Bio153H5: Diversity of Organisms Midterm Test Answer Key Section I: Multiple Choice.

Please select the best answer. (1 mark each = 40 marks) 1. What organisms are most numerous on Earth? A. Eukaryotes B. Archaea C. Prokaryotes D. Plants E. Insects 2. What do the nodes on a phylogenetic tree represent? A. species B. new kingdoms or domains C. ancestral groups that split into two descendant groups D. groups that got new names 3. Why did the five-kingdom system of classification fall out of favour? A. It was too complex—the original two-kingdom system of Linnaeus was more useful. B. It was too difficult to distinguish plants from fungi and animals from protists. C. There were too many monerans to be included in a single kingdom. D. It did not reflect the actual evolutionary relationships among organisms very well. 4. In the Linnaean classification system, which taxon would generally include the largest number of species? A. family B. phylum C. order D. genus 5. Which of the following would be useful in creating a phylogenetic tree of a taxon? A. morphological data from fossil species B. genetic sequences from living species C. behavioral data from living species D. all of the above 6. Your professor wants you to construct a phylogenetic tree of orchids. She gives you tissue from seven orchid species and one lily. What is the most likely reason she gave you the lily? A. to serve as an outgroup B. to see if it’s a cryptic orchid species C. to see if the lily and the orchids show all the same shared derived characters D. to see if orchids and lilies hybridize 7. Which group of fungi most likely assisted plants’ evolutionary colonization of land? A. Lichens B. Basidiomycota

brown algae. D. Which of the following conclusions is consistent with the data presented? A. Multicellularity is more adaptive than unicellularity. Y. Glomeromycota E. Chitridiomycota 8. 11. D. E. animals are derived from the most recently evolved protists. both A and B D. changes in where developmental genes are expressed C. None of the above answers apply. Species W A A A Species X A A B Species Y A B C Species Z A B D trait 1 trait 2 trait 3 none of the traits is useful 10. light and CO2 D. thus. Multicellularity evolved once. Multicellularity evolved multiple times as eukaryotes diversified. What are the most favorable sources of energy and carbon for this bacterium? A. None of the above has ever been demonstrated. Consider the following data: Among the protists. 9. X. C. and Z? (A – D indicate character states): Trait 1 Trait 2 Trait 3 A. red algae and amoebae include unicellular and multicellular organisms. fructose and light C. all of the above 12. branched membrane lipids D. Which of the following traits is useful in generating a phylogeny of species W. Multicellularity is a synapomorphy that defines a eukaryote. What do Eubacteria have in common with Archaea but not with Eukarya? A. What types of changes in the regulation of development can lead to morphological changes that can be significant in evolution? A. The purple non-sulfur bacterium Rhodospirillum grows best as a photoheterotroph. glucose . methane and CO2 B. Ascomycota D. B.C. peptidoglycan cell walls C. changes in when developmental genes are expressed B. high G-C ratio in their nucleic acids B. B. C. absence of nucleus E.

15. unicellular D. Protists are all more primitive than land plants and animals. Protists do not share a single common ancestor. unusual flagella B. B. and are abundant in marine and freshwater systems. ability to fix nitrogen 17. Giardia B. C. E. How do these two groups differ? A. formation of colonies C. has a cell wall E. They use different sources of carbon.13. Protists do not constitute all of the descendents of the first eukaryote. B. ability to use organic compounds as electron donors D. D. firmicutes B. Trichomonas D. . spirochetes D. What is the characteristic feature of Chlamydia? A. Which of the following protists causes the human disease malaria? A. They use different electron acceptors. Plasmodium C. proteobacteria C. They differ in the way they generate ATP. very small C. Cyanobacteria became very numerous ~3 billion years ago. Leishmania 18. ability to perform oxygenic photosynthesis B. D. rod shape D. Biologists sometimes divide living organisms into two groups: autotrophs and heterotrophs. photosynthetic 19. C. Which of the following characteristics is true of all protists? A. They use different sources of energy. ability to form colonies C. contains a nucleus B. Which of their features was responsible for such success? A. Which of the following statements is consistent with the assertion that protists are paraphyletic? A. The most diverse group of Eubacteria are the: A. methanogens 16. All of the above answers apply. Protists all share a common set of synapomorphies. parasitic life cycle 14.

