1.

Voltage-Source PWM Inverter
1.1 Introduction
In contrast to grid connected ac motor drives, hardly variable in speed, power
electronic devices (e.g. inverter), providing voltage supply variable in both
frequency and magnitude, are used to operate ac motors at frequencies other than the
supply frequency. Developments in this direction have taken place long ago, but a
techno-economical solution could not be found until the late 1980s because of
stringent space requirements, non-availability of high power devices and prohibitive
cost of electronic devices and components.

Rapid developments in the field of power electronics (inverter grade thyristor, GTO
thyristor, IGBT etc.) and miniaturization/mass production of control electronics
(development of VLSI technology and microprocessor based digital control
systems) have reached such a stage that variable ac inverter drives are becoming
increasingly popular in today’s motor drives. Presently, inverter drives meet not
only weight and space constraints, but also are economically viable.

In general, two basic types of inverters exist: Voltage-source inverter (VSI),
employing a dc link capacitor and providing a switched voltage waveform, and
current-source inverter (CSI), employing a dc link inductance and providing a
switched current waveform at the motor terminals. CS-inverters are robust in
operation and reliable due to the insensitivity to short circuits and noisy
environment. VS-inverters are more common compared to CS-inverter since the use
of Pulse Width Modulation (PWM) allows efficient and smooth operation, free from
torque pulsations and cogging [Bose 97]. Furthermore, the frequency range of VSI is
higher and they are usually more inexpensive when compared to CSI drives of the
same rating [Dub 89].

In this chapter, only voltage-source inverters are considered. Although the power
flow through the device is reversible, it is called an inverter because the predominant
power flow is from the dc bus to the three-phase ac motor load. Bi-directional power
flow is an important feature for motor drives as it allows regenerative breaking, i.e.
the kinetic energy of the motor and its load is recovered and returned to the grid
when the motor slows down. In electric vehicle application, the dc bus energy is
supplied directly from primary energy sources, e.g. batteries.

2 Chapter 1
In ac grid connected motor drives, a rectifier, usually a common diode bridge
providing a pulsed dc voltage from the mains, is required. Alternatively, a second
ac-to-dc converter, acting as a rectifier during the motoring mode and an inverter
during the breaking mode, is used between drive and utility grid. An additional
benefit of the active front end is enabling unity power factor, (sinusoidal) current
flows to or from the grid.

Although the basic circuit for an inverter may seem simple, accurately switching
these devices provides a number of challenges for the power electronic engineer.
The most common switching technique is called Pulse Width Modulation (PWM).
PWM is a powerful technique for controlling analog circuits with a processor’s
digital outputs. PWM is employed in a wide variety of applications, ranging from
measurement and communications to power control and conversion. In ac motor
drives, PWM inverters make it possible to control both frequency and magnitude of
the voltage and current applied to a motor. As a result, PWM inverter-powered
motor drives are more variable and offer in a wide range better efficiency and higher
performance when compared to fixed frequency motor drives. The energy, which is
delivered by the PWM inverter to the ac motor, is controlled by PWM signals
applied to the gates of the power switches at different times for varying durations to
produce the desired output waveform.

There are several PWM modulation techniques. It is beyond the scope of this book
to describe them all in detail. The following illustration describes the basic three-
phase inverter topology and typical pulse width modulation methods. Furthermore,
issues of phase voltage distortion/identification due to the inverter non-linearity are
discussed in detail.

1.2 Voltage-Source PWM Inverter
A typical voltage-source PWM converter performs the ac to ac conversion in two
stages: ac to dc and dc to variable frequency ac. The basic converter design is shown
in figure 1.1. The grid voltage is rectified by the line rectifier usually consisting of a
diode bridge. Presently, attention paid to power quality and improved power factor
has shifted the interest to more supply friendly ac-to-dc converters, e.g. PWM
rectifier. This allows simultaneously active filtering of the line current as well as
regenerative motor braking schemes transferring power back to the mains.

The dc voltage is filtered and smoothed by the capacitor C in the dc bus (figure 1.1).
The capacitor is of appreciable size (2-20 mF) and therefore a major cost item
[Bose 97]. Alternatively, the inverter can be supplied from a fixed dc voltage. The
filtered dc voltage is usually measured for control purpose. Because of the nearly
constant dc bus voltage, a number of PWM inverters with their associated motor
drives can be supplied from one common diode bridge. The inductive reactance L
between rectifier and ac supply is used to reduce commutation dips produced by the
rectifier, to limit fault current and to soften voltages spikes of the mains.
Voltage-Source PWM Inverter 3

T1
T4
D4
D1
C
T3
T6
D6
D3
T5
T2
D2
D5
power
supply
AC
motor
Udc
Rectifier DC bus Inverter
Switching logic
L

Figure 1.1: Basic three-phase voltage-source converter circuit.

Neglecting the voltage drop of the inductances (current depending) and diodes
(U
d
≈ 1V if i > 0), the positive potential of the dc bus voltage equals the highest
potential of the three phases and the negative potential equals the lowest potential of
the three phases. Since each phase owns one negative and one positive maximum
potential during one period of the net frequency, the rectifier input voltage equals
the maximum of the positive and negative line voltages, respectively. Thus, the
rectifier input voltage traces six pulses as shown in figure 1.2 by the thick line.

0 5 10 15 20
400
500
600
t [ms]
U
d
c

[
V
]
0 5 10 15 20
0
0.5
1
t [ms]
i
B
6

[
A
]
0 5 10 15 20
-1
0
1
t [ms]
i
a

[
A
]
0 5 10 15 20
400
500
600
t [ms]
U
d
c

[
V
]
0 5 10 15 20
0
20
40
t [ms]
i
B
6

[
A
]
0 5 10 15 20
-40
-20
0
20
40
t [ms]
i
a

[
A
]

U
dc

U
dc
-u
bc
u
ab
-u
ca
u
bc
-u
ab
u
ca
-u
bc
u
ab
-u
ca
u
bc
-u
ab
u
ca

Figure 1.2: Line voltages (u
ab
, u
bc
, u
ca
), dc bus voltage U
dc
, line current
of the first phase i
a
and output current i
B6
of a B6-diode bridge.
Left: No inverter output power (inverter losses ≈ 10 W).
Right: Inverter output power P
out
≈ 5,5 kW.

Figure 1.2 presents typical voltage and current waveforms of a B6-diode bridge
supplied by a stiff grid. As indicated by the dashed lines, the rectifier current i
B6

increases, if the absolute value of a line voltage is higher than the dc voltage.
Consequently, the dc voltage increases slightly. A dc voltage higher than the current
voltage supply causes a reduction of the rectifier input current until the current
4 Chapter 1
equals zero and the diode bridge blocks the supply voltage. The rectifier current i
B6

is identically reflected by the line currents. The sign of each line current depends on
the two non-blocking diodes each conducting the positive and negative rectifier
current, respectively.

During the conducting period, the difference of line and dc voltage is active as
voltage drop over the line inductances and resistances. The higher the line
inductances, the smaller the line current peaks. However, the value of the line
inductances is limited due to economic and efficiency reasons. Furthermore, the
average dc voltage depends on the line inductances and the inverter output power.
The maximum dc voltage (no load) is equal to the maximum amplitude of the line
voltages. Due to voltage drops of line inductances, resistances and rectifier diodes,
the dc voltage slightly decreases with increasing load. For more details concerning
the rectifier, see [Bose 97], [Dub 89] et al.

According to figure 1.1, the dc voltage is switched in a three-phase PWM inverter
by six semiconductor switches in order to obtain pulses, forming three-phase ac
voltage with the required frequency and amplitude for motor supply. The switching
devices must be capable of being turned “on” as well as turned “off”. During the last
years, major progress has been made in the development of new power
semiconductor devices. The simpler requirement driving the power switches and the
higher maximum switching-frequency, enabling higher operating frequencies
(higher motor speed), provide continually rising output power. The new generation
of switching devices is capable of conducting more current and blocking higher
voltages. The alternatives at present are gate turn-off thyristor (GTO), MOS
controlled thyristor (MCT), bipolar junction transistor (BJT), MOS field effect
transistor (MOSFET) and insulated gate bipolar transistor (IGBT).

The IGBT is a combination of power MOSFET and bipolar transistor technology
and combines the advantages of both. In the same way as a MOSFET, the gate of the
IGBT is isolated and its driving power is very low. However, the conducting voltage
is similar to that of a bipolar transistor. Presently, IGBTs dominate the medium-
power range of variable speed drives. Since the maximal current rating of IGBT
modules is around 1 kA and the voltage rating is approximately 3 kV, they will
gradually replace GTOs at higher power levels [Vas 99].

Parallel to the power switches, reverse recovery diodes are placed conducting the
current depending on the switching states and current sign. These diodes are
required, since switching off an inductive load current generates high voltage peaks
probably destroying the power switch. Exemplary for one inverter leg, figure 1.3
presents the basic configuration and the inverter output voltage depending on the
switching state and current sign. The basic configuration of one inverter output
phase consists of upper and lower power devices T1 and T4, and reverse recovery
diodes D1 and D4.

When transistor T1 is on, a voltage ½ U
dc
is applied to the load. Considering an
inductive load, the current increases subsequently. If the load draws positive current,
Voltage-Source PWM Inverter 5
it will flow through T1 and supply energy to the load. To the contrary, if the load
current i
a
is negative, the current flows back through D1 and returns energy to the dc
source.


u
a0
T
1
T
4
D
4
D
1
i
a
< 0
C/2
C/2
ωt
i
a
u
a0
ωt
-½ Udc
½ Udc
T
1
on
T
4
on
τ
dead
D1
drop
D4
drop
T1
drop
T4
drop
0
0
u
a0
T
1
T
4
C/2
½ U
dc
D
4
D
1
i
a
> 0
C/2
½ U
dc
½ U
dc
½ U
dc
T4 off
T1 off
T4 on
T1 on

ua0
Similarly if T4 is on, which is equal to T1 off, a voltage -½ U
dc
is applied to the load
and the current decreases. If i
a
is positive, the current flows through D4 returning
energy to the dc source. A negative current yields T4 conducting and supplying
energy to the load.

Figure 1.3: Basic configuration of a half-bridge inverter and center-tapped inverter output voltage.
Left: Switching states and current direction. Right: Output voltage and line current.


According to figure 1.3, with T1 on and drawing positive load current i
a
, the output
voltage u
a0
will be less than ½ U
dc
by the on-state voltage drop of T1. When the load
current reverses, the output voltage will be higher than ½ U
dc
by the voltage drop
across D1. Similarly, the output voltage is slightly changed by the voltage drop of
the lower devices T4 and D4.

Normally, the on-state voltage and diode drops (≈1 V) are ignored and the center-
tapped inverter is represented as generating the voltage ½ U
dc
and -½ U
dc
,
respectively. Neglecting additionally the dead-time interval τ
dead
, the behavior of the
power devices together with the reverse recovery diode is equally described by ideal
two-position switches.

6 Chapter 1
1.3 Pulse Width Modulation
Usually, the on- and off-states of the power switches in one inverter leg are always
opposite. Therefore, the inverter circuit can be simplified into three 2-position
switches. Either the positive or the negative dc bus voltage is applied to one of the
motor phases for a short time. Pulse width modulation (PWM) is a method whereby
the switched voltage pulses are produced for different output frequencies and
voltages. A typical modulator produces an average voltage value, equal to the
reference voltage within each PWM period. Considering a very short PWM period,
the reference voltage is reflected by the fundamental of the switched pulse pattern.

Apart from the fundamental wave, the voltage spectrum at the motor terminals
consists of many higher harmonics. The interaction between the fundamental motor
flux wave and the 5
th
and 7
th
harmonic currents produces a pulsating torque at six
times of the fundamental supply frequency. Similarly, 11
th
and 13
th
harmonics
produce a pulsating torque at twelve times the fundamental supply frequency
[Dub 89]. Furthermore, harmonic currents and skin effect increase copper losses
leading to motor derating. However, the motor reactance acts as a low-pass filter and
substantially reduces high-frequency current harmonics. Therefore, the motor flux
(IM & PMSM) is in good approximation sinusoidal and the contribution of
harmonics to the developed torque is negligible. To minimize the effect of
harmonics on the motor performance, the PWM frequency should be as high as
possible. However, the PWM frequency is restricted by the control unit (resolution)
and the switching device capabilities, e.g. due to switching losses and dead time
distorting the output voltage.

There are various PWM schemes. Well-known among these are sinusoidal PWM,
hysteresis PWM, space vector modulation (SVM) and “optimal” PWM techniques
based on the optimization of certain performance criteria, e.g. selective harmonic
elimination, increasing efficiency, and minimization of torque pulsation [Jen 95].
While the sinusoidal pulse-width modulation and the hysteresis PWM can be
implemented using analog techniques, the remaining PWM techniques require the
use of a microprocessor.

A modulation scheme especially developed for drives is the direct flux and torque
control (DTC). A two-level hysteresis controller is used to define the error of the
stator flux. The torque is compared to its reference value and is fed into a three-level
hysteresis comparator. The phase angle of the instantaneous stator flux linkage space
phasor together with the torque and flux error state is used in a switching table for
the selection of an appropriate voltage state applied to the motor [Dam 97],
[Vas 97]. Usually, there is no fixed pattern modulation in process or fixed voltage to
frequency relation in the DTC. The DTC approach is similar to the FOC with
hysteresis PWM. However, it takes the interaction between the three phases into
account. In the following subsections, hysteresis PWM, sinusoidal PWM and SVM
are discussed in more detail.

Voltage-Source PWM Inverter 7
1.3.1 Hysteresis PWM Current Control
Hysteresis current control is a PWM technique, very simple to implement and taking
care directly for the current control. The switching logic is realized by three
hysteresis controllers, one for each phase (figure 1.4). The hysteresis PWM current
control, also known as bang-bang control, is done in the three phases separately.
Each controller determines the switching-state of one inverter half-bridge in such a
way that the corresponding current is maintained within a hysteresis band ∆i.


1/2 Udc
0
ωt
ωt
Output
voltage
0
Hysteresis band ∆i
Current reference
Real current
-1/2 Udc
ia
ua0
Switching
logic
ib
*
∆i
ib

ic
*
∆i
ic

ia
*
∆i
ia



Figure 1.4: Hysteresis PWM, current control and switching logic.

To increase a phase current, the affiliated phase to neutral voltage is equal to the half
dc bus voltage until the upper band-range is reached. Then, the negative dc bus
voltage -½ U
dc
applied as long as the lower limit is reached &c. More complicated
hysteresis PWM current control techniques also exist in practice, e.g. adaptive
hysteresis current vector control is based on controlling the current phasor in a α/β-
reference frame. These modified techniques take care especially for the interaction
of the three phases [Jen 95].

Obviously, the dynamic performance of such an approach is excellent since the
maximum voltage is applied until the current error is within predetermined
boundaries (bang-bang control). Due to the elimination of an additional current
controller, the motor parameter dependence is vastly reduced. However, there are
some inherent drawbacks [Brod 85]:

• No fixed PWM frequency: The hysteresis controller generates involuntary
lower subharmonics.
• The current error is not strictly limited. The signal may leave the hysteresis
band caused by the voltage of the other two phases.
• Usually, there is no interaction between the three phases: No strategy to
generate zero-voltage phasors.
• Increased switching frequency (losses) especially at lower modulation or
motor speed.
• Phase lag of the fundamental current (increasing with the frequency).

8 Chapter 1
Hysteresis current control is used for operation at higher switching frequency, as this
compensates for their inferior quality of modulation. The switching losses restrict its
application to lower power levels. Due to the independence of motor parameters,
hysteresis current control is often preferred for stepper motors and other variable-
reluctance motors.

A carrier-based modulation technique, as described in the next subsection,
eliminates the basic shortcomings of the hysteresis PWM controller [Bose 97].
However, when being compared to the hysteresis PWM, an additional current
control loop, calculating the reference voltages, is required when subsequent
modulation schemes are applied to high-performance motion control systems.


1.3.2 Sinusoidal Pulse Width Modulation
Three-phase reference voltages of variable amplitude and frequency are compared in
three separate comparators with a common triangular carrier wave of fixed
amplitude and frequency (figure 1.5-1.6). Each comparator output forms the
switching-state of the corresponding inverter leg [Dub 89], [Leo 85]. In torque
controlled ac motor drives using sinusoidal PWM, the reference voltages (u
*
a
, u
*
b
, u
*
c
)
are usually calculated by an additional current control loop (FOC).


Switching
logic
ub
*
uc
*
ua
*
comparator
Current
controller
id
*
id

d,q
a,b,c
ud
*
Current
controller
iq
*
iq

uq
*
Carrier wave
comparator
comparator


Figure 1.5: Sinusoidal PWM, current control and switching logic.

As shown in figure 1.6, a saw-tooth- or triangular-shaped carrier wave, determining
the fixed PWM frequency, is simultaneously used for all three phases. This
modulation technique, also known as PWM with natural sampling, is called
sinusoidal PWM because the pulse width is a sinusoidal function of the angular
position in the reference signal.

Voltage-Source PWM Inverter 9

u
ab

u
a0

u
b0

u
c0

Phase b Phase a Phase c
ωt
ωt
ωt
ωt
ωt
Carrier wave
Uref
U
dc
/2
-U
dc
/2
Upper switch “on”
Lower switch “on”


Figure 1.6: Principle of sinusoidal PWM generation.

Since the PWM frequency, equal to the frequency of the carrier wave, is usually
much higher than the frequency of the reference voltage, the reference voltage is
nearly constant during one PWM period T
PWM
. This approximation is especially true
considering the sampled data structure within a digital control system. Depending on
the switching states, the positive or negative half dc bus voltage is applied to each
phase. At the modulation stage, the reference voltage is multiplied by the inverse
half dc bus voltage compensating the final inverter amplification of the switching
logic into real power supply.

According to figure 1.7, the mean value of the output voltage, resulting from a
reference voltage being constant within one PWM-period, depends on the on- and
off-states of the affiliated switch:

( )
2
1 1
2 1 0
dc
PWM T
a
PWM
ao
U
t t
T
dt u
T
u
PWM
∆ − ∆ = =

(1.1)

10 Chapter 1

1
u
a0
∆t
1
∆t
2
T
PWM
-1
0
t
t
Udc /2
-Udc /2
u
a0

*
0 0 a a
u u =
1
u
a0
∆t
1
/2 ∆t
2
T
PWM
-1
0
∆t
1
/2
t
t
Udc /2
-Udc /2
u
a0

*
0 0 a a
u u =
2
*
0
dc
a
U
u
2
*
0
dc
a
U
u

Saw-tooth
carrier wave
Triangular
carrier wave

Figure 1.7: Sinusoidal modulation at constant or sampled reference voltage for one phase.
Left: Saw-tooth shaped carrier wave. Right: Triangular-shaped carrier wave.

The switch on- and off-times (∆t
1
and ∆t
2
) are calculated according to figure 1.7 by
setting the carrier wave equal to the reference voltage related to the dc bus voltage:

2
2
1
*
0
!
1
dc
a
PWM
U
u
t
T
= ∆ + − (1.2)

|
|
.
|

\
|
+ = ∆
2
1
2
*
0
1
dc
a PWM
U
u T
t (1.3)
|
|
.
|

\
|
− = ∆ − = ∆
2
1
2
*
0
1 2
dc
a PWM
PWM
U
u T
t T t (1.4)

Applying (1.3)-(1.4) on (1.1) shows the mean value of the output voltage u
a0
being
equal to the reference voltage u
*
a0
:

|
|
.
|

\
|
|
|
.
|

\
|
− −
|
|
.
|

\
|
+ =
2
1
2 2
1
2 2
1
*
0
*
0
dc
a PWM
dc
a PWM dc
PWM
ao
U
u T
U
u T U
T
u (1.5)

*
0 a ao
u = u (1.6)

Apart over-modulation, this modulation technique produces an average voltage
value, equal to the reference voltage within each PWM period. Therefore, the
Voltage-Source PWM Inverter 11
fundamental of the switched pulse pattern equals the corresponding reference
voltage.

The modulation technique using a saw-tooth shaped carrier wave always sets the
output to a high level at the beginning of each PWM period, resulting in
asymmetrical PWM pulses. The pulses of an asymmetric edge-aligned PWM signal
always have the same side aligned with one end of each PWM period. On the
contrary, the pulses of a symmetrical PWM signal, e.g. obtained by using a
triangular-shaped carrier wave, are always symmetric with respect to the center of
each PWM period. The symmetrical PWM is often preferred, since it generates less
current and voltage harmonics [Bose 97], [Dub 89].

The sinusoidal PWM is easy to realize in hardware by using analog integrators and
comparators for the generation of the carrier and switching states [Ter 96]. However,
due to the variation of the reference values during a PWM period, the relation
between reference and carrier wave is not fixed. This introduces subharmonics of the
reference voltage causing undesired low-frequency torque and speed pulsations. In
contrary, software implementation provides sampled data during a PWM period
(uniform/ regular sampling) and hence, the pulse widths are proportional to the
reference at uniformly spaced sampling times. Compared to the analog
implementation, the modulation with uniform sampling has lower low-frequency
harmonics. Since the phase relation between reference and carrier wave is fixed,
even for the asynchronous mode, the subharmonics and the associated frequency
beats are not present [Dub 89].

The ratio of the reference magnitude to that of the carrier wave is called modulation
index m. Considering the mean output voltage equal to the reference phase voltage
(1.6) in the linear range (m ≤ 1), the fundamental component of the line voltage is:

m
U
U
U
U
dc
phase
dc
line
2 2
3
ˆ
2
3
= = , m ≤ 1 (1.7)

The boundary of the sinusoidal modulation is reached at the modulation index m = 1
(figure 1.8). For m > 1, the number of pulses becomes less and the modulation
ceases to be sinusoidal PWM. The modulation is still working, but the output
voltages are no longer sinusoidal: they correspond to the reference values with
limitation to the half dc bus voltage. The fundamental component of the line voltage
then is [Jen 95]:

(
(
¸
(

¸

|
.
|

\
|
− + |
.
|

\
|
⋅ =
2
1
1
1
arcsin
2 π
3
m m
m
U
U
dc
line
, m > 1 (1.8)

12 Chapter 1
0

1 2 3 4
0
0.1
0.2
0.3
0.4
0.5
0.6
0.7
0.8
m [ ]
U
l
i
n
e
/
U
d
c

[

]
2 2
3
π
6

Figure 1.8: Line voltage (rms) in function of the modulation index.

When m is made sufficiently large, the phase voltage becomes a square wave and the
line voltage becomes a 6-step waveform.


u
a0
ωt
u
*

2
dc
U

2
4
dc
U
π
u
a0
2
dc
U

u
b0
2
*
0
dc
a
U
u
2
*
0
dc
b
U
u
u

dc
U −
dc
U
2
dc
U
ωt
ωt
1
-1

carrier wave
u
ab
fundamental

Figure 1.9: Strong overmodulation and square-wave shaped output voltage with affiliated fundamental.
Top: Reference voltages (u
*
a0
, u
*
b0
) and carrier wave. Middle: Phase-to-neutral output voltage u
a0
and
affiliated fundamental. Bottom: Phase-to-neutral output voltage u
b0
and line voltage u
ab
.

The square wave of the phase voltage expressed in Fourier-coefficients is:

|




=
n
dc
a
t n
n
U
u ω
π
) 1 2 ( sin
1 2
1
2
4
0
| (1.9)

Using sinusoidal PWM generation, the maximum fundamental phase voltage is
limited by the dc bus voltage:
Voltage-Source PWM Inverter 13

dc phase
U U
π
2
ˆ
max ,
= (1.10)

However, this maximum voltage should not be exploited since overmodulation
results in a strong increased spectrum of lower voltage and current harmonics
especially for the 5
th
, 7
th
and 11
th
harmonics. In figure 1.10, the current of an
induction motor (scalar control) in the linear range (m = 1) and at overmodulation
(m = 1,33) is presented to illustrate the involuntary current distortion.

0 0.01 0.02 0.03 0.04 0.05
-4
-2
0
2
4
t [s]
i
a

[
A
]

m = 1
m = 1,33

Figure 1.10: Measured current at different modulation indexes.
(induction motor in open loop: u
ref
= 200 V sin(ωt); U
dc
= 400 V and U
dc
= 300 V resp.)

Basic drawbacks of the sinusoidal PWM are the not ideal use of the dc bus voltage
and the non-existent interaction between the three phases resulting in superfluous
changes of switching states, increasing semiconductor losses and introducing a
higher harmonic content at the motor terminals.

1.3.2.1 Injection of a Third Harmonic
According to (1.9), also multiple of third harmonics are present in the voltage
spectrum. However, the third harmonics are eliminated and not existent in the
current spectrum since the sum of the phase current of a three-phase ac machine
equals zero. As shown in figure 1.11, the range of the sinusoidal PWM can be
increased by adding third harmonics to the reference voltages. The same third
harmonic is added to each of the three reference voltages. Adding third harmonics
agrees with a simultaneous variation of the potential in all phases, thus not
recognized at the terminals of an ac motor with isolated neutral point:

) ( ) (
0 0
!
0 0 third b third a b a ab
u u u u u u u + − + = − = (1.11)

Therefore, the introduction of a third harmonic does not distort the line voltages
since third harmonic components in the phase voltages are cancelled.

14 Chapter 1
A geometrical calculation yields the maximum possible increase of the linear area
with the harmonic amplitude being 1/6 of the reference voltage amplitude. Such an
injection of a third harmonic results in a 15,5% higher maximum output voltage
without overmodulation. According to [Jen 95], the harmonic content of the
resulting current spectrum of ac motor drives is minimal at injection of a third
harmonic with the amplitude being 1/4 of the reference voltage amplitude, still
increasing the maximum output voltage without overmodulation by 12%.


u
a0
t
2
*
0
dc
a
U
u
u
*
a0
third harmonic
2
dc
U

2
dc
U
t
t
reference plus
third harmonic
-1
1

carrier wave

Figure 1.11: Injection of a third harmonic and modulation.

Obviously, also multiple of third harmonics do not disturb the current spectrum and
are suitable injection signals. As can be shown [Jen 95], the subsequently described
space vector modulation is equal to the sinusoidal PWM with injection of a suitable
triangular-shaped signal containing all existing multiple of third harmonics.

1.3.3 Space Vector Modulation (SVM)
Space-vector pulse width modulation has become a popular PWM technique for
three-phase voltage-source inverters in applications such as control of induction and
permanent magnet synchronous motors. The mentioned drawbacks of the sinusoidal
PWM are vastly reduced by this technique. Instead of using a separate modulator for
each of the three phases, the complex reference voltage phasor is processed as a
whole. Therefore, the interaction between the three motor phases is exploited. It has
been shown, that SVM generates less harmonic distortion in both output voltage and
current applied to the phases of an ac motor and provides a more efficient use of the
supply voltage in comparison with direct sinusoidal modulation techniques [Jen 95].

Voltage-Source PWM Inverter 15
As shown in table 1.1, there are eight possible combinations of on and off patterns
for the three upper electronic switches feeding the three-phase power inverter
(figure 1.1). Notice that the on and off states of the lower power switches are
opposite to the upper ones and so completely determined once the states of the upper
power electronic switches are known. The phase voltages corresponding to the eight
combinations of switching patterns can be mapped into the α/β frame through α/β-
transformations [Hen 92]. This transformation results in six non-zero voltage vectors
and two zero vectors. The non-zero vectors form the axes of a hexagonal containing
six sectors (S
1
− S
6
) as shown in figure 1.12. The angle between any adjacent two
non-zero vectors is 60 electrical degrees. The zero vectors are at the origin and apply
a zero voltage vector to the motor. The derived α/β voltages in terms of the dc bus
voltage U
dc
are summarized in table 1.1.

Table 1.1: Switching table and α/β transformation of affiliated state voltage vectors.

3
dc
U 3 2
dc
U
3
dc
U
3
dc
U
3 2
dc
U
3
dc
U 3
dc
U 3 2
dc
U
3 2
dc
U − 3 2
dc
U
3
dc
U − 3
dc
U − 3 2
dc
U
3
dc
U
3
dc
U −
3 2
dc
U
Switch no. α/β-transformation of the states

State S1 S3 S5 U
x,α
U
x,β
|U
x
|
000 OFF OFF OFF 0 0 0
100 ON OFF OFF 2 0
110 ON ON OFF

010 OFF ON OFF

011 OFF ON ON 0
001 OFF OFF ON
101 ON OFF ON

111 ON ON ON 0 0 0



100
110
101 001
011
010
U
β

000
111
U
α

S6
S2
S1
S5
S4
S3


Figure 1.12: Hexagon, formed by the basic space vectors and sector definition (S
1
− S
6
).

Using the transformation of the three phase voltages to the α/β reference frame, the
voltage phasor U
ref
represents the spatial phasor sum of the three phase voltages.
When the desired output voltages are three-phase sinusoidal voltages with 120°
16 Chapter 1
phase shift, U
ref
becomes a revolving phasor with the same frequency and a
magnitude equal to the corresponding line-to-line rms voltage.

The objective of the space vector PWM technique is to approximate the reference
voltage phasor U
ref
by a combination of the eight switching patterns. Practically,
only the two adjacent states (U
x
and U
x+60
) of the reference voltage phasor and the
zero states should be used [Jen 95] as demonstrated by the example in figure 1.13.
The reference voltage U
ref
can be approximated by having the inverter in switching
states U
x
and U
x+60
for t
1
and t
2
duration of time respectively.

(
60 2 1
1
+
+ =
x x
PWM
ref
U t U t
T
U ) (1.12)

Of course, the affiliated sector must be known first. The sector identification and the
calculation of t
1
and t
2
are presented in the next subsection. Since the sum of t
1
and t
2

should be less than or equal to T
PWM
, the inverter has to stay in zero state for the rest
of the period. The remaining time t
0
is assigned to one or both zero-voltage phasors.

