# CHAPTER 2

INDEX AND CLASSIFICATION PROPERTIES OF SOILS
2-1. From memory, draw a phase diagram (like Fig. 2.2, but don’t look first!). The “phases” have a Volume side and Mass side. Label all the parts. SOLUTION: Refer to Figure 2.2.

2-2. From memory, write out the definitions for water content, void ratio, dry density, wet or moist density, and saturated density. SOLUTION: Refer to Section 2.2.

2-3. Assuming a value of ρs = 2.7 Mg/m3, take the range of saturated density in Table 2.1 for the six soil types and calculate/estimate the range in void ratios that one might expect for these soils.

SOLUTION: Create a spreadsheet using input values from Table 2.1 and Eq. 2.18.
(Given) (see Eq. 2.18)

ρ' - min
(Mg/m3)

ρ' - max
(Mg/m3)

emax 0.89 3.25 0.55 0.89

emin 0.21 0.55 0.21 0.42 16.00 1.13

0.9 0.4 1.1 0.9 0.0 0.3

1.4 1.1 1.4 1.2 0.1 0.8

4.67

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Index and Classification Properties of Soils

Chapter 2

2-4. Prepare a spreadsheet plot of dry density in Mg/m3 as the ordinate versus water content in percent as the abscissa. Assume ρs = 2.65 Mg/m3 and vary the degree of saturation, S, from 100% to 40% in 10% increments. A maximum of 50% water content should be adequate. SOLUTION: Solve Eq. 2.12 and Eq. 2.15 for ρd = f(ρs, w, S, Gs), or use Eq. 5.1.
ρdry = ρw S ρ w+ w S ρs

S= w
(%)

100 ρdry
(Mg/m3)

90 ρdry
(Mg/m3)

80 ρdry
(Mg/m3)

70 ρdry
(Mg/m3)

60 ρdry
(Mg/m3)

50 ρdry
(Mg/m3)

40 ρdry
(Mg/m3)

30 ρdry
(Mg/m3)

20 ρdry
(Mg/m3)

10 ρdry
(Mg/m3)

0.0 5.0 10.0 15.0 20.0 25.0 30.0 35.0 40.0 45.0 50.0

2.65 2.34 2.09 1.90 1.73 1.59 1.48 1.37 1.29 1.21 1.14

2.65 2.31 2.05 1.84 1.67 1.53 1.41 1.31 1.22 1.14 1.07

2.65 2.27 1.99 1.77 1.59 1.45 1.33 1.23 1.14 1.06 1.00

2.65 2.23 1.92 1.69 1.51 1.36 1.24 1.14 1.05 0.98 0.92

2.65 2.17 1.84 1.59 1.41 1.26 1.14 1.04 0.96 0.89 0.83

2.65 2.09 1.73 1.48 1.29 1.14 1.02 0.93 0.85 0.78 0.73

2.65 1.99 1.59 1.33 1.14 1.00 0.89 0.80 0.73 0.67 0.61

2.65 1.84 1.41 1.14 0.96 0.83 0.73 0.65 0.58 0.53 0.49

2.65 1.59 1.14 0.89 0.73 0.61 0.53 0.47 0.42 0.38 0.35

2.65 1.14 0.73 0.53 0.42 0.35 0.30 0.26 0.23 0.21 0.19

Problem 2-4 3.00 2.50 2.00 1.50 1.00 0.50 0.00 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 w (%) 35 40 45

ρdry (Mg/m3)

S=100% S=90% S=80% S=70% S=60% S=50% S=40% S=30% S=20% S=10%

50

55

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Index and Classification Properties of Soils

Chapter 2

2-5a Prepare a graph like that in Problem 2.4, only use dry density units of kN/m3 and pounds per cubic feet. SOLUTION: From Eq. 2.12 and Eq. 2.15: ρdry =
ρw S ρ w+ w S ρs
60 γdry
(kN/m3)

S= w
(%)

100 γdry
(kN/m3)

90 γdry
(kN/m3)

80 γdry
(kN/m3)

70 γdry
(kN/m3)

50 γdry
(kN/m3)

40 γdry
(kN/m3)

30 γdry
(kN/m3)

20 γdry
(kN/m3)

10 γdry
(kN/m3)

0.0 5.0 10.0 15.0 20.0 25.0 30.0 35.0 40.0 45.0 50.0

26.00 22.95 20.55 18.60 16.99 15.64 14.48 13.49 12.62 11.86 11.18

26.00 22.66 20.08 18.03 16.36 14.97 13.80 12.80 11.94 11.18 10.52

26.00 22.30 19.53 17.37 15.64 14.22 13.04 12.04 11.18 10.44 9.79

26.00 21.86 18.86 16.58 14.79 13.36 12.17 11.18 10.34 9.62 8.99

26.00 21.29 18.03 15.64 13.80 12.35 11.18 10.21 9.40 8.70 8.10

26.00 20.55 16.99 14.48 12.62 11.18 10.04 9.11 8.33 7.68 7.12

26.00 19.53 15.64 13.04 11.18 9.79 8.70 7.83 7.12 6.53 6.03

26.00 18.03 13.80 11.18 9.40 8.10 7.12 6.35 5.73 5.23 4.80

26.00 15.64 11.18 8.70 7.12 6.03 5.23 4.61 4.13 3.73 3.41

26.00 11.18 7.12 5.23 4.13 3.41 2.90 2.53 2.24 2.01 1.82

Problem 2-5a
30.00

S=100% S=90% S=80% S=70% S=60% S=50% S=40% S=30% S=20% S=10%

25.00

20.00

γ dry (kN/m3)

15.00

10.00

5.00

0.00 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 45 50 55

w (%)

© 2011 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ. All rights reserved. This publication is protected by Copyright and written permission should be obtained from the publisher prior to any prohibited reproduction, storage in a retrieval system, or transmission in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording, or likewise. For information regarding permission(s), write to: Rights and Permissions Department, Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458.

Index and Classification Properties of Soils

Chapter 2

2-5b Prepare a graph like that in Problem 2.4, only use dry density units of pounds per cubic feet.

SOLUTION: γ dry =

Gs γ w S S + Gs w

S= w
(%)

100 γdry
(pcf)

90 γdry
(pcf)

80 γdry
(pcf)

70 γdry
(pcf)

60 γdry
(pcf)

50 γdry
(pcf)

40 γdry
(pcf)

30 γdry
(pcf)

20 γdry
(pcf)

10 γdry
(pcf)

0.0 5.0 10.0 15.0 20.0 25.0 30.0 35.0 40.0 45.0 50.0

165.36 146.01 130.72 118.33 108.08 99.46 92.12 85.79 80.27 75.42 71.12

165.36 144.14 127.75 114.70 104.07 95.25 87.80 81.44 75.93 71.12 66.89

165.36 141.86 124.21 110.47 99.46 90.45 82.94 76.58 71.12 66.39 62.25

165.36 139.04 119.95 105.47 94.11 84.96 77.43 71.12 65.77 61.16 57.16

165.36 135.45 114.70 99.46 87.80 78.59 71.12 64.95 59.77 55.35 51.54

165.36 130.72 108.08 92.12 80.27 71.12 63.85 57.92 53.00 48.85 45.30

165.36 124.21 99.46 82.94 71.12 62.25 55.35 49.83 45.30 41.53 38.34

165.36 114.70 87.80 71.12 59.77 51.54 45.30 40.41 36.48 33.24 30.53
S=100% S=90% S=80% S=70% S=60% S=50% S=40% S=30% S=20% S=10%

165.36 99.46 71.12 55.35 45.30 38.34 33.24 29.33 26.25 23.75 21.69

165.36 71.12 45.30 33.24 26.25 21.69 18.48 16.09 14.26 12.79 11.60

Problem 2-5b
180.00 160.00 140.00 120.00 100.00 80.00 60.00 40.00 20.00 0.00 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40

γ dry (pcf)

45

50

55

w (%)

© 2011 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ. All rights reserved. This publication is protected by Copyright and written permission should be obtained from the publisher prior to any prohibited reproduction, storage in a retrieval system, or transmission in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording, or likewise. For information regarding permission(s), write to: Rights and Permissions Department, Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458.

Upper Saddle River. or likewise.51 1.29 1.0 3.. SOLUTION: From Eq.73 1.19 1. only for S = 100% and vary the density of solids from 2. NJ 07458.92 1.0 5. For information regarding permission(s). Inc.63 1.95 1.31 1.36 1.21 1. You decide the size of the increments you need to “satisfactorily” evaluate the relationship as ρs varies.0 45. Inc.7 ρdry (Mg/m3) 2.16 1.24 1. Upper Saddle River.23 1.0 30. photocopying.00 2.13 1.37 1.70 2.Index and Classification Properties of Soils Chapter 2 2.06 1.15 2.4.50 0.8 ρdry (Mg/m3) 0.09 1. Pearson Education.60 to 2.27 1. storage in a retrieval system.52 1.58 1.14 2.75 2.12 and Eq.30 1.80 Mg/m3.0 40.50 2. 2.20 1.87 1.00 0. write to: Rights and Permissions Department. NJ.75 1.16 2.6.79 1.13 2.48 1. Prepare a graph like that in Problem 2. .22 1. mechanical.32 1.34 2.61 1.49 1.0 15. Prepare a concluding statement of your observations.17 5 10 15 20 25 30 w (%) 35 40 45 50 55 © 2011 Pearson Education. ρs = w (%) 2.80 2.0 25.60 2..41 1.65 2.0 50. or transmission in any form or by any means.59 1.46 1.65 1.38 2.00 ρs (Mg/m3) 1.6 ρdry (Mg/m3) 2.50 1.15: ρdry = ρw S ρ w+ w S ρs Note: The relationship between ρdry and w is not overly sensitive to ρs.30 2. This publication is protected by Copyright and written permission should be obtained from the publisher prior to any prohibited reproduction. recording.71 1. 2.90 1.46 2. All rights reserved.77 1.40 1.00 0 2.75 ρdry (Mg/m3) 2.0 35.39 1.65 ρdry (Mg/m3) 2.0 20. electronic.42 2.0 10.97 1.