elms. ferns. C. Fungi secrete extracellular enzymes that can break down large molecules. Why are mycorrhizal fungi superior to plants at acquiring mineral nutrition from the soil? A. The gametophyte is haploid and produces spores. Spores and seeds have basically the same function—dispersal—but are vastly different because: A. Which of the following is a correct element of alternation of generations in the Type III life cycle? A. lycophytes. ginkgoes D. Two spores unite to form a zygote. D. liverworts. The sporophyte is diploid and produces spores. 25. seeds do not. All of the above answers apply. cycads. a bryophyte gametophyte 22. 23. Prokaryotes undergo rapid mitosis 21. B. D. aspens 26. Prokaryotes lack a cytoskeleton C. B. The closest relatives of pine and spruce trees are: A. E. Hyphae are 100 to 1000 times smaller than plant roots. seeds do not. C. D. Spores have a protective outer covering. gnetophytes. Plants in both groups have cones that produce pollen and seeds. club mosses B. E. horsetails. Plants in both groups have flowers and fruits. Spores are unicellular. Spores have stored nutrition. Spores depend primarily on animals for dispersal. mosses C. seeds are not. Which of the following statements about prokaryotic cells is false? A. a seed plant gametophyte C. D. maples. B. a bryophyte sporophyte D. Plants in both groups lack vascular tissue. . How are gymnosperms and angiosperms similar? A. seeds do not. Which of these is usually largest in size? A. B. a seed plant sporophyte B. 24. The gametophyte is diploid and produces gametes. Fungi can transport compounds through their mycelium from areas of surplus to areas of need. Spores have an embryo. Prokaryotes are permanently haploid B. C. Plants in both groups produce seeds and pollen. hornworts. C. Prokaryotes lack membrane-bound organelles D.20. seeds do not. The sporophyte is haploid and produces gametes.

Chytridiomycota D. progenesis B. haploid spore or recently germinated spore B. neoteny D. viruses can contain DNA or RNA 33. while function usually differs among orthologs D. vascular tissue → complex leaves → seeds → flowers C. fruiting structure (mushroom and ascocarp) C. B. viruses are members of a primitive. complex leaves → seeds → vascular tissue → flowers D. deceleration 31.27. viruses are acellular B. seeds → flowers → vascular tissue → complex leaves 30. Fungi are a source of many antibiotics that work against bacteria. Fungi are more highly evolved than bacteria. Basidiomycota C. If adult body size is small relative to its ancestor. hypermorphosis C. The dikaryon is present in all fungi except: A. Which of the following statements about viruses is false? A. polyphyletic group D. heterokaryotic mycelium D. viruses are obligate intracellular parasites C. Fungi and animals are more closely related than bacteria and animals. paralogs usually retain their original function. paralogs are genes related by duplication within a genome 32. the heterochronic process involved is: A. Ascomycota 29. karyogamy . In which sequence did these various plant characters appear (earliest to latest)? A. nutrient-gathering phase? A. orthologs are genes (occurring in related species) that evolved from a common ancestral gene C. Fungi are part of a younger evolutionary lineage than bacteria. why are fungal infections such as athlete’s foot so much harder to cure than bacterial infections? A. Which of the following statements is false? A. 28. D. 2 genes are homologous if they are related by descent from a common ancestral DNA sequence B. C. seeds → vascular tissue → complex leaves → flowers B. Which phase of the life cycle of fungi such as basdiomycetes and ascomycetes is the symbiotic. and the adult body is less developed than that of its ancestor. Zygomycota B. In animals.