2 1 0
t t T t
PWM
− − = (1.13)

Applying only one of the two zero-voltage states during a PWM period, results in an
asymmetric edge-aligned PWM signal. This is often undesired (higher harmonics)
but reduces the required switching number by 33% since one inverter leg does not
switch during that particular PWM period. Here, the remaining time t
0
is equally
assigned to both states. As illustrated in figure 1.13, all state changes are obtained in
each case by switching only one inverter leg.

40% ‘100’
50% ‘110’
U
ref
= U e
jωt
100 110 110 100
111 000 000
T
PWM
u
a0
u
b0
u
c0
5% ‘000’
5% ‘111’


Figure 1.13: Example of duty-cycle generation.

As mentioned above, the reference voltage is actually equal to the desired three-
phase output voltages mapped to the α/β frame. The envelope of the hexagonal
formed by the basic space vectors, as shown in figure 1.12, is the locus of the
maximum output voltage. In order to avoid overmodulation, the magnitude of U
ref

must be limited to the shortest radius of this envelope. This gives a maximum rms
value of the line-to-line and phase output voltages of

Voltage-Source PWM Inverter 17
2
ˆ
2
3
max , max ,
dc
phase line
U
U U = = (1.14)

being approximately 15% higher when compared to the original sinusoidal PWM.

1.3.3.1 Real-Time Implementation of the SVM
Presently in industry, the SVM is often applied as inverter control strategy because
of its advantages when compared to other PWM techniques: SVM provides efficient
use of the supply voltage and low harmonic distortion in both output voltage and
current. Furthermore, it can easily be implemented with modern DSP-based control
systems. Even recent developments of the DTC-algorithm are modified in regard to
exploit the advantages of the SVM.

As shown in table 1.1, the reference voltage U
ref
, usually represented by its α/β
components U
α
*
and U
β
*
, can be approximated easily by a linear combination of the
two adjacent states and the zero states, i.e. no trigonometric functions are required to
calculate the duty cycles. First, the sector must be identified to determine the
appropriate states. This is performed, as illustrated in figure 1.14, by a comparison
of the α/β components specifying the position in the α/β-plane. For instance, if the
reference voltage U
β
*
is positive, the sector of the reference voltage is in the upper
half of figure 1.12 (sector S1, S2 or S3). Otherwise, the sector is in the lower half.
Further sector splitting/identification is done by comparison (geometrical
calculation) of the α- and β-components. The applied normalization at the beginning
eliminates the dc bus voltage dependence of the output voltages. The resulting duty
ratios (a
*
, b
*
and c
*
), as required for PWM generation using e.g. TI’s TMSM320P14
DSP, are calculated according to following flowchart. A duty ratio a
*
= 1 indicates a
continuously closed upper switch of the first inverter leg. At a duty ratio a
*
= 0, the
turn-on time during each PWM period is equally distributed to the lower and upper
switch and the resulting mean value of the phase voltage u
a0
is zero. At a duty ratio
a
*
= -1, the lower switch is continuously closed, etc.

The relation between the duty cycles of the three phases in percent (relation of the
switch-on to the switch-off times of the three inverter legs within one PWM period)
and the given duty ratios a
*
, b
*
and c
*
is:

% 100
2
1
;
2
1
;
2
1
* * *
; ;
(
¸
(

¸
+ + +
=
c b a
cycles duty
c b a
(1.15)

Usually, the presented algorithm is easily incorporated into the initialization part of
the real-time program, e.g. by including handwritten C-code. Then, the duty ratios
are directly mapped by a DSP into signals driving the inverter switching logic. As
illustrated in figure 1.14, a final data processing and transmission is required, when
18 Chapter 1
additionally a slave DSP generating the PWM pulses, e.g. TI’s TMSM320P14, is
used. To avoid overflow of the fixed-point slave DSP, all duty ratios must be limited
to ± 1. Since the P14 DSP uses 16-bit compare registers for the PWM generation,
the calculated values are adjusted by the given multiplication before they are finally
transmitted to the slave DSP generating the PWM signals. As illustrated in a
subsequent chapter (e.g. figure 3.2), each two PWM channels are employed to
generate the correct pulses for the inverter.

Sector 2 & 5: Sector 1 & 4: Sector 3 & 6:
Sector 1 Sector 2 Sector 3 Sector 4 Sector 5 Sector 6
Yes
No
No
No
No
No
P14
DSP
|u| ≤ 1
Overflow
protection
16 bit
compare
register
normalization
PWM 1−6
U
α
*
, U
β
*

2
15
-1
dc
U
1
2
3
0
*

β
u
* *
3
1
β α
u u ≥
* *
3
1
β α
u u


* *
3
1
β α
u u ≥
*
3
1
β α
u u


* * *
3
1
β α
u u a + =
* * *
3
3
β α
u u b + − =
* *
a c − =
* *
2
α
u a =
* *
3
2
β
u b =
* *
b c − =
* * *
3
1
β α
u u a − =
* *
a b − =
* * *
3
3
β α
u u c − − =
duty ratios:
(a
*
; b
*
; c
*
)
Voltage
reference


Figure 1.14: Flowchart of SVM and data transmission to a TMSM320P14 DSP.

The turn-on times t
0
, t
1
and t
2
of the applied switching states during each PWM
period, as introduced in (1.12)-(1.13) for illustration purpose, are not required for
implementation of the SVM. However, they are easily calculated by the duty cycles
of the three phases. For instance, the zero states ‘000’ and ‘111’ are each equal to
the minimum of the duty cycles given in (1.15) multiplied by the PWM period T
PWM
.

Voltage-Source PWM Inverter 19
1.4 Dead-Time Effect & Voltage Distortion
For voltage-source PWM inverters, a dead-time interval is required to prevent the
“shoot-through” effect of a half-bridge during a change of the switching states. All
semiconductor-switching devices react delayed to the turn-off signals owing to the
storage time. During this storage time, depending on the operating point, the switch
is not able to block the dc link voltage. Therefore, to avoid a short circuit of the half-
bridge, a dead-time interval must be introduced between the turn-off signal of a
switch and the turn-on signal controlling the opposite switch. The dead time τ
dead
is
usually constant and determined as the maximum value of storage time τ
st
plus an
additional safety margin. The dead times of common IGBT-inverters used in
industry vary between τ
dead
≈ 1-5 µs.

Although the dead time is short, it causes deviations from the desired fundamental
inverter output voltage. The effects of the dead time on the output voltage will be
described from one half-bridge of the PWM inverter according to figure 1.15. The
basic configuration consists of upper and lower power devices T1 and T4, and
reverse recovery diodes D1 and D4.


½ Udc
-½ Udc
UT1
UD4
u
a
0

Ideal gating
pulse pattern
T1
T4
pulse pattern
with dead time
T1
T4
τdead
½ Udc
-½ Udc
UD1
UT4
u
a
0

T1
T4
T1
T4
τdead
Ideal gating
pulse pattern
pulse pattern
with dead time
τdead fPWM Udc
τdead fPWM Udc
u
a0
T
1
T
4
C/2
½ U
dc
D
4
D
1
i
a
> 0
C/2
½ U
dc
T
1
off
T1 on
u
a0
T
1
T
4
D
4
D
1
i
a
< 0
C/2
C/2
½ U
dc
½ U
dc
T
4
off
T
4
on


Figure 1.15: Error voltage due to the dead-time effect.
Left: Positive load current. Right: Negative load current.

Considering the no-load case, the storage time of the semiconductors is very small
when compared to the dead time: Switching off a power device, the current
20 Chapter 1
commutates directly to the diodes. This condition results in the desired voltage,
which is applied to the motor terminals. In contrast to this, switching on a power
device is delayed by the dead time. During the dead-time interval, the diode
continues conducting until the dead time elapses and the opposite power device is
switched on. This condition results in a loss of voltage at the motor terminals
indicated by the gray marked area in figure 1.15. With a positive current, the duty
cycles are shorter and with negative currents longer than required. Hence, the actual
duty cycle of a bridge is always different from the one of the reference voltage. It is
either increased or decreased, depending on the load current polarity. Furthermore,
the voltage drops of the power switches U
T
, respectively the voltage drop of the
reverse recovery diode U
D
, are considered. Summarizing, the voltage distortion can
be described by an error voltage ∆U

dc PWM dead
D T
U f
U U
U ⋅ ⋅ +
+
≈ ∆ τ
2
(1.16)

depending on the dead time τ
dead
, the dc bus voltage U
dc
, the PWM frequency f
PWM

and the voltage drops U
D
and U
T
of IGBT and diode [Bose 97]. This error voltage
and the resistances R
T
and R
D
of the switch changes the inverter output voltage u
a0

from its intended value u
ref
to:

) sign(
2
0
i U
R R
i u u
D T
ref a
⋅ ∆ −
+
⋅ − ≈ , (1.17)

The dead time reduces the effective turn-on time and produces the undesired fifth-
and seventh-order harmonics in the inverter output voltage [Dod 90]. Furthermore, it
generates sub-harmonics, resulting in torque pulsation and possible instability at
low-speed and light-load operation [Leg 97], [Mur 92]. The resulting speed
oscillation and the voltage distortion are illustrated in figure 1.16 showing the dead-
time effect on a 1,5 kW induction motor drive in open loop (scalar) control at low
speed and light-load operation. Considering the given drive setup (τ
dead
= 2,5 µs;
f
PWM
= 10 kHz) and according to (1.16), the error voltage amounts to ∆U = 12,5 V
(equal to 15,3 V in the alpha/beta reference frame). A reduction of the average
voltages occurs according to (1.17) when one of the phase currents changes its sign.
The motor currents have the tendency to maintain their values after a zero crossing.
In generator mode, the behavior of the motor current is contrary resulting in a
steeper rise of the current after zero crossing. In any case, the motor torque is
influenced as it can be observed by speed oscillations at six times of the fundamental
frequency.

The dead-time problem is more serious in high-power gate-turn-off thyristor (GTO)
inverter systems than in the case of IGBT or MOSFET inverters, since the GTO
requires a longer dead time. However, the use of fast switching devices using high
carrier frequencies (5-20 kHz) with lower dead-time values (1-5 µs), will not free
the system of the described distortion. Higher PWM frequencies improve the
Voltage-Source PWM Inverter 21
waveform quality by raising the order of theoretical harmonics, but low frequency
sub-harmonics persist due to the dead time. Furthermore, to avoid unnecessary
switching losses and short-term overheating of a switching device, minimum time
duration in the switching states must be forced. If the commanded voltage value is
less than the required minimum, the affiliated switching state must be either
extended in time or skipped. This causes additional distortion of the inverter output
voltages. Therefore, a compromise must be made by choosing a suitable PWM
frequency: a high PWM frequency improves the theoretical quality of the waveform,
but may increase simultaneously the voltage distortion due to the dead-time effect.

0 0.25 0.5 0.75 1
-40
-20
0
20
40
t [s]
U
α

[
V
]
0 0.25 0.5 0.75 1
-4
-2
0
2
4
t [s]
I
α

[
A
]
0 0.25 0.5 0.75 1
35
40
45
50
55
60
t [s]
n

[
r
p
m
]
-40 -20 0 20 40
-40
-20
0
20
40
U
α
[V]
U
β

[
V
]

u
ref
u
β
(u
α
)
u
α
u
ref

Figure 1.16: Open-loop control of an induction motor & dead-time effect (U
dc
=500 V, no load).
Left: Measured current I
α
, measured voltage U
α
and reference voltage U
ref
.
Right: Measured/reference speed and voltage trajectories.

1.4.1 Dead-Time Compensation
Remarkable efforts have been made to compensate the voltage distortion due to the
dead-time effect [Choi 96], [Leg 97], [Sep 94]. Most dead-time compensation
methods are based on an average value theory: the lost voltage is averaged over an
operating cycle and added vectorially to the command voltage [Mur 87], [Jeo 91].
Dead-time compensation can be implemented in hardware or software.

The hardware compensator operates by closed loop control [Mur 87]. Previous
commutation times are measured and used to control the next duty cycles. However,
a potential-free measurement of the inverter output voltages is required. Software
compensators are mostly designed in feed-forward mode. Depending on the sign of
the respective phase current, a fixed time delay is either added to or subtracted from
the command voltage.
22 Chapter 1

However, a complete compensation of the dead-time effect may not be achieved
since the actual storage delay is not exactly known. Furthermore, the PWM
generation is a part of a superimposed high-bandwidth current control loop
compensating the involuntary torque/speed distortions to a certain extent. This may
eliminate the need for a separate dead-time compensator. Figure 1.17 illustrates the
dead-time effect on an induction motor drive in field-oriented speed control mode at
low speed and light-load operation. Except the control mode, the conditions are the
same as in figure 1.16.

0 0.25 0.5 0.75 1
-40
-20
0
20
40
t [s]
U
α

[
V
]
0 0.25 0.5 0.75 1
-4
-2
0
2
4
t [s]
I
α

[
A
]
0 0.25 0.5 0.75 1
35
40
45
50
55
60
t [s]
n

[
r
p
m
]
-40 -20 0 20 40
-40
-20
0
20
40
U
α
[V]
U
β

[
V
]

u
ref
u
β
(u
α
)
u
α
u
ref
Figure 1.17: Field-oriented control of an induction motor & dead-time effect (U
dc
=500 V, no load).
Left: Measured current I
α
, measured voltage U
α
and reference voltage U
ref
.
Right: Measured/reference speed and voltage trajectories.

The influence of the dead time on the current/torque is vastly reduced by the speed
and current control loop. Of course, the falsification of the motor terminal voltages
is the same, but the harmonic distortion of the fundamental voltage is transmitted to
the reference voltages. Due to the arguable compensation by the current controller,
common industrial drives are not always equipped with an additional dead-time
compensation.

Note, that permanent magnet synchronous motor drives behave more sensitive to the
dead-time effect than induction motor drives: Due to the absence of a magnetizing
component in the stator current and the low main reactance, they tend to operate
partly in discontinuous current mode at light load. These machines require an
advanced compensation scheme when applied to high-performance motion control
systems or, alternatively, an additional d-axis current to bridge the discontinuous
current time intervals [Bose 97].

Voltage-Source PWM Inverter 23
1.4.2 Dead-Time Generation
The switching transitions of real switches, especially the transition from current
conducting to voltage blocking, are not infinitely fast. After conducting, a finite time
is required, mainly to remove the space charge, before a semiconductor switch is
able to block the supply voltage. Switching off a power device, the current
commutates to the opposite recovery diode (constant current direction) and the
power switch starts to block the dc voltage. If a switch of one inverter leg is turned
on before the opposite switch blocks the dc bus voltage, the whole dc bus voltage is
shorten across this leg (figure 1.1) resulting in a very high short-circuit current only
limited by the resistances of the power switches. Obviously, such a high short-circuit
current may destroy the power switches as well as the drive system and the dc link
capacitor.

To avoid such short-circuit conditions, a dead-time interval is added between the
turn-off signal of a switch and the turn-on signal controlling the opposite switch.
Dead time control prevents any cross-conduction or shoot-through current from
flowing through the main power switches during switching transitions by controlling
the turn-on times of the semiconductor drivers. The high-side driver is not allowed
to turn on until the voltage at the junction of the opposite power switch is low and
vice versa. During the dead-time interval, recovery diodes continue conducting until
the dead time elapses and the opposite power device is switched on.

In modern DSP systems, the dead time generation is usually programmable, e.g.
added as extra time in a compare register/timer. Considering analog circuits, the
fixed dead-time generation of one half-bridge is easily generated by a RC-circuit
coupled to two optocouplers, each controlling the opposite switches of one inverter
half-bridge as described in figure 1.18. Additionally, such a hardware realization
takes care for galvanic isolation of the digital control system and the power
electronics. The resistance R is calculated by the resistance voltage drop divided by
the operating current of the optocoupler I
P
:

P
d s
I
U U
R

= (1.18)

According to figure 1.18, changing the switching signal U
s
from a positive to a
negative voltage (e.g.: U
s
= ±12V) results in a discharging of the capacitor
depending on the photodiode operating voltage (U
d
≈ 1V if i > 0). While the
photodiode P1 directly blocks, the dead-time τ
dead
passes before the capacitor
voltage equals the voltage -U
d
, equal to the on state of photodiode P2 driving the
opposite switch of the inverter leg:

d d
C R
d s dead c
U U e U U t U
dead
− = +
|
|
.
|

\
|
− + = =
− !
1 ) ( ) (
τ
τ (1.19)
24 Chapter 1

Thus, a minimum capacitor value is required to guarantee the dead-time interval
τ
dead
:


|
|
.
|

\
|
+


d s
d
dead
U U
U
R
2
1 ln
C
τ
(1.20)


Optocoupler 1
PWM logic:
US = ±12V
R
C
IP2
IP1
UC
US
IP
IP2 IP1 IP1
τdead
t
Switching logic
-Ud
UC
-Ud
-Us
UC
t
t
τdead
Optocoupler 2


Figure 1.18: Analog dead-time generation. Left: Exemplary hardware circuit for one inverter leg.
Right: Switching logic, voltage and affiliated current of an optocoupler driving the power switch.

1.5 PWM Inverter Drives and Motor Insulation
Variable speed ac drives are used in ever-increasing numbers because of their well-
known benefits for energy efficiency and for flexible control of processes and
machinery using low-cost readily available maintenance-free ac motors. While the
connection of a motor to an inverter supply is straightforward, some basic
considerations are necessary to ensure trouble free long-term operation. Insulation
performance is one of the considerations required in engineering variable speed
drive solutions. Following summary provides basic information to enable the correct
matching of low voltage ac motors and PWM inverters with respect to motor
insulation:

Motor winding insulation experiences higher voltage stresses when used
with an inverter than when connected directly to the ac mains supply.
The higher stresses are dependent on the motor cable length and are caused
by the fast rising voltage pulses of the drive and transmission line effects in
the cable.
For supply voltages less than 500V ac, most standard motors are immune to
these higher stresses.
Voltage-Source PWM Inverter 25
For supply voltages over 500V ac, a motor with an enhanced winding
insulation system is required. Alternatively, additional components can be
added to limit the voltage stresses to acceptable levels.
Where the drive spends a large part of its operating time in braking mode,
the effect is similar to increasing the supply voltage by up to 20%.
For drives with PWM active front ends (regenerative and/or unity power
factor), the effective supply voltage is increased by around 15%.

1.6 Conclusions
Controlled power supply for electric drives is obtained usually by converting the
mains ac supply. A typical converter consists of power electronic circuits,
employing switching devices such as thyristors, transistors, GTOs, MOSFETSs,
IGBTs and diodes as well as a host of associated control and interfacing circuits.
The conversion process allows fast control of voltage, current or power to the motor
via the gate circuits of the converter switches. In this way, the required dynamic
response requirements of high-performance ac motor drives can be met.

This chapter provides a detailed survey of voltage-source PWM inverter drives with
emphasis on the modulators and control methods. The most common three-phase
inverter topology is that of a switch mode voltage source inverter. VS-inverters
consist of two main sections, a controller to set the operating frequency and a three-
phase inverter to generate the required sinusoidal three-phase voltage from a dc bus
voltage.

The basic concepts of pulse width modulation are illustrated. PWM is the process of
modifying the width of the pulses in a pulse train in direct proportion to a small
control signal. The greater the control voltage, the wider the resulting pulses
become. By using a sinusoid of the desired frequency as control voltage for a PWM
circuit, it is possible to produce a high-power waveform whose average voltage
varies sinusoidally in a manner suitable for driving ac motors. Due to the significant
flexibility in controlling the inverter switches, a large number of switching
algorithms were introduced and some of these have gained wide acceptance and are
fully developed.

Usually, the behavior of the power devices together with the reverse recovery diode
is described by ideal two-position switches. In practice, a dead-time interval is
required to prevent the “shoot-through” effect of a half-bridge during a change of the
switching states. Although the dead time is short, it causes deviations from the
desired fundamental inverter output voltage. Issues of the resulting phase voltage
distortion due to the inverter non-linearity as well as compensation methods are
discussed in detail.


2. Regenerative Braking and Ride-
Through at Power Interruptions
2.1 Introduction
Voltage dips and sags of short duration constitute a serious problem for many
applications and especially for variable speed drives (frequency converters) in
industry. Early types of frequency converter for motor drives were notoriously
sensitive to supply disturbances and often had to perform a full stop and restart to
resume operation. The economic impact, of what actually is a mere incident,
therefore could turn out to be quite substantial.

Usually, voltage source PWM inverter drives are equipped with an under-voltage
protection mechanism, causing the system to shut down within a few milliseconds
after a power interruption in the regular grid. This shut down mechanism can be
associated with a total loss of system control since the control electronics are usually
powered by the (in this case discharged) dc-link capacitor. Particularly in multi-
motor drives, a loss of mutual synchronization may be critical. This may entail
damage or loss of material in sensitive applications as the production of textile
fibers, paper mills, or extrusion drives. Generally, it is required to wait until the
machine has come to a complete standstill to enable restarting [Baa 89]. Braking to
zero speed and restarting obviously is not an adequate solution. Many continuous
production processes in industry are sensitive to a larger variation in speed or losing
control at worst. In addition, time and additional workload required to get a plant
ready for restart may be considerable.

This chapter discusses a design concept avoiding the standstill/restarting interval at
power interruptions. The proposed solution to the problem is to recover some of the
mechanical energy stored in the rotating masses by kinetic buffering. When the
power supply is interrupted, a dc link voltage control is applied to force an
immediate transition into the regenerative mode. During the interruption interval, the
drive system continues to operate at almost zero electromagnetic torque, just
regenerating a minor amount of power to cover the electrical losses in the inverter.
This maintains the dc link capacitor well charged, keeping the electronic control
circuits active, since they are supplied from the dc link through a switched mode
converter. In this way, the drive remains controllable even at power interruptions of
several seconds. Of course, the (still controlled) braking of the drive depends on the
28 Chapter 2

actual load torque. Since drive control is never lost, the voltage control scheme can
be applied to multi motor drives as well.

The implemented regenerative braking scheme allows the inverter to keep its dc bus
voltage at a predetermined minimum level as long as possible, expanding the time in
which supply voltage can be reapplied without the time-consuming dc-link capacitor
recharging cycle. The temporary speed dip is generally tolerable, since the most
frequent power interruptions last only for a few milliseconds. The implemented
voltage control scheme is derived from a torque controlled dc bus voltage.
Considering realistic conditions, the ride-through capability at short-time power
interruptions is discussed. Measured results are presented and evaluated to
demonstrate the performance and the stability of the system.

2.2 Voltage Dips
A voltage dip is a short-duration reduction in the supply voltage, in many cases due
to network faults somewhere in the energy distribution system. During a voltage dip,
the voltages in the three phases are no longer the same, causing a number of
problems. A major fault more than 100 km away from a customer may still yield a
significant voltage dip. Mains voltage dips and short interruptions are caused by a
wide variety of phenomena. They can be caused by nearby events, such as a faulty
load on an adjacent branch circuit causing a circuit breaker to operate, or perhaps by
a large motor or other large load on the same circuit being switched on. They can
also be caused by far away events such as lightning strokes or downed power lines.
In case of a fault in the power distribution grid, an automatic circuit recloser may
cycle open and close several times within a short period attempting to clear the fault,
thus resulting in a sequence of short interruptions noticed by downstream loads. In
any case, the voltage changes produced can affect the operation of or even damage
nearby electrical equipment as e.g. drives. Therefore, immunity for these types of
events should be available to ensure safe and reliable product operation.

Voltage dips are probably the power quality disturbance with the highest impact on
customers. The voltage drop yields tripping of process control equipment such as
adjustable-speed drives, process computers and switchgears. This in turn leads to
production halts, lasting much longer than the dip itself. Voltage dips of 100 ms
duration can lead to production halts of 24 hours or more. The economic impact per
event may be less than for regular interruptions, but the annual impact is in many
cases higher.

An ac motor directly connected to the regular grid may slow down during such a
power failure. An air-gap flux wave may be still in existence, but its magnitude,
phase angle and speed changes. Then, a return of the voltage with inadequate values
necessarily produces large current/torque transients. As has been reported by
industrial users, these transients generated by the motor may even cause a break of
the drive shaft. However, this problem can be overcome using a simple relay as a
Regenerative Braking and Ride-Through at Power Interruptions 29
watchdog or over-current protection. Nevertheless, a time-consuming restart or other
special mechanisms may be required.

Concerning motor drives supplied by voltage source inverters, a dip on all three
phases leads to an instantaneous decrease of the dc link voltage, whereas a single-
phase dip may allow continued operating of the drive, albeit at higher rectifier stress.
Rectifier bridges must be properly designed to withstand these high peak currents.
Due to advances in semiconductor technology, modern variable speed drives can
tolerate the high peak currents occurring when the power supply is restored after a
short disturbance. Furthermore, powerful digital signal processors enable drive
manufacturers to implement regenerative braking schemes allowing the inverter to
keep its dc-link voltage at a required minimum level.

The availability of electrical power from the public supply as a function of the down
time at interruptions (in Germany) is given in [Sch 85] indicating that a power
interruption of more than 10 ms is likely to occur every 200 h, on average. Against
this, the mean times between failures due to long time power interruptions are of the
order of several 10 000 h. Short time interruptions of the power supply are therefore
the most frequent cause for inverter failure. A ride-through scheme at these short-
time power interruptions is presented in the next subsection.

2.3 Ride-Through Scheme
A relatively large electrolytic capacitor (100-1000 µF / kW) is usually inserted in the
dc link to stiffen the dc bus voltage and provide a path for the rapidly changing
currents drawn by the inverter. However, the amount of energy stored in the dc link
capacitor is normally insufficient to maintain the inverter active during a short
power failure interval. When a power interruption occurs, the dc-link energy is
absorbed by the motor within a few milliseconds. Since the electronic control
system loses power as well, the inverter shuts down commanded by an under-
voltage protection in order to avoid possible damage to the electronic or drive
equipment [Baa 89]. It is then required to wait until the machine has come to a
complete standstill to enable restarting. However, time-intensive restarting is
obviously not an adequate solution.

One approach to avoid the standstill interval following a power interruption is
described in [Sei 92]. The control scheme is applicable to general-purpose inverters
with scalar motor control. Although this scheme can catch a running machine, the
time required for synchronization (up to 6 s) is too long for many critical
applications. It becomes even more severe with multi motor drives. Here, a solution
is presented using the high dynamic performance of a field-oriented motor control.

The dc link capacitor is a major cost item in the drive system and an increase of the
capacitor is therefore economically not feasible [Bose 97]. In contrast, the kinetic
30 Chapter 2

energy of the moving masses of motor and driven system is substantially higher.
This reservoir can be tapped for bridging the time interval of power interruptions.
Energy is fed back from the rotating masses to the dc link circuit to maintain the dc
link voltage at a predetermined level. This is possible also in the presence of
additional loads connected to the dc link.

The principle of forcing a fast reversal of power flow at a breakdown of the supply
voltage is explained by the trace of the dc bus voltage according to figure 2.1.
Normally, the dc voltage changes within certain limits as indicated by the (shaded)
regular voltage band. The lower limit allows for voltage sags due to load variations,
fluctuations of the supply voltage or single-phase voltage dips. The upper voltage
limit may be reached at fast decelerations of the drive. Normally, a rising dc voltage
forms no problem since the generated kinetic energy can be conducted using a
brake-resistance within the dc link, a common dc bus or a two-way PWM inverter.
Nevertheless, the proposed ride-through scheme can be adopted allowing a
controlled deceleration within a maximum predetermined dc link voltage. This can
be used to save energy rather than a fast deceleration with power dissipation of, e.g.,
a brake-resistance. First, only a low voltage ride-through scheme bridging the time
of a three-phase power interruption is considered. The latter approach is presented at
the end of this chapter.

With reference to figure 2.1, the power supply is interrupted at t = t
1
. The power
interruption is detected at t
2
when the dc bus voltage reaches the predetermined level
U
KB
causing the system to switch automatically to voltage control mode. Thereafter,
the voltage is maintained by a closed loop control forcing the drive system to
operate at almost zero electromagnetic torque. The motor regenerates just a minor
amount of power by kinetic buffering to cover the electrical losses in the inverter
and motor until the return of the power supply at t
4
. The return of the power supply
results in a fast rise of the dc link voltage. This reactivates the regular speed control
of the drive at t
5
and the motor accelerates to the set value.


U
dc,N

U
KB

U
min

t t
1
t
2
t
4
Under-voltage
protection
t
5
t
Regular voltage band
0
1
D
i
p

d
e
t
e
c
t
i
o
n

t
3

U
dc


Figure 2.1: Controlled dc bus voltage during power interruptions.

The lower trace of figure 2.1 shows a logic signal indicating the detected event of a
power interruption. This signal is used in order to switch between voltage and speed
Regenerative Braking and Ride-Through at Power Interruptions 31
control mode. If the inverter control did not react on this signal, the dc bus voltage
continues falling as indicated by the dashed line. The inverter would shut down at t
3

by the under-voltage protection at the voltage level U
min
. Without kinetic buffering,
the maximum acceptable duration of a power interruption can be determined by

( ) (

+ = −
3
1
2
min
2
,
2
1
t
t
load loss N dc
dt T P U U C ω ) (2.1)

where P
loss
is the power dissipation of motor and inverter. In speed control mode, the
motor speed and consequently the losses as well as the load torque are usually
constant. Typical values of this time interval, mainly depending on the prevailing
mechanical power at the motor shaft, are of the order of 1-50 ms. Of course, the
voltage control must become active before this time has been elapsed. The
maximum time interval ∆t
max
of bridging power interruptions by kinetic buffering
can be appraised by solving:

( ) (


+ = + −
max
2 2
min
2
,
2
1
2
1
t
load loss ref N dc
dt T P J U U C ω ω ) (2.2)

In contrast to (2.1), losses and load torque are now speed dependent. The stored
kinetic energy is obtained by the inertia of the moving masses and the actual speed
at power interruption, normally equal to the reference speed ω
ref
. Using kinetic
buffering, a maintained and controlled operation of several seconds is possible.