67 Mg/m3. 2-12 and Eq.2 kg / m3 (1 + w) (1 + 0. write to: Rights and Permissions Department.19 = = 1649. All rights reserved.67Mg / m ⎠ ⎝ 1. What is the water content of the material when saturated? SOLUTION: From Eq. recording.24 → Mw = 0. The dry density of a compacted sand is 1. 2-15: ρdry = ρw S . This publication is protected by Copyright and written permission should be obtained from the publisher prior to any prohibited reproduction.19 = = 2729..24Ms Mw → Vw = = 0.24) ⎛ ρ ⎞ ρsat = ⎜ 1 − w ⎟ ρdry + ρ w ρs ⎠ ⎝ ρw ρdry (1000)(1649. NJ 07458.Index and Classification Properties of Soils Chapter 2 2. Inc.87 Mg/m3 and the density of the solids is 2. mechanical.6 kg / m3 ρdry + ρw − ρsat (1649. Upper Saddle River. Inc. NJ. storage in a retrieval system. or transmission in any form or by any means. . For information regarding permission(s).2 kg / m3 Vt 1 ρdry = © 2011 Pearson Education.0% Solving for w: w = ρw S ⎜ 3 3 ⎟ ⎜ ρdry ρs ⎟ 2.8.0 Mt = 2045 kg Mw = 0. Note: S = 100% ρw w+ S ρs ⎛ 1 ⎛ ⎞ 1⎞ 1 1 − ⎟ = (1Mg / m3 )(100%) ⎜ − = 16.24Ms Ms Mt = Mw + Ms → 2045 = 0.3958 Ms 1649.2) ρs = = = 2729.6 kg / m3 Vs 1 − 0.7. photocopying. Upper Saddle River. electronic.. A soil that is completely saturated has a total density of 2045 kg/m3 and a water content of 24%. or likewise.24Ms + Ms → Ms = 1649.2 + 1000 − 2045) b) Solve using phase diagram relationships: assume Vt = 1. Pearson Education.19 kg ρ w = 1000 = ρs = 0.3958 m3 Vw 1000 Ms 1649. What is the density of the solids? What is the dry density of the soil? SOLUTION: a) Solve using equations or phase diagrams: ρdry = ρt 2045 = = 1649.87 Mg / m ⎝ ⎠ 2.

60(1 + 0. Upper Saddle River..2476) = 1. NJ 07458. This publication is protected by Copyright and written permission should be obtained from the publisher prior to any prohibited reproduction.72 Mg/m3. Find the (a) water content. and (c) total density when the soil is saturated.996 = 2. write to: Rights and Permissions Department. For information regarding permission(s). Upper Saddle River.4% ⎜ ρdry ρs ⎟ 1. Pearson Education. SOLUTION: Recognize that ρdry (initial) = ρdry (final).656 Sρ w (100)(1. 2-12 and Eq.65 Mg / m ⎠ ⎝ 1. mechanical. Determine its density when the degree of saturation is 75%. All rights reserved.68 Mg / m ⎝ ⎠ final ρt = ρdry (1 + w) = 1. 2-15: ρdry = ρw S ρ w+ w S ρs ⎛ 1 ⎛ ⎞ 1⎞ 1 1 − ⎟ = (1Mg / m3 )(75%) ⎜ − = 16.1634) = 1. . 2-15: ρdry = ρw S . or transmission in any form or by any means.60 Mg / m ⎝ ⎠ wρs (24.11. or likewise.68 Mg/m3.65 Mg/m3.65 Mg / m ⎠ ⎝ 1. The density of solids for quartz is 2. Note: S = 100% ρ w+ w S ρs ⎛ 1 ⎛ ⎞ 1⎞ 1 1 − ⎟ = (1Mg / m3 )(100%) ⎜ − Solving for w: w = ρ w S ⎜ ⎟ = 21.76)(2.72 Mg / m3 2. 2-12 and Eq. S(final) = 75% From Eq. The dry density of a soil is 1. electronic. SOLUTION: From Eq. 2-12 and Eq.Index and Classification Properties of Soils Chapter 2 2.0) (c) ρt = ρdry (1 + w) = 1.00 Mg / m3 © 2011 Pearson Education.72 Mg / m3 ⎠ ⎝ ⎝ ⎠ 2. Inc. (b) void ratio.95 Mg / m3 2.60 Mg/m3 and the solids have a density of 2. A dry quartz sand has a density of 1.65) = (b) From Eq. Inc.9 What is the water content of a fully saturated soil with a dry density of 1.15: e = = 0. storage in a retrieval system.76% (a) Solving for w: w = ρ w S ⎜ 3 3 ⎟ ⎜ ρdry ρs ⎟ 2.68(1 + 0.34% Solving for w: w = ρ w S ⎜ 3 3 ⎟ ⎜ ρdry ρs ⎟ 2. 2.72 Mg/m3? Assume ρs = 2. 2-15: ρdry = ρw S ρ w+ w S ρs ⎛ 1 ⎛ ⎞ 1⎞ 1 1 − ⎟ = (1Mg / m3 )(100%) ⎜ − = 24.10. NJ. recording..65 Mg/m3. SOLUTION: Given: S = 100% From Eq. photocopying.

determine the water content. and void ratio of the soil.21(100) × 100% = = 26. wet unit weight. photocopying.12.03) = = 0. NJ. dry unit weight. write to: Rights and Permissions Department. electronic.56 − 0. The container alone had a mass of 49.7288 = 0. Upper Saddle River.2565 e= Vv 0.70) = = 0. A chunk of soil has a wet weight of 62 lb and a volume of 0. All rights reserved. recording. SOLUTION: Solve using phase diagram relationships.0)(2. For information regarding permission(s). If the specific gravity of solids Gs = 2.75 g Mw = 113.. assume Gs = 2.21 g (a) w = Mw 13.8451 = 0. This publication is protected by Copyright and written permission should be obtained from the publisher prior to any prohibited reproduction. Pearson Education.64)(62. 2. storage in a retrieval system.3035 2. or likewise.4 γw (b) γ t = (c) γ dry = (d) Vw = Vs = Ws 50 = = 0.0% Ws 50 Wt 62 = = 110.4) Vv = Vt − Vv = 0.14.29 pcf Vt 0.06 − 49.75 ρs w 2.27 g before it was placed in the oven and 100. mechanical.84 Vs 0.13.06 g after the soil had dried. Ms = 100.56 Ws 50 = = 89. The specific gravity of solids is 2.3035 = 0.7 pcf Vt 0. or transmission in any form or by any means.31 = 50.2565 = = 0..15: e= © 2011 Pearson Education.31 g.73 ρw S (1)(100) (b) From Eq. What is the void ratio of this soil? SOLUTION: w = 20% and S = 90%.0% Ms 50.27 − 100.56 ft3. a container of saturated soil had a mass of 113. Upper Saddle River. Inc.15: e = wρs (20.Index and Classification Properties of Soils Chapter 2 2.60 Sρ w (90)(1.80(26. .70 From Eq. (a) Ww = Wt − Ws = 62 − 50 = 12 lb w= Ww 12(100) × 100% = = 24. A natural deposit of soil is found to have a water content of 20% and to be 90% saturated. When dried in an oven.64. NJ 07458.3035 ft 3 Gs γ w (2.1923 ft 3 62. the soil weighs 50 lb.03 = 26. In the lab.0) 2.06 = 13. SOLUTION: Solve using phase diagram relationships.80. Determine the void ratio and water content of the original soil sample. Inc. 2.56 Ww 12 = = 0.

40 m3 ) = 1060 kg = Mt 3 ρt = Mt 1060 = = 1060 kg m Vt 1.857) = 107. Upper Saddle River.857) = 196.000 cm3 Vv = n × Vt = (0.0%.29 g 2. photocopying. .12)(892.. SOLUTION: Natural state w = 0. how much force is required to prevent it from sinking? Assume that a weightless membrane surrounds the specimen.12 = Mw Ms → Mw = (0. This publication is protected by Copyright and written permission should be obtained from the publisher prior to any prohibited reproduction. electronic.40 m3 Ms = Gs × ρs × Vs = (2. C. Upper Saddle River. NJ. Inc.0) = 0.143 = 89. or transmission in any form or by any means.) SOLUTION: Vt = 1m3 = 1 .0%. C.8 N © 2011 Pearson Education. It has been calculated that the maximum density for the soil will be obtained when the water content reaches 22.60 m3 Vs = Vt − Vv = 1. write to: Rights and Permissions Department.286 = 89.0 − 0.Index and Classification Properties of Soils Chapter 2 2.4 N m Force = γ buoy × (entrapped air) = 1373.6)(1. recording. A cubic meter of dry quartz sand (Gs = 2.81) = 1373. For information regarding permission(s). NJ 07458. If the sand contains 0.27 m3 of entrapped air.12Ms = 1000 g Ms = 892.15.0%. Inc. Pearson Education. Compute how many grams of water must be added to each 1000 g of soil (in its natural state) in order to increase the water content to 22.000. (Prof.12)Ms Mt = Ms + Mw = Ms + 0.. storage in a retrieval system.0 3 ρbuoy = ρt − ρoil = 1060 − 920 = 140 kg m 3 γ buoy = ρbuoy × g = (140)(9.143 g Target state (Note: Ms does not change between natural state and target state) Mw = w × Ms = (0.429 − 107. mechanical.65) with a porosity of 60% is immersed in an oil bath having a density of 0. The natural water content of a sample taken from a soil deposit was found to be 12.60 = 0.27 m3 = 370.857 g Mw = (0. All rights reserved.16.65)(1000 kg m )(0.429 g additional water necessary = 196.12Ms = 1.4 N 3 m3 × 0.92 g/cm3. or likewise.22)(892. Ladd.

