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Xiao-Yan Tang- What will happen when a dromion meets with a ghoston?

Xiao-Yan Tang- What will happen when a dromion meets with a ghoston?

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Physics Letters A 314 (2003) 286–291 www.elsevier.


What will happen when a dromion meets with a ghoston?
Xiao-Yan Tang
Physics Department of Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai 200030, PR China Received 18 March 2003; accepted 20 May 2003 Communicated by C.R. Doering

Abstract A new kind of excitation is defined as ghoston, because it is invisible at most of time and can only be detected when it meets with other objects. In order to show it in detail, we take the Boiti–Leon–Manna–Pempinelli (BLMP) equation as a concrete example. Its solution, obtained by means of the multilinear variable separation approach, shows a novel and interesting phenomena that a ghoston will emerge once it meets with a dromion, and when it leaves the dromion with time passing, the dromion will remain identical but with a phase shift, and it becomes invisible again.  2003 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
PACS: 01.55.+b; 02.30.Jr Keywords: Ghoston; Multilinear variable separtion approach

The nature is greatly colorful and full of different types of configurations. Hence, the models, which are devised to explain the nature, may possess all sorts of possible information. Therefore, abundant solutions may exist for the model equations. To solve those equations, especially non-linear partial differential ones, is a Gordian knot. Early in 1995, Lou and Lu successfully applied a kind of variable separation method firstly for the Davey– Stewartson (DS) equation [1]. Quite recently, the method, now called multilinear variable separation approach (MLVSA), has been revisited and developed well for various (2 + 1)-dimensional models [2–11] including the differential-difference equations [12]. As a matter of fact, a nearly systematic process of the MLVSA to solve (2 + 1)-dimensional non-linear partial differential and differential-difference equations has been established. Furthermore the MLVSA is still in progress aiming at obtaining more general solutions in the sense that it admits more arbitrary separation functions entering into the solutions [13,14]. Apart from the traditional localized excitations such as lumps, dromions, ring solitons, peakons, compactons and so on, many more excitations have been constructed like fractal solitons, chaotic solitons, two dimensional peakons and compactons, etc. [3,11], which is just one of the important and interesting consequences of the MLVSA. On the basis of the variable separation solutions, a newly found excitation, the so-called foldons [14], has been established. Hence, it is affirmative that there must exist more interesting localized excitations.

E-mail address: xytang@sjtu.edu.cn (X.-Y. Tang). 0375-9601/$ – see front matter  2003 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved. doi:10.1016/S0375-9601(03)00873-9

X.-Y. Tang / Physics Letters A 314 (2003) 286–291


Here, another kind of localized excitation will be exhibited which seems rather mysterious, because one can hardly see its position or even its existence. The investigations arrive at such a conclusion that only when it encounters other objects, such as dromions, it will emerge. Then, after exerting some effects on the objects they meet with, it leaves and becomes invisible again. Specifically speaking, if it collides with a dromion, then the only outcome is that the dromion suffers a phase shift. Since for most of time, it is invisible and interacts elastically with the dromion, we name it ghoston. Ghost is not a strange word in science for it has already existed [15]. Moreover, it has been pointed that the dromions can be formed not only by some perpendicular line ghost solitons but also by some non-perpendicular line and curved line ghost solitons [16]. In order to study the ghoston, especially the collision process with a dromion, we consider the following equation, the so-called Boiti–Leon–Manna–Pempinelli (BLMP) equation,
−1 qt + qxxx − 3 q∂y qx x

= 0,
−1 − 3 q∂x qy


which can be viewed as the space {x, y} asymmetric form of the Nizhnik–Novikov–Veselov (NNV) equation,
−1 qt + qxxx + qyyy − 3 q∂y qx x y

= 0.


In Ref. [17], Lou studied the conformal invariance of the integrable modes and pointed that sinh-Gordon equations can be obtained from the conformal invariance of the model (1). Eq. (1) can be written as a system of equations qt + qxxx − 3(qr)x = 0, qx = ry , (3)

which is also named (2 + 1)-dimensional KdV equation or the asymmetric NNV equation. The system (3) can be regarded as a model for an incompressible fluid where q and r are the components of the velocity, but also in [18] as a generalization to 2 + 1 of the results from Hirota and Satsuma [21]. The spectral transform for this system has been discussed in [19], the variable separation solution and many localized excitations of this system have been offered in [8]. This Letter deals with an alternative form of (1) provided by the replacement q = wy , wyt + wxxxy − 3wxx wy − 3wx wxy = 0. (4)