2.4 DC Bus Voltage Control
Primarily, the proposed voltage control scheme at power interruptions has been
developed for a PV-powered water pump system [Ter 02]. There, the voltage control
is designed to withstand abrupt power interruptions, occurring at an instantaneous
decrease of the irradiance intensity (e.g. passing clouds). The total power failure
considered here can be regarded as a worst-case situation.

The most important control loop for the stability of the entire system is the dc bus
voltage control. The system has been set up to work independently in island
operation. All control and measurement units are supplied by the dc bus. A dc
voltage beyond given limits leads inevitably to a crash of the entire system. The
voltage reference is calculated by an overlaid MPP-Tracking and controlled directly
or indirectly by the speed of the motor.

Due to the lack of a major storage element in the dc bus, the power of the PV array
must be used immediately to accelerate the PMSM. As irradiance increases,
resulting in a higher output power of the PV array, the input power of the dc bus is
32 Chapter 2

higher than the output. The voltage control must immediately accelerate the PMSM
to stay in the MPP of the PV array. With decreasing irradiance, the power of the PV
array is smaller than the output in the dc bus. The difference comes from the
capacitor, being discharged. This is the most critical condition. The dc bus collapses,
if this condition remains resulting in a voltage drop beyond given limits. Hence, the
inverter must slow down the PMSM to a new stable operating point. Therefore, the
voltage controller has to accelerate/decelerate the motor very quickly guaranteeing a
balanced input/output power ratio in the dc bus. Figure 2.2 shows the energy flow
within the system without loss considerations.

I
PV
I
Inv
Solar
generator
U
dc
I
dc
motor-pump
system
P
kinetic
P
pump
P
PV


Figure 2.2: Energy flow of the PV-powered water pump systems.

The energy generated by the PV array is used to drive the motor/pump system.
Depending on the difference between energy generation and consumption, the dc
bus capacitor is charged or discharged:

dt I
C
U
dc dc

=
1
(2.3)

The dynamic behavior of the voltage control is determined by energy equations. The
electromagnetic power developed by the motor can be divided in kinetic power
P
kinetic
accelerating the motor-pump system and pumping power P
pump
. Only the
kinetic power can be used to feed back energy to the dc bus and to control the
voltage.

load el
T
dt
d
J T + =
ω
(2.4)
load pump kinetic el el
T
dt
d
J P P T P ω
ω
ω ω + = + = = (2.5)

Subsequently, the drive efficiency is not taken into account, because of the opposite
influence at acceleration and braking. The losses are small compared to the
mechanical energy consumption. Furthermore, the loss fluctuation is almost as
slowly as the variation of the pumping power. Therefore, they are as being a part of
Regenerative Braking and Ride-Through at Power Interruptions 33
the load. Without considering the drive efficiency, the input power of the inverter
matches the electromagnetic output power generated by the motor.

(
dc PV dc Inv dc el
I I U I U P ) − = ≈ (2.6)

In steady state, the voltage U
dc
and motor speed ω are constant. The energy
generated by the PV array is completely used to pump water:

• ⇒ const =
dc
U 0 =
dc
I (2.7)
• const = ω ⇒ (2.8)
¹
´
¦

=
PV dc pump
kinetic
I U P
P 0
2.4.1 Speed controlled dc bus voltage
Normally, the motor speed of a conventional drive supplied by a regular grid via a
diode rectifier is completely independent of the dc bus voltage. Here, a PV array is
the source and a water pump acts as load. A relation between motor speed and dc
bus voltage can be obtained by linearization of the dynamic behavior. The
electromagnetic torque of the motor can be controlled very fast given the bandwidth
of the current control loop (960 Hz), whereas the load torque varies slowly with
speed. The speed can be controlled beyond current/torque limitation with a
bandwidth of approximately 26 Hz. Therefore, also the kinetic power P
kinetic
can be
varied faster than the pumping power P
pump
. Due to similar considerations, the dc
current I
dc
can be controlled faster than the dc bus voltage U
dc
. Therefore, the
following equation is valid during transients:

dt
d
d
dT
dt
d
J
load
ω
ω
ω
>>
2
2
(2.9)

Using (2.5)-(2.6) and assuming constant pumping power and constant current I
PV
of
the PV array for a short time, the linearized relation between dc voltage and motor
speed ω is described by:

load dc dc PV dc
T
dt
d
J I U I U ω
ω
ω + = − (2.10)
const I U T P
PV dc load pump
≈ ≈ = ω (2.11)
dc dc kinetic
I U
dt
d
J P − ≈ =
ω
ω (2.12)
34 Chapter 2

dt
d
J
dt
dU
C U
dc
dc
ω
ω − = ⇒ (2.13)

With the transfer function of the closed loop speed control beyond current/torque
limitations

1
1
) (
) (
*
+
=
speed
s s
s
τ ω
ω
(2.14)

and using (2.13), the resulting linearized transfer function with the reference speed
ω
*
as input and the dc bus voltage U
dc
as output can be written as

1
1
1
1
) (
) (
*
+

+
⋅ − =
Vf speed
dc
s s C
J
s
s U
τ τ ω
, (2.15)

where τ
speed
is the equivalent time constant of the speed control loop and τ
Vf
the time
constant of the voltage measurement including all other smaller time constants.

In fact, the loop to be controlled covers a dominant time constant and a smaller time
constant. Using a PI controller, the dominant time constant can be equalized. The
cut-off frequency of the control loop is calculated by setting the time constant of the
PI controller equal to the largest open loop time constant and choosing a phase
margin guaranteeing a stable system:

speed u
τ τ = (2.16)
( )
2
) ( arctan
π
ω τ π ω ϕ − − =
c Vf c R
(2.17)
Vf R c
τ ϕ
π
ω / )
2
tan( − = ⇒ (2.18)

The gain of the PI controller K
pu
is determined by setting the broken-loop
amplification at the cut-off frequency A(ω
c
) to zero:

( ) 0 1 log 20 log 20 ) (
!
2
=
|
.
|

\
|
+ −
|
|
.
|

\
|
− − =
= c Vf c
pu
u
K J
C
A
c
ω τ ω
τ
ω
ω ω
(2.19)
( ) 1
2
+ − = ⇒
Vf c c u pu
J
C
K τ ω ω τ (2.20)

Regenerative Braking and Ride-Through at Power Interruptions 35
During practical investigations, the best results have been obtained using a common
PI controller for the voltage control and choosing a phase margin ϕ
R
= 85°. The
input of this inner control loop is the voltage error, calculated from the measured
and filtered dc bus voltage and a reference voltage given by the main control loop.
The PI controller used is equipped with an anti-windup system limiting the
maximum allowed speed of the drive (figure 2.3).


Kpu
ω
*
U
dc
*
U
dc
Ts /τu
z
-1 |ω| < ω
max


Figure 2.3: PI controller with anti-windup.

The dc bus voltage controlled by the speed of the motor has significant drawbacks.
Choosing a phase margin ϕ
R
= 85°, the voltage control loop has a very low
bandwidth f
B
= 14 Hz. Decreasing the phase margin leads to involuntary speed
oscillations. By no means, the voltage can be controlled faster than the underlying
speed, if such a cascaded structure is proposed. The speed control loop has a
bandwidth f
B
≈ 26 Hz. Some approaches described in literature suffer also from such
oscillation effects [Mul 97].

Subsequently, the described MPPT is performed by varying the dc voltage
triangularly. However, applying a ramp (∆U/s
2
) as a reference voltage and using
(2.15) results in a steady state voltage error U
error
:

J
C
K
U
U
pu
u
error
τ ∆
− = (2.21)

The implemented speed based voltage control turned out to malfunction at very
quickly changing irradiance power. However, no undesired crash of the entire
system due to a completely discharged capacitor has been detected during the
practical tests. Nevertheless, the voltage error between optimum and measured
voltage amounts to 10% (~20 V) during such power transients (e.g. passing clouds),
what is absolutely not acceptable for a good working MPPT and for the claim to
pump as much water as possible. Therefore, the voltage has to be controlled in
another way as described in the next subsection.
2.4.2 Torque controlled dc bus voltage
The electromagnetic torque developed by the motor is proportional to the q-axis
current and can be controlled very fast with the equivalent time constant τ
eq,i
of the
current control loop.

36 Chapter 2

1
1
) (
) (
,
*
+
=
i eq el
el
s s T
s T
τ
(2.22)

Neglecting the load torque, the following relation between motor speed and
electromagnetic torque is valid:

s J s T
s
el
1
) (
) (
=
ω
, T
load
= 0 (2.23)

In fact, the load torque is presently handled as a system disturbance, being true
considering pumping and PV power to be equal in steady state.

Replacing the speed ω in (2.14)-(2.15) by the electromagnetic torque T
el
defined in
(2.22)-(2.23), results in a linearized transfer function with the reference torque T
el
*
as
input and the dc bus voltage U
dc
as output:

1
1
1
1 1 1
) (
) (
,
*
+

+
⋅ ⋅ − =
Vf i eq el
dc
s s s
C J s T
s U
τ τ
, (2.24)

The voltage can be controlled directly by the electromagnetic torque of the motor. A
PI controller equipped with an anti-windup system limiting the maximum allowed
torque/current is used to calculate the reference torque. The parameters of the PI
controller are determined by choosing the time constant τ
u
larger than the sum of the
two open loop time constants and setting the gain K
pu
in order to get a maximum
possible phase margin ϕ
R
, guaranteeing a stable system:

( )
σ
τ τ τ k k T
Vf i eq u
= + =
,
, with: k > 1 (2.25)
u
pu
C J k
K
τ
− = (2.26)
( ) )
1
( arctan ) ( arctan
k
k
c R
− = ⇒ ω ϕ (2.27)

Best results are obtained by choosing 10 < k <40, corresponding to a phase margin
of 55° < ϕ
R
< 72°.

The practically implemented torque controlled voltage loop has a bandwidth
f
B
≈ 235 Hz, being 16 times larger than the other approach. The calculation of the
bandwidth takes no current/torque limitation into account.

Regenerative Braking and Ride-Through at Power Interruptions 37
Applying a ramp (∆U/s
2
) as reference voltage, results in a zero steady-state voltage
error, being obviously due to the integrating term in (2.24). This property is very
advantageously for the implementation of a MPPT.

Compared to the other approach, the dc bus voltage directly controlled by the torque
has many advantages regarding speed of response, steady-state error and robustness.
Thus, all following experiments are made based on this approach. The voltage
controller (figure 6.5) switches only in speed control mode, if the maximum speed is
reached and the PV array generates sufficient power or if the motor/pump system
pumps too much water for the storage capacity.

In spite of controlling the dc bus voltage by the electromagnetic torque, the
speed/position estimation within this PV powered water pump system is not
superfluous. Both, PMSM and induction motor, being part of a high performance
drive, require information of the field position.

The structure of the dc bus voltage control integrated into the speed control system
is presented in figure 2.4. The proposed control algorithm requires a fast torque
control scheme. The well-known principle of field orientation [Leo 85] is employed
here. The high performance speed/torque control of the given ac motor drives are
described in chapter 7 as well as the calculation of the controller parameter. The
mechanical position sensor is replaced by an observer requiring no additional
measurements. Only measurements of motor current and dc bus voltage are
necessary.

Whenever the logic signal (‘dip logic’, figure 2.4) indicates a power interruption, the
torque reference is temporarily switched from the regular speed controller to the
voltage controller. The ‘dip logic’ is obtained using a simple (digital) relay with,
considering the given installation, a switch on point U
KB
= 340 V and a switch off
point at 360 V. The predetermined reference voltage U
dc
*
should be within these
boundaries to prevent involuntary torque transients or oscillations of the logic
signal: Ideal is the switch on point. The integrator is used for both speed and voltage
control. Of course, the integrator time constant is automatically tuned. This prevents
involuntary torque transients and saves computation time. Note the negative sign of
the voltage controller gain as well as the multiplication by the sign of the motor
speed. During power interruptions, the dc bus voltage can be maintained only when
negative electromagnetic power is generated by the motor. A positive power
decreases the dc voltage. Considering a four-quadrant drive, negative
electromagnetic power is generated by inverse signs of torque and speed:

el el
T P ω = (2.28)

The multiplication with the sign of the motor speed is dropped in the PV-powered
control system since the pump is driven only in one (positive) direction.
38 Chapter 2


Enable
voltage
control
Torque
Control
&
EKF
SVM
Inverter
i
a
u
b
*
u
c
*
AC
motor
i
b
load
u
a
*
ω

ω
*
T
el
*
U
dc
U
dc
*
U
dc
PI voltage control
Power
supply
z
-1
|T| < Tmax
Ts /τu
Ts /τn
-Kpu
Kpn
Speed
reference
PI speed control
sign(ω) ω

Dip logic


Figure 2.4: Block diagram of the dc bus voltage control integrated into the speed control system.

The entire system is controlled by a digital signal processor (DSP) realizing dc bus
voltage control, speed/torque control of the drive and start-up and shut down
automatism's. All control and measurement units are supplied by the dc bus. A dc
voltage beyond given limits leads inevitably to an undesired crash of the entire
system. In particular, the supply of power to the electronic control circuits of the
inverter must continue without interruption to maintain the system in operation.
2.5 Experimental Examples at Power Interruptions
A 3 kW permanent magnet synchronous machine (PMSM) supplied by a voltage
source PWM inverter has been used to verify the proposed approach. Instead of
using a PMSM, the implemented regenerative voltage control is also suitable for an
induction motor driving the load. The dynamic performance of induction motor and
PMSM are similar, only the efficiency of the former is lower especially at partial
load. The used load machine is a dc motor drive with constant electrical excitation
coupled with a variable resistor bench. The performance of the ride-through at
power interruptions has been tested using a regular grid as power supply and
applying an abrupt power interruption on all three phases for a short time
(approximately 2 s). Figure 2.5 presents a measurement of dc bus voltage and motor
speed without applying the proposed voltage control. The speed reference amounts
to ω
*
= 1000 rpm and no load is applied. The dc link capacitor is discharged to a
critical level within ∆t ≈ 0,1 s. The under-voltage protection switches on and the
drive is out of control. This time is much shorter with applied load torque.
Regenerative Braking and Ride-Through at Power Interruptions 39

0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14
0
100
200
300
400
500
t [s]
U
d
c

[
V
]
0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14
0
200
400
600
800
1000
t [s]
n

[
r
p
m
]
Under-voltage protection
Out of control

Figure 2.5: Power interruption without voltage control (no load).
Top: Voltage of the dc link. Bottom: Motor speed.


Figure 2.6 shows the experimental result of the voltage control enabled when a short
time three-phase power interruption is applied. After detecting the voltage dip, the
voltage controller has to decelerate the motor very quickly guaranteeing a balanced
input/output power ratio in the dc bus. Otherwise, the dc bus would be discharged
and the system collapses. However, the implemented regenerative braking scheme
allows the inverter to keep its dc bus voltage at the pre-determined minimum level,
expanding the time in which supply voltage can be reapplied without the time-
consuming dc-link capacitor recharging cycle.

Initially, the drive system is in speed control mode with a reference speed
n
*
= 1000 rpm. If the capacitor is discharged to a level lower than U
KB
=340 V, a
voltage dip is detected and the system switches automatically to the voltage control
mode with a predetermined voltage reference of U
dc
*
= 340V. Choosing the reference
voltage U
dc
*
lower than the ‘dip logic’ switch on point U
KB
results in a current/torque
peak at the beginning of the voltage control mode: As can be seen in [Ter 00b], the
controller starts then with an involuntary acceleration of the drive. The system
returns to the speed control mode at a voltage level higher than U
dc
= 360 V or if the
motor speed is higher than the speed reference. The deceleration of the motor during
the power interruption is small, because no load is applied. Figure 2.7 shows the
experimental results of a comparable power interruption but with a load torque
applied to the motor. The applied load amounts to 75% of the rated torque. Due to
the load, the deceleration is much faster. However, the power needed to keep the
voltage at a minimum level is the same, as can be seen at the small negative q-axis
current during the interruption interval. In fact, this power (~20 W) generated by the
kinetic energy of the drive system is nearly constant and almost completely used to
compensate the inverter losses.
40 Chapter 2

-1 -0.5 0 0.5 1 1.5 2 2.5 3 3.5 4
320
340
360
380
400
420
t [s]
U
d
c

[
V
]
-1 0 1 2 3 4
200
400
600
800
1000
1200
t [s]
n

[
r
p
m
]
-1 0 1 2 3 4
-5
0
5
10
15
20
t [s]
i
q

[
A
]

voltage dip

Figure 2.6: Ride-through at power interruption without load torque.
Top: Voltage of the dc link. Bottom: Motor speed and q-axis current.
-1 -0.5 0 0.5 1 1.5 2 2.5 3 3.5 4
320
340
360
380
400
420
t [s]
U
d
c

[
V
]
-1 0 1 2 3 4
200
400
600
800
1000
1200
t [s]
n

[
r
p
m
]
-1 0 1 2 3 4
-5
0
5
10
15
20
t [s]
i
q

[
A
]

voltage dip

Figure 2.7: Ride-through at power interruption with load torque (75% rated torque).
Top: Voltage of the dc link. Bottom: Motor speed and q-axis current.

Without the voltage dip control, the capacitor is completely discharged, considering
the given experiment and according to

ω
ω
load
load
T
U C
t
t T U C
2
2
2
1
2
1
= ∆ ⇒
∆ ≈
(2.29)
Regenerative Braking and Ride-Through at Power Interruptions 41

in ∆t = 29 ms. A critical voltage level according to (2.1) is reached after ∆t = 10 ms
requiring a time-intensive restart of the converter. With the implemented voltage
control, a kinetic buffering during a total energy drop is possible for several seconds.
The span of time depends on the drive moment of inertia and the actual speed at the
moment of the voltage dip. Figure 2.8 presents a measurement at sustained power
failure. Before the drive gets uncontrolled by the under-voltage protection, the motor
has come to a complete standstill. However, the motor stays controllable during
braking, being important especially for critical applications as multi-motor drives.
-1 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9
0
100
200
300
400
t [s]
U
d
c

[
V
]
-1 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9
0
200
400
600
800
1000
1200
t [s]
n

[
r
p
m
]

Under-voltage protection

Figure 2.8: Ride-through at everlasting power failure (no load).
Top: Voltage of the dc link. Bottom: Motor speed.

2.6 Special Drive Deceleration Tool
The proposed ride-through scheme at power interruptions can be easily transformed
into a special drive-braking tool. The upper voltage limit of the inverter may be
reached at fast braking of the drive. Regularly, the surplus generated kinetic energy
is handled using a braking-resistance within the dc link, a common dc bus or a two-
way PWM inverter (figure 2.9). Nevertheless, the voltage control can be adopted
allowing a controlled braking with a maximum predetermined dc link voltage and
without redirecting the kinetic energy. The kinetic energy is usefully conducted to
the load mainly responsible for the braking during the voltage control mode. Thus,
this deceleration tool can be used, when saving energy is preferable to a fast braking
with power dissipation in, e.g., a brake-resistance. If the dynamic performance is not
crucial, the installation of a brake-resistance, power switch and cooler may be
eliminated. Especially in small motor drives, the economic gain is considerable.

42 Chapter 2


Power
supply
Common dc bus PWM converter
Motor 1
Inverter 1
Load 1
Motor 2
Inverter 2
Load 2
Braking-
resistance
S1


Figure 2.9: Active front end, braking-resistance and common dc bus.

With reference to the given drive, the system switches automatically to voltage
control mode at a preset level higher than U
dc
> 600 V. The block diagram of the dc
bus voltage control integrated into the speed control system is equal to the earlier
described structure (figure 2.4). Once in voltage control mode, the system continues
to operate with the predetermined
voltage reference U
dc
*
= 600V. Finally,
the system turns back to speed control
mode when the motor speed reaches
the reference speed or at a voltage level
lower than U
dc
= 590 V. The ‘switching
logic’ is obtained using a simple
(digital) relay linked to the required
speed information (figure 2.10).

| ω
*
| ≤ | ω |
U
dc

Switching
logic
Udc > 600V ⇒ 1
Udc < 590V ⇒ 0
ω
*
ω


Figure 2.10: Switching logic of the braking tool.

The design constraint of the absolute value of reference speed being lower than the
absolute value of real speed is very important. Otherwise, the motor would, once in
voltage control mode, brake to zero and wait until the capacitor is discharged by the
inverter losses to the level of U
dc
= 590 V. Thereafter, the motor accelerates to the
reference speed.

Figure 2.11 shows the experimental result of the implemented drive deceleration
tool using the 3 kW PMSM. Initially, the drive system is in speed control mode with
a reference speed of n
*
= 1500 rpm. At t = 0 s, the speed reference changes to
n
*
= 500 rpm and the switch on point (U
dc
= 600V) of the voltage control is reached
60 ms later. The implemented control scheme enables the inverter to keep its dc bus
voltage at the predetermined level. The braking of the drive is mainly caused by the
load torque. Reaching the reference speed, the system returns to the speed control
mode.

Using a brake-resistance within the dc link, the kinetic energy ∆W
kin


(
2
2
2
1
2
1
ω ω − = ∆ J W
kin
) (2.30)

Regenerative Braking and Ride-Through at Power Interruptions 43
is almost completely dissipated in the resistance. With the proposed deceleration
tool, this energy is directed to the load. Considering the load torque as useful, energy
is saved.

-0.5 0 0.5 1 1.5 2 2.5
400
500
600
t [s]
U
d
c

[
V
]
-0.5 0 0.5 1 1.5 2 2.5
500
1000
1500
t [s]
n

[
r
p
m
]
-0.5 0 0.5 1 1.5 2 2.5
-20
-10
0
10
20
t [s]
i
q

[
A
]

Speed
control
Speed
control
voltage control
Figure 2.11: Voltage dip with load torque (speed dependent load). Top: Motor speed.
Middle: Voltage of the dc link. Bottom: Electromagnetic torque producing q-axis current.

2.7 Conclusions
Voltage dips and sags of short duration constitute a serious problem for electrical
drives in industry. Initiated by their under-voltage protection, in general, voltage
source PWM inverter drives shut down even at short interruptions of the power
supply. The resulting shut down of critical applications as a production line may
entail loss or damage of material. Especially multi-motor drives lose mutual
synchronization. Usually, time and additional workload to get a plant ready for
restart is then required. However, this and the resulting economic losses can be
avoided by using the proposed ride-through scheme.

Here, the time interval of the power interruption is bridged by kinetic buffering. A
fast reversal of the machine operation from motor to generator mode is commanded
at the event of a power failure. Energy is fed back from the rotating masses to the dc
44 Chapter 2

link circuit to maintain the dc link voltage at a predetermined level. This is possible
also in the presence of additional loads connected to the dc link. Due to advances in
semiconductor technology, modern electric drives can withstand the high peak
currents occurring when the power supply is restored after a short disturbance.
Keeping the capacitor well charged has the additional advantage of the control
electronics being powered over a longer time span, avoiding a time-consuming
restart of the drive.

In voltage control mode, the dc bus voltage is directly controlled by the
electromagnetic torque of the motor. The proposed voltage control scheme was
primarily developed for the PV-powered water pump system. The drive continues
operating even after a quite long power interruption of several seconds. The
temporary speed dip is generally tolerable, since the most frequent power
interruptions last only for a few milliseconds. Since drive control is never lost, the
voltage control scheme can be applied to multi-motor drives as well.

Finally, the proposed ride-through scheme at power interruptions is transformed into
a special drive deceleration tool for saving energy and simplifying the inverter setup.
Measured results are presented and evaluated to demonstrate the performance and
the system stability. Powerful digital signal processing is used to implement the
proposed regenerative braking schemes, expanding the time in which supply voltage
can be reapplied without the time-consuming dc-link capacitor recharging cycle.


3. DSP-based Drive Control and
Measurements
3.1 Introduction
Classically, motor control was designed with analog components as they are easy to
design and can be implemented with relatively inexpensive components.
Nevertheless, there are several drawbacks with analog systems including aging,
temperature drift and reliability due to EMC problems. Regular adjustment is
required in those cases. Furthermore, any upgrade is difficult, as the design is
hardwired. Digital systems, on the other hand, offer improvement over analog
circuits. The mentioned drawbacks as drift and external influences are eliminated
since most functions are performed digitally. DSP technology allows both, a high
level of performance and cost reduction. Upgrades can easily be made in software.
DSP’s have the capabilities to concurrently control a system and simultaneously
monitor it. A dynamic control algorithm adapts itself in real time to variations in
system behavior. Furthermore, implementation of complex control approaches is
possible and the drive system reliability can be improved.

For development purpose, a commercially available DSP based environment is used.
The heart of the controller board is a TMS320C31 digital signal processor. A slave
processor is employed to perform the digital input and output and generate the PWM
signals. The controller board can be directly programmed using
MATLAB
©
/SIMULINK
©
. A standard VS-PWM inverter with IGBTs is adapted to be
commanded by the DSP controller board.

This chapter presents the mutual interactions between control design and real-time
implementation. The DSP controller board, code generation, experiment
management and hardware interface including required measurements are explained.
Issues of phase voltage distortion/identification due to the inverter non-linearity are
discussed in detail. Finally, the used inverter and different PWM generation schemes
are evaluated. Optimizing (slimming down) a working control algorithm regarding
required computational effort, code optimization and implementation on a more
inexpensive hardware for the final product is something, to be considered in the final
stage of the development process.
46 Chapter 1

3.2 Controller board, Programming and Experiment
Management
The motor control is implemented using a DSP based controller board with
additional I/O features and an encoder interface. The DS1102 single-board system
from dSpace™ (Germany) employs a TMS320C31 digital signal processor
operating at 60 MHz for the main program and a slave subsystem with a
TMSM320P14 fixed-point DSP for the I/O subsystems and PWM generation. In
addition, the used development platform contains a comprehensive selection of I/O
interfaces that meet typical requirements for rapid motor control prototyping:

• 4 analog-to-digital converters
• 4 digital-to-analog converters
• 16 bit-selectable digital I/O lines
• PWM generation on up to 6 channels
• 2 incremental encoder interfaces

A connector panel provides easy access to all input and output signals: Analog
signals via BNC connectors, all digital signals via Sub-D connectors. The single-
board hardware (appendix A) is integrated on a standard 16-bit PC/AT card slotted
straight into a PC using the ISA bus as a backplane.

The main DSP of the controller board can be directly programmed using
MATLAB
©
/SIMULINK
©
by The MathWorks™. This application software is de-facto
standard in the control community, so no further explanation is given. SIMULINK
©
is
a graphical user interface integrated in MATLAB
®
for modeling and constructing
block diagrams via drag & drop operations. Its large block library is enhanced by
specific dSpace-blocks and own user-defined libraries simplifying automatic code
generation and experiment setup including initialization of the I/O subsystems and
PWM generation. Real-Time Workshop is the code generation extension provided
by The MathWorks™. It generates C-code automatically from block diagrams and
state-flow systems. For flexibility, the user can introduce own C-code into the block
diagram by computation-time extensive S-functions or alternatively by special user-
codes implying a change of the support software. The own C-code should be
preferred, whenever a part of the control algorithm contains many if-loops (e.g.
space vector modulation) or in very extensive programs, e.g. sensorless speed
control with Kalman filtering. Addressing the TI compiler and automatic download
to the DSP is done via the Real-Time Interface (RTI). For more information on
programming and implementation software, it is referred to the appropriate manuals.

The Total Development Environment (dSpace’ TDE) bundles a set of tools
supporting seamless transition from theory to simulation of new control algorithms
to real-time implementations. Software tools, such as CONTROLDESK, allow
parameter tuning/changing and data recording during the experiment in real-time
mode. CONTROLDESK is the comprehensive experimental environment software
providing management, control and automation of experiments. This user interface
Voltage-Source PWM Inverter 47
enables access to every variable of the original block diagram. Figure 3.1 gives an
idea on how the experiment management looks like. Controller parameters can be
changed on-line (e.g.: speed reference) while the response is observed/recorded
simultaneously.



Figure 3.1: Screen plot during ac motor control experiment with the DS1102.

Usually, no code for the TMSM320P14 fixed-point DSP is generated, but the
appropriate I/O functions are automatically included by the slave-DSP’s EPROM.
However, the support software has been changed in order to implement different
PWM strategies as well as variable PWM frequencies. This is extremely valuable
during the development of high-performance motor control using PWM outputs in
order to drive power switches. The modification of the support software has been
made in assembler code, since no C-compiler for the slave-DSP exists. Compared to
the original three-phase PWM generation performed in 73 µs, the computation time
has been significantly reduced to 17 µs. This new code is automatically included at
every compilation of the main program. The implemented modifications are
summarized in a separate manual.
3.3 Controller Interface
The laboratory test drive consists of a host PC for the controller board, an IGBT
inverter, and ac motor drive with variable load, current/voltage sensors and an
incremental encoder. Figure 3.2 shows the control setup with the DS1102 controller
board. Photos of the experimental set-up are presented in appendix A.

