. While moving. dents. Vehicles will have two or more people in them so that if the target parks his or her vehicle and walks away. One-vehicle surveillance suffers from the same drawbacks as one-person foot surveillance. react inappropriately. As with foot surveillance. making sudden turns or walking around the block. stopping abruptly after turning a corner. you should. 8. stopping abruptly and looking to the rear. If you see a vehicle run a red light. coats. Another vehicle in the formation will . Foot surveillance is often used in conjunction with vehicle surveillance since it is likely that the target will use a combination of foot and vehicle transportation. travel over the speed limit. suddenly reversing your course. surveillance may be suspected even if that person is not continuously seen. The target has to be kept in view at all times and followed by the same vehicle. make an illegal U?turn. model. etc. One vehicle follows the target vehicle and directs other vehicles by radio. This makes it necessary for a person suspecting surveillance to remember aspects of a following vehicle that cannot easily be changed such as the make. While taking these actions. 5. Vehicles used for surveillance are inconspicuous in appearance and of a subdued color. Common methods for detecting surveillance apply to all three forms of foot surveillance. 3. putting on and taking off hats. 7. the vehicle following directly behind the target vehicle will generally travel straight ahead while alerting all other vehicles of the direction in which the target vehicle has turned. vehicle surveillance may be undertaken using only one vehicle or using two or more vehicles. walking slowly and then rapidly at intervals. and color of the car and any body damage such as rust. At intersections. changing license plates. Frequently. suddenly change direction. the driver gives full attention to driving while the observer operates the radio. Sometimes it will be necessary for surveillants to break traffic regulations to avoid losing you. Surveillants will try to keep one or two vehicles between themselves and the target.

making a U-turn where it is safe to do so. In leading surveillance the surveillant travels in front of the target while the observer watches for turns. this method leads the surveillants to the residence. taking over the responsibility for giving instructions to other surveillants. but you should not give anyone the opportunity to use these methods. Eventually. watch for the reactions of any vehicles that you may suspect. is generally not the easiest or safest method.45 then take a position behind the target and become the lead vehicle. People who have well established routines permit surveillants to use methods that are much more difficult to detect. will affect observation points. but such apartments or office space may not be available and the renting of an apartment or office space could provide clues for a subsequent investigation. When the target turns. a vehicle will follow the target for a short distance and then turn off. making a turn to the right or left (in general. The next day the surveillant makes a turn where the target did the previous day. 2. When the target makes a turn. this is noted and the position of the surveillants is adjusted to check the next intersection. while possibly the most difficult to detect. Surveillants seek a position that permits them to observe the residence or office clearly without being observed or suspected. Surveillants want to identify observation points that afford the best view of the target. they may obtain an apartment or rent office space in the area that provides for an adequate view. Pedestrian traffic. The former lead vehicle then makes a U?turn or travels around the block to take up a new position ready to resume the lead vehicle position again when necessary. etc. In each case. right turns create greater complications for surveillants because of oncoming traffic that may delay a turn). temporary street closure. If. since in many parts of the world they seem to be favored by surveillants because they move easily through heavy traffic. and circling a block. Any vehicles that make unusual maneuvers should be carefully noted. Many surveillance teams use vans with windows in the side or back that permit observation from the interior of the van. As mentioned earlier. If the surveillants decide that it is best not to be seen. for example. Do not forget to check for motorcycles or motorbikes. Foot and vehicular traffic. buildings and terrain around each government facility vary with each location. going through a traffic light just as it is turning red. because morning departure times are more predictable than are evening arrivals. Over a period of time the surveillants will discover the entire route to the residence while still driving in a position that creates much less suspicion. you leave the office at the same time each day and travel by the most direct route to your home or if you live in a remote area with a few or no alternate routes to your home. surveillants are placed at intersections along the probable routes of the target. rush hour traffic flow. The use of an apartment or office space for surveillance. Leading and progressive surveillance are extremely difficult to detect. Stationary surveillance is commonly used by terrorist organizations. most attacks take place near the residence or office because that part of the route is least easily varied. surveillants have no need to follow you all the way to your residence. In the first form. Often the van will have the name of a store or utility . In the second form or progressive surveillance. stopping just beyond a curve or hill. On successive days the surveillant picks up the target where he or she left off the previous day. 3. The most effective methods for detecting most forms of vehicle surveillance are: 1. Most people are more vulnerable in the morning when departing for work. An alternative method of surveillance in such situations is leading surveillance and progressive surveillance. There are two forms of progressive surveillance. this is noted.

lovers in a park. Note the license numbers of any suspicious vehicles and provide them to your security office so they can be checked. Varying times and routes apply to jogging. and using the rear view mirrors to watch. people who are dressed inappropriately. Some of the more commonly used covers are automotive repairs due to engine trouble or a flat tire. do not hesitate to report any unusual events to the police. If those suspicions had been reported. Some things to check for are parked vehicles with people in them. We do not want to encourage paranoia. Make a habit of checking the neighborhood through a window before you go out each day. Check the telephone book to see if such a business exists. The types of ruses used are limited only by the surveillant's imagination. cars with more mirrors or mirrors that are larger than normal. shopping and all activities where a pattern can develop. door to door sales. Many people who have been kidnapped realized afterwards that their suspicions had been well founded. If you become suspicious of a van. facing the vehicle away from the target. people seen in the area more frequently than seems normal.46 company to provide some pretext for its being in the area. Although the recommendation to vary routes and times of arrivals and departures has become trite. Since surveillance attempts to determine the suitability of a potential target and the most opportune time for an attack. utility repair crews. Above all. Where it is not possible to watch the residence or office unobserved. but a good sense of what is normal and what is unusual in your surroundings could be more important than any other type of security precaution you take. or sitting at a cafe. construction work. Detecting surveillance requires a constant state of alertness and must become an unconscious habit. . Women and children are often used to give a greater appearance of innocence. and workers who seem to accomplish nothing. note any information printed on the side of the van. leaving the surveillance team inside. surveillants must come up with a plausible reason for being in the area. walking a dog. it is crucial to avoid predictability. their ordeal might have been avoided. including telephone numbers. parking the vehicle far enough from the residence or office to be less noticeable. The driver may park the van and walk away. using other vehicles for cover. implementing it in one's daily schedule has proven to be effective in deterring sufficient terrorist planning. Some teams use automobiles for stationary surveillance.

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