857 = 1768 kg m 0.10 kg Specific gravity of solids: 2. Inc. its compacted void ratio is 0. void ratio.73. The soil will be used for a highway project where a total of 100.18.15.00364 S= × 100 = 57.47 m3 0.00822 0. Upper Saddle River. NJ.64 = 0.6% 1 + 0.17. photocopying.73 + 1 Borrow Pit Vs(emb) = Vs(borr ) = Vs(emb) = Vt(borr ) Vt e +1 = Vs × (eborr + 1) = (57.64 e= 3. porosity.81) = 17. This publication is protected by Copyright and written permission should be obtained from the publisher prior to any prohibited reproduction. write to: Rights and Permissions Department.000 m3 100.006344 m3 0.7718 = 0.74 − 22.15 + 1) = 124.74 kg Mass after oven drying: 22.277 m3 2.857)(9.47)(1.69)(1000) Vv = 0. Pearson Education.7718 (d) n = × 100 = 43.006344 Vw = © 2011 Pearson Education. Upper Saddle River.01456 m3 Total mass: 25.006344 = 0.69 Find the density. For information regarding permission(s).00822 = 0.00364 1000 0. NJ 07458. or transmission in any form or by any means. storage in a retrieval system. recording.01456 − 0. electronic. and degree of saturation for the moist soil.. How much volume has to be excavated from the borrow pit to meet the job requirements? SOLUTION: V Vv Vt − Vs = → Vs = t e e e +1 Embankment Vs = Vt = 100.00822 m3 Gs ρ w (2. mechanical. unit weight.000 = 57.01456 (b) γ t = ρt × g = (1767. or likewise. Inc.4% 0.74 = 1767.68 N m = 17. SOLUTION: 25.77 0. All rights reserved.803.7718 (e) Mw = 25.10 = = 0. A soil sample taken from a borrow pit has a natural void ratio of 1.377 = 57.342.56 = 43.000 m3 of soil is needed in its compacted state..10 = 3.803. .Index and Classification Properties of Soils Chapter 2 2.34 kN m (a) ρt = 3 3 3 (c) Vs = Ms 22. A sample of moist soil was found to have the following characteristics: Total volume: 0.

65 What is the degree of saturation of this specimen? SOLUTION: π(3)2 × 6 = 42.869 in3 = 0. NJ.83)2 (a) Vt = × 6 = 37.429 = 78. SOLUTION: π(2.65)(62. storage in a retrieval system. . or likewise. mechanical.19.9 grams and weighed 85.4 = = 47.02454 ft 3 4 Ws 2. (b) A small chunk of the original sample had a wet weight of 140. or transmission in any form or by any means. using the correct number of significant figures.741in ) (1 ft 12 in) ( 777 g) 1lb 453.54 = 0.54 Vs = = = 0.741in3 .5% × 100% = 15.869 Vv © 2011 Pearson Education.4) Vt = Vv = Vt − Vs = 42.2 = 55.6 N m = 7.6 g 3 ( 3 = 78.01536 ft 3 = 26.654) 3 w= Mw 55.542 in3 Gs γ w (2.54 lb Oven temperature 110°C Drying time 24 hours Specific gravity of solids 2.4 lb ft ) (1 ft 0.4 γw Vw 11. Inc.9 − 85.38 = 65.288)(9. The “moist” soil was extruded from a 6-inch-high brass liner with an inside diameter of 2.00657 ft 3 = 11. A cylindrical soil specimen is tested in the laboratory.4115 − 26.4536 kg1lb) = 759. Pearson Education. Compute the water content.95 − 2. write to: Rights and Permissions Department.3048 m ) 3 (0.7 g.5 feet. A gray silty clay (CL) is sampled from a depth of 12.83 inches and weighed 777 grams.542 = 15..009184 ft 3 Ww = Wt − Ws = 2. electronic. recording.288 3 3 kg m3 = 0. Upper Saddle River. 4 M γt = t = Vt ) ( 37. Inc. (c) Compute the dry density in Mg/m3 and the dry unit weight in kN/m3.7 × 100% = = 65.2 grams after drying. (a) Calculate the wet density in pounds per cubic feet.4 pcf (b) Mw = Mt − Ms = 140.2 ρdry = ( 47. photocopying.41 = = 0. after drying in oven 2. The following properties were obtained: Sample diameter 3 inches Sample length 6 inches Wt.4% Ms 85.20..354 × 100 = 71.41lb Vw = S= Ww 0.4115 in3 = 0. All rights reserved. NJ 07458. before drying in oven 2. This publication is protected by Copyright and written permission should be obtained from the publisher prior to any prohibited reproduction. For information regarding permission(s). Upper Saddle River.759 Mg m 3 γ dry = (759.Index and Classification Properties of Soils Chapter 2 2.81) = 7448.95 lb Wt.40 pcf (1 + w) (1 + 0.45 kN m 2. (c) γ dry = γt 78.354 in3 62.

594 final conditions Vw = Vv = 73. Inc. Mw = 73.723 Vt 196.797 × 100% = 50.5 cm thick.0 = 157.553 cm3 Vv = (1. Ms = 225.0 − 32.21 A sample of saturated silt is 10 cm in diameter and 2.70)(83.35Vs = 196. Its void ratio in this state is 1.350 cm3 4 V S = 1 = w → Vw = Vv Vv Vv = e × Vs = 1.6 = 17. recording. .Index and Classification Properties of Soils Chapter 2 2. SOLUTION: (a) Vt = π(10)2 × 2.553) = 112.553)(1 g cm3 ) = 225.594 g (no change) 73.553 cm3 (no change) Vv = Vt − Vs = 157. All rights reserved.594 g Mt = 112. in prior to being compressed. Upper Saddle River. The sample is compressed to a 2-cm thickness without a change in diameter. NJ.35Vs + Vs = 2. or likewise.08 − 83.391 g ρt = Mt 338.797 g Ms = Gs × Vs × ρ w = (2.35. This publication is protected by Copyright and written permission should be obtained from the publisher prior to any prohibited reproduction. or transmission in any form or by any means. photocopying.70.35Vs Vt = Vv + Vs = 1.594 Δw = 50. mechanical..527 cm3 73.391 = = 1. Inc.553 e final = (c) w initial = 112.527 g.08 cm3 4 Vs = 83. storage in a retrieval system.797 cm3 = Vw Mw = ρ w × Vw = (1 g cm3 )(112. For information regarding permission(s).553 = 73.350 → Vs = 83.6% 225.4% w final = © 2011 Pearson Education. write to: Rights and Permissions Department.527 × 100% = 32. NJ 07458.88 83.5 = 196.0% 225.35)(83.527 = 0.35 g cm3 = 1723 kg m3 (b) Vt − 2 = π(10)2 × 2.527 cm3 .797) = 112.. Pearson Education. electronic. and the specific gravity of solids is 2. (b) Find the void ratio after compression and the change in water content that occurred from initial to final state.594 = 338. (a) Find the density of the silt sample. Upper Saddle River.797 + 225.

383 cm3 .053 cm3 ΔV = 80 − 76. Gs ρ w 2. specific gravity of solids Gs =2. Upper Saddle River. NJ. . NJ 07458.20)Ms Mt = Ms + 0. electronic. Inc.667 cm3 3 Vs = Si = Ms 133.667 = 76. recording. For information regarding permission(s).. mechanical. photocopying..95 cm3 © 2011 Pearson Education. Inc. or likewise.617 cm3 Desired condition: S = 100% Vt changes.10% 30.617 Vv = 80 − 49. write to: Rights and Permissions Department.Index and Classification Properties of Soils Chapter 2 2. total volume Vt =80 cm3.22. A sample of sand has the following properties: total mass Mt = 160 g. How much would the sample volume have to change to get 100% saturation.667 × 100% = 87. Upper Saddle River. This publication is protected by Copyright and written permission should be obtained from the publisher prior to any prohibited reproduction.33) = 26. Vv = Vw Vw = 26.383 = 30.20Ms = 160 g Ms = 133. Pearson Education.667 cm3 (when S = 100%) Vt = Vs + Vv = 49.33 = = 49. storage in a retrieval system.667 g.383 + 26. or transmission in any form or by any means.667 g. All rights reserved.70 26.053 = 3.70. assuming the sample mass Mt stayed the same? SOLUTION: Mw = w × Ms = (0. water content w = 20%.33 g Mw = (0.20)(133. but Vs and Ms remain the same Mw = 26. Vw = (1 g cm )Mw = 26.

. or transmission in any form or by any means.Index and Classification Properties of Soils Chapter 2 2. or likewise.238. and (f) dry density. electronic. For information regarding permission(s).238.67 47.7% 32.13281) 3 3 ⎛ 1 ⎞ lbm ρdry = 1600. (c) porosity. (b) void ratio.3% Ms 128 Ms 128 = = 47. photocopying.000 (c) n = (d) Vw = Mw × ρw = (17)(1) = 17 cm3 = 17.5 kg m 80 ⎛ 1 ⎞ lbm ρt = 1812.761.5 = 1600.2 ft ⎝ 16. (e) wet density. mechanical.2 = 32.761.8 = 0.8 × 100% = 40. All rights reserved.0 kg m × ⎜ ⎟ = 99. storage in a retrieval system.7612 cm3 = 47. NJ 07458. recording.000 × 100% = 52.8 (e) ρt = 145 = 1. Pearson Education.9 ft ⎝ 16. Inc.281 = 13. This publication is protected by Copyright and written permission should be obtained from the publisher prior to any prohibited reproduction. Find the: (a) water content. (d) degree of saturation. Inc.68 Mg/m3. .000 − 47. The dry weight of the specimen is 128 g. Upper Saddle River. Draw a phase diagram and begin to fill in the blanks: A soil specimen has total volume of 80.3% 80.2 mm3 Gs ρw (2.8125 g cm = 1812.000 mm3 and weighs 145 g.23.761. Give the answers to parts (e) and (f) in both SI and British engineering units.238.68)(1) (b) Vs = Vv = 80.8 mm3 e= 32.5 kg m × ⎜ ⎟ = 113.000 mm3 S= 17. NJ. and the density of the soil solids is 2.018 ⎠ 3 (see Appendix A) © 2011 Pearson Education..018 ⎠ 3 3 3 3 (see Appendix A) (f ) ρdry = 1812.238. write to: Rights and Permissions Department.0 kg m (1 + 0. SOLUTION: (a) Mw 145 − 128 = 17 g w= Mw 17 × 100% = × 100 = 13.2 32. Upper Saddle River.