C. Feathers are ancestral when considering evolutionary relationships among birds. Plants have more photosynthetic tissue for increased sugar production. What is a major advantage of having larger leaves? A. All birds have feathers. shared derived characters C. the figure on the far left represents a modern human adult. ancestral and derived traits . In the diagram above.) D. Plants are better able to cool themselves by waving their leaves in the wind. Figures A – C represent 3 adult specimens of hypothetical descendents of modern humans. Opisthokonta 35. A = predisplacement. Which of the following types of characters are useful in a cladistic analysis? A. Feathers are an ancestral trait when considering the evolutionary relationships among all vertebrates ancestor A B C 36. C = postdisplacement 37. What type of heterochronic mutation does each represent? A. 38. Feathers are a derived trait when comparing extinct birds to modern birds D. all types of characters (morphological. megaphylls appeared to be selected for and replaced microphylls in most plant lineages. A = neoteny. B. C = hypermorphosis C. A = progenesis. C = postdisplacement B. Which is considered to be the sister group of the Embryophyta? A. Plants can shade the stem to prevent too much evaporation. Feathers are a derived trait used to determine the evolution of flightlessness C. B = neoteny. B = deceleration. B = progenesis. Chlorophyta B. Bryophyta D. Once plants evolved to live on land and had vascular tissue. A = peramorphosis. Plants can better hide their reproductive parts from herbivores. Charophyta C. C = pedomorphosis D. autapomorphies and synapomorphies B. B = hypermorphosis. etc. D. Which of the following statements is true? A. and only birds have feathers. but derived when placing birds within a phylogeny including other groups B.34. biochemical.

stems. Type II: . Hox genes encode transcription factors B. 41. Please answer 5 of the following 7 questions in the spaces provided. and leaves. compare the Type I and Type II life cycle.39. The dominant generation in both groups is the sporophyte. 5’ → 3’ corresponds to the order in space and time in which they are expressed in the developing embryo. . How are the bryophytes and seedless vascular plants alike? A. What is an evolutionary reversal? Within a lineage. Hox genes act relatively late in development Short answer questions. . Hox genes are highly conserved C. sperm swims from antheridia to archegonia. In words. Hox genes are organized in gene complexes D. Phenetics uses all types of characters to describe similarities and infer evolutionary relationships. describe the difference between phenetic and cladistic analysis. Each question is worth 2 marks (10 marks total). C. please indicate clearly which you want marked. the first 5 answers will be marked. Type I: . otherwise. 40. 44. 43.Haploid gametes produced by mitosis. 42. Cladistics uses only shared. What is meant by spatial and temporal collinearity in reference to Hox genes? The order in which Hox genes are arranged on a chromosome. Which statement about Hox genes is false? A.Diploid zygote undergoes meiosis without proliferation. B. Plants in both groups have vascular tissue. Please be brief – a sentence or two should suffice. Point form is acceptable as long as it is unambiguous. In words. . Plants in both groups have true roots.Haploid gametes produced by meiosis. In both groups. D. derived characters to infer evolutionary relationships.Diploid zygote undergoes proliferation via mitosis. a change in a trait back to the ancestral form. If you attempt more than 5 questions.

45. selection can act on juvenile features throughout life Neotenous individuals may be reproductively isolated from other members of their species. Why has neoteny frequently been important in the evolution of new taxa? In neoteny adult features of ancestors do not develop. 47. This can be important in the evolution of new taxa because: i. Antp: Produces legs on head instead of antennae. which can be independent of reproduction. 46. descendents are “released from specialization” (are not committed to the same evolutionary path) ii. In what way is sex separate from reproduction in prokaryotes? Sex refers to genetic recombination and is achieved in prokaryotes by conjugation. Briefly describe how mutations in antennepedia (Antp) and ultrabithorax (Ubx) result in alterations of phenotype in Drosophila. Reproduction refers to the production of new individuals and is achieved in prokaryotes by fission. Ubx: Halteres develop into a second set of wings on T2 thoracic segment . which can be independent of sex. promoting speciation.

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