48 Chapter 1

High performance motor control requires accurate information on motor currents
and dc bus voltage. Here, the motor currents are measured in two phases using LEM
sensors. The dc bus voltage is measured via a galvanically isolated potentiometer.
These signals are fed to the interface connected to the inputs of the A/D converters.
Due to involuntary parasitic disturbances (EMC-problems), the measured signals
should be filtered in either an analog or digital way. In general, digital filtering is
preferred. Phase shifts introduced by filtering can be corrected (if necessary) by the
transformation angle from the stator to the rotor reference frame. Only low-weighted
analog first order filters with a cut-off frequency 5 kHz are added between
voltage/current measurements and the A/D converters of the controller board. The
rotor position is measured using an incremental encoder and directly fed to the
encoder interface of the controller board.


Interface
PWM
Inverter
i
a
u
b
*
u
c
*
AC
motor
i
b
u
a
*
U
dc
Power
supply
MPP-
Tracking
Current [A]
Voltage [V]
control
prototyping
Load
EXOR
EXOR
EXOR
PWM 2
PWM 1
PWM 3
PWM 4
PWM 5
PWM 6
enable
P14
DS1102-Processor Board
C31
Incremental
encoder signal
Θ


Figure 3.2: Control setup with DS1102.

The PWM generation scheme implemented in the slave processor is based on phase
voltage reference values. PWM generation on up to 6 channels is possible. Both
subharmonic PWM generation and space vector modulation have been implemented.
The inverter used is a modified standard VS-PWM inverter with IGBTs. An
interface provides a galvanic isolation between controller board and inverter. The
PWM switching signals are fed directly from the slave processor to the inverter
using a high performance optical link, allowing to keep both inverter and drive
several meters from the PC with the controller board. Therefore, the signal
transmission is unaffected by EMC-problems. An enable signal, using one of the
digital I/O lines together with the same high performance optical link, supervises
both entire control system and inverter.

The TMSM320P14 slave DSP generates duty cycles with 40 ns edge resolution and
160 ns PWM period resolution. In this high precision mode, the P14 always sets the
output to a high level at the beginning of each PWM period, resulting in
Voltage-Source PWM Inverter 49
asymmetrical PWM pulses. The pulses of an asymmetric edge-aligned PWM signal
always have the same side aligned with one end of each PWM period. On the
contrary, the pulses of a symmetrical PWM signal are always symmetric with
respect to the center of each PWM period. The symmetrical PWM is often preferred,
since it generates less current and voltage harmonics [Bose 97], [Dub 89].

In order to overcome the problem of asymmetrical PWM generated by the P14, each
of the two PWM channels are employed to generate the pulses for one phase as
shown in figure 3.2 and 3.3. By means of an EXOR gate, pulses symmetrical to the
center of the PWM period can be achieved if the switching times of each two
channels, depending on the required duty cycle, are calculated according to the
example reflecting the calculation for the first motor phase:

2
1
a phase
cycle duty
1 PWM

= (3.1)
2
1
a phase
cycle duty
2 PWM
+
= (3.2)


TPWM
PWM 1
PWM 2
ua
*
TPWM
E
X
O
R


Figure 3.3: Principle of symmetrical PWM generation with DS1102.

The presented algorithm is incorporated into the ‘user-code’ of the real-time
program. The ‘user-code’ offers the inclusion of handwritten C-code into the
initialization part and the timer-driven task running with the base sample time and is
preferable compared to the use of Simulink C-coded S-function since it saves
computation time. Every S-function block used in a Simulink model introduces an
execution time overhead of about 9 µs in the real-time program due to the associated
function calls. Considering the given development platform (DS1102 60MHz), the
computation requirement of the implemented SVM and the data transmission to the
slave DSP amounts to 22 µs.

50 Chapter 1

3.4 Measurements
Phase current and dc bus voltage measurements, as described in the following
subsections, are required for most high-performance motion control systems. The
measurement of the motor speed/position may be eliminated by estimation
techniques. The rotor position is measured here for control purpose or for
comparison with sensorless drive schemes. An incremental encoder with 1024 lines
is used. This signal is directly fed to the encoder interface of the controller board.
More details on position measurement and the transformation to a speed signal are
given in chapter 4.
3.4.1 Phase Current Measurement
Accurate measurement of the phase current is a key element in obtaining optimum
high-performance motor control. Measurement accuracy and bandwidth influence
directly the current control loop as well as all overlaid loops. Filtering a feedback
signal additionally decreases the dynamic response time of the loop [Leo 85].
Current is typically measured by one of two methods: voltage drop across a resistor
or magnetic transducer. Resistive shunt sensing has the advantage of a relatively
low-cost sensor. A drawback is the trade-off between sensitivity and power
dissipated in the resistor. Since the actual motor current is the desired value, the
sensing resistor is usually placed in series with the motor phase. This complicates
the measurement, because the signal of interest is a millivolt differential value
across the resistor, but the common-mode voltage of the motor phase is typically
hundreds of volts switching at high frequency with rapid du/dt.

Magnet sensors, on the other hand, are isolated by their very nature. This means that
the motor current can directly be measured without the common-mode voltage
problems mentioned before. They use a ring-type magnetic core with a Hall-effect
semiconductor element placed in an air gap to measure the magnetic flux resulting
from the primary current i
p
through the center of the core (figure 3.4). In “closed-
loop” Hall effect current sensors, a canceling coil of e.g. 1000 turns is wound around
the magnetic core. A built-in feedback amplifier drives current through the canceling
coil in such a way that the flux, measured by the Hall-effect sensor, is always forced
to be zero. Therefore, dc current can be measured. The output of the current
transducer is the canceling current, equal to the measured current scaled-down by
the ratio of coil turns. The overall bandwidth, accuracy and temperature
independence of these transducers has proven to be sufficient for motor drive
applications.
Voltage-Source PWM Inverter 51

Figure 3.4: Principle of current measurement via “closed-loop” Hall effect current sensor.

In this work, the motor currents are measured by LEM-modules. The bandwidth of
the used magnet sensor devices is 150 kHz and the response time is smaller than
1 µs. The secondary (canceling) current i
s
is transformed into a voltage signal u
i
by
measuring the voltage drop across the sensing resistor R
M
(figure 3.4). This signal is
fed to an anti-aliasing filter connected to the inputs of the A/D converters.
Subsequently, the measured signals may be filtered by a digital low-pass filter.
However, rather than additionally filtering the current signals, observer-based
techniques can be used in order to reduce phase lags.
3.4.2 Measurement of DC Bus Voltage
In most high-performance motor control applications, the measurement of the dc bus
voltage is required for the exact transformation of the reference voltages into the
duty cycles for the inverter PWM. Even when the inverter is supplied by a constant
voltage (regular grid), the dc voltage varies due to load variations. In some
applications described later (e.g. power interruptions, braking schemes, PV-
systems), the dc bus voltage is the main control variable. Furthermore, knowledge of
the dc bus voltage makes a more complicated measurement of the phase voltages
superfluous.

The measurement of the dc bus voltage is not as crucial as the current measurement
since the dc voltage is filtered and smoothed by a capacitor of appreciable size
present in the dc bus. Usually, one side of the dc bus is grounded eliminating the
common-mode problem already described at the current measurement. In the
applications mentioned, the dc voltage is measured via a resistive potentiometer, a
high-performance galvanic isolation and a first-order analog filter (cut-off frequency
5 kHz) connected to one A/D-converter of the controller board.
3.5 Phase Voltages
The field-oriented control of ac motor drives, e.g. induction motor and PMSM,
demands the measurement of the motor current in two phases and the knowledge of
the dc link voltage. This makes a more complicated measurement of the phase
voltages superfluous. However, in some applications, such as sensorless field-
52 Chapter 1

oriented control and exact flux estimation, the inverter output voltages are required
to calculate desired state values. The output voltage can be measured or, by using
the information of the dc link voltage, estimated by means of the reference voltages.
However, the inverter output voltages are much distorted when compared to the
reference voltages and the use of the estimation is therefore not obvious.

3.5.1 Phase Voltage Measurement
A phase voltage measurement is difficult since the inverter output voltages are
composed of discrete high-voltage/high-frequency pulses. Therefore, a potential-free
measurement is required. A possible measurement setup and affiliated problems are
described in [Maes 01]. Beyond over-modulation, the frequency spectrum of the
output voltages generated by SVM consists of a fundamental frequency and many
higher harmonics around the PWM frequency. Only the fundamental voltage wave
contains useful information for the digital motion control. Thus, all high-frequency
components should be eliminated by a low-pass filter. Due to the low-pass filter, the
measured voltages suffer from phase delay and are not adequate for use in control
purposes [Choi 96].

Particularly at low-speed and light-load operation, where the undesired phase delay
is negligible, problems due to the accuracy of measurement may arise: The
fundamental phase voltage is very small in these operating points and only a fraction
of the measured pulses with a magnitude equal to the dc link voltage. Nowadays, a
measurement of the phase voltages is seldom used. This is mainly caused by the
complexity and extra costs of the additional measuring devices.

The development platform used here enables a simultaneous measurement of only
four signals, limited by the number of available analog-to-digital converters.
However, three A/D converters are already reserved for the measurement of dc bus
voltage and motor current in two phases. Thus, considering the given control setup,
the motor voltages must be calculated considering the inverter’s non-linearity.

In a voltage-source PWM inverter several causes distorting the output voltages can
be found. The reasons for this originate from the inherent characteristics of the
power switches such as voltage drop, voltage transition slope, turn on/off time and
delay of the control signals. However, this delay distortion is small when compared
to the dead-time effect [Bose 97] and is therefore usually disregarded.
3.5.2 Phase Voltage Estimation
For some subsequent described applications, such as sensorless speed control and
flux estimation, the exact inverter output voltages are required to calculate desired
state values. However, they are not measured due to the lack of sufficient analog-to-
digital converters, but calculated by means of the reference voltages with
Voltage-Source PWM Inverter 53
consideration of the inverter non-linearity and the homopolar component generated
by the SVM. A compensation of the dead-time effect is not implemented since the
actual storage delay, varying depending on the operating point, is not exactly
known. Practical investigations have shown even a deterioration of the observer
performance by using an inadequate compensation approach: If the compensation is
not perfect, a duplication of the dead-time effect at zero crossings of the current may
occur.

Due to the delayed reaction of almost all semiconductor switches at turn-on and
turn-off, the phase voltages strongly deviate from the reference voltages. The
voltage distortion does not depend on the magnitude of the reference voltages and
hence its relative influence is very strong in the lower speed range where the
reference voltage is small. Actually, the dead-time error is one of the major reasons
limiting the performance of sensorless control in low speed operation [Choi 94],
[Lee 96]. Disregarding this distortion yields in the subsequently described
speed/flux observer to large position and speed errors, especially at low motor
speed, where the error voltage becomes a multiple of the reference voltage.
Therefore, the dead-time effect is considered at the estimation of the phase voltages.
Figure 3.5 presents a comparison of the error voltage calculated by (1.17) and the
measured falsification of the fundamental voltages.
-10 -8 -6 -4 -2 0 2 4 6 8 10
-15
-10
-5
0
5
10
15
I
1
[A]
U
r
e
f

-

U
1
0

[
V
]

Measurement
Equation (3.11)

Figure 3.5: Dead-time effect: Measured and estimated error voltage
(U
dc
=400 V, f
PWM
= 10 kHz, τ
d
= ± 2,5 µs).

The speed-controlled ac motor is supplied by a voltage-source PWM inverter. The
PWM generation is performed by space vector modulation. SVM provides a more
efficient use of the supply voltage in comparison with sinusoidal modulation
methods by imposing a homopolar system u
0
in all three phases (multiple of third
harmonics).

(
c b a
u u u u + + =
3
1
0
) (3.3)

54 Chapter 1

However, this homopolar system reflected in the line-to neutral voltages, must be
considered in the Park transformation:

(
(
(
¸
(

¸

(
(
(
(
¸
(

¸


− −
=
(
¸
(

¸

c
b
a
u
u
u
u
u
2
3
2
3
0
2
1
2
1
1
3
2
β
α
(3.4)

In the case of an ideal inverter, the fundamental voltages at the motor terminals
assume the shape of the reference voltage. The reference voltages U
ref
are equal to
the duty ratios x
ref
= (a
*
; b
*
; c
*
) calculated by the SVM (figure 1.14) multiplied by
the half dc bus voltage:

ref dc ref
x U U
2
1
= , |a
*
| ≤ 1; |b
*
| ≤ 1; |c
*
| ≤ 1 (3.5)

All together, using these reference voltages, the required alpha/beta voltages u
α
, u
β

are calculated according to the block diagram in figure 3.6 considering both the non-
linearity of the inverter and the homopolar system of the SVM.


SVM

Eq.(3.10)
i1
i2
sign
i3
Udc
1/2
Equation
(3.13)

xref = (a
*
; b
*
; c
*
)


Figure 3.6: Block diagram of voltage estimation.

Note that the calculation of the alpha/beta voltages described above is only valid
without strong over-modulation. The voltage spectrum in normal operation consists
approximately of one fundamental and many higher harmonics around the PWM
frequency. Over-modulation yields a voltage spectrum consisting of all uneven
harmonics. In fact, a current controller with a special anti-windup system (see
subsection 2.6.3) has been implemented, avoiding these operating points as well as
the low harmonics.
3.6 Safety Issues & Enable Subsystem
A computer-aided control system is used as a development platform monitoring and
recording the experimental data. Furthermore, the safety-related monitoring and the
start-up and shut down automatisms are implemented in software on the main DSP
Voltage-Source PWM Inverter 55
board. The implemented safety-related monitoring (figure 3.7) consists of detecting
over-current and over-speed, both depending on the drive system, and a pre-
determined voltage window. The minimum and maximum admissible dc bus voltage
mainly depends on the inverter used. An inadmissible failure disables the entire
system, requiring a manual reset. The reset signal is activated only by the rising edge
of a manual reset protecting the drive/inverter from an everlasting reset while an
error may be still active. In addition, fuses are integrated in the motor current circuit
as well as in the dc bus voltage measurement.

error
logic
Udc
Iα,β
enable
signal
n
enable
z
-1
reset u > 0
z
-1
1
error ≡ 0
no error ≡ 1
0 ⇔ 1
0 ⇔ 1


Figure 3.7: Safety-related monitoring & enable logic of the drive system.

The enable signal controls both the entire control system and the inverter
(figure 3.2). All gating pulses of the power switches are set to zero in case of an
error. However, special care has to be paid when a PMSM with high motor speed is
operated in flux weakening mode. A disabled inverter causes the return of the
unrestrained permanent magnet flux linkage and the dc bus voltage may reach
unacceptable (dangerous) high values, if no additional power dissipation is
connected in the dc link.

The offset of the current measurement is seldom exact equal to zero, which causes a
summation by the integrators of the controller even when the drive is disabled.
Therefore, all integrator values within the control scheme are multiplied by the
enable signal. This feature resets all registers at a restart and prevents an unwanted
overflow of integrator registers.

3.7 Conclusions
All subsequently described motor control algorithms are implemented using the
DSP-based development platform DS1102 from dSpace™. In this chapter, an
overview of the given controller board and the hardware interface between DSP and
drive system has been presented. The main DSP of the controller board can be
directly programmed using MATLAB
©
/SIMULINK
©
. For flexibility, the user can
introduce own C-code into the block diagrams. Software tools allow parameter
tuning/changing and data recording during the experiment in real-time mode. The
laboratory test set-up consists of a host PC for the controller board, an IGBT
inverter, and ac motor drives with variable load, current/voltage sensors and an
56 Chapter 1

incremental encoder. A hardware interface providing symmetric PWM signals and
transforming required measurements has been added to the experimental set-up.

Support software has been changed in order to implement different PWM strategies
as well as variable PWM frequencies on the TMSM320P14 slave-DSP. Different
PWM generation schemes are evaluated. A standard VS-PWM inverter with IGBTs
is adapted to be commanded by the DSP controller board. The PWM switching
signals are fed directly from the slave processor to the inverter using a high-
performance optical link. Furthermore, the inverter is supervised by an enable
subsystem.

Issues of phase voltage distortion/identification due to the inverter non-linearity are
discussed in detail. The required inverter output voltages are not measured but
calculated by means of the reference voltages with consideration of the inverter non-
linearity and the homopolar component generated by the SVM.




4. Sensorless Speed Control of
Induction Motor Drives
4.1 Introduction
Induction motors are relatively cheap and rugged machines. Much attention has been
given to induction motor control for starting, braking, speed reversal, speed change,
etc. When the drive requirements include fast dynamic response and accurate speed
or torque control, it is necessary to operate the motor in a closed loop mode with
feedback of the motor speed. Only a closed loop control of the motor meets the
requirements including fast dynamic response, accurate speed and torque control or
even a higher efficiency by means of flux optimization.

However, the speed sensor has several disadvantages from the viewpoint of drive
cost, reliability and signal noise immunity. Therefore, it is necessary to achieve
precise motor control without using position or speed sensors. This chapter deals
with the speed control of induction motor drives without a shaft sensor. The field
oriented control (FOC) technique is used, together with an estimation of the motor
speed. Both rotor field magnitude and position are estimated by summation of rotor
speed and slip frequency. The structure of the implemented sensorless control is
based on the Extended Kalman Filter theory (EKF).

There are many models of sensorless speed controllers described in literature
dealing with the Extended Kalman Filter theory. They are mostly based on the
models of [Bru 90] or [Vas 94]. Brunsbach estimates four states in a rotor-fixed
reference frame. The model of Vas, using the motor equations in a stator-fixed
reference frame, has shown a more stable behavior, but its disadvantage is its higher
order (5 states are observed). This is a drawback when the EKF algorithm has to be
implemented in real-time. However, the model is much simpler than the first one,
since it does not contain conversions between the stator and field coordinate system,
resulting in comparable execution times for both. This approach has become
commonplace. However, this model also causes some problems, especially at low
motor speed and speed reversals. The estimated states are time-dependent resulting
in an error driven nature of the observer even at steady state. Furthermore, the
estimated speed is lagging the real speed during transients, because the speed is
assumed to be constant during the sampling period.

58 Chapter 5
Here, a new model for speed estimation is proposed. This approach is shown to offer
a significant improvement of the drive performance. Along with the speed, also rotor
flux, flux position and acceleration of the drive are estimated. The speed estimation
does not lag the actual motor speed, both in steady state and during periods of
acceleration or braking.

The discussion starts by selecting a suitable motor model. Two marginal different
models are given; their advantages and drawbacks are briefly discussed. Then, the
design and implementation of the observer are explained in detail. A 1,5 kW
induction motor experimental system has been built to verify this approach. Results
are presented to demonstrate the performance of the system. The discussion ends by
evaluating the influence of motor parameter variations and designing a parameter
adaptation scheme in real-time to track these variations.
4.2 Model of the Induction Motor in Discrete Time
As mentioned above, a motor model is required for the implementation of speed
estimation via the Kalman filter approach. Choosing a stator flux reference frame
causes time-dependent states resulting in an error driven nature of the observer even
at steady state. Signal lags are inevitably increased. Significant problems arise
especially due to the zero crossing of the states at low motor speed and speed
reversal. Here, the system model of the induction motor used is based on the motor
equations in a rotor flux reference frame [Bla 72], [Hen 92]. The angle of the
transformation from the stator to the rotor reference frame coincides with the rotor
flux angle γ rotating at synchronous speed ω
µ
. Thus, the rotor flux lies entirely in the
d-axis. At steady state, all values, apart from the flux angle, are constant. The
electrical properties of the induction motor in continuous time are completely
described by two voltage equations of the stator, two rotor equations and a torque
equation:

dt
di
i
R
u
i
dt
di
q
s
d
d
d
µ
µ
τ σ ω στ στ
1 1 1
) 1 ( − − + = + (4.1)
µ µ µ
ω τ σ ω στ στ i i
R
u
i
dt
di
d
s
q
q
q
1 1 1
) 1 ( − − − = + (4.2)
d
i i
dt
di
= +
µ
µ
τ
2
(4.3)
µ
µ
τ
ω ω
i
i
q
r
2
+ = (4.4)
q
r
h
q rd
r
h
el
i i
L
L
p i
L
L
p T
µ
ψ
2
1 1
= = (4.5)
Sensorless Speed Control of Induction Motor Drives 59

The torque equation (4.5) clearly shows the required torque control property of
providing a torque proportional to the torque command current i
q
. The mechanical
equation of the drive is:

dt
d
p
J
dt
d
J T T
r
load el
ω ω
= = − (4.6)

The choice of input and output vector of the model has been determined by the
structure of the electrical equivalent circuit. The induction motor is supplied by a
voltage source PWM inverter. The voltages are not necessary measured, but can be
calculated by means of the reference voltages. The current has to be measured for
the implementation of the field-oriented control.

According to (4.4), the flux speed ω
µ
can be written as a function of the electrical
rotor speed, q-axis and magnetizing current. This property is neglected in many
speed observers assuming the speed of the rotor flux to be constant during the small
sample time interval T
s
[Bru 91]. [Lut 93] uses this approximation even for the
discrete state space control of the induction motor. However, such an approximation
can be the origin of a poor estimation during transients. In fact, the speed of the rotor
flux, illustrated in figure 4.1, changes directly with and as fast as the q-axis current,
i.e. the electromagnetic torque.

0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7 0.8 0.9 1
0
50
100
150
200
250
t [s]
ω

[
r
a
d
/
s
]


ω
r

ω
µ

ω
slip

Load
step

Figure 4.1: Flux, slip and rotor speed during transients.
(simulation of a 0,8 kW induction motor drive)

Furthermore, the derivative of the magnetizing current is often disregarded [Bru 91].
Neglecting a change of the magnetizing current in (4.1) may be an acceptable
approximation of the d/q-axis current equations, but yields no significant advantage
with regard to the computing effort. Thus, the substitutions in the model matrices
should be made by using (4.3)-(4.4). This eliminates both flux speed and flux
derivative in the stator voltage equations (4.1)-(4.2):

60 Chapter 5
( )
s
d
q
q
r d
s
d
d q
q
r
d d
R
u
i i
i
i
i
R
u
i i i
i
i
i
dt
di
1 2 2 2 1
1 2 2 1
) 1 ( ) 1 ( 1
) 1 (
στ στ
σ
τ
ω
στ
σ
στ
στ στ
σ
τ
ω
στ
µ
µ
µ
µ
+

+
|
|
.
|

\
|
+ +
|
|
.
|

\
| −


=
+ −


|
|
.
|

\
|
+ +

=
(4.7)
s
q
r d
q
r q
s
q q
r d
q
r
q q
R
u
i i
i
i
i
R
u i
i i
i
i i
dt
di
1 2 2 1
1 2 2 1
) 1 ( ) 1 ( 1
) 1 (
στ
ω
σ
σ
τ
ω
στ
σ
στ
στ τ
ω
σ
σ
τ
ω
στ
µ
µ
µ
µ
+


|
|
.
|

\
|
+ −
|
|
.
|

\
| −


=
+
|
|
.
|

\
|
+


|
|
.
|

\
|
+ −

=
(4.8)

Assuming a very small sample time T
s
, the transformation from continuous to the
discrete time state space causes a negligible error. This discretization error is usually
disregarded, but might be considered later as a part of the noise covariance matrix.
Consequently, the error is compensated by the filter feedback matrix.

s
d
s s q
q
r s d s k d
R
u
T i T i
i
i
T i T i
1 2 2 2 1
1 ,
) 1 ( ) 1 ( 1
1
στ στ
σ
τ
ω
στ
σ
στ
µ
µ
+

+
|
|
.
|

\
|
+ +
|
|
.
|

\
|
|
|
.
|

\
| −
+ − ≈
+
(4.9)
s
q
s r s d
q
r s q s k q
R
u
T i T i
i
i
T i T i
1 2 2 1
1 ,
) 1 ( ) 1 ( 1
1
στ
ω
σ
σ
τ
ω
στ
σ
στ
µ
µ
+


|
|
.
|

\
|
+ −
|
|
.
|

\
|
|
|
.
|

\
| −
+ − ≈
+
(4.10)

Equations (4.3)-(4.4) lead directly to an expression of the magnetizing current
respectively the flux position in the discrete time domain:

µ µ
τ τ
i
T
i
T
i
s
d
s
k
|
|
.
|

\
|
− + ≈
+
2 2
1 ,
1 (4.11)
µ
µ
τ
ω γ ω γ γ
i
i
T T T
q
s r s s k
2
1
+ + = + ≈
+
(4.12)

The flux angle is limited to |γ | < π avoiding an overflow of a register at rotation of
the rotor in one direction over a long time span. This non-linearity reflects no
negative influence on the EKF.

The electrical behavior of the induction motor is completely described by these
equations in discrete time and with the rotor speed as a variable. The speed must be
estimated by the filter. Thus, a suitable state equation is required. Because usually
neither the load torque nor its time variation is known, a simplification of the
mechanical equation is necessary.
Sensorless Speed Control of Induction Motor Drives 61
4.2.1 System model without load torque estimation
In a first approach, the electrical rotor speed ω
r
is assumed to be constant in the
small time interval (sampling time T
s
). Information on drive inertia is not required.
Mechanical and electrical model are fully decoupled. Nevertheless, this model
causes some problems. As will be shown, the estimated speed is lagging the real
speed during transients.

noise model
2 2
1 ,
+ = − + ≈
+ r load s q
r
h
s r k r
T
J
p
T i i
L J
L p
T ω ω ω
µ
(4.13)

The known electromagnetic torque must not be used as part of the speed calculation
in (4.13) when also the load is disregarded. This would lead to a steady state speed
error since the Kalman algorithm assumes a zero mean value of the disturbances,
which is not correct, except at no-load, considering only the load torque as a
disturbance. Thus, both electromagnetic and load torque must be handled as system
disturbances while the speed is treated as a constant.

The selection of the first motor model in discrete time is completed by choosing d-
and q-axis current i
d
, i
q
, rotor flux i
µ
, flux position γ and the electrical rotor speed ω
r

as state variable x
k
and the fundamental voltage as input u
k
. The resulting system
model and its Kalman filter are referred in following discussions as “Model 1”:
k k k
u x x
k k
B A + =
+1
;
k
s
s
k
U
U
u
|
|
.
|

\
|
=
β
α
;
k
r
q
d
k
i
i
i
x
|
|
|
|
|
|
.
|

\
|
=
γ
µ
ω
; (4.14)
|
|
|
|
|
|
|
|
|
|
|
|
.
|

\
|

|
.
|

\
| −

|
|
.
|

\
| −
+ −
|
|
.
|

\
|
+ −
|
|
.
|

\
| −
|
|
.
|

\
|
+
|
|
.
|

\
| −
+ −
=
1 0 0
0 1 0 0 0
0 0 1 0
0 0
1 1 1
1
0 0
1 1 1
1
2
2 2
2 1 2
2 2 2 1
s
µ
s
s s
r s s
µ
q
r s
s
µ
q
r s s
T
i
T
T T
ω
σ
σ
T
σ
σ
σ
T
i
i
ω T
σ
σ
T
i
i
ω T
σ
σ
σ
T
τ
τ τ
τ τ τ
τ τ τ τ
k
A (4.15)

• L
s
, L
r
, L
h
, Stator, rotor, main inductance
• R
s
, R
r
Stator and rotor resistance
• σ = 1-L
h
2
/(L
s
L
r
) Blondel coefficient
62 Chapter 5
• τ
1
= L
s
/R
s
Stator time constant
• τ
2
= L
r
/R
r
, Rotor time constant

The input matrix B
k
describes the weighted transformation from a stator-fixed to the
rotor flux reference frame.

( ) ( )
( ) ( )
|
|
|
|
|
|
.
|

\
|

=
0 0
0 0
0 0
cos sin
sin cos
γ γ
γ γ
σ
s
s
L
T
k
B , (4.16)

The resulting output vector y
k
consists of the estimated motor current in a stator-
fixed reference frame (α/β-system, indices:
‘s’
). To avoid double calculations, the
sin/cos-terms of the flux angle should be calculated only once and used in both input
and output matrix.

( ) ( )
( ) ( )
k k s
s
k
x x
I
I
y
|
|
.
|

\
| −
= =
|
|
.
|

\
|
=
0 0 0 cos sin
0 0 0 sin cos
ˆ
ˆ
γ γ
γ γ
β
α
k
C (4.17)

A block diagram of the discrete motor model together with the feedback matrix of
the observer is shown in figure 4.2. The motor speed as well as all other states are
considered as both, state and parameter. The model matrices B
k
and C
k
depend on
the position of the rotor flux γ, the matrix A
k
on q-axis current i
q
, rotor flux i
µ
and
rotor speed ω
r
.

B
k
xk+1 ⇒ xk
A
k
+
+
EKF
C
k
+
U
α
S

U
β
S

xk+1
γk+1
γk
Measurement:
I
α
s

I
β
s

yk
+
+
-
∆yk
∆x
z
-1


Figure 4.2: Block diagram of the discrete motor model and EKF.
4.2.2 System model with load torque estimation
The second motor model, in future referred to as “Model 2”, uses additional
information on the electromagnetic torque generated by the motor. Additionally to
Sensorless Speed Control of Induction Motor Drives 63
the given states, also the acceleration due to the load torque is estimated. The model
presented in this subsection does not assume the velocity ω
r
but the load torque T
load

to be constant in a small time interval (sampling time T
s
). This results in an
improved performance during transients of the motor speed. Iron and friction losses
of the induction motor are also part of the estimated load torque. Using the torque,
rather than the speed gives a better handle on the mechanical behavior, as in this
way acceleration is controlled, being the input to the speed variations.