For convenience, it is called potential BLMP (PBLMP) equation. The Painlevé analysis, lax pairs and some exact solutions of Eq. (4) have been given out in Ref. [20]. According to the standard procedure of the MLVSA, firstly, we have the following transformation w = −2(ln f )x + w0 , (5)

where f ≡ f (x, y, t) is an function of the indicated variables, and w0 ≡ w0 (x, t) is an arbitrary seed solution of the model (4). Substituting (5) into (4) gives rise to the trilinear form (−fxyt + 3fxxy w0x + 3fxy w0xx − fxxxxy )f 2 + (−6fxy w0x + 4fxxxy − 3fy w0xx + fyt )fx + fxy ft + fxt fy + (−3fxx w0x + fxxxx )fy − 2fxxx fxy f + 6(fy w0x − fxxy )fx2 − 2(ft fy + fxxx fy − 3fxx fxy )fx = 0. Integrating (6) once with respect to the argument x gives the bilinear form
3 Dy Dt + Dx Dy − 3w0x Dx Dy + h f · f = 0, m n where h ≡ h(y, t) is the integration function and the bilinear operators Dx Dy Dtk are defined by [22] m n Dx Dy Dtk a · b ≡



∂ ∂ − ∂x ∂x


∂ ∂ − ∂y ∂y


∂ ∂ − ∂t ∂t


a(x, y, t)b x , y , t

x=x ,y=y ,t =t




X.-Y. Tang / Physics Letters A 314 (2003) 286–291

Secondly, make the ansatz f = a0 + a1 p + a2 q + a3 pq (9)

with a0 , a1 , a2 and a3 being arbitrary functions of t, p ≡ p(x, t) and q ≡ q(y, t) being functions of the indicated arguments. Then substituting (9) into (7), we have (a3 a0 − a1 a2 )(−pxxx − pt + 3px w0x ) + (a1t a3 − a3t a1 )p2 + (a0t a3 − a3t a0 + a1t a2 − a2t a1 )p 1 −1 −1 + (a3 p + a2 ) (a3 p + a2 ) − f qy ∂y qt + hqy f 2 − a2t a0 + a0t a2 = 0. 2 Now we can see that the above equation can be separated into two independent equations, (a3 a0 − a1 a2 ) pt + pxxx − 3px w0x + (a3 a0 − a1 a2 ) c0 + c1 p + c2 p2 − (a0t a3 − a3t a0 + a1t a2 − a2t a1 )p + a2t a0 − a0t a2 = 0, qt − c1 (a1 + qa3 )(a0 + a2 q) + c2 (a0 + a2 q)2 + c0 (a1 + qa3 )2 = 0 with the condition
2 2 h = −2 a3 c0 − a2 c1 a3 + a2 c2 qy ,


− (a1t a3 − a3t a1 )p2 (11) (12)


where c0 , c1 , c2 are all arbitrary functions of t. As for Eq. (11), we may solve out w0x as 1 −1 w0x = − px (a3 a0 − a1 a2 )−1 3 × (a3 a0 − a1 a2 ) −pxxx − pt − (a3 a0 − a1 a2 ) c0 + c1 p + c2 p2 + (a1t a3 − a3t a1 )p2 + (a0t a3 − a3t a0 + a1t a2 − a2t a1 )p − a2t a0 + a0t a2 . The general solution of Eq. (12) can be written down which has the form of q= A1 + A2 , A3 + F (15) (14)

where F ≡ F (y) is an arbitrary function of the indicated variable, A1 ≡ A1 (t), A2 ≡ A2 (t) and A3 ≡ A3 (t) are related to c0 , c1 and c2 as the following, c0 =
2 a2 (a0 + a2 A2 )A1t + (a0 + a2 A2 )2 A3t − a2 A1 A2t , A1 (−a1 a2 + a3 a0 )2 (a3 a0 + a1 a2 + 2a3 a2 A2 )A1t + 2(A2 a3 + a1 )(a0 + a2 A2 )A3t − 2a3a2 A1 A2t c1 = , A1 (−a1 a2 + a3 a0 )2 2 a3 (A2 a3 + a1 )A1t + (A2 a3 + a1 )2 A3t − A2t A1 a3 c2 = . A1 (−a1 a2 + a3 a0 )2

(16) (17) (18)

Now, the exact variable separation solution of (4) is obtained which reads w=− 2px (a1 + a3 q) + w0 , a0 + a1 p + a2 q + a3 pq (19)

where p is an arbitrary function of {x, t}, w0 and q are determined by (14) and (15) respectively with (16)–(18). Apparently, differentiating (19) with respect to y once rightly leads to the universal formula u ≡ wy = 2(a1 a2 − a3 a0 )px qy . (a0 + a1 p + a2 q + a3 pq)2 (20)