063Ms + Ms = 1.46 g. A sample of soil plus container weighs 397. mechanical. SOLUTION: Mt = 397. How much water needs to be added to the original specimen if the water content is to be increased by 3. For information regarding permission(s).43(100) × 100% = = 46. Calculate the water content of the sample. or likewise.43 g (a) w = Mw 3.7 = 138. recording.40 g Mw = 18. The container weighs 258. SOLUTION: Ms = 15.03 − 7. of Interior (1990).24. Weight of the empty container was 7.03 = 3. Dept.S. NJ 07458. Upper Saddle River.3%. write to: Rights and Permissions Department.6 g when the initial water content is 6. A water-content test was made on a sample of clayey silt. and the weight of the dry soil plus container was 15. All rights reserved.63 g. This publication is protected by Copyright and written permission should be obtained from the publisher prior to any prohibited reproduction.9 g Mw = 0.46 − 15. photocopying.44 g 2. storage in a retrieval system. electronic..063Ms Ms = 130.3% Ms 7. Inc.7 g. or transmission in any form or by any means. The weight of the wet soil plus container was 18.034)(130.668) = 4. NJ.351 = 46.4%? After U.40 © 2011 Pearson Education. Inc..63 = 7. Pearson Education. .Index and Classification Properties of Soils Chapter 2 2.063Ms Mt = 138.03 g.034 Ms ΔMw = Δw × Ms = (0.25.6 − 258.668 g Δw = ΔMw = 0.9 = Mw + Ms = 0. Upper Saddle River.

.0 Water Content (%) 24.0 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 Time in Oven (min) © 2011 Pearson Education.62 217.14 16. After U.82 25. All rights reserved.0 22. NJ.72 215.78 23.33 23.05 23. of Interior (1990).30 grams. or transmission in any form or by any means. mechanical.9733 g (this value is constant throughout drying period) column 5 = 231.11 22.40 23. Upper Saddle River.32 g Mw = (0. NJ 07458.26.237Ms + Ms Ms = 68.62 − 146. Upper Saddle River. SOLUTION: Mt = 231.87 15.22 215.32 215.19 CALCULATED Mass of Water (g) -13. . For information regarding permission(s).Index and Classification Properties of Soils Chapter 2 2.40 16.9733 CONCLUSION: The loss of additional water in the soil sample becomes negligible after 8 to 10 minutes in the microwave oven used in the experiment. recording. evaluate the water content and draw conclusions. electronic.19 215.43 Water Content (%) -20.237)Ms 85. storage in a retrieval system.7%.3 = 85. photocopying.. Inc.75 216. Inc.43 16. The oven-dried water content is 23. The mass of the dish is 146. write to: Rights and Permissions Department. This publication is protected by Copyright and written permission should be obtained from the publisher prior to any prohibited reproduction.0 20.30 16.63 23.22 215. GIVEN Time in Oven (min) 0 3 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 Total Oven Time (min) 0 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 Mass of Soil + Dish (g) 231. or likewise.48 215. From the data below.S.82 23.90 16.0 19. A soil sample is dried in a microwave oven to determine its water content.40 15.62 − column 3 × 100% 68.0 23.0 21.32 = 0. Pearson Education. Dept.

NJ 07458. The mass of a sample of silty clay soil plus container is 18. Upper Saddle River.67 = 4. recording.84 g. or transmission in any form or by any means. The volume of solids Vs is 0. find the water content. The volume of water in a sample of moist soil is 0. SOLUTION: Ms = 13. NJ.43 − 13. SOLUTION: Assume S = 100% (a) e = Gs w (2.3692) = = 0.6)(0. .4% Ms 982 2.Index and Classification Properties of Soils Chapter 2 2.96 © 2011 Pearson Education.76 g (a) w = Mw 4.24 m3. Inc. For the soil sample of Problem 2. compute (a) the void ratio and (b) the porosity. Inc. SOLUTION: Ms = ρs × Vs = (2600)(0. mechanical. Compute the water content of the sample. or likewise.76(100) × 100% = = 98. electronic.67 g.96 (b) n = × 100 = 50. write to: Rights and Permissions Department. A specimen of fully saturated clay soil that weighs 1389 g in its natural state weighs 982 g after drying. This publication is protected by Copyright and written permission should be obtained from the publisher prior to any prohibited reproduction. The container weighs 8..83 2.96 S (1) 0.9% 650 2. What is the natural water content of the soil? SOLUTION: Mw = 1389 − 982 = 407 g (a) w = Mw 407(100) × 100% = = 41.25 m3.67 − 8. All rights reserved.28. Given that the density of soil solids ρs is 2600 kg/m3.5% Ms 4.84 = 4. Upper Saddle River..43 g and the weight of the dry soil plus container is 13.27.83 g Mw = 18.30.24) = 240 kg w= 240 × 100% = 36. Pearson Education.0% 1 + 0. For information regarding permission(s). storage in a retrieval system. photocopying.29.29.25) = 650 kg Mw = ρw × Vw = (1000)(0.

water content.68 Vv = 592 − 343.284 = 248. .53 kg m = 1.68 3 g cm3 920 = 343. Upper Saddle River.32.716 cm3 Vs = (a) e = Vv 248. storage in a retrieval system.716 = = 0. Pearson Education. NJ 07458. compute (a) the total or wet density and (b) the dry density.7245 × 100% = 42.841 g cm = 1841 kg m 592 3 (d) ρt = 3 © 2011 Pearson Education.49 m3 ρt = 710 = 1448.31.72 Vs 343. photocopying. SOLUTION: ρs = 2680 kg m = 2. and total density in kg/m3. or transmission in any form or by any means. Its dry weight is 920 g and the density of solids is 2680 kg/m3.49 3 3 3 2. Upper Saddle River. NJ. write to: Rights and Permissions Department.284 0. Give your answers in Mg/m3. kg/m3. or likewise. degree of saturation..284 cm3 2. This publication is protected by Copyright and written permission should be obtained from the publisher prior to any prohibited reproduction.4% Vv 248.7245 (b) n = (c) Mw = 1090 − 920 = 170 g Vw = S= 170 = 170 cm3 ρw Vw 170 × 100% = × 100 = 68. electronic.49 3 3 3 (b) ρdry = 650 = 1326. Compute the void ratio. All rights reserved.0% 1 + 0. A 592-cm3 volume of moist sand weighs 1090 g.25 + 0.45 Mg m = 90.4 lbm ft 0.24 = 0. mechanical. Inc.7245 = 0.. SOLUTION: Assume S = 100% (a) Vt = 0. recording. and lbf/ft3.98 kg m = 1.8 lbm ft 0. For the soil sample of Problem 2.Index and Classification Properties of Soils Chapter 2 2.33 Mg m = 82. porosity.29. For information regarding permission(s). Inc.716 1090 = 1.

58. electronic. Vw = Vv = 0.6 lbf ft 3 3 ⎛ 16. NJ 07458. NJ. A sand is composed of solid constituents having a density of 2..58 Mg Mt = 2. For information regarding permission(s).26 = 2.06 − 1.34.58) = 0.Index and Classification Properties of Soils Chapter 2 2. SOLUTION: γ ' = 137 − 62.58 m3 3 2.4 = 74. Inc. storage in a retrieval system. Upper Saddle River. or transmission in any form or by any means.6 lbf ft ) ⎜ ⎜ 1lbm ft ⎝ 3 3 ⎞ ⎟ = 1195 kg m ⎟ ⎠ 3 2.018 kg m ρ ' = ( 74. recording.6962 = 1.68 + 0. The saturated density γsat of a soil is 137 lbf/ft3. ρdry = Vt = 1 + 0. All rights reserved.58 m3 Mw = (1)(0.33..0 = 1.06 Mg m ρsat = 3 3 © 2011 Pearson Education.68 Mg/m3.58 = 1. This publication is protected by Copyright and written permission should be obtained from the publisher prior to any prohibited reproduction.68 = 1. SOLUTION: Assume Vs = 1m3 Vv = 0.58 = 3. write to: Rights and Permissions Department.58.70 Mg m 1. Find the buoyant density of this soil in both lbf/ft3 and kg/m3. The void ratio is 0. or likewise. Upper Saddle River. mechanical. Pearson Education. Inc. .58 For S = 100%.06 Mg m 1. Compute the density of the sand when dry and when saturated and compare it with the density when submerged.26 Mg 3.58 ρ ' = 2. photocopying.