The acceleration of the drive equals the difference between electromagnetic T
el
and
load torque T
load
related to the drive inertia J. The load torque is generally unknown,
but constant at steady state. It creates a disturbance of the speed control loop, which
is compensated by the controller. In steady state, the acceleration of the drive is zero
by definition. Thus, the differential equation of the acceleration due to the load
torque is:

0 ≈ |
.
|

\
|
=
load
l
T
J
p
dt
d
dt

(4.18)
load l k l
T
J
p
= ≈ ⇒
+
α α
1 ,
(4.19)

Now, the known electromagnetic torque is used as part of the speed calculation,
improving the accuracy of the speed:

l s q
r
h
s r k r
T i i
L J
L p
T α ω ω
µ
− + ≈
+
2 2
1 ,
(4.20)

In contrast to the remarks concerning the load torque in (4.13), the inaccuracy of
(4.18)-(4.20) has a zero mean value, being a precondition of the Kalman algorithm.
Only a variation of the load is handled as model inaccuracy. This inaccuracy is
neglected here, but will be taken into account afterwards at the evaluation of the
noise covariance matrix. In addition, erroneous electromagnetic torque calculation
and inertia identification are handled as model noise. However, the influence of both
an incorrect estimation of the electromagnetic torque due to electrical parameter
variations and an incorrect identification of the drive inertia are small compared to a
potential load variations. The discrete form of the second model is:

k k k
u x x
k k
B A + =
+1
;
k
s
s
k
U
U
u
|
|
.
|

\
|
=
β
α
;
k
l
r
q
d
k
i
i
i
x
|
|
|
|
|
|
|
|
.
|

\
|
=
α
γ
ω
µ
(4.21)
64 Chapter 5
|
|
|
|
|
|
|
|
|
|
|
|
|
|
|
.
|

\
|


|
.
|

\
| −

|
|
.
|

\
| −
+ −
|
|
.
|

\
|
+ −
|
|
.
|

\
| −
|
|
.
|

\
|
+
|
|
.
|

\
| −
+ −
=
1 0 0 0 0 0
0 1 0 0
0 1 0 0
0 0 0 1 0
0 0 0
1 1 1
1
0 0 0
1 1 1
1
2
2 2
2 2
2 1 2
2 2 2 1
s
s
s
r
h
s
s s
r s s
q
r s
s
q
r s s
T
i
T
T i
L J
L p
T
T T
T T
i
i
T
T
i
i
T T
µ
µ
µ
µ
τ
τ τ
ω
σ
σ
στ
σ
στ τ
ω
στ
σ
τ
ω
στ
σ
στ
k
A
(4.22)
( ) ( )
( ) ( )
|
|
|
|
|
|
|
|
.
|

\
|

=
0 0
0 0
0 0
0 0
cos sin
sin cos
γ γ
γ γ
σ
s
s
L
T
k
B (4.23)
( ) ( )
( ) ( )
k k s
s
k
x x
I
I
y
|
|
.
|

\
| −
= =
|
|
.
|

\
|
=
0 0 0 0 cos sin
0 0 0 0 sin cos
ˆ
ˆ
γ γ
γ γ
β
α
k
C (4.24)

This model has a disadvantage: its order is higher. This is a drawback when the EKF
algorithm has to be implemented in real-time. However, one major advantage of this
model is that it does not assume the speed to be constant during the sample time.
The involuntary lag of the speed signal is avoided by the additional estimation of the
load acceleration. In fact, the estimation of the acceleration is insignificantly lagging
at a continuous load torque variation. Nevertheless, the acceleration is, apart from an
initial change, nearly constant during both changing the speed reference and
applying load torque. This special drive property is caused by the current/torque
limitation within the speed control loop. Thus, the acceleration is almost constant
and can be estimated accurately.

The other advantage originates from the higher accuracy of the speed specification.
This accuracy is considered at the calculation of the noise covariance matrix. A
lower value indicates a more accurate estimation and accordingly results in a
smother speed signal.

Obviously, the performance of the system increases as the information of the known
electromagnetic torque is used. Only the load torque is handled as if it were an
unknown system disturbance, being true for many motor drives. If the load-speed
relation is known, this information can be used for further improvement of the
Sensorless Speed Control of Induction Motor Drives 65
estimation performance. In that case, the equation of the load acceleration α
l
is
determined employing equations (4.5), (4.6) and (4.19):

J
T T
p
d
dT
dt
d
d
dT
dt
dT
load el
r
load r
r
load load

⋅ = =
ω
ω
ω
(4.25)

r
load
k l q
r
h
s k l k l
d
dT
i i
L J
L p
J
p
T
ω
α α α
µ
|
|
.
|

\
|
− + ≈
+ ,
2 2
, 1 ,
(4.26)

If the known load-speed relation is applied to the algorithm, also the system model
inaccuracy is lower. The noise covariance Q can be reduced, resulting in a very
smooth steady state speed signal and almost no lag during acceleration or braking
periods.

Both with and without applying the load-speed relation, the performance of the
estimator is only slightly affected by a precise knowledge of the inertia. If the inertia
J is set to infinite, the behavior of the algorithm is like the one neglecting the torque
command inputs and assuming the speed to be constant in a small time interval.
Naturally, the inertia must not be set to zero to guarantee a stable functioning. In all
other cases, a mismatch of the inertia is handled by the EKF as system noise. The
steady state estimation of the load torque becomes erroneous but the speed
estimation remains correct.
4.3 Extended Kalman Filter Algorithm
The induction motor torque depends on both air-gap flux and speed, but neither
torque versus flux nor torque versus speed relations are linear. This complicates the
design of control systems and speed estimation for induction machines. Due to the
lack of a system with linear equations, also the state model of the induction motor
used is non-linear. The mechanical speed and position of the flux are considered as
both, state and parameter. The model matrices B
k
and C
k
depend on the position of
the rotor flux, the matrix A
k
on q-axis current i
q
, rotor flux i
µ
and rotor speed ω
r
.
Therefore, the extended Kalman filter (EKF) has to be used to estimate the
parameters of the model matrices, as well. The EKF performs a re-linearization of
the non-linear state model for each new estimation step, as it becomes available.
Furthermore, the EKF provides a solution that directly cares for the effects of
measurement or system noise. The errors concerning the parameters of the system
model are also handled as system noise.

A more complete introduction to the general idea of the Kalman filter can be found
in literature [Bram 94], [May 79], Bro 92]. Here, only the basic equations of the
EKF are repeated. The EKF algorithm used is based on [Bram 94]. The Kalman
filter estimates a process by using a form of feedback control. The signal flow of the
EKF in a recursive manner is shown in figure 4.3.
66 Chapter 5

1/z
)
`
¹
q
d
u
u

k k
x
1 +
x ∂
Φ ∂
k k
x ∆
1 − k k
x
x
h


1/z
Predictor
Filter
Pk|k-1
Pk+1|k
Pk|k
Kk
Kk ∆Yk
k measured
k
y y Y − = ∆


Figure 4.3: Block diagram of the extended Kalman filter.

The Kalman algorithm distinguishes between filter and predictor equations. The
predictor equations are responsible for projecting the state to obtain the “a priori”
estimation of the next time step. The filter equations, also called measurement
update, are responsible for the feedback to obtain an improved “a posterior”
estimate. The predicted value of the state vector x
k+1|k
is corrected by adding the
product of filter gain and the difference between estimated and measured output
vector y
k
to the state vector x
k|k
. In addition still the equation for the corrected
covariance matrix P
k|k
is required.

( ) ( ) k x h y x x
k k
k
k k k k
,
1 | 1 | | − −
− + =
k
K (4.27)
1 k | k k 1 k | k k | k
P K P P
− = −



− =
1 |
|
k k
x x
x
h
(4.28)

The matrix K
k
is the feedback matrix of the extended Kalman filter. This matrix
determines how the state vector x
k|k
is modified after the output of the model y
k
is
compared to the measured output of the system. The filter gain matrix is defined by:

1
1 | 1 | 1 |
| | |

= − = = −
|
|
.
|

\
|
+






=
− − −
R P P K
1 k | k 1 k | k k
k k k k k k
x x
T
x x x x
T
x
h
x
h
x
h
(4.29)

in which R is based on the covariance matrix of the measurement signal noise.

Based on the calculated state vector x
k|k
, a new value of the state vector can be
predicted. The same applies to the error covariance matrix. The prediction is:

( )
k k k k k
u x k k x , , , 1
1 | | 1 − +
+ Φ = (4.30)
T
k k x x
T
x x
k k k k
x x
Γ Γ +

Φ ∂

Φ ∂
=
= = +
Q P P
k | k k | 1 k
| |
| | (4.31)
Sensorless Speed Control of Induction Motor Drives 67

with the covariance matrix Q reflecting the system noise.

All equations of the EKF algorithm can be written as a function of a system vector
Φ and an output vector h describing the re-linearized model of the induction motor.
The system and output vector respectively can be derived from the model equations
of the induction motor.

( ) ( ) ( )
k k k k k k k k k k k
u x x x u x k k
| | | | 1 |
, , , 1
k k
B A + = + Φ

(4.32)
( ) ( )
1 | 1 | 1 |
,
− − −
=
k k k k k k
x x k x h
k
C (4.33)

In addition, the derivatives of system and output vector are required for the EKF
algorithm. The derivative of the system vector of Model 2 results in:

68 Chapter 5
+
|
|
|
|
|
|
|
|
|
|
|
|
|
|
|
.
|

\
|
|
|
.
|

\
|
+

+ −
|
|
.
|

\
|
+ −
|
|
.
|

\
|
+
|
|
.
|

\
| −
+ −
=

Φ ∂
0 0 0 0 0 0
0 0 0 0 0
0 0 0 0 0
0 0 0 0 0
0 0 0 0
1 1
1
0 0 0 0 2
1 1
1
2
2 2
2
2 2 1 2
2 2 1
µ
µ
µ µ
µ
τ
τ
τ στ
σ
στ τ
ω
τ
ω
στ
σ
στ
i
T
i
L J
L p
T
T
i
i
T
i
i
T
i
i
T T
x
s
r
h
s
s
d
s
q
r s
q
r s s

(4.34)

|
|
|
|
|
|
|
|
|
|
|
|
|
|
|
|
.
|

\
|



− |
.
|

\
| −
+ −
|
|
.
|

\
|


|
|
.
|

\
|


+
1 0 0 0 0 0
0 1 0 0
0 1 0 0
0 0 0 1 0 0
0
1 1
0 0
0
1
0 0
2
2
2 2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
s
q
s
s q
r
h
s
s
d
s
s
d s r
d q
s
q
s
s
q s
q
s
T
i
i
T
T i
L J
L p
T
T
u
L
T
i i T
i
i i
T
u
L
T
i T
i
i
T
µ
µ
µ
µ
τ
τ
σ σ
σ
ω
σ
σ
τ
σ τ στ
σ


where u
q
and u
d
are voltages in a rotor-flux reference frame, already calculated by
the product of α/β-voltages and input matrix B
k
. Thus, the result can be used to save
computing time. Note that the q-axis voltage influences the linearized specification
of d-axis current and vice-versa.

The corresponding derivative of the system vector of Model 1 is obtained by
dropping the last column as well as the last row in (4.34) and setting the elements
} 2 , 4 {
x ∂
Φ ∂
and } 3 , 4 {
x ∂
Φ ∂
to zero. In this way, the influence of electromagnetic and
load torque on the speed is canceled.

The derivative of the output vector of Model 2 is:

Sensorless Speed Control of Induction Motor Drives 69
( ) ( ) ( ) ( )
( ) ( ) ( ) ( )
( ) ( )
( ) ( )
|
|
.
|

\
|
− −
=
|
|
.
|

\
|

− − −
=


0
ˆ
0 0 cos sin
0
ˆ
0 0 sin cos
0 sin cos 0 0 cos sin
0 cos sin 0 0 sin cos
α
β
γ γ
γ γ
γ γ γ γ
γ γ γ γ
i
i
i i
i i
x
h
q d
q d
(4.35)

The calculation of the estimated α/β-current is already executed by the output matrix
C of the system model and should be used in (4.35) to avoid double calculations.
The corresponding derivative for Model 1 is obtained by dropping the last column in
(4.35).

The remaining variables of the algorithm are the noise covariance matrices Q and R
and an initial matrix P
0|0
representing the covariance of the known initial conditions.
They consist only of diagonal elements.
4.4 Real-Time Implementation of the EKF
4.4.1 Measurement & system noise
One critical step towards the implementation of the extended Kalman filter
algorithm is the search for the best covariance matrices. They have to be set-up
based on the stochastic properties of the corresponding noise. The noise covariance
R accounts for the measurement noise introduced by the current sensors and the
quantization errors of the A/D converters. Increasing R reflects a stronger
disturbance of the current. The noise is weighted less by the filter, causing a more
filtered current but also a slower transient performance of the system. The noise
covariance Q describes the system model inaccuracy, the errors of the parameters
and the noise introduced by the voltage estimation. Q has to be increased at stronger
noise levels driving the system, entailing a more heavily weighting of the measured
current and a faster transient performance. Thus, changing the covariance matrices R
and Q affects both the transient duration and the steady state operation of the filter.
An initial matrix P
0|0
represents the matrix of the covariance in knowledge of the
initial conditions. Varying P
0|0
affects neither the transient performance nor the
steady state conditions of the system and can be chosen at random.

The covariance matrices R, Q and P
0|0
are assumed to be diagonal due to the lack of
sufficient statistical information to evaluate their off-diagonal terms. Furthermore,
the diagonal characteristic holds the possibility of saving a lot of computing time as
shown in the next subsection.

In general, the entries of the covariance matrices are unknown and cannot be
calculated. They are often set to the unity matrix. In order to achieve the optimal
70 Chapter 5
filter performance, the filter parameters R and Q can be obtained by tuning based on
experimental investigations. This describes an iterative process of searching the best
values. It is almost impossible to find a plausible evaluation of these parameters in
literature with regard to the sensorless control of motor drives.

However, it is preferable to have a rational basis for choosing the required
parameters. In either case, whether or not a superior filter performance can be
obtained by an additional tuning process, an initial guess of the values is welcome.
As shown, the value of the different parameters differs a lot. Furthermore, the filter
performance may change dramatically by varying only one value. Without any
previous knowledge and considering the high dimension of the matrices, tuning is
very arduously or can even lead to an unstable behavior of the observer. For
instance, changing the sample time requires a new tuning process. A design equation
has the additional advantage of being independent of the given installation, and it
can easily be assigned to other drive installations without an expert tuning the
parameters.

The measurement covariance R can be measured easily in advanced. Measuring is
generally possible because the current measurement is needed anyway while
operating the filter. Some off-line sample measurements are taken in order to
determine the variance of the measurement error. This is done by applying a
constant line-to-line voltage across two phases containing a current sensor and
measuring the resulting dc current. It must be noted, that the measured current
should not be supplementary filtered, apart from an anti-aliasing filter of course. The
noise on the raw measurements will possibly be non-linearly transformed resulting
in second order terms, which may be significant. The Kalman approach handles
white and uncorrelated measurement noise and produces the minimum variance
estimate. Therefore, this is already an optimal filter. A current measurement
respecting the given installation yields a measurement noise covariance matrix,
being almost proportional to the dc bus voltage within a voltage range
300V < U
dc
< 600V:

2
4
4 2
6
6
A
10 5 , 1 0
0 10 5 , 1
V
A
10 8 , 1 0
0 10 8 , 1
|
|
.
|

\
|



|
|
.
|

\
|


=




dc
U R (4.36)

In case of the system covariance, the calculation is less deterministic. Nevertheless,
an estimation of the matrix elements is possible using some simplifications.
Furthermore, the given assumptions have been examined experimentally. All given
values are calculated using the parameters of the 1,5 kW induction motor drive and a
sample time T
s
= 200 µs. The calculated values are valid for both system models;

Considering (4.9)-(4.10), the inaccuracy of the current calculation is mainly affected
by the accuracy of the voltage identification being the input of the system.

Sensorless Speed Control of Induction Motor Drives 71
inaccuracy voltage inaccuracy model current ⋅ ≈
s
s
L
T
σ
(4.37)

The voltage can be either measured or calculated by means of the reference voltages
being the output of the entire control loop. Here, the phase voltages are calculated.
Therefore, the accuracy is only affected by the non-linearity of the converter. This
non-linearity has its origin in the delayed reaction of the switches at turn-on and -
off, also called dead-time effect [Bose 97]. Therefore, the accuracy of the voltage
calculation, described by an error voltage ∆U, is simplified dependent on the dead-
time τ
dead
, the dc bus voltage U
dc
and the PWM-frequency f
PWM
of the inverter:

dc PWM dead
U f U τ ≈ ∆ (4.38)

The influence of parameter variation is marginal compared to this dead-time effect.
So, the covariance of the current model inaccuracy can be estimated by:

2
3
1
) 1 , 1 (
|
|
.
|

\
| ∆

s
s
L
U T
Q
σ
(4.39)
) 1 , 1 ( ) 2 , 2 ( Q Q = (4.40)

For the given drive, using a sample time T
s
= 200 µs, a dead-time τ
dead
= 2 µs and a
PWM-frequency f
PWM
= 10 kHz, the covariance amounts to:

2
A 0018 , 0 ) 2 , 2 ( ) 1 , 1 ( = = Q Q (4.41)

The model estimation inaccuracy of magnetizing current i
µ
and flux position γ is
only caused by the discretization of the continuous equations. In contrast to
Model 1, the speed specification within Model 2 is very accurate. The inaccuracy is
much lower and mainly caused by the discretization error. Considering a very small
sample time, these errors are negligible. Nevertheless, the worst of all
approximations is to set the model inaccuracy to zero. White noise is a much better
approximation than zero. Thus, this discretization error is considered by a very small
value in the noise covariance matrix Q. The maximum discretization error of the
magnetizing current is dependent on the maximum motor current and the rotor time
constant.

|
|
.
|

\
|



=



=
+
0
) 1 (
2
, ,
2
, ,
var ) 3 , 3 (
k
T k
kT
k k d k k d
s
s
s
dt
i i i i
T Q
τ τ
µ µ
(4.42)
72 Chapter 5
2 5
2
2
2 2
max
2
max
A 10 6 , 2
3
var ) 3 , 3 (

⋅ ≈ =
|
|
.
|

\
|
< ⇒
τ τ
s s
T i T i
Q (4.43)

Assuming a maximum acceleration of α
max
= 1000 s
-2
and a sample time T
s
= 200 µs,
the variance of the flux position is estimated by:

|
|
.
|

\
|
− <
|
|
.
|

\
|
− =



+

=
+
s
s
s
s
T k
kT
s s
k
T k
kT
k s
dt t T k T dt t T Q
) 1 (
max max
0
) 1 (
var ) ( var ) 5 , 5 ( α α ω ω (4.44)
11
4 2
max
2
max
10 3 , 3
48 2
var ) 5 , 5 (

⋅ ≈ =
|
|
.
|

\
|
< ⇒
s s
T T
Q
α α
(4.45)

For Model 2, the inaccuracy of the motor speed calculation is also caused by the
discretization error dependent on the maximum acceleration and its time variation.
Based on common bandwidth of torque control loops, a maximum variation time
constant τ
torque
= 1 ms is chosen.

|
|
.
|

\
|
− =



=
+
0
) 1 (
2 Model
) ( var ) 4 , 4 (
k
T k
kT
k s
s
s
dt t T Q α α (4.46)
2 2
4 2
max
2
max
2 Model
1
0033 , 0
48 2
var ) 4 , 4 (
s
T T
Q
torque
s
torque
s
≈ =
|
|
.
|

\
|
< ⇒
τ
α
τ
α
(4.47)

These values are very small resulting in smooth signal shapes. They could be set to
the maximum in order to achieve maximum dynamic performance of the drive.

For Model 1, the inaccuracy of the motor speed calculation is higher due to the
simplified specification and can be found from the maximum inertia related torque
variation:

(
max 1 Model
2 var ) 4 , 4 ( ) α
s
T Q =< (4.48)
2
2
max
2
1 Model
s
1
013 , 0
3
) 4 , 4 ( ≈ < ⇒
α
s
T
Q (4.49)

In contrast to Model 1, the speed inaccuracy for Model 2 is transferred to the
acceleration equation. The variance of the acceleration in system Model 2 equals the
variance of the inertia related load. The load torque is generally unknown. However,
an estimation of the variance top-limit can be obtained by assuming a maximum
torque-inertia relation of the drive. The calculation is based on the considerations
made in chapter 4: A constant relation of T
max
/J = 1000 s
-2
is assumed. Considering
Sensorless Speed Control of Induction Motor Drives 73
the number of pole pairs p and a maximum torque variation time constant
τ
load
= 2 ms, the top-limit of the acceleration inaccuracy and of the process variance
is:

torque
s k load k load
J
T T p
J
T T
p
τ
max
max
1 , ,
inaccuracy model ≈
|
|
.
|

\
| −
<

(4.50)

4
2
max
1
1482
12
1
) 6 , 6 (
s J
T T p
Q
torque
s

|
|
.
|

\
|
< ⇒
τ
(4.51)

The dynamic and smoothness of both speed and acceleration estimation is tuned by
Q(6,6). This parameter should be smaller, if the load torque is known very well or a
smooth speed signal is more important than the loop dynamic. A high value
increases the dynamic performance, but also the noise of the estimated signals. With
respect to the given drive setup, Q(6,6) is set to 5% of the value given in (4.51) in
order to obtain a good compromise between dynamic performance and smooth
torque command response. All other coefficients of the system covariance matrix are
set to the given values.

It should be noted, that the calculation of all process covariance matrices is
proportional to the square of the sample time. Thus, the given constants should be
adapted accordingly, if a different sample time is chosen. However, it is a major
advantage of the proposed model, that estimation accuracy and stability of the entire
control system are much less sensitive to tuning the covariance matrices compared
to other models.
4.4.2 Computing requirements
The speed estimation and the entire control of the induction motor are implemented
on a TMS320C31 DSP with 128 K × 32-bit RAM. The implemented algorithm
estimates five states for Model 1 and six for Model 2. The computing demand grows
almost with the third power of the state dimension. Furthermore, they contain
conversions between stator and field coordinate system and a computation time
intensive matrix inversion. The algorithm can be implemented with relatively few
instructions using matrix calculation. However, without any modification, the
resulting algorithm leads to a program that is not suitable for real-time
implementation, since it is very complex especially due to the matrix inversion. The
execution time would be higher than 400 µs, respectively 700 µs, using the given
DSP. In consequence, also the bandwidth of the current/torque controller would be
very small. Furthermore, the performance of the EKF decreases as the sample time
increases.

74 Chapter 5
The turnaround time of the final control system, using Model 2, amounts to 187 µs.
Only a few extra calculations are necessary compared to the speed observer based on
Model 1 requiring a turnaround time of 167 µs. The used sample time is set to
T
s
=220 µs. However, the execution time is not that meaningful. The DSP power is
simultaneously used for monitoring and recording the experimental data. Due to
developing reasons of the installation, the remaining field-oriented control is not
optimized regarding the computation requirement: e.g., the implemented FOC
contains three different speed controllers for performance comparison. An overview
of the computing requirement considering the different approaches is summarized in
table 4.1.

Table 4.1: Computation requirement of different EKF approaches.

Number of
Summations [ ]
Number of
Multiplications [ ]
Turnaround time of
the entire control [µs]
Model 1
Matrix calc.
546 662 >400
Model 2
Matrix calc.
881 1026 >700
Model 1
optimized
207 254 167
Model 2
optimized
255 320 187

Keeping the size of the program limited is achieved by optimizing the model with
hand calculations and exploiting matrix symmetry. The covariance matrices Q, R
and initial matrix P
0|0
are set to be symmetrically. In consequence, also the matrix
P
k|k-1
becomes symmetrical which can be exploited avoiding double calculations and
higher memory demand. The implemented EKF covers no superfluous
multiplications by zero. Several matrix calculations of the EKF algorithms are the
same and can be used in different equations, e.g. in (4.28)-(4.29). Furthermore, the
sine and cosine of the flux angle is calculated only once and used in the EKF as well
as in the Clarke-transformations [Bose 97] of currents and voltages.
4.4.3 Model comparison
Two models are closely examined. The first one is based on an approach, that has
become commonplace in almost every speed observer. They do not recognize the
actual torque command inputs to the system and assume the velocity ω to be
constant in a small time interval. In effect, such techniques treat the known torque
command input as if it were an unknown disturbance torque. Thus, they generally
lag the actual motor speed during periods of acceleration or braking.

The second motor model uses the additional information on the electromagnetic
motor torque. Additionally, the acceleration due to the load torque is estimated. This
model does not assume the velocity but the load torque to be constant in a small time
interval (sampling time T
s
). The inaccuracy of the speed calculation is transferred to
the load, which is usually unknown anyway. This results in an improved
Sensorless Speed Control of Induction Motor Drives 75
performance during transients (figure 4.4) presenting the response to a step of the
speed reference and to a load step. Figure 4.5 shows some important details of
figure 4.4.

-0.1 -0.05 0 0.05 0.1 0.15 0.2 0.25 0.3 0.35 0.4
0
500
1000
1500
t [s]
n

[
r
p
m
]

-0.1 -0.05 0 0.05 0.1 0.15 0.2 0.25 0.3 0.35 0.4
-5
0
5
10
15
t [s]
T

[
N
m
]



Figure 4.4: Step of the speed reference and response to a load step. Top: Real and estimated speed with
and without load torque estimation. Bottom: Estimation of electromagnetic and load torque.


0 0.005 0.01 0.015 0.02 0.025 0.03 0.035 0.04 0.045 0.05
0
200
400
600
t [s]
n

[
r
p
m
]

0.05 0.1 0.15 0.2 0.25 0.3
900
950
1000
1050
t [s]
n

[
r
p
m
]


1
With α
l

estimation
Without α
l

estimation
T
el
T
load
2

Figure 4.5: Details of figure 4.4. Top: Details indicated by Box 1.
Bottom: Details indicated by Box 2.

Simulations are performed to compare both algorithms using the improved
algorithm as feedback to control the motor. With the other algorithm in the control
loop, the obtained results are almost the same but with a higher overshoot due to the
delayed response of speed and current controller. A simultaneous real-time
implementation of both algorithms requires a faster DSP. Nevertheless, the
simulation has the advantage of calculating the real motor speed without any delay
in contrast to a real-time implementation using a filter for the measured speed signal
(see also figure 5.7). The estimated speed signal requires no additional filter. The
smoothness and the transient performance of the signals are adjustable by the noise
covariance matrix Q of the EKF algorithm [Ter 01].
76 Chapter 5

From now on, only the second model is considered. Model 2 offers a large
improvement of the performance. The price to be paid is only marginally extra
computing effort.
4.4.4 Observer integrated into the field-oriented control
The proposed algorithm can be implemented in software with an arguable
requirement of computation time. Figure 4.6 shows the closed loop observer
integrated into a simplified field-oriented speed control loop of an induction motor
drive. The voltages required as input for the EKF are either measured or obtained
from the reference voltages. Here, they are calculated regarding the inverter non-
linearity as explained in chapter 3. The current is measured in two phases. As
mentioned earlier, the current should not be additionally filtered. Pre-filtering
decreases the performance of the proposed observer. The current measurement
should be offset-free as the Kalman filter assumes a zero mean value of the error. An
offset generates erroneous estimations, especially at very low motor speed.


ia
ib


Voltage
calculation
3 ⇒ 2


sin(γ)
cos(γ)
ωr
id
iq
EKF
ud
*
uq
*
id,error
iq,error
sin(γ)
cos(γ)

*

*
SVM
current
control
inverse
Park Trans.
PWM
generation
Speed
reference
id
*
iq
*
Speed
&
Flux
Control

ud
*
uq
*
∆ud
*
∆uq
*
decoupling
SVM
Inverter
ub
*
uc
*
AC
motor
ua
*
Udc
Load


Udc
Power
supply
Digital motion control
2
Udc


Figure 4.6: Velocity observer integrated into a field-oriented speed control loop.

The presented observer achieves the objective of eliminating lag of the estimated
motor speed by additional load estimation. It should be noted, that the velocity
estimation described here can easily be extended to allow for further improvement
of the entire drive performance especially at load torque variation by adding
acceleration feedback. The information of load acceleration can be used directly by
compensating for the load torque. Rejecting load disturbances improves the dynamic
stiffness of the drive. Therefore, this feedback causes the disturbance to perceive a
more robust system less sensitive to disturbances.
Sensorless Speed Control of Induction Motor Drives 77
4.5 Experimental Results
A 1,5 kW induction motor has been used to verify the applied approach. The inertia
of the whole drive system (motor and load machine) is about 0,008 kgm
2
. The used
load machine is a dc motor drive with constant excitation. At high motor speed, the
dc motor is coupled with a resistor bench. The experiments at low motor speed are
done with the dc motor supplied by a thyristor converter. The load machine can be
controlled in either torque or speed control mode.

All presented results are obtained with the second model in the loop. Figure 4.7
shows the experimental results of a speed reversal using the estimation of speed,
rotor flux and flux angle as feedback to control the motor. Additionally, the real
speed is measured and compared. It can be seen that there is a very good accordance
between real and estimated speed, without any steady state error. During transients,
the estimation of the speed is even faster thus better than the measured one, because
a filter is used for the speed measurement causing a delay of the signal (incremental
encoder with 1024 lines, cut-off frequency of the used speed filter ≈ 1 kHz).

0 0.05 0.1 0.15 0.2 0.25 0.3 0.35 0.4 0.45 0.5
-1000
-500
0
500
1000
t [s]
n

[
r
p
m
]
0 0.05 0.1 0.15 0.2 0.25 0.3 0.35 0.4 0.45 0.5
-50
-25
0
25
50
t [s]

n

[
r
p
m
]

∆n = n
est
- n
m

Figure 4.7: Speed reversal test. Top: Reference, measured and estimated speed.
Bottom: Difference between estimation n
est
and measurement n
m
.

The current controller, using also the estimated values of d- and q-axis current, has a
bandwidth of 847 Hz. Figure 4.8 presents the response of the induction motor to a
load step at a motor speed of 1500 rpm. The applied load amounts to 65% of the
rated value.