X.-Y. Tang / Physics Letters A 314 (2003) 286–291


Just start from the expression (20) to show the mysterious behavior of the ghoston. Set the functions as the following px = A sech2 (k1 ξ + v1 t), x = ξ + b1 tanh(k1 ξ + v1 t) + b2 tanh(k2 ξ + v2 t), and A1 = 1, such that c1 = c2 = c3 = 0, q= tanh(k3 y) , k3 qy = sech(k3 y). (23) A2 = A3 = 0, F = k3 ctanh(k3 y), (22) (21)

In order to generate the excitations of the ghoston and dromion, we make such requirements b1 > −1, b2 = 0, k1 k2 = . v1 v2 (24)

For simplicity and also for the convenience in showing the interaction property, we just fix v1 = 0 which means the dromion is static. Generally speaking, to imagine the interaction course or to judge interaction properties from the expressions is somewhat indirect and confusing compared with the clear and vivid pictures. So, we turn to the figures firstly. Fig. 1(a)–(f) are plotted with the parameters determined as a0 = 5, b1 = 0.2, a3 = 0, b2 = 2. k1 = 2, a1 = a2 = A = k2 = k3 = 1, v2 = −1.5, (25)

Fig. 1(a) and (b) with time t = −6 and t = −3 correspondingly show the dromion is really static. That is, the dromion does not move with time. Nonetheless, we notice that the dromion in Fig. 1(c) is slightly deformed and its position also has a little movement. Because it has already met with a ghoston. The ghoston has made some effects on the dromion which result in the change of the dromion shown in Fig. 1(c) at time t = −1.5. Till Fig. 1(f) at time t = 1.5, the ghoston has left the dromion, obviously, the dromion has restored its shape but its location has been moved to another point. This change reveals that the dromion suffers a phase shift during the collision with the ghoston. Thereafter, the dromion is situated at this new position statically again. All the above descriptions are obtained graphically. Naturally, one will want to know the exact information such as the positions of the ghoston and the dromion respectively, the time when the ghoston meets with the dromion (say, the ghoston emerges), the time when the ghoston leaves the dromion (say, the ghoston disappears), and the value of the phase shift that the dromion suffers. Fortunately, we can have the answers to all of them just from 2 the expressions (21). The ghoston is situated at the place {− v2 t, 0}, which varies with the time t. The dromion is k v1 1 located at {− k1 t + b2 , 0} before the interaction with the ghoston, while at {− v1 t − b2 , 0} after the interaction (or k 2 1 vice versa, depends on the value of the parameters k1 , k2 , v1 , v2 and b2 ). Consequently, when − v2 t = − v1 t + b2 k k v2 v1 (or − k2 t = − k1 t − b2 ), the dromion and the ghoston are at the same place, which illustrates that the collision between the ghoston and the dromion comes into being. That is just the time we can judge by eye from the figures 2 1 2 1 that the ghoston appears. Then, when − v2 t = − v1 t − b2 (or − v2 t = − v1 t + b2 ), the interaction between these two k k k k localized excitations comes to the end and the ghoston is going to leave the dromion. That is to say, after this time of the day, the ghoston will be invisible again and the dromion keeps static with a phase shift 2b2 . Substituting the selections of the parameters (25) into the above expressions, we can deduce immediately that the ghoston moving with the velocity 1.5 meets with the static dromion at time t = −4/3, then leaves the dromion at time t = 4/3 and makes the dromion have a phase shift 4.


X.-Y. Tang / Physics Letters A 314 (2003) 286–291







Fig. 1. Evolution plot for the quantity u expressed by (20) with (25) at times (a) t = −6, (b) t = −3, (c) t = −1.5, (d) t = 0, (e) t = 1.5, (f) t = 3.

Fig. 2. The plot of (21) with (25).

X.-Y. Tang / Physics Letters A 314 (2003) 286–291


Thus, we have seen the new kind of localized excitation, the ghoston, which has given birth to a mysterious and novel phenomena. All these results mainly come from the prior ansatz (21) for the arbitrary function p. Fig. 2 is the plot for the expression (21) with (25), in which px ≡ px . The figure also clearly shows the phenomena. In this Letter, a new kind of localized excitation is defined as ghoston because it is invisible separately and emerges only when it touches other objects. Taking the PBLMP equation as a concrete example, we have successfully constructed the ghoston based on the variable separation solution obtained via the MLVSA, and simultaneously, studied the interaction property between the ghoston and the dromion both graphically and analytically. What we obtained is also further illustrated that the variable separation solution is quite useful to generate abundant localized excitations for all kinds of models. In our further work, we will, on one hand, improve the MLVSA such that more non-linear partial differential and differential-difference equations can be solved; on the other hand, discover more interesting localized excitations.

Acknowledgements The work was supported by the National Outstanding Youth Foundation of China (No. 19925522), the National Natural Science Foundation of China (No. 90203001), the Research Fund for the Doctoral Program of Higher Education of China (Grant. No. 2000024832).

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