18 kg Mw = (0. Vv Vw = Mw = 1. photocopying.18 Vs = 0.18 = = 0.104 Mg S= Vw = 1 → Vw = Vv .52)(2. This publication is protected by Copyright and written permission should be obtained from the publisher prior to any prohibited reproduction.70 Mg/m3. Upper Saddle River.36.18) = 181. Clearly state any necessary assumptions. Inc.12 Mg m 2. SOLUTION: Mw = Ms × w = 0..7 (b) ρdry = = 1.146 m3 Volume (m3) Vv = 0. Va = 0. ρs 2700 Vw = 181. write to: Rights and Permissions Department.4 1.404 m3 = Vv ρw Vt = 1.104 = 1.0 Mw = 182 Ms = 1818 Mt = 2000 © 2011 Pearson Education.35. dry density.181 = 0.7 Mg. Assume ρs = 2. SOLUTION: Assume Vs = 1m3 .181m3 1000 Vv = 1 − 0.673 m3 . Upper Saddle River.404 (c) ρ ' = 1. A 1-m3 sample of moist soil weighs 2000 kg. recording. Assume Gs = 2. Inc.15 Vw = 0.7 Ms = Gs × Vs × ρs = (2. A sample of natural glacial till was taken from below the groundwater table.404 + 1. P2. and void ratio.0 (d) n = 2.71 − 1.71 Mg m (a) ρt = 3 3 3 1. electronic.10Ms Mt = 2000 = Ms + 0.71 Mg m 2.36. The water content is 10%. porosity.404 × 100% = 58.67 air water solid Mass (kg) Vt = 1.82 kg Vs = Ms 1818.4% 2.0 = 0.. All rights reserved.327 m3 .7 + 1. mechanical.404 = 4.7)(1)(1) = 2. For information regarding permission(s).404 2.10)(1818. storage in a retrieval system. With this information.10Ms = 1.404 m3 4.82 = 0.327 − 0.673 = 0. buoyant density. NJ. Mw = w × Ms = (0. .7) = 1. Estimate the wet density. or transmission in any form or by any means. fill in all blanks in the phase diagram of Fig.10Ms → Ms = 1818.404 Mg Mt = 2.404 1.404 (e) e = = 1.33 Va = 0. or likewise. NJ 07458.Index and Classification Properties of Soils Chapter 2 2.0 = 2. The water content was found to be 52%. Pearson Education.

4859 = 0.7% 1. write to: Rights and Permissions Department.75 = 1694 kg m 1.6) = 0.38.6 m3 Mw = ρw × Vw = (1000)(0. electronic. and (c) the dry density. Inc.75)(0.673 0. Mt = 450 + 2710 = 3160 kg (a) w = Mw 450 × 100 = × 100 = 16.6 Vt 3 3 Vw = S × Vv = (0.6 m3 .6)(1.36. or transmission in any form or by any means.6 % Ms 2710 Ms 2710 = = 1693. or likewise.Index and Classification Properties of Soils Chapter 2 2.018 ( ) 3 © 2011 Pearson Education.49 0.6 + 1. calculate (a) the void ratio.45) = 450 kg.37.0) = 2710 kg (b) ρdry = 3 ⎛ 1 lbm ft ρdry = (1694 kg m ) ⎜ ⎜ 16.8 lbm ft ⎟ ⎠ 3 ρt = (1975) 1 = 123. For the information given in Problem 2.018 kg m ⎝ Mt 3160 ρt = = = 1975 kg m Vt 1. .0 (a) e = 3 2. Vt = 0. Upper Saddle River. Inc.45 m3 Ms = ρs × Vs = (2710)(1. Upper Saddle River. NJ. Assuming the density of the solids is 2710 kg/m3. mechanical. photocopying.18 (c) ρdry = = 1818 kg m 1. Pearson Education.0 m3 Vv = e × Vs = (0. storage in a retrieval system. NJ 07458. SOLUTION: Assume Vs = 1. (b) the porosity. recording.327 = 0. This publication is protected by Copyright and written permission should be obtained from the publisher prior to any prohibited reproduction. The void ratio of clay soil is 0.3 lbm ft 16.0 = 1.327 (b) n = × 100 = 32.0) = 0. For information regarding permission(s).6 3 3 ⎞ ⎟ = 105.6 and the degree of saturation is 75%. compute (a) the water content and (b) dry and wet densities in both SI and British engineering units. All rights reserved..0 1818. SOLUTION: 0..

15: (b) n = e= 3 wρs (38. compute the void ratio.70) = 2. Pearson Education.8391 = 1.0) e 1.026) = = 1.03 Sρ w (100)(1.70) + (1. Inc. respectively.70) + (1.026 ρ + ρw e (2.17: ρsat = s 1+ e 1 + 1. Upper Saddle River. On the assumption that ρs = 2. A specimen of saturated glacial clay has a water content of 38%.. and saturated density. This publication is protected by Copyright and written permission should be obtained from the publisher prior to any prohibited reproduction.40.70 Mg m (a) From Eq. For information regarding permission(s). ρs = 2. porosity. photocopying.17: ρsat = ρs + ρ w e 1+ e (2. The values of minimum e and maximum e for a pure silica sand were found to be 0.0)(0.70.13 Mg m max imum : ρsat = 1 + 0.026 3 2.50 and 0. electronic. 2.00 Mg m minimum : ρsat = 1 + 0.6 % 1+ e 1 + 1.0)(1.0)(2. write to: Rights and Permissions Department.70) + (1. S = 100%. 2. or transmission in any form or by any means.. SOLUTION: w = 38%. mechanical. Inc.70 Mg/m3.70 3 3 © 2011 Pearson Education.50 (2.026 × 100 = × 100 = 50. What is the corresponding range in the saturated density in kg/m3? SOLUTION: Eq. 2. All rights reserved.84 Mg m (c) From Eq.Index and Classification Properties of Soils Chapter 2 2.39. recording. storage in a retrieval system.70) = = 1.0)(0. . NJ 07458.026 = 1.50) = 2. NJ. or likewise. Upper Saddle River.

13 g © 2011 Pearson Education.12 − 20.0 − 0.0 0. A quick internet search on packing of equal spheres will reveal numerous mathematical theories and approaches for estimating the densest and loosest possible packing. PL = Ws = 20.8 Ws 19.46 = 19..3 mm in diameter.28 g. . or likewise. thus.14 mm in diameter) and (b) tiny ball bearings 0.52 Vv 0. Inc. NJ 07458. Inc. and Vs = 1 − 0.46 g Compute the PL of the soil.2595 2.84 − 1.43.38 The plastic limit cannot be evaluated using a one-point method. the densest possible packing of equal-size spheres yields a solids volume of about: Vs = π = 0.48 = 0.48 = = 0. Pearson Education. and materials scientists since the 1600s. Calculate the maximum possible porosity and void ratio for a collection of (a) tennis balls (assume they are 64. the loosest arrangement of equal spheres yields a void fraction of about 0.35 0.48 × 100 = 48 % 1.7405.7405 Vv = 1. This publication is protected by Copyright and written permission should be obtained from the publisher prior to any prohibited reproduction.48.84 g Container weight = 1. (These values are approximate – there is not a unified consensus in the 18 literature. NJ. Can the plastic limit be evaluated by a one-point method? SOLUTION: Ww = 23. storage in a retrieval system. Upper Saddle River.7405 = 0.7405. A plastic-limit test has the following results: Wet weight + container = 23. the following data was obtained for one of the samples: Wet weight + container = 23. nmax = emax = Vv × 100 = Vt 0. SOLUTION: Three-dimensional particle arrangement of equal spheres has been studied in depth by mathematicians. mechanical.12 g Dry weight + container = 20. recording. or transmission in any form or by any means.84 = 2. regardless of sphere size. As an aside.Index and Classification Properties of Soils Chapter 2 2.52 Densest packing (not required in problem statement) Vs = 0. During a plastic-limit test. statisticians.42.41.28 × 100 = × 100 = 11.48. electronic. nmin = emin 0. For information regarding permission(s).0. All rights reserved. Upper Saddle River.) Loosest packing For Vt = 1.2595 = = 0. photocopying.2595 × 100 = 26% 1. thus.0 Vv = 0. In general.92 Vs 0..38 g Ww 2. write to: Rights and Permissions Department. 2.

Inc.12 − 1.62 g Ww 4. Inc. compute (a) the total or wet density and (b) the dry density. This publication is protected by Copyright and written permission should be obtained from the publisher prior to any prohibited reproduction. Ms = 876 g Mw = 1489 − 876 = 613 g. ρw 1.01 × 100 = × 100 = 22. Gs ρ w (2.13 − 19. PL = Ws = 19.89. Draw a phase diagram and properly label it. The degree of saturation of a cohesive soil is 100%.Index and Classification Properties of Soils Dry weight + container = 19.. Vs = Ms 876 = = 324.70 thus.0) Vt = 613 + 324 = 937 cm3 Volume (cm3) Vv = 937 Mass (g) air Va 613 Vt = Vw = Vs = 613 324 water solid Mw = 613 Ms = 876 Mt = 1489 2.8 Ws 17. For the soil in the previous problem.0 g cm 3 Vw = Vv = Vw 613 = = 613 cm3 S 1. compute the void ratio and the porosity.01 g.4 cm3 . Pearson Education.0% Ms 876 Mw 613 = = 613 cm3 .45. kN/m3. For information regarding permission(s). storage in a retrieval system.4% Vt 937 2. Mt = 876 + 613 = 1489 g w= Mw 613 × 100 = × 100 = 70.46. mechanical. NJ. SOLUTION: © 2011 Pearson Education. recording.50 = 17.7)(1. For the soil in the previous two problems. and lbf/ft3.44.62 Chapter 2 2. The clay when wet weighs 1489 g and after drying weighs only 876 g. photocopying. or transmission in any form or by any means.0 Assume Gs = 2. electronic.. Find the water content of the soil.12 = 4. or likewise. Mt = 1489 g. SOLUTION: S = 100%. NJ 07458.12 g Container weight = 1. Does your answer compare with what you would expect for a saturated cohesive soil? SOLUTION: e= Vv 613 = = 1. Vs 324 n= Vv 613 × 100% = × 100 = 65. Provide your answers in units of Mg/m3. Upper Saddle River. . write to: Rights and Permissions Department. All rights reserved. Upper Saddle River.50 g What is the PL of the soil? SOLUTION: Ww = 23.