The behavior at low motor speed is shown in figure 4.9. First, the response to a
square wave shaped speed reference is given. With a sinusoidal speed reference,
there is almost no difference between estimation, measurement and reference.

78 Chapter 5
0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7 0.8 0.9 1
1400
1450
1500
1550
1600
t [s]
n

[
r
p
m
]
0 0.25 0.5 0.75 1
0
2
4
6
t [s]
i
q

[
A
]
0 0.25 0.5 0.75 1
0
5
10
15
t [s]
T
l
o
a
d

[
N
m
]

n
m
n
est

Figure 4.8: Response to a load step. Top: Measured speed n
m
and
estimated speed n
est
. Bottom: q-axis current and load torque estimation.

0 0.01 0.02 0.03 0.04 0.05 0.06 0.07 0.08 0.09 0.1
-50
-25
0
25
50
t [s]
n

[
r
p
m
]
0 0.01 0.02 0.03 0.04 0.05 0.06 0.07 0.08 0.09 0.1
-25
0
25
t [s]
n

[
r
p
m
]
0 0.002 0.004 0.006 0.008 0.01 0.012 0.014 0.016 0.018 0.02
-50
-25
0
25
50
t [s]
n

[
r
p
m
]

n
est
n
m
n
est
n
m
n
ref

Figure 4.9: Behavior at low motor speed. Top: Square wave speed reference (20 Hz).
Middle: Sinusoidal speed reference (20 Hz). Bottom: Sinusoidal speed reference (100 Hz).

Even at low motor speed and standstill the proposed control scheme is able to
manage the load torque (figure 4.10-4.11). Load is applied using a dc motor
operating in torque control mode. The arising torque ripple components are typical
of a thyristor converter and are returned to the signals of speed and load torque
estimation respectively.
Sensorless Speed Control of Induction Motor Drives 79
0 0.5 1 1.5 2 2.5 3
-2
0
2
4
6
8
t [s]
I
d
c

[
A
]
0

0.5 1 1.5 2 2.5 3
-60
-40
-20
0
20
40
60
t [s]
n

[
r
p
m
]
n
est
n
m

Figure 4.10: Response to a load step at standstill. Top: Armature current of the load machine.
Bottom: Measured speed n
m
and estimated speed n
est
.

0 0.5 1 1.5 2 2.5 3 3.5 4
-2
0
2
4
6
8
t [s]
I
d
c

[
A
]
0 0.5 1 1.5 2 2.5 3 3.5 4
0
60
120
t [s]
n

[
r
p
m
]
0 0.5 1 1.5 2 2.5 3 3.5 4
0
5
10
15
t [s]
T
l
o
a
d

[
N
m
]


Figure 4.11: Response to a load step at low motor speed (n
ref
= 60 rpm). Top: Armature current of the
load machine. Middle: Measured and estimated speed. Bottom: Estimation of the load torque.

Also at high motor speed and flux weakening, a good performance of the EKF can
be obtained. Figure 4.12 demonstrates the behavior of the speed and flux estimation
in this speed range. The flux is inversely proportional to the motor speed. In
consequence, the applied fundamental motor voltage remains nearly constant. Only
a small transient is needed to adapt the required d- and q-axis current.

This feature of the EKF makes the proposed system also suitable for applications
with flux optimization increasing the drive efficiency. However, a minimum flux is
required to guarantee a stable operation of the EKF. The minimum flux for the given
induction motor drive amounts to approximately 10% of the rated value.

80 Chapter 5
0 0.05 1 0.15 0.2 0.25
0
500
1000
1500
2000
2500
3000
t [s]
n

[
r
p
m
]

0.
0 0.05 0.1 0.15 0.2 0.25
1
1.5
2
2.5
3
3.5
t [s]
i
µ

[
A
]
0 0.05 0.1 0.15 0.2 0.25
0
50
100
150
200
250
300
t [s]

+


|

[
V
]
n
m
n
est
n
ref
Flux
weakening
|
U
α
U
β
-300 -200 -100 0 100 200 300
-300
-200
-100
0
100
200
300
u
α
[V]
u
β

[
V
]
Flux
weakening

Figure 4.12: Behavior at high motor speed and flux weakening. Top: Speed response
and applied voltage amplitude. Bottom: Magnetizing current and applied voltage.

4.6 Motor Parameter Sensitivity and Adaptation
The used motor model, as well as the implemented EKF, contains four electrical
motor parameters: stator inductance L
s
, stator resistance R
s
, rotor time constant τ
2

and leakage (Blondel) coefficient σ. All other parameters, as e.g. the stator time
constant τ
1
, are linked to these parameters. Obviously, the quality of the speed
estimation in the observer depends on the accuracy with which the motor parameters
are known. Inaccurate model parameters lead to misalignment of the field-oriented
coordinate system, impairing the dynamic performance of the drive. Possibly more
important is the steady-state accuracy of the speed control, being poor with detuned
model parameters.

If the machine operates under no-load conditions, the relevant parameters are stator
resistance and stator self-inductance. Particularly at low motor speed, the speed
estimation is sensitive to an inaccurate stator resistance value in the observer model.
Also the leakage inductance value, being the decisive parameter at high motor
speed, should be properly tuned to the actual leakage inductance of the machine. The
implemented real-time adaptation of these parameters is based on monitoring of
magnetizing and d-axis current in steady state. Assuming a constant rotor flux,
equation (4.3) can be simplified:

0
2
= = − =
dt
di
i i
d
µ
µ
τ ε (4.52)

Equation (4.52) is valid in every steady-state operating condition, guaranteed by the
flux controller of the field-oriented control system. However, the error ε becomes
non-zero at a mismatch of stator resistance and inductance respectively. As can be
Sensorless Speed Control of Induction Motor Drives 81
derived from (4.1)-(4.2), a resistance detuning yields an error of the d-axis current
estimation. Thus, the error is positive, if the resistance is underrated. The same
applies for a positive detuned inductance.

The error value ε introduced by an inaccurate estimation of the stator resistance
decreases as the supply frequency increases. At high motor speed, stator resistance
detuning causes a negligible speed estimation error [Wang 99]. Therefore, knowing
that there is a finite precision in measurements of stator voltages and currents,
rational stator resistance adaptation is possible only at low motor speed. Due to
similar considerations, stator inductance detuning affects the speed estimation only
at higher motor speed. Practically, the error ε is used as a feedback signal to adapt
accurately stator resistance at low supply frequencies (|ω
µ
| < 5 Hz) and inductance at
high motor speed and supply frequencies (|ω
µ
| ≥ 5 Hz) respectively. Beyond these
boundaries, they are kept constant.

Figure 4.13 presents the experimental result of the stator resistance adaptation at
standstill. Starting with an initial error of 60 %, the adaptation is enabled at t = 0,5 s.
After a short period, magnetizing current matches the d-axis current, confirming the
well-tuned resistance value.

0 0.5 1 1.5 2 2.5 3 3.5 4 4.5 5
2.8
3
3.2
3.4
3.6
3.8
t [s]
i

[
A
]
0 0.5 1 1.5 2 2.5 3 3.5 4 4.5 5
2
3
4
5
6
t [s]
R
s

[

]

i
d
i
µ
Real R
s
Estimated R
s

Figure 4.13: Stator resistance adaptation at low speed (n = 0 rpm). Top: Magnetizing
and d-axis current. Bottom: Estimated and real stator resistance value.

Figure 4.14 illustrates the stator inductance adaptation at n = 1000 rpm. A starting
error of the inductance (±44%) has been introduced resulting in a poor estimation of
the motor speed. The parameter adaptation scheme, switched on at t = 0,2 s, detects
the steady-state deviation of magnetizing and d-axis current and tunes the
inductance.

It should be noted, that erroneous inductance estimation, directly reflected in both
incorrect torque-current mapping and load estimation, is not compensated by the
speed controller. The implemented speed controller with load torque rejection
consists of a proportional gain and contains no integral-acting part. Thus, parameter
82 Chapter 5
mismatch yields a steady-state error of the speed control loop. However, this steady-
state error can be used as an adaptation watchdog or, alternatively to the proposed
algorithm, as a parameter-correcting feedback signal.

0 0.25 0.5 0.75 1 1.25 1.5
3
4
5
t [s]
i

[
A
]
0 0.25 0.5 0.75 1 1.25 1.5
350
400
450
500
550
t [s]
L
s

[
m
H
]
0 0.25 0.5 0.75 1 1.25 1.5
975
1000
1025
1050
t [s]
n

[
r
p
m
]
0 0.25 0.5 0.75 1 1.25 1.5
2
2.5
3
3.5
t [s]
i

[
A
]
0 0.25 0.5 0.75 1 1.25 1.5
200
250
300
350
t [s]
L
s

[
m
H
]
0 0.25 0.5 0.75 1 1.25 1.5
994
996
998
1000
1002
t [s]
n

[
r
p
m
]

i
µ
i
d
i
µ
i
d
Parameter adaptation
switched ON
Parameter adaptation
switched ON
n
m
n
est
n
ref n
m

Figure 4.14: Adaptation of the stator inductance. Top: Magnetizing and d-axis current. Middle: Stator
inductance. Bottom: Estimated, real and reference speed. Left: Initial inductance value 44 % overrated.
Right: Initial inductance value 44 % underrated.

Figure 4.15 shows the experimental result of the real-time inductance adaptation at
variable rotor flux. As can be seen, the inductance is clearly dependent on the
saturation level of the machine. Actual and estimated speed are in excellent
agreement, confirming the well-tuned inductance value. Applying load torque, the
obtained results are equivalent. Usually, a flux controller keeps the rotor flux
constant. Rotor flux variations due to both load and electromagnetic torque changes
are small and do not significantly affect the observer performance. However,
according to (4.52), the adaptation must be disabled during fast rotor flux transients
at e.g. initial start, flux weakening and flux optimization.

With respect to the given drive setup, the influence of the leakage coefficient σ on
the observer performance is very low and hardly measurably. Furthermore, a
mismatch is partially compensated by the inductance adaptation. Therefore, an
adaptation of σ is not implemented.

No major problem exists in determining the stator frequency ω
µ
. To the contrary, the
estimation error of the rotor frequency ω
slip
, directly reflected in the accuracy of the
rotor speed estimation ω
r
, depends on the rotor time constant. This error increases
proportionally to the q-axis current and load respectively. The rotor time constant
varies in a fairly wide range during operation. Variations of the rotor inductance are
caused by changes of magnetization. Furthermore, the rotor time constant changes
with the machine temperature. Assuming an equivalent influence of the saturation
level on both the stator and rotor inductance, the stator inductance adaptation
Sensorless Speed Control of Induction Motor Drives 83
scheme is used to compensate these variations. However, a real-time adaptation
scheme of the rotor time constant compensating the temperature variations has not
yet been realized. A simulation scheme based on the feedback of the observer state
error ∆x (figure 4.2) turned out to malfunction in practice, since the obtained signals
are too low and noisy to carry suitable information.

A promising solution of tuning the rotor time constant in real-time is based on the
evaluation of rotor slot harmonics [Jia 97]. This method permits high speed-
accuracy in steady state and allows even position control. However, detection of
rotor slot harmonics should not be used as a stand-alone solution for speed
estimation, since the dynamic performance of such systems is very poor [Ish 82],
[Kre 92]. To the contrary, the dynamic performance of the proposed observer is
excellent. Together with the detection of rotor slot harmonics, compensating slow
temperature variations, a system with both high dynamic performance and high
steady-state accuracy is obtained.

0 10 20 30 40 50
1
2
3
4
5
t [s]
i

[
A
]
0 10 20 30 40 50
250
300
350
400
450
t [s]
L
s

[
m
H
]
0 10 20 30 40 50
990
995
1000
1005
1010
t [s]
n

[
r
p
m
]
1 2 3 4 5
250
300
350
400
450
iµ [A]
L
s

[
m
H
]

n
m
n
est

Figure 4.15: Adaptation of the stator inductance. Top: Magnetizing current, d-axis current and stator
inductance. Bottom: Estimated, real, reference speed and flux dependence of the stator inductance.

4.7 Conclusions
This chapter presents the design and the implementation of a field-oriented high-
performance motor drive with speed, flux and torque estimation. The speed
controlled induction motor drive requires no shaft sensor measuring speed or
position. The price to be paid is a more extensive and complicated control algorithm.
However, no additional measurements are required. The structure of the
implemented sensorless control is based on the extended Kalman filter theory.

Results of the dynamic and steady-state behavior of a sensorless speed control of an
induction motor are given. After the correct system model is chosen for the
Extended Kalman Filter, the results are satisfactory. Both at very low and at high
84 Chapter 5
motor speed with flux weakening, the proposed control scheme is working very
well. The described control system is a solution without mechanical sensors for a
wide range of applications where good steady state and dynamic properties are
required. Keeping the size of the program reasonable and still reaching a very good
performance is achieved by optimizing the model by hand calculations and
exploiting matrix symmetry.

The performance of the system increases as the information of the known
electromagnetic torque is used. Only the load torque is handled as if it were an
unknown system disturbance. If the load-speed relation is known, this information
can be used for a further improvement of the performance. The speed estimation
does not lag the actual motor speed, both in steady state and during periods of
acceleration or braking. Steady-state errors are used for parameter adaptation.

5. Sensorless Speed Control of PMSM
5.1 Introduction
With the introduction of permanent magnets with a high flux density as well as a
high coercivity in the late eighties, synchronous motors with permanent magnets
became an attractive alternative for applications in high performance variable speed
drives. Significant advantages arise from the simplification in construction, the
reduction in losses and the improvement in efficiency. One of the most active areas
of control development during recent years involving these motor types has been the
evolution of new techniques for eliminating the position and speed sensor.
Elimination of the shaft-mounted sensor is required in many applications since this
device is often one of the most expensive and fragile components in the entire drive
system.

The approaches to sensorless drives vary depending on the rotor flux distribution. A
motor with a trapezoidal rotor flux distribution (BLDM, brushless dc motor)
provides an attractive candidate: Two out of three stator windings are excited at the
same time and the unexcited winding can be used as a sensor. The control scheme as
well as the position detection is relatively simple. The rotor speed and position can
be determined by the electromagnetic field induced in the unexcited winding
[Erd 84], [Mat 90]. This is usually done either by a zero crossing approach of the
back-EMF or by a phase-locked loop technique to lock on to the back-EMF
waveform in the unexcited winding. It is enough to detect the rotor position every
60° to obtain a proper switching sequence.

On the contrary, the permanent magnet synchronous motor (PMSM), having a
sinusoidal flux distribution, excites all three windings at the same time. Both the
control algorithm and the speed/position estimation become more complicated. The
information on the rotor position is required continuously. However, the PMSM is
applicable for fine torque control where a very low level of torque pulsations is
required. Several schemes for position sensorless operation of PMSM have been
reported in literature and are reviewed e.g. in [Raj 94]. The position detection
methods are mainly based on Kalman filtering or Model Reference Adaptive
Systems using the motor parameters and measurements of motor currents and
voltages.

86 Chapter 6
The drive system studied in this chapter is a sensorless control of a PMSM based on
the extended Kalman filter theory using only the measurements of motor current and
dc bus voltage for the estimation of speed and rotor position. On top of the speed,
also the acceleration of the drive is estimated offering a significant improvement of
the drive performance. The applied approach is mainly a transfer of the earlier
described sensorless control of the induction motor to the motor equations of the
PMSM. Therefore, this chapter explains only differences in detail while many still
valid statements of previous chapters are not repeated. Theoretical analyses based on
the physical viewpoint are presented and the associated experimental results are
shown. This chapter also describes the influence on the control design reflected by
the feedback of the estimated values. A torque that at average differs from zero, is
only produced if the excitation is precisely synchronized with the rotor speed and
instantaneous position. The controller has to ensure that the motor never experiences
loss of synchronization. Due to rotor asymmetry, the PMSM is also suitable for
position control. A 3 kW, 4 kW and 45 kW PMSM have been used to verify this
approach. The discussion ends by evaluating a parameter adaptation scheme in real-
time to track motor parameter variations.
5.2 Model of the PMSM in Discrete Time
The system model considered is a PMSM having permanent magnets mounted on
the rotor. The resulting back-EMF voltage induced in each stator phase winding
during rotation can be modeled quite accurately as a sinusoidal waveform. A
mathematical model describing the PMSM motor dynamics in a rotor flux reference
frame is well known [Jah 86], [Hen 92]. The electrical properties of the PMSM in
continuous time are completely described by two stator voltage equations:

q q r
d
d d s d
i L
dt
di
L i R u ω − + = (5.1)
Md r d d r
q
q q s q
i L
dt
di
L i R u Ψ + + + = ω ω (5.2)

In a PMSM with surface-mounted magnets, torque control can be achieved very
simply, since the instantaneous electromagnetic torque can be expressed similarly to
that of the dc machine as the product of q-axis current i
q
and magnet flux Ψ
Md
. In
case of interior permanent magnets, the additional reluctance torque can be
exploited:

( ) ( )
d d q Md q el
i L L i p T − − Ψ = (5.3)

In contrary to the induction machine, the flux angle γ rotates synchronously with the
rotor speed. With the same simplifications as introduced in the induction motor
study, the mechanical equation is:
Sensorless Speed Control of PMSM 87

dt
d
p
J
dt
d
J T T
r
load el
ω ω
= = − (5.4)
r
dt
d
ω
γ
= (5.5)

Tolerating a small discretization error, the transformation from continuous time to
the discrete time state space is equivalent to:

d
d
s q
d
q
r s d
d
s
s k d
L
u
T i
L
L
T i
L
R
T i + +
|
|
.
|

\
|
− ≈
+
ω 1
1 ,
(5.6)
q
q
s
q
Md
s d
q
d
r s q
q
s
s k q
L
u
T
L
T i
L
L
T i
L
R
T i +
Ψ
− −
|
|
.
|

\
|
− ≈
+
ω 1
1 ,
(5.7)
( ) ( )
load s d d q Md q s r k r
T
J
p
T i L L i
J
p
T − − − Ψ + ≈
+
2
1 ,
ω ω (5.8)
r s k
T ω γ γ + ≈
+1
(5.9)

From the control viewpoint, the PMSM has four electrical parameters: stator
resistance R
s
, d- and q-axis inductance L
d
and L
q
, and permanent magnet flux linkage
Ψ
Md
. The inductances are considered to be constant, which is verified by
measurements [Van 98] and numerical calculations of the given PMSM [Pah 98].
The influence of parameter variations is compensated by real-time adaptation of the
flux linkage Ψ
Md
.

The known electromagnetic torque is used as part of the speed calculation, vastly
increasing the accuracy of the speed specification and the dynamics of the drive.
However, this approach requires information on the load, since the Kalman
algorithm assumes a zero mean value of the disturbances. As mentioned in the
previous chapter, an additional estimation of the load torque increases the observer
performance as well as the performance of the speed control loop. The price to be
paid is a minor extra computing time. Therefore, the acceleration due to the load
torque is estimated additionally:

0 ≈ |
.
|

\
|
=
load
l
T
J
p
dt
d
dt

(5.10)
load l k l
T
J
p
= ≈ ⇒
+
α α
1 ,
(5.11)

88 Chapter 6
The dynamic model for the PMSM, choosing d- and q-axis current i
d
, i
q
, the
electrical rotor speed ω
r
, rotor position γ and the acceleration α
l
as state variable x
k

and the fundamental voltage as input u
k
, is described by following equations. The
output vector y
k
consists of the estimated motor current in a stator-fixed reference
frame.

k k k
u x x
k k
B A + =
+1
;
k
s
s
k
U
U
u
|
|
.
|

\
|
=
β
α
;
k
l
r
q
d
k
i
i
x
|
|
|
|
|
|
.
|

\
|
=
α
γ
ω ; (5.12)
( ) ( )
|
|
|
|
|
|
|
|
|
|
.
|

\
|
− − − Ψ
Ψ
− − −

=
1 0 0 0 0
0 1 0 0
0 1 0
0 0 1
0 0 0 1
2
s
s d d q Md
s
q
Md
s
q
s
s
q
d
s r
d
q
s r
d
s
s
T
T i L L
J
p T
L
T
L
T
R
L
L
T
L
L
T
L
T
R
ω
ω
k
A (5.13)

( ) ( )
( ) ( )
|
|
|
|
|
|
|
|
|
.
|

\
|

=
0 0
0 0
0 0
cos sin
sin cos
γ γ
γ γ
q
s
q
s
d
s
d
s
L
T
L
T
L
T
L
T
k
B (5.14)

At each time step, using the previously predicted position and current information,
the current is estimated in two stages to correct the predicted states by the Kalman
feedback matrix.

( ) ( )
( ) ( )
k k s
s
k
x x
I
I
y
|
|
.
|

\
| −
= =
|
|
.
|

\
|
=
0 0 0 cos sin
0 0 0 sin cos
ˆ
ˆ
γ γ
γ γ
β
α
k
C (5.15)

The model matrices B
k
and C
k
depend on the position of the rotor γ, the matrix A
k

on d-axis current i
d
, flux linkage Ψ
Md
and rotor speed ω
r
. The block diagram of the
discrete motor model together with the feedback matrix of the observer is equal to
the one shown in chapter 5. In speed control mode, the flux angle is limited to
Sensorless Speed Control of PMSM 89
|γ | < π. In contrary to the induction motor drive, the studied PMSM is also suitable
for position control since the rotor asymmetry can be exploited. Therefore, the
overflow protection has to be disregarded in position control mode. However, a loss
of exact position information is not admissible in any case.
5.3 Real-Time Implementation
According to the EKF algorithm described in chapter 5, all equations can be written
as a function of a system vector Φ and an output vector h describing the re-
linearized model of the PMSM. The derivatives of the output and the transposed
system vector are:

( )
( ) ( ) ( ) ( )
( ) ( ) ( ) ( )
( ) ( )
( ) ( )
|
|
.
|

\
|
− −
=
|
|
.
|

\
|

− − −
=


=


0
ˆ
0 cos sin
0
ˆ
0 sin cos
0 sin cos 0 cos sin
0 cos sin 0 sin cos
α
β
γ γ
γ γ
γ γ γ γ
γ γ γ γ
i
i
i i
i i
x
x
x
h
q d
q d
k
k
k
k
C
(5.16)

( )
( )
( ) ( )
( )
|
|
|
|
|
|
|
|
|
|
|
|
.
|

\
|


Ψ + −
− − Ψ −


− −
=
|
|
.
|

\
|

+ ∂
=
|
|
.
|

\
|

Φ ∂
1 0 0 0
0 1 0
0 1
0 0 1
0 0 1
2
2
s
d
q
s
q
d
s
s Md d d
q
s
q
d
q
s
d d q Md
s
q
s
s
d
q
s r
q d q
s
q
d
s r
d
s
s
T
k
k k
T
k
k
T
u
L
T
u
L
T
T i L
L
T
i
L
L
T
i L L
J
p T
L
T
R
L
L
T
i L L
J
p T
L
L
T
L
T
R
x
u x
x
ω
ω
k k
B A
(5.17)

The noise covariance matrices Q and R and an initial matrix P
0|0
are evaluated
corresponding to the remarks on the induction motor drive. The matrices R, Q and
P
0|0
are diagonal due to the lack of sufficient statistical information to evaluate their
off-diagonal terms. Furthermore, their diagonal nature saves a lot of computing time.
P
0|0
affects neither the transient performance nor the steady state conditions of the
system and can be chosen at random. An off-line current measurement, referring to
the 3 kW PMSM drive installation, yields a measurement noise covariance matrix,
which is almost proportional to the dc bus voltage within a voltage range
300V < U
dc
< 600V:

90 Chapter 6
2 3
2
5
A 10
7 , 1 0
0 7 , 1
V
A
10
15 , 1 0
0 15 , 1
− −
|
|
.
|

\
|

|
|
.
|

\
|
=
dc
U R (5.18)

The measurement of the noise largely exhibits independence of the motor current.
The values a larger compared to the measurement noise of the induction machine
supplied by the same inverter. This is mainly due to the smaller inductances of the
PMSM smoothing the PWM pulses. For an external field (armature reaction) the
magnets behave as air, introducing a large reluctance and thus a low main
inductance. The coefficients of the system covariance matrix are calculated
according to subsection 4.4.1 taking a sample time T
s
= 200 µs and the parameter of
the 3 kW PMSM into account:

2
2
A 0,021
3
1
) 1 , 1 ( =
|
|
.
|

\
| ∆
=
d
s
L
u T
Q (5.19)
2
2
A 0,0059
3
1
) 2 , 2 ( =
|
|
.
|

\
|

=
q
s
L
u T
Q (5.20)
2
5 6 10 4
s
1
10 2 , 3 s 10 2 ) 3 , 3 (
− −
⋅ = ⋅ =
s
T Q (5.21)
11 4 4 4
10 2 , 3 s 10 2 ) 4 , 4 (
− −
⋅ = ⋅ =
s
T Q (5.22)
4 6
8 2 2
s
1
2 , 43
s
1
10 2 , 1 ) 5 , 5 ( ⋅ = ⋅ = k T p k Q
s
, with: k ≤ 1 (5.23)

The transient performance of the observer is tuned by the factor k in (5.23). All other
coefficients of the system covariance matrix are set to the given values. A high
tuning factor k increases the dynamic performance, but also the noise of the
estimated signals.

Within the implemented speed control, the information on load acceleration is used
as input of the speed controller directly compensating the load torque (figure 5.1).
Rejecting load disturbances inproves the dynamic stiffness of the drive and is
superior compared to common PI controller [Lor 99]. However, a rough torque
command results in increased torque ripples and motor heating by current
harmonics. In order to obtain a good compromise between dynamic performance
and a smooth torque command response and with respect to the given installation,
the tuning factor k is set to 10%. Figure 5.1 shows the structure of the implemented
position and speed controller with load torque rejection. The calculated reference
torque T
el
*
is mapped into reference commands for d- and q-axis current. The current
commands i
d
*
and i
q
*
are extracted according the constraint of maximum torque-per-
ampere operation, being nearly equivalent to maximum drive efficiency [Bose 97].

Sensorless Speed Control of PMSM 91
ω
*
T
el
*
Θ
Position
controller
Θ
*
ω ⇔ Θ
Position
reference
K
pp
pn s
K T
z
/
1
1 −

ω
*
ω
*

ω
|T
el
|<T
max
l load
p
J
T αˆ
ˆ
=
Proportional
gain
K
n
Speed controller with
load torque rejection
Control mode


Figure 5.1: Position and speed controller with load torque rejection.

Figure 5.2 shows the block diagram of the entire control system with the proposed
observer integrated in the digital motion control loop. The inputs of the control
system are measured motor current in two phases and the dc bus voltage. The
voltages required as input for the EKF are obtained from the reference voltages,
available at the output of the system. Due to the non-linearity of the inverter, a phase
voltage calculation block is added compensating for this non-linearity. The
homopolar component of the phase voltages arising due to the SVM [Leo 85] is also
considered within this block. The measurements should not be additionally filtered
since the Kalman filter handles with white and uncorrelated measurement noise and
produces the minimum variance estimate. Therefore, this is already an optimal filter.
Generally, the estimated states are used as feedback signals of the controller,
because they are less disturbed compared to measured values. Furthermore, the
smoothness of the state signals can be tuned by the system and measurement
covariance matrices.


ia
ib


AC voltage
calculation
3 ⇒ 2


sin(γ)
cos(γ)
ωr
id
iq
EKF &
model
ud
*
uq
*
id,error
iq,error
sin(γ)
cos(γ)

*

*
current
control
inverse
Park Trans.
PWM
generation
Speed
reference
id
*
iq
*
Speed
Control
ud
*
uq
*
∆ud
*
∆uq
*
decoupling
ub
*
uc
*
ua
*


Udc
ia
ib
A/D
αl
SVM
2
Udc


Figure 5.2: Velocity observer integrated into the digital motion control loop.

The entire speed control system consists of a speed and two current controllers. The
torque of the PMSM is controlled by a reference current, calculated by the speed
controller. Due to the higher q-axis inductance, a negative d-axis current is
impressed to benefit from the reluctance torque. In position control mode, the speed
reference is given by an overlaid position controller (figure 5.1), using the estimated
rotor position as input.

The program code of the EKF is optimized according to the remarks specified in
chapter 5. The computing requirement of the final algorithm takes up 236
multiplications and 178 summations. Compared to the induction machine, both the
EKF program code and the control algorithm are less extensive. The real-time
92 Chapter 6
implementation of the Kalman filter integrated into the motion controller is carried
out using a TMS320C31 DSP in which the turnaround time of the entire control
system amounts to 153 µs. Therefore, the filter can operate in a system having a
maximum sampling frequency of 6,5 kHz, or a theoretical system bandwidth of
3,25 kHz. This high bandwidth allows the EKF to be used in high-performance real-
time motion systems.
5.4 Experimental Results
The proposed speed sensorless control scheme has been tested using a 3 kW, 4 kW
and 45 kW PMSM (data are given in appendix B). However, to keep the presented
results clear, all experimental results presented in this chapter are measurements
using the 3 kW prototype motor. Some additional experiments regarding the 4 kW
motor, specially designed for PV-powered water pump systems, are presented in
chapter 7.

Since the DSP power is simultaneously used for monitoring purposes and recording
experimental data, the sample time used is fixed to T
s
=200 µs. A dc generator with
constant excitation coupled to a variable resistor bench is used to load the PMSM.
Via a power switch a load step can be applied. Additionally, the load torque is
measured by a torque transducer. All experimental results and measurements are
carried out using the estimated states as feedback to a speed controller with load
torque rejection (figures 5.1 and 5.2). The bandwidth of both current controllers
using also the estimated values of d- and q-axis current is about 950 Hz. The
bandwidth of the current loop is not decreased by using the EKF instead of the field-
oriented control with position measurement.