.59 Mg m Vt 937 3 3 3 Chapter 2 3 γ t = 15.3 lbf ft 2. Inc.4 = 135. NJ. Inc.018) = 2169 kg m © 2011 Pearson Education. photocopying. Upper Saddle River. All rights reserved. . recording.. 3 γ t = γ sat = γ '+ γ w = 73 + 62.59 kN m = 99. Pearson Education. mechanical.17 kN m = 58.93 Mg m 3 γ dry = 9. storage in a retrieval system.4)(16. Upper Saddle River. or likewise. Calculate its wet density in kg/m3. NJ 07458. or transmission in any form or by any means. For information regarding permission(s).9349 Vt 937 3 3 g cm3 = 0. This publication is protected by Copyright and written permission should be obtained from the publisher prior to any prohibited reproduction.Index and Classification Properties of Soils (a) ρt = Mt 1489 = = 1.5891 g cm = 1.47. electronic. A soil specimen had a buoyant density of 73 pounds per cubic foot.4 lb ft 3 3 ρt = (135. write to: Rights and Permissions Department. SOLUTION: γ ' = 73 lb ft .2 lbf ft (b) ρdry = Ms 876 = = 0.

electronic.8 = = 1.366 = = 1.36 4.366 g = = 66.0 = 157.47 Mg m3 Vt 120. . and (d) degree of saturation of the sample.025 → Vw = → Mw = Mt − Ms = 181.9 − 181. A specimen of cemented silty sand is treated in this way to obtain the “chunk density.0 − 36.0 → Vt = Vt + wax − Vwax = 157..79 cm3 (a) ρt = Mt 181.0 cm3 1.53.79 = = 0. photocopying.2 % Vv 53.366 g 1 + w 1 + .0 − 36. For information regarding permission(s). determine the (a) wet density. NJ 07458. or likewise. Inc. Upper Saddle River.” From the information given below. (b) dry density.8 − 177.9 = 157. Mass of specimen at natural water content in air = 181.Index and Classification Properties of Soils Chapter 2 2.43 = 53.650 g cm3 Mw 4. This publication is protected by Copyright and written permission should be obtained from the publisher prior to any prohibited reproduction.43 g Ms 177.72 (b) ρdry = (c) e = (d) S = Vv 53.93 Mass (g) wax air water solid Mw = 4.43 cm3 ρ w 1. NJ.28 = 120. recording. Pearson Education. mechanical.72 Va = 53.1 Vv = 120.80 Vs 66.5% Soil solid density = 2650 kg/m3 Wax solid density = 940 kg/m3 SOLUTION: w= Vs = Mt − Ms Ms → Ms = Mt 181.36 + 4.4 = 4.940 Mwax = Mt + wax − Mt = 215.9 − 58.8 g Mass of specimen + wax coating in air = 215. write to: Rights and Permissions Department. (c) void ratio.43 Ms = 177.79 Volume (cm3) Vwax = Vt+wax = 157. The “chunk density” method is often used to determine the unit weight of a specimen of irregular shape. or transmission in any form or by any means.93 Vw 4.1 Mwax = 34.8 = = 177.28 49.43 × 100% = × 100 = 8.28 cm3 ρ wax 0.79 Vt = Vw = Vs = © 2011 Pearson Education.72 cm3 Vair = Vt + wax − Vwax − Vw − Vs = 157.93 cm3 ρs 2.9 g Natural water content = 2.0 36.50 Mg m3 Vt 120.4 Mt = 181. All rights reserved.43 66.1 = = 36.9 g Mass of specimen + wax in water = 58. Upper Saddle River.43 g = = 4.0 g 157.8 = 34.0 g cm3 Vwax = Mwax 34.1 g Mwater displaced = Mt + wax − Mwater displaced Vt + wax = Mwater displaced ρw = → → Mwater displaced = 215.93 = 49.36 cm3 Vv = Vair + Vw = 49. storage in a retrieval system.43 − 66.28 − 4.. Inc.72 Ms 177.

75 Mg. For information regarding permission(s).54. storage in a retrieval system.. Find the inconsistent value and report it correctly.83 cm3 ρt 1. (1) Vt = Mw = w × Ms = (3. write to: Rights and Permissions Department.55 Vs = 1. Pearson Education. (b) e = 0. or transmission in any form or by any means.75 + 8.13 Mg m Vt 10 3 3 Solution : ρt = 1.55 Mg Mt = Ms + Mw = 2. one was found to be inconsistent with the rest. the error must be in the ρt value.30 Va Vw = 8. (d) ρs = 2. Consequently. Upper Saddle River.75 Mg/m3. photocopying.11)(2. A sensitive volcanic clay soil was tested in the laboratory and found to have the following properties: (a) ρ = 1. In rechecking the above values.28 Mg/m3.75) = 8.55 Ms = 2. .75 Mt = 11. or likewise.Index and Classification Properties of Soils Chapter 2 2. Inc.55 = 8.30 = = 8. This publication is protected by Copyright and written permission should be obtained from the publisher prior to any prohibited reproduction.0) 8. (e) w = 311%.0? Mass (Mg) air water solid Mw = 8.83 or 10. NJ. (2) Vt = Vv + Vs = 9 + 1 = 10 cm3 ≠ 8.95)(9.55 = 11.30 = = 1. (c) S = 95%. NJ 07458.90. All rights reserved. Show all your computations and phase diagrams.0 Vt = 8.55 = = 8. mechanical.55 cm3 ρw 1.83 cm3 check : Gs w = Se (2..30 Mg Mt 11. Re-calculate ρt = Mt 11. Upper Saddle River.13 Mg m Volume (m3) Vv = 9.55 → These values are in correct proportion. Inc. electronic.11) = (0. SOLUTION: Assume Vs = 1 cm3 Ms = ρs × Vs = 2. recording.28 Vw = Mw 8.65)(3.0 © 2011 Pearson Education.0 Vv = e × Vs = (9)(1) = 9 cm3 .

Upper Saddle River.63 Mg m ρdry = ρt = 1. Under a static load of 200 kPa the volume is reduced 1%.6% Vt 454.83.24 Ms 740 = = 1.24 = 225.75 cm3 e= Vv 230.47 Mg m (c) Vibrated and loaded sand 510 = 454.01 Vv = Vt − Vs = 504.63.47 Mg m ρdry = ρt = 1.81. Assume the solid density of the sand grains is 2. Vs 279.24 Ms 740 = = 1.65 Mg/m3. (b) Sand under static load.95 − 279. (c) Vibrated and loaded sand..initial condition Vt = 510 cm3 Vv = Vt − Vs = 510 − 279. write to: Rights and Permissions Department.63 Vt 454..30 = = 0. mechanical.54 3 n= g cm3 Vv 175. and total density corresponding to each of the following cases: (a) Loose sand. dry density.30 × 100% = × 100 = 38.75 = = 0. recording.63 Mg m © 2011 Pearson Education. Inc.24 = 230.71 = = 0.45 Mg m (b) Sand under static load 510 = 504.45 Vt 510 3 n= Vv 230. photocopying.Index and Classification Properties of Soils Chapter 2 2. NJ 07458.55. Pearson Education. or likewise. storage in a retrieval system. All rights reserved.2% Vt 510 3 ρdry = g cm3 = 1. porosity. SOLUTION: Vs = Ms 740 = = 279.54 3 ρdry = = 1. Upper Saddle River. and then by vibration it is reduced 10% of the original volume.24 cm3 . This publication is protected by Copyright and written permission should be obtained from the publisher prior to any prohibited reproduction. A cylinder contains 510 cm3 of loose dry sand which weighs 740 g. For information regarding permission(s).0 (a) Loose sand .54 cm3 1. Inc. electronic.2% Vt 510 3 ρdry = = 1.75 × 100% = × 100 = 45.45 Mg m ρdry = ρt = 1. Vs 279.71 × 100% = × 100 = 44. NJ.47 Vt 504.95 3 n= g cm3 Vv 225. ρs 2.30 cm3 Vt = e= Vv 175.95 cm3 1. Vs 279.65 Mt = 740 g. or transmission in any form or by any means. dry sand: Mw = Vw = 0.24 Ms 740 = = 1. Compute the void ratio. .24 = 175.71 cm3 Vt = e= Vv 225.54 − 279.10 Vv = Vt − Vs = 454.

or transmission in any form or by any means. For information regarding permission(s). photocopying. NJ 07458. sand silt. write to: Rights and Permissions Department. continued next page © 2011 Pearson Education. mechanical. On five-cycle semilogarithmic paper. electronic.56. Inc. Upper Saddle River. (c) USCS. recording. Inc. Determine also the percentages of gravel. . Pearson Education.Index and Classification Properties of Soils Chapter 2 2. For each soil determine the effective size as well as the uniformity coefficient and the coefficient of curvature. and clay according to (a) ASTM. NJ. storage in a retrieval system. and (d) the British Standard. This publication is protected by Copyright and written permission should be obtained from the publisher prior to any prohibited reproduction. Upper Saddle River... All rights reserved. plot the grain-size distribution curves from the following mechanical analysis data on six soils. or likewise. (b) AASHTO. A through F.

. Upper Saddle River.6 1.9 16. Inc.06 0.04 0.0 1.09 1 0.006 N/D D30 (mm) 6 0. Inc.22 0. continued. All rights reserved. or likewise. NJ 07458..0 1000.16 0. Pearson Education.3 0. electronic.Index and Classification Properties of Soils 2.7 N/D Cc 2.015 N/D D60 (mm) 28 0. storage in a retrieval system.4 N/D continued next page © 2011 Pearson Education.005 0. . write to: Rights and Permissions Department.001 0.6 0. Upper Saddle River. For information regarding permission(s). Chapter 2 D SOLUTION: Cu = 60 D10 Cc = (D30 ) 2 D60 × D10 Particle Size Distribution GRAVEL Coarse 100 90 Fine Course SAND Medium Fine SILT or CLAY 100 90 80 70 60 50 40 30 20 10 Percent finer by weight 80 70 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 100 LEGEND 10 1 0.01 0 0.56.001 Grain size in millimeters Soil A Soil B Soil C Soil D Soil E Soil F Soil Type: Description: Depth: LL: PL: Cu = Cc = PI: Soil A B C D E F Effective Size D10 (mm) 0.0 0.1 3.6 3.1 0.7 18.1 0. photocopying.003 Cu 46. recording. NJ. This publication is protected by Copyright and written permission should be obtained from the publisher prior to any prohibited reproduction. or transmission in any form or by any means. mechanical.

Inc. continued... Upper Saddle River. Chapter 2 (a) Percentages according to ASTM. write to: Rights and Permissions Department. This publication is protected by Copyright and written permission should be obtained from the publisher prior to any prohibited reproduction. Upper Saddle River. Soil A B C D E F Gravel (%) 80 18 30 0 11 0 Sand (%) 16 27 38 100 32 0 Fines (silt + clay) 4 55 32 0 57 100 Silt (%) 4 45 18 0 49 29 Clay (%) 0 10 14 0 8 71 (c) Percentages according to USCS. NJ. electronic. or likewise.56. Pearson Education. . or transmission in any form or by any means. storage in a retrieval system. Soil A B C D E F Gravel (%) 73 12 19 0 0 0 Sand (%) 23 33 49 100 43 0 Fines (silt + clay) 4 55 32 0 57 100 Silt (%) ------Clay (%) ------- (d) Percentages according to the British Standard. Soil A B C D E F Gravel (%) 73 12 19 0 0 0 Sand (%) 23 33 49 100 43 0 Fines (silt + clay) 4 55 32 0 57 100 Silt (%) 4 45 18 0 49 29 Clay (%) 0 10 14 0 8 71 (b) Percentages according to AASHTO. For information regarding permission(s).Index and Classification Properties of Soils 2. mechanical. recording. Inc. NJ 07458. Soil A B C D E F Gravel (%) 80 18 30 0 11 0 Sand (%) 16 27 38 100 32 0 Fines (silt + clay) 4 55 32 0 57 100 Silt (%) 4 53 21 0 57 48 Clay (%) 0 2 11 0 0 52 © 2011 Pearson Education. All rights reserved. photocopying.

© 2011 Pearson Education. NJ 07458. Property wn (%) LL PL PI LI Soil A 27 13 8 5 3. NJ. The soils in Problem 2. or likewise. electronic.58. recording.24 Soil D 11 -NP 0 -Soil E 8 28 NP 0 -Soil F 72 60 28 32 1.59.8 LI = w n − PL PI Soil C 14 35 18 17 -0. Soil H violates the definitions because the PL > LL (42 > 38). Inc. Inc. All rights reserved. This publication is protected by Copyright and written permission should be obtained from the publisher prior to any prohibited reproduction. Upper Saddle River.56 have the following Atterberg limits and natural water contents. For information regarding permission(s). SOLUTION: PI = LL − PL.38 Soil B 14 35 29 6 -2. Pearson Education. Upper Saddle River. mechanical. .5 Soil A: very sensitive. Soil G violates the definitions because the SL > PL (25 > 20). storage in a retrieval system... Comment on the validity of the results of Atterberg limits on soils G and H.Index and Classification Properties of Soils Chapter 2 2. Determine the PI and LI for each soil and comment on their general activity. SOLUTION: Based on Atterberg’s definitions: LL > PL > SL. photocopying. or transmission in any form or by any means. write to: Rights and Permissions Department. highly active Soil B: most likely a clay above the water table that has experienced a decrease in moisture Soil C: most likely a clay above the water table that has experienced a decrease in moisture Soil D: most likely a fine sand Soil E: most likely a silt Soil F: slightly sensitive and active 2.

. recording.6 Flow Index = slope = IF = w1 − w 2 = 10.6 − 23. For information regarding permission(s). electronic. LL = 42.Index and Classification Properties of Soils Chapter 2 2. mechanical. All rights reserved.1 + 23.4 = 19. write to: Rights and Permissions Department.60.6 = 23. Pearson Education. or likewise. PI. or transmission in any form or by any means. and the toughness index is the PI divided by the flow index.. Upper Saddle River. NJ. Determine the LL.6 50 48 46 Water Content (%) 44 42 40 38 36 34 32 30 10 15 20 30 40 LL = 42.1% and 23. Inc. Inc.6 Flow index = 10. The following data were obtained from a liquid-limit test on a silty clay. PL = PI = LL − PL = 42. . Upper Saddle River. SOLUTION: From the plot below.6%. storage in a retrieval system. photocopying.6 (from linear regresion of best fit line) ⎛N ⎞ log ⎜ 2 ⎟ ⎝ N1 ⎠ 23. This publication is protected by Copyright and written permission should be obtained from the publisher prior to any prohibited reproduction. NJ 07458.2 = = 1.4 2 use average value of PL tests. and the toughness index. Two plastic-limit determinations had water contents of 23. The flow index is the slope of the water content versus log of number of blows in the liquid-limit test.2 Toughness Index = PI 19. the flow index.6 Number of Blows © 2011 Pearson Education.81 IF 10.

and boulders (or GP-GC) 2. Classify the five soils in the preceding question according to the AASHTO method of soil classification. or likewise. it has everything else! It has gravel content of 78% fine to coarse subrounded to subangular gravel.. For information regarding permission(s). wet. photocopying. while the uniformity coefficient is 12. storage in a retrieval system. and 2% fines.) SOLUTION: Refer to Table 2. Classify the following soils according to the USCS: Chapter 2 (a) A sample of well-graded gravel with sand has 73% fine to coarse subangular gravel. The uniformity coefficient is 40. (e) Although this soil has only 6% nonplastic silty fines. SOLUTION: (a) A-1-a (b) A-8 (c) A-2-4 (d) A-2-4 or A-8 (e) A-1-a © 2011 Pearson Education. Inc. (b) A dark brown.7 and corresponding footnotes (a) GW – Well-graded gravel with sand. The liquid limit is 33% and the plastic limit is 27%. The plastic index (not dried) is 6.4. The liquid limit (not dried) is 37% while it is 26% when oven dried.S. sand. and is 21% when oven dried!) and the plastic index is 21% (not dried). while the coefficient of curvature is only 0. NJ. of the Interior.Index and Classification Properties of Soils 2. cobbles. The maximum size is 20 mm. and 16% fine subrounded gravel size. 25% fine to coarse subangular sand. (After U.61. (d) This material has 74% fine to coarse subangular reddish sand and 26% organic and silty dark brown fines. Inc. (c) This sand has 61% predominately fine sand. Upper Saddle River. 23% silty fines. 200 sieve. This publication is protected by Copyright and written permission should be obtained from the publisher prior to any prohibited reproduction. Pearson Education. and 16% fine to coarse subrounded to subangular sand. 1990. mechanical. The maximum size of the particles is 75 mm. electronic. NJ 07458.7.62.8. All rights reserved. write to: Rights and Permissions Department. The maximum size of the subrounded boulders is 500 mm.. (b) OL -. . recording. or transmission in any form or by any means. Dept.Organic clay (c) SM – Silty sand with gravel (d) SM – Silty sand with organic fines (e) GP-GM – Poorly graded gravel with silt. Upper Saddle River. organic-odor soil has 100% passing the No. The liquid limit is 32% (not dried. The coefficient of curvature is 2.

All rights reserved.00 2" 1" 1/2" #4 #10 #20 #40 #100 #200 2" 1" 1/2" #4 #10 #20 #40 #100 #200 10. Upper Saddle River. 4 No. The results of a sieve test below give the percentage passing through the sieve.39 Cc = (D30 ) 2 D60 × D10 = (1. 60 No.69 (9.Index and Classification Properties of Soils 2.10 0. photocopying. 100 71 37 32 23 11 7 4 SOLUTION: D 9. Sieve Percent Finer by Weight Chapter 2 ½” No.63.5 Cu = 60 = = 24. NJ 07458. plot the particle-size distribution. write to: Rights and Permissions Department.39) Grain Size Distribution Plot 100 90 80 70 % Passing 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 100.5)(0.. electronic. 20 No. Inc.00 Grain Diameter (mm) 0. (c) Calculate the coefficient of curvature.00 1.6)2 = 0. recording. Pearson Education. or transmission in any form or by any means. (b) Calculate the uniformity coefficient. Inc. For information regarding permission(s). 40 No. storage in a retrieval system. 10 No. mechanical. or likewise. (a) Using a spreadsheet. This publication is protected by Copyright and written permission should be obtained from the publisher prior to any prohibited reproduction. NJ. D10 0.01 © 2011 Pearson Education.. . Upper Saddle River.

electronic. Cc = 1. A sample of soil was tested in the laboratory and the following grain size analysis results were obtained.425 0. For each soil.25 0. LL = 23.85 0.00 2" 1" 1/2" #4 #10 #20 #40 #100 48 70 64 2" 1" 1/2" #4 #10 #20 #40 #100 #200 36 31 29 23 9 #200 10. For information regarding permission(s).10 0.5. 200 sieve.01 © 2011 Pearson Education. Classify this soil according to the USCS. 4 sieve.9 Cu = 60 = = 49. . 32% retained on No. providing the group symbol for it. NJ. 4 sieve. Pearson Education.08 Cc = (D30 ) 2 D60 × D10 = (0. PL = 17. 4 sieve. Cu = 3. (a) 65% material retained on No. give both the letter symbol and the narrative description. Inc.7 4. Upper Saddle River.Index and Classification Properties of Soils Chapter 2 2.00 0.9)(0.65.51 →∴ well graded (3. Upper Saddle River.075 Percent Coarser by Weight 30 36 52 64 69 71 77 91 Percent Finer by Weight 70 64 48 36 31 29 23 9 SOLUTION: (a) PI = LL − PL = 26 − 23 = 3 D 3. or likewise.. This publication is protected by Copyright and written permission should be obtained from the publisher prior to any prohibited reproduction. 200 sieve. NJ 07458. For the data given below. Cc = 1. SOLUTION: (a) GP – Poorly graded gravel with sand (b) CL-ML – Silty clay (c) GW – Well-graded gravel with sand 2. or transmission in any form or by any means. recording. (c) 70% material retained on No. 90% passed No. write to: Rights and Permissions Department. Inc. Sieve 1/2" 4 10 20 40 60 100 200 Sieve Opening (mm) 12. mechanical.75 2.08) SW-SM (Well-graded sand with silt) 100 90 80 70 % Passing 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 100. classify the soils according to the USCS. photocopying. All rights reserved..64.00 1.15 0.4)2 = 0. Cu = 5.00 Grain Diameter (mm) 0. 200 sieve. D10 0. storage in a retrieval system. (b) 100% material passed No. 27% retained on No.