Figure 5.3 shows the experimental results of a speed reversal using the estimated
speed and position as feedback. Additionally, the real speed and position are
measured for comparison. There is a very good agreement between real and
estimated speed and position respectively. Using the information on generated
electromagnetic torque and drive acceleration, the noise as well as the lag in the
estimated speed signal is even lower than the measured and filtered speed signals
during transients.

Furthermore, figure 5.3 exhibits the influence of signal lag due to data transmission.
Without any delay, the required phase voltages, calculated by means of the voltage
references controlling the inverter, are directly available in the control loop. To the
contrary, the affiliated current response is measured not before the next sample
period of the digital control system. Neglecting the current signal lag causes a poor
estimation of the position angle. Therefore, an extra sample delay is added in the
loop of the estimated phase voltages used in the observer algorithm.

The observer presented achieves the objective of eliminating the lag of the estimated
motor speed by additional estimation of the load. Figure 5.4 presents the response of
Sensorless Speed Control of PMSM 93
the PMSM to a load step (75% rated torque) at a motor speed of 1000 RPM. The
information on load acceleration is directly used to compensate for the load torque.
Rejecting load disturbances increases the dynamic stiffness of the drive. Therefore,
this feedback causes the disturbance to perceive a more robust system responding
less to disturbances. Compared to a common PI speed controller, the overshoot at
steps of both speed reference and load torque is vastly decreased or even vanishes
since the speed controller used (figure 5.1) contains of no integral-acting part.
0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7 0.8 0.9 1 1.1 1.2
-500
-250
0
250
500
t [s]
n

[
r
p
m
]
0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7 0.8 0.9 1 1.1 1.2
-5
0
5
10
15
20
t [s]
i
q

[
A
]
0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7 0.8 0.9 1 1.1 1.2
-20
-10
0
10
20
t [s]

n

[
r
p
m
]
0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7 0.8 0.9 1 1.1 1.2
-0.2
-0.1
0
0.1
0.2
t [s]

γ

[
r
a
d
]

n
ref
(a)
i
q
*
i
q
(b)
∆n = n
est
- n
m
(c)
Without extra delay With extra delay
(d)
Figure 5.3: Speed reversal test. Top: Speed reference n
ref
, estimated speed n
est
and measured speed n
m
.
Middle: Estimated q-axis current (b) and difference between estimated and measured speed (c).
Bottom: Error of the angle estimation and influence of current/voltage signal lag.

94 Chapter 6
0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1 1.2 1.4 1.6 1.8 2
980
1000
1020
t [s]
n

[
r
p
m
]
0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1 1.2 1.4 1.6 1.8 2
-5
0
5
10
15
20
t [s]
i
q

[
A
]
0 0.2

0.4 0.6 0.8 1 1.2 1.4 1.6 1.8 2
-5
0
5
10
15
t [s]
T

[
N
m
]
T
load
n
m
n
est
T
el
T
m
T
el
Figure 5.4: Response to a load step (75% rated torque). Top: Measured and estimated speed. Middle:
Estimated q-axis current. Bottom: Estimated load T
est
, measured load T
m
and electromagnetic torque T
el
.

In steady state, the estimated load in figure 5.4 equals to the measured load. This is
not obvious since iron and friction losses of the PMSM are part of the estimated but
not of the measured torque. Furthermore, erroneous electromagnetic torque
calculations and inertia identification are directly reflected at the load calculation.
However, this influence is small compared to a potential load variation. In fact, the
torque calculation might be incorrect, but the real load is compensated by the real
torque and the steady state speed error sticks to zero. Only the dynamics of the load
estimation are important for exact speed calculation without any delay. As can be
seen, the delay between estimated and measured load is insignificant. Therefore, the
proposed speed control offers a vast improvement of the drive performance also if
the load is not absolutely known.

At low motor speed (n ⇒ 0), the equations of the PMSM are simplified, as the
voltage induced by the magnets is very small. Therefore, no prediction can be made
on the position of the magnets and the EKF fails. Since at standstill only dc-values
are given, the necessary flux variation must be forced by impressing a test signal
into the system. A signal, easy to implement, is an additional sinusoidal reference
current in the d-axis of the motor, using the d/q axis-symmetry of the rotor to
estimate the real position. In all experimental results presented the following d-axis
reference current is used:

|
|
.
|

\
|
− ⋅ + =
+ =
rpm 300
1 )
s
1
100 2 sin( A 3
*
*
,
n
t i
i i i
d
test d ref d
π
, with: |n| ≤ 300 rpm (5.24)

whereby the reference d-axis current i
d
*
results from the speed controller calculating
the required torque motor. The amplitude and frequency of the test signal is
Sensorless Speed Control of PMSM 95
experimentally chosen regarding observer stability and low acoustic noise level.
Nevertheless, further investigations on optimal shape, frequency and magnitude of
the additional d-axis current have to be made. Figure 5.5 presents the response of the
d- and q-axis current to a step of the speed reference from standstill to 1000 rpm.
The corresponding speed signal is shown in figure 5.6. The unwanted reluctance
torque, generated by the test signal in the d-axis, is compensated by an appropriate
q-axis current. The modification of the q-axis current i
q
*
, calculated by the speed
controller, is obtained by the demand for a constant electromagnetic torque, not
disturbed by the impressed test signal.

( ) ( ) ( ) ( )
ref d d q Md ref q d d q Md q el
i L L i p i L L i p T
, ,
!
* * *
− − Ψ = − − Ψ = (5.25)
( )
( )
|
|
|
|
|
.
|

\
|


Ψ
+ =
− − Ψ
− − Ψ
= ⇒
ref d
d q
Md
test
q
ref d d q Md
d d q Md
q ref q
i
L L
i
i
i L L
i L L
i i
,
*
,
*
*
,
1 (5.26)

0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1 1.2 1.4
0
5
10
15
20
t [s]
i
q

[
A
]
0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1 1.2 1.4
-10
-5
0
5
t [s]
i
d

[
A
]

i
d
n = 300 rpm
n = 1000 rpm

Figure 5.5: Current at a speed step (figure 5.6). Top: Reference i
q
*
and q-axis current i
q
.
Bottom: Reference i
d
*
and d-axis current i
d
.

The developed torque remains nearly constant as can be seen on figure 5.6, showing
the corresponding speed response, marked optimum torque control. The optimal
control of the motor takes advantage of the reluctance torque by introducing a
negative (L
d
< L
q
) direct axis current component. In the same figure, a comparison is
given of motor control with feedback of the estimated speed and position, optimum
d-axis current and no d-axis current respectively. In spite of identical maximum
current amplitude, the maximum torque using optimum torque control is higher,
yielding a faster acceleration of the motor. The bandwidth of the speed control with
the EKF is comparable to the common control with speed measurement due to the
omission of the filter for speed measurement.

96 Chapter 6
0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1 1.2 1.4
0
200
400
600
800
1000
1200
t [s]
n

[
r
p
m
]

n
ref
Optimum torque
control
i
d
= 0

Figure 5.6: Speed step with feedback of the estimated speed and position (EKF). Comparison of torque
control with optimum d-axis current and no d-axis current respectively.

5.5 Position Estimation and Start-up
Using a position sensor as feedback device, a special start-up strategy is required to
find the absolute rotor position as indicated by an encoder index pulse. This start-up
procedure is necessary in both position control and speed or torque control mode. A
torque is only produced if the excitation is precisely synchronized with the rotor
speed and instantaneous position. A start-up strategy is executed by impressing a
(assumed) q-axis current and slowly increasing the initial assumption of the rotor
angle until the motor rotates and the index pulse is found. However, the motor has to
rotate up to one mechanical revolution. Once the index is found, all registers are
reset and the drive is ready for normal operation.

In drive systems without a position sensor, it is generally difficult to estimate the
initial rotor position. If the rotor position can not be exactly estimated, the starting
torque of the motor decreases and the motor may temporarily rotate in the wrong
direction after start. A starting strategy often proposed is based on energizing two
windings by a large armature current (about rated current) and expecting the rotor to
align with a certain definite position. This method yields the direction of the magnet
axis but cannot distinguish between North and South Pole.

To the contrary, the presented sensorless control scheme is self-starting. Here, the
variation of the inductance as a function of the rotor position is used to obtain the
position. Due to the low permeability of the magnet material, the inductance along
the q-axis of the PMSM with interior permanent magnets is larger than the
inductance along the d-axis. Impressing the test signal (5.24), the difference is
detected by the Kalman algorithm and the estimated position converges
automatically to the real position. Figure 5.7 presents the initial start-up of the
digital control system. Aligning the initial value of the estimated position to the
Sensorless Speed Control of PMSM 97
magnet position, the resulting convergence is very smooth. If the initial value of the
estimated position is opposite to the rotor position, the motor temporarily rotates in
the wrong direction. This effect can be avoided by operating the drive in open-loop
control and impressing a test signal in one motor phase. Once the position is
detected, the drive returns to the closed-loop control.

The controller has to ensure that the motor never experiences loss of
synchronization. However, the rotor asymmetry makes the PMSM also suitable for
position control (figure 5.8). For the drive setup with the 3 kW PMSM, the steady-
state error of the electrical position angle is smaller than 2,3°. This error, as well as
the performance of the algorithm, mainly depends on the quality and accuracy of
voltage and current measurement. It should be remarked, that the proposed
algorithm only identifies the electrical position. The absolute mechanical rotor
position is not detectable.

0 0.5 1 1.5
-4
-2
0
2
4
t [s]
γ

[
r
a
d
]
0 0.5 1 1.5
-100
-50
0
50
100
t [s]
n

[
r
p
m
]
0 0.5 1 1.5
-0.4
-0.2
0
0.2
t [s]
γ

[
r
a
d
]
0 0.5 1 1.5
-10
-5
0
5
10
t [s]
n

[
r
p
m
]

γ
m
γ
m
γ
est
γ
est
n
m
n
est
n
m
n
est

Figure 5.7: Start-up of the sensorless speed control. Top: Estimated position γ
est
and measured positionγ
m
.
Bottom: Estimated and measured speed. Left: Initial value of the position estimation almost opposite to
the rotor position. Right: Initial value of the position estimation almost aligned to the rotor position.


98 Chapter 6
0 0.05 0.1 0.15 0.2 0.25 0.3 0.35 0.4 0.45 0.5
-50
0
50
100
150
200
t [s]
n

[
r
p
m
]
0 0.05 0.1

0.15 0.2 0.25 0.3 0.35 0.4 0.45 0.5
0
1
2
3
t [s]
γ

[
r
a
d
]
0 0.05 0.1 0.15 0.2 0.25 0.3 0.35 0.4 0.45 0.5
-0.1
-0.05
0
0.05
0.1
t [s]

γ

[
r
a
d
]
∆γ = γ
est
- γ
m
γ
ref
n
est
n
m
n
ref

Figure 5.8: Position control of the 3 kW PMSM. Top: Position reference γ
ref
, estimated position γ
est
and
measured position γ
m
. Middle: Difference between estimated and measured position. Bottom: Speed
reference n
ref
, estimated speed n
est
and measured speed n
m
.
Sensorless Speed Control of PMSM 99
5.6 Motor Parameter Adaptation
The motor model of the PMSM as well as the implemented EKF contains four
electrical motor parameters: d/q-axis inductances L
d
and L
q
, stator resistance R
s
and
permanent magnet flux linkage Ψ
Md
. For the given PMSM, the ohmic voltage drop
is very small. Thus, the influence of a stator resistance variation is very low and
hardly measurably. The key mechanical drive parameter is the moment of inertia J.
A mismatch of the inertia affects the observer performance only during transients
and causes no steady-state error. Therefore, an adaptation of R
s
and J is not
considered.

The most influential motor parameter, affecting the steady-state error and the
observer performance, is the permanent magnet flux linkage Ψ
Md
. Applying flux
adaptation, the torque-current mapping via a look-up table according to figure 2.12
is no longer suitable. Assuming exact knowledge of the motor parameters and using
the d-axis current, the torque reference T
el
*
, determined by the speed controller, is
transformed to a q-axis current reference i
q
*
:

) ) ( (
*
*
d d q Md
el
q
i L L p
T
i
− − Ψ
= (5.27)

According to (2.50), the optimum torque control of the PMSM yields two solutions
for the d-axis current reference i
d
*
:

2
*
2
*
) ( 2 ) ( 2
q
d q
Md
d q
Md
d
i
L L L L
i +
|
|
.
|

\
|

Ψ
±

Ψ
= (5.28)

The positive sign is valid for PMSM with L
d
> L
q
. Here, only the case L
d
≤ L
q

(PMSM with inset magnets) is considered. Thus, the negative sign in (5.28) must be
used.

Erroneous flux estimation yields incorrect speed estimation. Furthermore, it is
directly reflected in the torque-current mapping. An incorrect torque-current
mapping is not compensated by the speed controller since the implemented speed
controller with load torque rejection consists of a proportional gain and contains no
integral-acting part. Thus, erroneous flux estimation results in a steady-state error of
the speed control loop. However, this error is used for flux adaptation. The structure
of the implemented flux adaptation, the speed controller with load torque rejection
and the modified torque-current mapping is shown in figure (5.9). The
electromagnetic torque is almost proportional to the flux linkage. According to (5.3)
and (5.8), increasing the estimated flux linkage results in a higher absolute value of
100 Chapter 6
the estimated electromagnetic torque and speed respectively. The presented
adaptation must be disabled at steps of the speed reference to avoid erroneous flux
calculation during transients.

sign(ω
*
)
Tload
id
*
p ΨMd
Lq-Ld 2
iq
*
x1
x2
2
2
2
1
x x +
Kn
Tel
*
|Tel| < Tmax
ω
*
ω
α
J/p
∆ΨMd
id
∆ΨMd K
Ψ
∆ΨMd = ∫ K
Ψ
∆ω dt
∆ω
Current mapping
Speed control and
flux adaptation
Initial value
Initial value
Flux
error


Figure 5.9: Real-time adaptation of the flux linkage, speed control
with load torque rejection and modified current mapping (L
d
≤ L
q
).

Figure 5.10 presents experimental results of the proposed flux adaptation. An initial
error of the flux linkage (±20 %) has been introduced resulting in poor motor speed
estimation. The speed estimation as well as the steady-state error is affected by a
parameter mismatch. The flux adaptation detects the steady-state error and corrects
the initial flux linkage. After a short period, the estimated speed matches the
measured speed, indicating the correct estimation of the flux linkage.
0 0.5 1 1.5 2 2.5 3
0.25
0.26
0.27
0.28
0.29
0.3
0.31
t [s]
Ψ
M
d

[
V
s
]
0 0.5 1 1.5 2 2.5 3
-10
-5
0
5
10
t [s]

n

[
r
p
m
]
0 0.5 1 1.5 2 2.5 3
0.2
0.21
0.22
0.23
0.24
0.25
0.26
t [s]
Ψ
M
d

[
V
s
]
0 0.5 1 1.5 2 2.5 3
-10
-5
0
5
10
t [s]

n

[
r
p
m
]

estimated
flux linkage
real flux
linkage
Parameter adaptation
switched ON
Parameter adaptation
switched ON
∆n = n
est
- n
ref ∆n = n
est
- n
m

Figure 5.10: Adaptation of the flux linkage. Top: Estimated and real flux linkage. Bottom: Difference
between reference speed (n
ref
= 1000 rpm), estimated speed n
est
and measured speed n
m
. Left: Initial flux
linkage 20 % overrated. Right: Initial flux linkage 20 % underrated.
Sensorless Speed Control of PMSM 101

Considering PMSM’s with magnet placing of the inset-type, the d-axis inductance
L
d
is generally independent of the load state [Cha 85]. A slight L
d
-mismatch and
variations due to different saturation levels are completely compensated by an
appropriate variation of the flux linkage Ψ
Md
[Van 98]. Figure 5.11 presents the flux
adaptation, based on the structure shown in figure 5.9, at variable d-axis current, no
load and a motor speed n = 1000 rpm. The coincidence of estimated and measured
speed verifies the proposed approach.

0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 45 50 55 60
-15
-10
-5
0
5
10
15
t [s]
i
d

[
A
]
0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 45 50 55 60
0.24
0.25
0.26
0.27
t [s]
Ψ
M
d

[
V
s
]
0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 45 50 55 60
-4
-2
0
2
4
t [s]

n

[
r
p
m
]

∆n = n
est
- n
m
∆n = n
est
- n
ref
Figure 5.11: Flux adaptation at variable d-axis current (no load). Top: d-axis current.
Middle: Estimated flux linkage. Bottom: Difference between reference
speed (n
ref
= 1000 rpm),estimated speed n
est
and measured speed n
m
.


Furthermore, experimental investigations have shown the capability of the flux
adaptation to compensate also for a slight mismatch of the q-axis inductance L
q
as
well as for a load-dependent variation/saturation. Figure 5.12 demonstrates the flux
adaptation at variable load torque, i
d
*
= 0 A and a motor speed n = 1000 rpm. Again,
the coincidence of estimated and measured speed shows the validity of the approach.

Thus, all motor parameters, except for the flux linkage, are set constant. The
influence of parameter variations is compensated by flux adaptation. The approach
of setting the inductances of the given PMSM constant is also verified by numerical
calculations [Pah 98] and measurements [Van 98]. However, a mismatch of motor
parameters is not arbitrary. Approximate values, guaranteeing the stable operation of
the observer, are also required for exact tuning of the current controller.

102 Chapter 6
0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 45 50 55 60
0
5
10
15
t [s]
i
q

[
A
]
0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 45 50 55 60
0.25
0.255
0.26
0.265
t [s]
Ψ
M
d

[
V
s
]
0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 45 50 55 60
-4
-2
0
2
4

t [s]

n

[
r
p
m
]
∆n = n
est
- n
m
∆n = n
est
- n
ref
Figure 5.12: Flux adaptation at variable load (i
d
*
= 0 A). Top: q-axis current.
Middle: Estimated flux linkage. Bottom: Difference between reference
speed (n
ref
= 1000 rpm), estimated speed n
est
and measured speed n
m
.

5.7 Conclusions
This chapter presents the design and the implementation of sensorless speed control
of permanent magnet synchronous motor drives. The algorithm used is based on the
extended Kalman filter theory. A systematic and analytic approach for developing
the algorithm is given. The discrete extended Kalman filter is well suited to speed
and rotor position estimation of a PMSM. The proposed approach has been validated
by means of real-time experiments using a TMS320C31 DSP. The high bandwidth
allows the EKF to be used in high-performance real-time motion systems.

The known electromagnetic torque is used as part of the speed estimation, vastly
increasing the accuracy and dynamic performance of the drive. The implemented
speed controller with load torque rejection contains no integral-acting part,
providing a system with extremely high stiffness to disturbance inputs. The speed
estimation does not lag the actual motor speed, both in steady state and during
periods of acceleration or braking. A negative d-axis current is impressed to benefit
from the reluctance torque.

The presented sensorless control scheme is self-starting. At low motor speed, the
required flux variation is forced by impressing a test signal in the d-axis. The
unwanted reluctance torque is compensated by a complementary q-axis current. Due
to the rotor asymmetry, the PMSM is also suitable for position control.

Sensorless Speed Control of PMSM 103
Mismatch of motor parameters yields incorrect speed estimation and erroneous
torque-current mapping. Therefore, a real-time flux adaptation scheme, tracking
motor parameter variations, has been implemented. All proposed control approaches
are verified by experimental results.

6. PV-Powered Water Pump Systems
6.1 Introduction
The use of photovoltaic (PV) energy sources for water pumping and irrigation
applications, especially in remote or rural areas in developing countries, is receiving
considerable attention. Large urban populations in developing countries do not have
access to safe drinking water sources (standpipes or boreholes) or to sanitary
services (sewers, septic tanks or wet latrines). According to statistics of the World
Health Organization, the number of people without access to safe water in 1990 was
1,1 billion [WHO 96]. Human health depends on an adequate supply of potable
water. Therefore, PV-powered water pump systems can improve peoples living
conditions, where power from a utility is not available or too expensive to install.
Furthermore, it is not economically viable to connect such remote areas to the
national electric grid.

While many of the references for residential applications are available in technical
details, it is difficult to locate technical references for the interaction between PV
arrays and an electric machine, especially in water pumping without battery storage
[Mul 97]. This chapter briefly reviews present technology and applications of PV
powered water pump systems and exhibits an extensive description of a new control
approach.

The two basic design approaches of PV arrays for water pumping system
applications are the use of battery, for a backup of the pumping system, and the
other is to pump directly from the PV power without battery. There are advantages
and drawbacks associated with each design. With a battery module, the system
energy generated by the sun can be stored in the battery. With the second approach,
the motor/pump subsystem can be powered either by directly connecting to the PV
array, or by using a maximum power point tracker (MPPT), a dc-dc converter and an
inverter interfacing motor and PV array. In this work, a system is designed, not
requiring a battery. The fact that no battery is required is a key element in the
design. Batteries tend to be very unreliable in the overall framework and
furthermore, they are of “interest” to people living there for other purposes, too
(read: they are often stolen).

The system analyzed here is a PV powered water pumping system avoiding the use
of the additional dc-dc converter, a battery and its losses. Several new approaches
106 Chapter 8
are developed, analyzed and tested, as the algorithms described in literature
[Mul 97], [Dus 92] for this kind of systems turned out to malfunction, when tested
under realistic conditions. Due to the lack of storage in the dc bus, the power of the
PV array must be used immediately to accelerate an ac motor. To optimize the
energy captured by the PV array and to pump as much water as possible, the output
power should always be at its maximum power point. Therefore, a novel MPPT
algorithm, realized by feeding back the dc voltage and current to a controller, has
been implemented. The entire system is controlled by a digital signal processor
(DSP) based developing platform realizing MPPT, dc bus voltage control,
speed/torque control of the drive and start-up and shut down automatism's.
Considering realistic conditions, advantages and drawbacks of the different control
units are discussed. Measured results are presented and evaluated to demonstrate the
performance and the stability of the system developed here.
6.2 Pilot Installation
The system, experimentally installed both at the K.U. Leuven and in industry, is a
PV powered water pump system, consisting of a PV array, a low cost inverter, a
permanent magnet synchronous motor (PMSM) and a water pump with water
storage. The PV array has a peak power of 4,32 kW. To avoid a power supply by an
electric grid, the system has been set up to work independently in island operation.
All control and measurement units are supplied by the dc bus between inverter and
PV array. A block diagram of the pilot installation is shown in figure 6.1. The
inverter operates as a variable frequency source (PWM) for the PMSM driving the
pump. Since a PMSM in open loop is unstable (see section 7.4.1), a field-oriented
control with feedback of speed and position is proposed. However, a mechanical
speed/position sensor has several drawbacks from the viewpoint of drive cost,
reliability and signal noise immunity. Especially in submerged-motor/pump systems,
an installation of the additionally sensor is problematic or even impossible. Here,
speed and field position are estimated by an extended Kalman filter described in
chapter 6.


water
storage pump inverter
Solar
generator

PMSM
MPP-
Tracking
Current [A]
Voltage [V]
Phase current
for EKF
DC bus voltage/current
measurement for MPPT
control
prototyping
PWM


Figure 6.1: Block diagram of the PV-powered water pump systems.

Ride-Through at Power Interruptions 107
Furthermore, the control system is equipped with a MPPT and a voltage control
guaranteeing a balanced input/output power ratio in the dc bus. The MPPT and
voltage control are realized by feeding back the dc bus voltage and current to the
controller. Additionally, measurements of motor currents in two phases are required
for speed estimation and torque control of the PMSM. The motor voltages required
for the EKF are not measured, but calculated from the reference voltages
determining the PWM output of the controller.

A computer-aided control system is used as a developing platform monitoring and
recording the experimental data. Provisionally, the entire control algorithm, safety-
related monitoring and the start-up and shut down automatism’s are implemented on
a TMS320C31 DSP. The I/O subsystems and the PWM generation are based on
TMS320P14 working as a slave-DSP. However, the final algorithms are intended to
be implemented in a simple microcontroller ensuring an overall low cost system.
6.3 PV Array
The voltage-current characteristic of one PV element at constant cell temperature
and with the irradiance of the sunlight as a parameter is shown in figure 6.2. In the
same figure, also the output power of the PV element is drawn as a function of the
module voltage. The power P
PV
is calculated by the product of dc bus voltage U
dc

and current I
PV
. The Maximum Power Point (MPP) is characterized by the voltage,
where the PV array generates maximum output power.

0 5 10 15 20 25
0
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
U
dc
[V]
I
P
V

[
A
]
15
30
45
60
75
90
105
120
135
P
P
V

[
W
]
current

MPP
power

Figure 6.2: Characteristic of one PV element at constant cell temperature.

The PV element characteristics are a function of the irradiance of the sunlight and
the cell temperature. In figure6.2, six different levels of insolation are illustrated.
High current curves correspond to high insolation levels while low current curves
correspond to lower insolation levels. With increasing irradiance, the MPP moves
108 Chapter 8
along the marked line. In order to stay at the point of maximum power at rising
irradiance, the current in the dc bus must be increased, while the dc voltage remains
nearly constant.

The voltage at the MPP changes with the array temperature while the current is
almost unaffected. At lower cell temperature, the MPP characteristic is situated in a
higher voltage range. The voltage temperature coefficient of the PV elements used
amounts to –82 mV/°C. Therefore, connecting 12 modules in series and a
temperature variation of 10 K results in an optimum voltage shift of 9,84 V on a
rated voltage of 180 V, i.e. ±5 %. Thus, the optimum output voltage of the PV array
is not constant and moves as condition varies.

The practically studied PV array consists of 36 modules with a total peak power of
4,32 kW. All wires of the single PV elements are assembled in a modular way using
a switchboard panel, connected in series or parallel. The different experimental
connections are presented in Table 6.1. The experimental results obtained are similar
demonstrating the high flexibility of both the previously and later described control
algorithms. However, to match the requirements of the final inverter and to keep the
presented results clear, all experimental results presented in this chapter are
measurements using 12 modules in series and 3 modules in parallel.

Table 6.1: Various connections of the PV array with a peak power of 4,32 kW.
Number of
modules in
series
Number of
modules in
parallel

I
max
[A]

U
max
[V]
6 6 44,7 129
9 4 29,8 193,5
12 3 22,35 258
18 2 14,9 387
6.4 Motor/Pump Subsystem
Surface applications for irrigation systems are mostly driven by dc machines while
for installations in the drilling holes submersible induction motor/pump systems are
used. Commutator motors have very desirable control characteristics, but they are
not applicable for submersible installations. Furthermore, their use is limited by a
number of factors [Bose 97]:
• Need for regular maintenance of the commutator;
• Relatively heavy rotor with a high inertia;
• Difficulty in producing a totally enclosed motor as required for some
hazardous (e.g. submersible motor/pump system) applications;
• Relatively high cost;

A pumping system based on an ac motor drive is an attractive alternative where
reliability and maintenance-free operation is important [Bhat 87]. However, small
Ride-Through at Power Interruptions 109
induction motors have, when compared to permanent magnet motors, a lower
efficiency especially at partial load. Thus, motor selection and design theory
[Hen 96] were limited to a permanent magnet synchronous motor (PMSM) coupled
to centrifugal or submersible pumps.

Pumping pure drinking water is mainly done by a submersible combination of motor
and pump. Due to this hazardous application, placing additionally sensors, e.g.
encoder for speed and position measurement, is costly and problematic or even
impossible. Therefore, the first approach of the PV powered water pump system was
an open loop control of a PMSM with a damper cage (figure 6.3). Rotor bars have
been implemented in order start up the motor and to balance disturbances.


Copper bars
magnets


Figure 6.3: Cross sectional view of the 4-pole PMSM rotor geometry.

A centrifugal pump commonly requires a single quadrant drive. The load torque of
the centrifugal pump expressed as a function of speed is

2
ω
ω
K T
load
= (6.1)

where K
ω
is the constant of the hydraulic system. Thus, to vary the output of the
water pump, the speed of the motor driving the pump must be varied. The properties
of the PMSM used are summarized in appendix B.3.
6.4.1 Open loop control of a PMSM with damper cage
The open loop control of a PMSM is based on a constant voltage-frequency ratio.
This U/f ratio is pre-determined for every (steady state) motor speed, choosing a
voltage level corresponding to the lowest motor current. The voltage-current
characteristic at different load torque levels is presented for the studied PMSM in
figure 6.4. The calculations are made at a frequency of 10 Hz corresponding to a
motor speed of n = 300 rpm. If all motor parameters and the load characteristic are
known, the optimal U/f ratio can be calculated for every motor speed. The current is
settled automatically depending on the difference between induced (EMK) and
supply voltage. However, a direct control of the current is impossible proposing this
approach.

Considering figure 6.4, a slight variation of the voltage can easily lead to a very high
over-current of the motor with the risk of demagnetization. In fact, an erroneous
110 Chapter 8
calculation of the optimum voltage cannot be avoided due to parameter and load
torque variations as well as measurement errors and the non-linearity of the inverter.


10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17
0
5
10
15
20
25
U [V]
I

[
A
]

Torque
[0->10Nm]


Figure 6.4: Voltage-current characteristic at variable torque (f = 10 Hz).

Due to dead-time effects, the error between reference and output voltage of the
inverter used amounts to ∆U ≈ 15 V resulting unaccompaniedly in a current
variation of 22 A for the studied PMSM at a speed of 300 rpm. According to (1.16)-
(1.17), the voltage error ∆U depends on PWM frequency, dc bus voltage, dead time
and current direction.