67. and a plasticity index of 24. or likewise.75)(0. .. providing the group symbol for it. Upper Saddle River. write to: Rights and Permissions Department. mechanical.66. SOLUTION: w − PL PI PI = LL − PL. A minus No.7.Index and Classification Properties of Soils Chapter 2 2. Classify this soil according to the USCS. storage in a retrieval system.075 Cc = (D30 ) 2 D60 × D10 = (0. LI = CH (Fat clay) 0. NJ. provide the group symbol. For information regarding permission(s).00 63 48 36 31 29 23 10 2" 1" 1/2" #4 #10 #20 #40 #100 #200 10. photocopying. Classify this soil according to the USCS.7 LL = PI + PL = 24. Sieve No. NJ 07458.5%.075) SW-SC (Well-graded sand with clay) 2" 1" 1/2" #4 #10 #20 #40 #100 #200 100 90 80 70 % Passing 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 100. or transmission in any form or by any means. Pearson Education. D10 0.5 − PL → PL = 26.00 0. a natural water content of 44.51 →∴ well graded (4.00 Grain Diameter (mm) 0. Inc.075 Percent Coarser by Weight 37 52 64 69 71 77 90 Percent Finer by Weight 63 48 36 31 29 23 10 SOLUTION: (a) PI = LL − PL = 60 − 26 = 34 D 4. This publication is protected by Copyright and written permission should be obtained from the publisher prior to any prohibited reproduction. Upper Saddle River.75 Cu = 60 = = 63.15 0. A sample of soil was tested in the laboratory and the following grain size analysis results were obtained.73 = 44.75 2.25 0.7 + 26. All rights reserved.425 0. 40 material had a liquidity index of 0.2 2.01 © 2011 Pearson Education.10 0. electronic. 4 10 20 40 60 100 200 Sieve Opening (mm) 4.00 1.5 = 51. recording.5 24..85 0. Inc.73.425)2 = 0.

A sample of soil was tested in the laboratory and the following grain size analysis results were obtained: Atterberg limits on minus No.005(LL − 40)] + 0.2 + 0.15 0.00 0. NJ. Upper Saddle River. .00 1..01 © 2011 Pearson Education. or likewise. Inc.4 (a) USCS: SC (Clayey Sand) (b) AASHTO: A-6 (5) Grain Size Distribution Plot 100 90 80 % Passing 70 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 100.Index and Classification Properties of Soils Chapter 2 2.425 0. photocopying.2 + 0.075 -Percent Finer by Weight 100 100 100 94 82 66 45 0 SOLUTION: PI = LL − PL = 36 − 14 = 22 GI = (F − 35)[0. write to: Rights and Permissions Department.. electronic. Determine the USCS classification symbol for this soil. Inc. storage in a retrieval system.68.005(36 − 40)] + 0. or transmission in any form or by any means. 4 10 20 40 60 100 200 Pan Sieve Opening (mm) 4.75 2.01(F − 15)(PI − 10) GI = (45 − 35)[0. mechanical. For information regarding permission(s). recording. This publication is protected by Copyright and written permission should be obtained from the publisher prior to any prohibited reproduction. All rights reserved. Extra credit .00 2" 1" 1/2" #4 #10 #20 #40 #100 #200 2" 1" 1/2" #4 #10 #20 #40 #100 #200 10.25 0.01(45 − 15)(22 − 10) GI = 5.10 0. 40 material were: LL = 36.00 Grain Diameter (mm) 0. Sieve No.determine the full AASHTO classification for this soil (symbol plus group index).85 0. Upper Saddle River. NJ 07458. PL = 14. Pearson Education.

LL − 30 = 52 − 30 = 22 < 32.00 1.2 38. D10 0.00 0. photocopying. 3 inch 1. (a) Determine the USCS classification symbol for Sample A. ∴ A − 7 − 5 GI = (F − 35)[0. Inc. Upper Saddle River.1 19. NJ.Percent Passing Chapter 2 100 96 94 73 -55 52 32 SOLUTION: (a) PI = LL − PL = 32 − 25 = 7 Cu = D60 1..00 2" 1" 1/2" #4 #10 #20 #40 #100 #200 30 18 10.15)2 = 0. .3)(0.425 0. All rights reserved. Laboratory testing was performed on two soil samples (A and B).01 © 2011 Pearson Education.075 A .Percent Passing 100 98 96 77 -55 -30 18 32 25 B .044 Cc = (D30 ) 2 D60 × D10 = (0.2 + 0. NJ 07458.00 Grain Diameter (mm) 0. Sieve No.2 + 0.005(52 − 40)] + 0. mechanical.01(55 − 15)(20 − 10) = 9.2 AASHTO → A-7-5 (9) 100 90 80 70 % Passing 60 2" 100 1" 98 1/2" 96 #4 100 #10 96 #20 94 #40 #100 #200 Sample B Sample A 77 73 55 55 50 40 30 20 10 0 100.01(F − 15)(PI − 10) GI = (55 − 35)[0. For information regarding permission(s).3 = = 29. (b) Determine the AASHTO classification for Sample B. or likewise..69.75 inch 4 10 20 40 100 200 Liquid Limit Plastic Limit Sieve Opening (mm) 76.5.5 inch 0.005(LL − 40)] + 0. storage in a retrieval system. electronic.10 0.85 0. recording.15 0.Index and Classification Properties of Soils 2.75 2. or transmission in any form or by any means.1 4.044) USCS → SM (Silty sand with gravel) (b) PI = LL − PL = 52 − 32 = 20. write to: Rights and Permissions Department. Pearson Education. Inc.393 →∴ poorly graded (1. Upper Saddle River. This publication is protected by Copyright and written permission should be obtained from the publisher prior to any prohibited reproduction.

0 94.. storage in a retrieval system.8 15.25)2 = 1.0 40.075 Cc = (D30 ) 2 D60 × D10 = (0.75 2.5 0.8 90.0 #10 94. 40 material were: LL = 62.2 9. however. Determine the USCS letter symbol for this soil. . this soil classifies as poorly graded.0 #20 #40 #100 #200 10 0 100.43 = = 5. D10 0.3 29.9 90. write to: Rights and Permissions Department. recording. PL = 20.85 0. or transmission in any form or by any means. mechanical. Technically.3 2" 1" 1/2" #4 100. a well graded determination is not unreasonable.0 Percent Finer by Weight 100.075) The Cu value is close to 6.9 90. Inc. Upper Saddle River. USCS → SP − SC (Poorly graded sand with clay) Grain Size Distribution Plot 100 90 80 70 % Passing 60 50 40 30 20 15. NJ.00 1. NJ 07458. Pearson Education. For information regarding permission(s). 4 10 20 40 60 100 200 Pan Sieve Opening (mm) 4. or likewise.7 ≅ 6. Inc.15 0.10 0.0 59.1 10.00 0.43)(0.00 2" 1" 1/2" #4 #10 #20 #40 #100 9.5 100.075 -Percent Coarser by Weight 0.5 #200 10.0 SOLUTION: PI = LL − PL = 62 − 20 = 42 Cu = D60 0.7 70.01 © 2011 Pearson Education.425 0.9 (0.2 29.8 59.. electronic.25 0.0 5. photocopying. All rights reserved. Upper Saddle River.2 84.00 Grain Diameter (mm) 0. A sample of soil was tested in the laboratory and the following grain size analysis results were obtained: Atterberg limits on minus No. Sieve No.Index and Classification Properties of Soils Chapter 2 2.70. This publication is protected by Copyright and written permission should be obtained from the publisher prior to any prohibited reproduction.

13). indicate the information on a plasticity chart.53 g and the dry weight + dish = 10. and give the Unified Soil Classification symbol. mechanical. Upper Saddle River.Index and Classification Properties of Soils Chapter 2 2.0 Flow index = 10. the water content was 47. or likewise. Another plastic limit was 16. NJ.4 + 16.04 g Ms = 10. or transmission in any form or by any means. for 26 blows. For 17 blows.9%. the soil fines classify as CL ∴ USCS → CL (Sandy lean clay) 60 58 56 Water Content (%) 54 52 50 48 46 44 42 40 10 15 20 30 40 LL = 48.04 × 100 = × 100 = 16.4 Ms 6. For information regarding permission(s).7 = 31 PL(avg) = Based on Casagrande's plasticity chart (Fig. Upper Saddle River.49 − 4.49 = 1.65.. .9 = 16. The dish only weighed 4. A sample of a brown sandy clay was obtained to determine its Atterberg limits and then classify its soil type according to the Unified Soil Classification System. 2.71. write to: Rights and Permissions Department. Pearson Education.34 g w PL = PL = Mw 1. recording. the water content was 49. Inc.53 − 10.49 g. Evaluate the soil type.15 = 6. electronic..8%. the wet + dish = 11. All rights reserved. Compute the plastic limit. This publication is protected by Copyright and written permission should be obtained from the publisher prior to any prohibited reproduction. Inc.34 16. SOLUTION: Mw = 11. the water content was 46. photocopying.15 g. From plot below: LL = 48 2 PI = 48 − 16. and for 36 blows.5%. For one of the PL determinations. Three determinations of the liquid limit were made.8 Number of Blows © 2011 Pearson Education.3%. NJ 07458. storage in a retrieval system.