This non-linear effect creates a distortion of motor current and torque. Without a
damper cage, the PMSM in open loop is an undamped, oscillating system [Mel 91],
[Hen 91]. Slight variations of the electrical angle

ϑ ϑ ϑ ∆ + =
0
(6.2)

result in a self-exited oscillation with an undamped natural frequency f
e
:

0 cos
0 max 2
2
= ∆ +

ϑ ϑ
ϑ
T
dt
d
p
J
(6.3)
) 2 sin( t f
e
π ϑ = ∆ (6.4)
p J
T
f
e
0 max
cos
2
1 ϑ
π
= ⇒ (6.5)

The frequency f
e
of the PMSM used varies between 0 Hz < f
e
<10 Hz for maximum
load (ϑ
0
= 90°) and no load (ϑ
0
= 0°) respectively. This oscillation creates a
Ride-Through at Power Interruptions 111
distortion of current and torque generated by the motor, leading to an
electromagnetic instability of the drive. In order to soften the system, the PMSM
should be equipped with a damper cage [Hen 91]. The resulting damper time
constant T
damp
can be calculated using:

2
1
'
2 2
1
2
1
2
) 1 (
3
2
σ
ω
+ = R
U p
J
T
damp
(6.6)

The modified PMSM used has a damper time constant of T
damp
≈ 60 ms. Considering
the natural frequency, this value is far too large. For a sufficiently damped system,
the time constant and thus the rotor resistance must be smaller. Therefore, a stable
and dynamic open-loop control of the given PMSM is impossible.

A modification of the PMSM geometry, including a completely closed damper cage
[Con 86] and inset magnets, could improve the performance. Nevertheless, it is
much better to consider another control approach. As explained in the next sections,
a high dynamic drive is indispensably for a correct operation of the water pump
system. In fact, this has been the starting motivation for the development of the
earlier described high-performance motor drive with speed, flux and torque
estimation.
6.5 Control of a PV-Powered Water Pump System
Most PV powered water pump systems consist of two different control units. The
first is a dc unit with or without a battery as energy storage. In this unit, the MPPT is
controlled by varying the duty ratio of a dc-dc converter. Using this converter leads
to a less complicated control algorithm for the MPPT. Varying the dc bus voltage
can be done more quickly and without changing the power or frequency of the
motor. The influence of a changing irradiance level during a searching procedure is
reduced. On the other hand, this converter introduces many losses, amongst others:

• Switching losses
• Valve losses
• Copper and iron losses in the filter coil

In control systems without a battery, the dc bus may collapse when an unbalanced
input/output power ratio occurs at the dc bus. Therefore, systems without battery
require a more complex and complicated control algorithm. The second unit controls
the speed of motor and pump.

Here, a novel control approach is proposed avoiding the use of the additional dc-dc
converter, a battery and its losses. The overall control of the PV-powered water
pump system consists of a current/torque controller, a speed controller without a
shaft sensor and a main control consisting of a dc bus voltage controller and the
112 Chapter 8
MPPT. The voltage control varies the speed/torque of the PMSM in order to stay
within the calculated optimum voltage given by the MPPT. The structure of the
overall control system is shown in figure 6.5.


START-UP
&
MPPT
-1
Torque
Control
&
EKF
SVM
Inverter
i
a
u
b
*
u
c
*
AC
motor
i
b
pump
u
a
*
ω

ω
*
T
el
*
T
el
*
|ω|<ωmax
T
el
*
U
dc
U
dc
*
I
PV
U
dc
I
PV
PI with
anti windup
PID with
anti windup
PI with
anti windup
PV power
supply
Voltage
control

Figure 6.5: Block diagram of the entire control system.

In contrast to the very quickly and frequently changing irradiance intensity, the cell
temperature of the PV array and thus the dc voltage in the MPP varies very slowly.
Therefore, the control of the PV-powered water pump system is performed by
varying the dc voltage in a small range, searching the MPP and controlling the
speed/torque characteristic of the motor in order to stay within the calculated
optimal voltage corresponding to the highest efficiency of the system. The adaptive
MPPT algorithm is described in detail in sections 7.7.

The dc bus voltage can be controlled either by the speed of the motor requiring an
additional speed control loop or directly by the electromagnetic torque affecting the
motor speed derivation. The different control approaches are indicated by the switch
in figure 6.5. Advantages and drawbacks of both control approaches are explained in
the next section. The first approach turned out to malfunction, when tested under
extreme but realistic conditions. However, many algorithms described in literature
are based on the variation of the speed reference; e.g.: [Mul 97] varies the power by
changing the frequency output of the inverter stepwise, being even slower than using
an extra speed control loop.

The high-performance speed/torque control of the PMSM is described in previous
chapters. The mechanical position sensor is replaced by an observer requiring no
additional measurements. Only measurements of motor current and dc bus voltage
are necessary. Figure 6.6 shows the experimental results of a speed step with a
centrifugal pump as load and using a regular grid as power supply (U
dc
= 220V).
With sufficient power generated by a PV array, the results obtained would be the
same. Otherwise, the dc bus would be discharged and the system collapses. The
applied load at n = 2000 rpm amounts 85% of the rated motor torque. The
current/torque controller has a bandwidth of 960 Hz. According to subsection 2.5.1,
Ride-Through at Power Interruptions 113
the optimal torque control of the motor takes advantage of the reluctance torque by
introducing a negative (L
d
< L
q
) direct-axis current component increasing the
efficiency of the drive.


0 0.25 0.5 0.75 1 1.25 1.5
0
500
1000
1500
2000
2500
t [s]
n

[
r
p
m
]

Measurement
Reference
0 0.25 0.5 0.75 1 1.25 1.5
-10
0
10
20
30
t [s]
i

[
A
]
iq
id


Figure 6.6: Speed step with a pump load using a regular grid as power supply.
Top: Measured and reference speed. Bottom: d- and q-axis current.

The start-up and shut down logic is based on the motor speed and the open-circuit
voltage. Below a speed of n ≈ 180 rpm, the centrifugal pump used is not able to
pump water. A non-productive idle run is not conducive for the durability of the
pump and all other wear. Therefore, the system goes in standby modus and all PWM
pulses are disabled if the PV power supply is definitively too low. The energy
consumption of all control and measurement units and the inverter in standby modus
amounts to 20 W. A start-up procedure requires a pre-determined minimum open-
circuit voltage guaranteeing a productive motor speed, being higher than the
minimum speed of the shut down automatism.

The implemented safety-related monitoring consists of detecting over-current and
over-speed, both depending on the motor/pump system, and a pre-determined
voltage window mainly defined by the PV array coupled to the inverter. An
inadmissible failure disables the entire system, requiring a manual reset by an
expert. However, no such failure has been detected during weeks of testing.
6.6 DC Bus Voltage Control

114 Chapter 8
6.6.1 Experimental results of the voltage control
In figure 6.7 the response of the voltage, q-axis current and speed for a step of the
voltage reference from 225 to 125 V and back to 225 V is shown. It can be seen, that
the voltage and the torque producing q-axis current are controlled very fast. They are
already in steady state, while the speed still varies. The speed of the motor changes
indirectly, controlled by the electromagnetic torque until the reference voltage is
reached.
0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1
100
150
200
250
t [s]
U
d
c

[
V
]
0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1
-30
-15
0
15
30
t [s]
i
q

[
A
]
0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1
600
700
800
900
t [s]
n

[
r
p
m
]

Reference
Measurement
Figure 6.7: Step of the voltage reference from 225V to 125V and back to225V.
Top: dc bus voltage. Middle: q-axis current. Bottom: Motor speed.

The MPP of the PV array used is situated between 185 and 195 V. Without voltage
control the voltage area below the MPP (U
dc
< 185 V) is unstable. Slightly
increasing the motor speed in this unstable area, results in a very quick discharge of
the capacitor leading inevitably to a crash of the entire system. The averaged voltage
error of this inner control loop is smaller than 0.1%. Even at the starting procedure
and under very quickly changing irradiance, the error reaches a maximum of 0.5%.
The averaged voltage error delivers the minimum search range for the later
described main control (MPPT) providing the reference voltage.

An important feature of the system is the independence of the pipe characteristic.
The pumping head or water pressure can be varied by a throttle lever
increasing/decreasing both water pressure and reversely water flow. Thus, also the
pipe characteristic changes. Figure 6.8 demonstrates this independence by varying
the pumping head from a ½ m (=½ bar) to 10 m (=10 bar) and back to ½ m. The
Ride-Through at Power Interruptions 115
response of the voltage control is plotted above, below the speed. The reaction time
of the voltage control is quite slow due to the time intensive valve closure. The
experiments are made with a reference voltage of U
dc
= 191V approximately
agreeing with the MPP of the PV array.
0 1 2 3 4 5
180
185
190
195
200
t [s]
U
d
c

[
V
]
0 1 2 3 4 5
1100
1200
1300
1400
1500
t [s]
n

[
r
p
m
]
0 1 2 3 4 5
180
185
190
195
200
t [s]
U
d
c

[
V
]
0 1 2 3 4 5
1100
1200
1300
1400
1500
t [s]
n

[
r
p
m
]

Reference

Figure 6.8: Variation of the pumping head.
Left: ½ m ⇒ 10 m. Right: 10 m ⇒ ½ m.

One of the most important features of the voltage control is its robustness during
power interruptions, occurring at instantaneous decrease of irradiance (e.g. passing
clouds). This property has been tested using a regular grid as power supply and
applying a complete power interruption on all three phases for a short time agreeing
with the worst-case condition of the system. These tests were done with a smaller,
3 kW prototype PMSM. The implemented regenerative braking scheme allows the
inverter to keep its dc bus voltage at the pre-determined minimum level, expanding
the time in which supply voltage can be reapplied without the time-consuming dc-
link capacitor recharging cycle. The experimental results of such short time three-
phase power interruptions are shown in section 8.5.
6.7 Maximum Power Point Tracking (MPPT)
The voltage reference of the dc bus voltage control is calculated by an overlaid
maximum power point tracking (MPPT). Compared to a common voltage tracking,
the efficiency of the output power of a PV array can be increased about 2 % by
MPP-Tracking. The MPP is characterized by the voltage, where the PV array
generates maximum output power.

The main problems of matching the MPP with a PV array as power supply are
related to the non-linear, solar irradiance and cell temperature-dependent voltage and
current characteristics of the PV array. The characteristics are affected by the
contamination, the sunlight irradiance and the cell temperature. To reach the MPP at
rising irradiance level, the current in the dc bus must be increased while the dc bus
116 Chapter 8
voltage remains nearly constant. The voltage at the MPP changes with array
temperature and current is almost unaffected. At lower cell temperature, the MPP
characteristic is situated in a higher voltage range. Thus, the optimum output voltage
of the PV array is not constant and moves as conditions vary.

The MPPT is the main control loop, calculating the MPP and the search range of the
dc bus voltage, and delivers a reference quantity to the voltage control loop. First, a
default voltage and search range is given. After the default voltage is reached, it is
varied slightly around this point. The quantity of this variation is given by the search
range. During this variation, the power generated by the PV array is measured and
the voltage linked to the maximum power is stored during the respective searching
procedure. The new optimum voltage and the new search range are calculated from
these actual measurements and in its stored values by an adaptive control algorithm.
With these new quantities, the controller starts again a searching procedure to find
the MPP. Figure 6.9 shows the flow chart of the MPP-Tracking.

Uref < Uopt - ∆U
Decrease Uref
Calculate Uopt
• Optimum voltage: Uopt
• Search range: ∆U
• Search speed: dU/dt
Measurement
Reference
voltage U
ref
Startup with
initial values
NO
NO
YES
YES
Uref
Increase Uref
Uref > Uopt + ∆U
Calculate ∆U
Uref
Uref
t


Figure 6.9: Flow chart of the MPP-Tracking.

The previous values are very important for the calculation of the new optimum
voltage and search range. If, e.g., the new calculated optimum voltage during a
searching procedure with rising voltage is situated higher than the last optimum
voltage, the MPP-voltage seems to change. However, this can also indicate an
increasing irradiance. If the second condition occurs, the controller should not
change the new optimum voltage. Otherwise, the calculated voltage drifts from the
MPP. The same considerations are also valid for decreasing irradiance. Thus, the
adaptive control must be able to distinguish between a changing MPP and changing
conditions. A new optimum voltage is only calculated, when a tendency is indicated
by a searching procedure with both rising and falling voltage reference.

Ride-Through at Power Interruptions 117
Pictorially expressed, the shape of the reference voltage looks like the movement
playing an accordion. Both, search range and speed depends on the variation of the
calculated optimum voltage. If a new calculated MPP is situated in the half of the
past voltage range, the search range and the search speed are reduced, otherwise
both are increased. If the irradiance power changes very often and too fast to track
the real MPP, the MPPT algorithm behaves as a common constant voltage tracking.
6.8 Experimental Results
Figures 6.10-6.12 demonstrate the start-up procedure and the automatic operation
mode of the entire control system consisting of MPPT, voltage control and torque
control. Figure 6.10 shows the power generated by the PV array and the speed of the
motor driving the pump during 5 min of MPPT, while figure 6.11 exemplifies the dc
bus voltage for the same span of time. The characteristic of figure 6.12 indicated by
“Start 1” shows the mentioned power as a function of the dc voltage.
0 50 100 150 200 250 300
0
1
2
3
4
t [s]
P
P
V

[
k
W
]
0 50 100 150 200 250 300
0
500
1000
1500
2000
t [s]
n

[
r
p
m
]


Figure 6.10: Start-up procedure and MPP-Tracking.
Top: PV power. Bottom: Motor/pump speed.

Starting with the open-circuit dc voltage, in which the power generated by the PV
array supplies only the control and measurement electronics (~20 W), the voltage
decreases in voltage control mode to a pre-determined reference value. The MPPT is
switched on after reaching this operation point and searches subsequently for the
optimum voltage, where the PV array generates maximum power. The MPP is
reached after approximately 15 s and the voltage is varied from now on slightly
around this point.

During the MPPT, the power generated by the PV array is measured and the voltage,
linked to the maximum power, is calculated. The implemented system tracks
automatically the present conditions; e.g. with increasing insolation, the optimum
voltage is situated in a higher voltage range. As can be seen from the details of
figure 6.11, the variation of the voltage depends on external influences as insolation
118 Chapter 8
or temperature variations and is adjusted automatically. In steady state, the variation
of reference voltage is very small and almost constant.

0 50 100 150 200 250 300
180
200
220
240
t [s]
U
d
c

[
V
]
265 270 275 280 285 290 295
190
191
192
193
194
195
t [s]
U
d
c

[
V
]

Box 1
U
dc
U
dc,ref

Figure 6.11: Start-up procedure and MPP-Tracking.
Top: dc bus voltage. Bottom: Details indicated by Box 1.

Due to the lack of storage element in the dc bus, the power of the PV array must be
used immediately to accelerate the PMSM. Measurements during a sunny day of the
implemented MPPT are plotted in figure 6.12 showing the power of the PV array as
a function of the dc voltage U
dc
.

Three different starting conditions are shown to demonstrate the ability of
reproduction of the MPPT. The direction of the searching procedure is indicated by
the arrows. The characteristic indicated by ‘Start 1’ refers to the time exposure of
figures 6.10-6.11. The artificial starting point exhibits the MPPT starting in an
unstable area, where slightly increasing the motor speed results in a very quick
discharge of the capacitor. This starting point is reached by first using the voltage
control mode with a reference U
dc
*
= 120V and then switching over to the MPPT
control mode. However, this artificial starting point is never reached during regular
operation. The measured results demonstrate the ability of reproduction as well as
the stability of the entire system.

Ride-Through at Power Interruptions 119
100 120 140 160 180 200 220 240
0
0.5
1
1.5
2
2.5
3
3.5
P
P
V

[
k
W
]
U
dc
[V]

MPP
Start 2
Artificial
starting point
Start 1

Figure 6.12: Measured results of the MPP-Tracking using a PV array with a peak
power of 4,32 kW and a PMSM driving a centrifugal pump (sunny day).

Instead of a permanent magnet synchronous motor, the implemented MPPT and
voltage control are also suitable for an induction motor driving the pump. The
performance of induction motor and PMSM are similar, only the induction motor
efficiency is lower especially at partial load. Here, in contrast to all other earlier
presented results, a PV array with a peak power of 1,2 kW and a 1,5 kW induction
motor driving the centrifugal pump was used. The MPPT during a cloudy day, with
this second installation, is presented in figure 6.13. Four different starting conditions
(a-d) are shown. Characteristic ‘c’ and ‘d’ starts in an artificial operation point. The
characteristic ‘a’ is situated in a higher voltage range, because it shows the first
searching procedure at a lower cell temperature.
120 130 140 150 160 170 180 190 200 210
0
50
100
150
200
250
P
P
V

[
W
]
U
dc
[V]

MPP
d
c
b
a

Figure 6.13: Measured results of the MPP-Tracking using a PV array with a peak
power of 1,2 kW and an induction motor driving the pump (6 hours of a cloudy day).
120 Chapter 8
6.9 Conclusions
This chapter presents the design and the implementation for PV-powered water
pump systems using a PMSM without a shaft sensor. In a first approach, the
performance of a PMSM with damper cage in open loop control is evaluated. Due to
the insufficient damper cage, a stable and dynamic open-loop control of the given
PMSM is impossible. Furthermore, a simple U/f control is absolutely inferior
compared to a field-oriented high performance motor drive with speed, flux and
torque estimation. The price to be paid is a more extensive and more complicated
control algorithm. However, no additionally measurements are required.
Additionally, an increased efficiency of the entire system is achieved.

Due to the lack of storage in the dc bus, the power of the PV array is used
immediately to accelerate the motor. Practical investigations are done to
demonstrate the stability of the dc bus voltage control, the independence of the
pump characteristic and its robustness during power interruptions. To optimize the
energy captured by the PV array and to pump as much water as possible, the output
power should always be at its maximum power point. Increasing the efficiency of
the system is very advantageously considering the cost-intensive PV array
installation amounting to 70% of the total system costs. Therefore, a novel MPPT
algorithm, realized by feeding back the dc voltage and current to a controller, has
been developed and implemented. The measured results of the MPPT exhibit the
ability of reproduction and the stability of the entire control system.

The development of a second prototype PMSM for submersible applications has
been stopped for practical and economic reasons. The design constraints due to the
mechanical construction of the motor housing and stator iron, together with the
filling of the motor interior with water yield a very unusual mechanical rotor
construction. The classical rotor design of a permanent magnet synchronous
machine with surface mounted magnets would inherit the fixing of the magnets with
glue and a polymer bandaging. The long-term stability for use directly in water of
both permanent magnets and bandage cannot be guaranteed by the manufacturer.
This applies even for coated magnets. The production costs of such a machine are
enormous. Due to the design constraints, only a marginal efficiency increase can be
expected by replacing the induction motor with the PMSM. However, the
implemented MPPT and voltage control are suitable for both a PMSM and an
induction motor driving the pump.

In the meantime, a request for the installation of the presented PV powered water
pump system has been received from four different countries: Mali, Mauritania,
Senegal and Chad.


7. Conclusions
7.1 Summary & Conclusions
This thesis concerned high-performance motion control systems with a voltage
source inverter supplying both squirrel-cage induction motors and permanent
magnet synchronous motors. Basic control techniques, that allow dynamic torque
and flux control in a decoupled way, are direct torque control (DTC) and field-
oriented control (FOC). Summarizing, the DTC provides a better dynamic torque
response whereas the FOC provides a better steady-state behavior. With respect to
the planned applications where the motor speed is the main control variable, the
FOC has been chosen as final control scheme.

Considering field-oriented control, it is possible to control separately the flux and
torque producing components of the supply currents. In particular, the concept of
field orientation and the resulting ability to directly control the electromagnetic
torque were discussed in chapter 2. Torque control, which constitutes the most basic
motor control function, maps very directly into current control because of the close
association between current and torque generation in any PMSM and induction
motor drive.

There are many excellent books on the topics of electrical machines and drives.
However, it is believed that the present thesis is novel in many respects. The basic
FOC-scheme is refined systematically adding additional features step by step. Flux
weakening is widely known in literature. Less appreciated is the ability to operate
the induction motor above the nominal flux at low speed to enhance the torque per
ampere relation and thus better utilize the available power supply current. The
approach has been further refined by flux optimization. Contrary to the assertions in
literature, this feature makes the induction motor superior compared to the PMSM in
a wide operation range when efficiency is considered especially in the range where
iron losses are dominant. The choice of a suitable flux control strategy depends on
the respective application. In the realized implementations, it can be switched over
easily and in real-time to different strategies. Considering flux weakening of the
PMSM, the algorithms presented in literature are based on pre-calculations
postulating a constant dc bus voltage. In this work, the dc bus voltage is variable
over a wide range requiring an alternative approach. Therefore, an automatic flux
adaptation scheme has been implemented.

122 Chapter 9
Whereas anti-windup systems are well known in literature, an anti-windup system
within the current controller is neglected since the maximum voltage is limited by
the power inverter itself. However, the presented current control with anti-windup is
essential considering the dc bus voltage variable over a wide range.

A commercially available DSP based environment is used for development purpose.
However, the support software has been changed in order to implement different
PWM strategies as well as variable PWM frequencies. This is extremely valuable
during the development of high-performance motor control using PWM outputs in
order to drive power switches. Chapter 3 presents the collaboration between control
design and real-time implementation. The DSP controller board, code generation,
experiment management and hardware interface including required measurements
are explained. Issues of measurement distortion/identification due to the inverter
non-linearity are discussed in detail.

Chapter 4 exhibits a new approach of speed estimation employing an incremental
encoder as measurement device. Among the speed, also rotor position and the
acceleration of the drive are estimated. The implemented algorithm is based on a
linear Kalman Filter. The discussion extends to the implementation of an advanced
speed control loop. It has been shown that this approach offers a significant
improvement of the entire drive performance. This chapter can be also regarded as a
smart introduction into observer theory. Advanced observer theory has been applied
to approaches eliminating the need of position/speed measurement.

The sensorless speed control of both permanent magnet synchronous motor and
squirrel-cage induction motor drives, which is nowadays the most attractive research
area of electrical motor drives, is presented in chapter 5 and 6. New models for
speed estimation are proposed. The structures of the implemented sensorless control
schemes are based on the extended Kalman filter theory. The approach requires no
additional measurements. The terminal voltages are not measured; they are
reconstructed by using the monitored dc bus voltage and the switching functions of
the inverter considering non-linearities due to the dead time of the power switches.
Among the speed, also rotor flux, flux position and the acceleration of the drive are
estimated. The speed estimation does not lag the actual motor speed, both in steady
state and during acceleration/braking. Compared to sensorless control schemes
described in literature, the experimental results have shown to offer a significant
improvement of the drive performance.

Within this thesis, different control approaches considering respective applications
were developed and implemented. Special care has been taken for the viability of the
real-time implementation: A comprehensive and clear description of controller
design and affiliated parameter calculation is given for all treated applications.
Furthermore, all proposed control schemes were verified by experimental results.

The implementation of a PV-powered water pump system using a PMSM without a
shaft sensor is described in chapter 7. This system reflects one application
employing many of the drive features, designed and implemented in this work. New
Conclusions 123
approaches were developed because the algorithms described in literature for this
kind of systems turned out to malfunction. A novel maximum power point tracking
optimizing the energy captured by the PV array has been designed and implemented.
The PV-powered water pump system consists, among other control loops, of a high-
performance dc bus voltage control, which constitutes the most important control
function guaranteeing the stability of the drive.

As discussed in chapter 8, the realized dc bus voltage control is also applicable for
ride-through schemes at power interruptions considering inverter-controlled drives
supplied by a regular grid. The proposed solution to the problem is to recover some
of the mechanical energy stored in the rotating masses by kinetic buffering. This
maintains the dc link capacitor well charged keeping the electronic control circuits
active. The temporary speed dip is generally tolerable, since the most frequent
power interruptions last only for a few milliseconds. Furthermore, the proposed ride-
through scheme at power interruptions has been transformed into a special drive
braking tool saving energy and simplifying the inverter setup: the installation of
brake-resistance, power switch and cooler may be eliminated.
7.2 Further Research
Using the TMS320C31 DSP providing 60 MFlops, the proposed algorithms have
been realized only by means of costly code optimizations. The limit of the possible
code and memory size has been reached. The calculation of the closed loop current
transfer function has shown the large influence of delays within the loop as e.g.:
measurement filter, sample time, PWM frequency and signal lag of data
transmission. Further increasing the program size will lead to execution times,
which are no longer suitable for high-performance motion control.

In particular, it is interesting to implement the proposed algorithms on faster DSPs.
It is expected that the dynamic performance, especially of the torque control loop,
can be vastly increased. Presently, a new DSP development platform based on TI’s
most recent processor-generation, the TMS320C6711 DSP providing 1000 MFlops,
is under construction within the ELECTA group. This new development platform
provides a system, which will be capable of implementing even more extended and
computation time intensive algorithms.

Considering a more powerful control system, there are many applications possible,
e.g.: The noise covariance matrices within the mentioned sensorless speed control
system can be adapted in real-time dependent on the given operating point. This can
be done by e.g. another extended Kalman filter or artificial intelligence.

Various reluctance motors will have an increased role in the future. An expansion of
the proposed sensorless control schemes to these motor types forms surely an
interesting task.

124 Chapter 9
The proposed observer together with advanced control techniques can be applied to
the active filter (active front-end) design, which forms nowadays an interesting field
in the area of power quality. Especially a disturbance (current harmonics) rejection
approach, similar to the proposed load torque rejection approach within the
speed/current control loop of drives, promises a vastly increased performance.

Classical control theory suffers from some limitations due to non-linearity, time-
invariance etc. of the controlled system. These problems can be overcome by using
artificial-intelligence-based control techniques. In literature, e.g. [Vas 99], it is
expected that intelligent sensorless instantaneous torque-controlled drives
incorporating some form of intelligence will become the standard in the future.
These drives will not require machine or controller parameters, and all the control
and estimation tasks are performed by a single artificial-intelligence-based system.


2

Chapter 1

In ac grid connected motor drives, a rectifier, usually a common diode bridge providing a pulsed dc voltage from the mains, is required. Alternatively, a second ac-to-dc converter, acting as a rectifier during the motoring mode and an inverter during the breaking mode, is used between drive and utility grid. An additional benefit of the active front end is enabling unity power factor, (sinusoidal) current flows to or from the grid. Although the basic circuit for an inverter may seem simple, accurately switching these devices provides a number of challenges for the power electronic engineer. The most common switching technique is called Pulse Width Modulation (PWM). PWM is a powerful technique for controlling analog circuits with a processor’s digital outputs. PWM is employed in a wide variety of applications, ranging from measurement and communications to power control and conversion. In ac motor drives, PWM inverters make it possible to control both frequency and magnitude of the voltage and current applied to a motor. As a result, PWM inverter-powered motor drives are more variable and offer in a wide range better efficiency and higher performance when compared to fixed frequency motor drives. The energy, which is delivered by the PWM inverter to the ac motor, is controlled by PWM signals applied to the gates of the power switches at different times for varying durations to produce the desired output waveform. There are several PWM modulation techniques. It is beyond the scope of this book to describe them all in detail. The following illustration describes the basic threephase inverter topology and typical pulse width modulation methods. Furthermore, issues of phase voltage distortion/identification due to the inverter non-linearity are discussed in detail.

1.2 Voltage-Source PWM Inverter
A typical voltage-source PWM converter performs the ac to ac conversion in two stages: ac to dc and dc to variable frequency ac. The basic converter design is shown in figure 1.1. The grid voltage is rectified by the line rectifier usually consisting of a diode bridge. Presently, attention paid to power quality and improved power factor has shifted the interest to more supply friendly ac-to-dc converters, e.g. PWM rectifier. This allows simultaneously active filtering of the line current as well as regenerative motor braking schemes transferring power back to the mains. The dc voltage is filtered and smoothed by the capacitor C in the dc bus (figure 1.1). The capacitor is of appreciable size (2-20 mF) and therefore a major cost item [Bose 97]. Alternatively, the inverter can be supplied from a fixed dc voltage. The filtered dc voltage is usually measured for control purpose. Because of the nearly constant dc bus voltage, a number of PWM inverters with their associated motor drives can be supplied from one common diode bridge. The inductive reactance L between rectifier and ac supply is used to reduce commutation dips produced by the rectifier, to limit fault current and to soften voltages spikes of the mains.

Voltage-Source PWM Inverter

3

Rectifier

DC bus T1 T3 D1

Inverter T5 D3 D5 AC motor T4 D4 T6 D6 T2 D2

L power supply C Udc

Switching logic
Figure 1.1: Basic three-phase voltage-source converter circuit.

Neglecting the voltage drop of the inductances (current depending) and diodes (Ud ≈ 1V if i > 0), the positive potential of the dc bus voltage equals the highest potential of the three phases and the negative potential equals the lowest potential of the three phases. Since each phase owns one negative and one positive maximum potential during one period of the net frequency, the rectifier input voltage equals the maximum of the positive and negative line voltages, respectively. Thus, the rectifier input voltage traces six pulses as shown in figure 1.2 by the thick line.
600

Udc
U dc [V]

600

Udc uab -uca
0 5

U dc [V]

500

uab -uca
0 5

ubc
10

-uab uca
15

-ubc
20

500

ubc
10

400 1

400 40

-uab uca
15

-ubc
20

t [ms]

t [ms]

iB6 [A]

0.5

iB6 [A]
0 5 10 15 20

20

0 1

0 40 20

t [ms]

0

5

t [ms]

10

15

20

ia [A]

0

ia [A]
0 5 10 15 20

0 -20 -40 0 5 10 15 20

-1

t [ms]

t [ms]

Figure 1.2: Line voltages (uab, ubc, uca), dc bus voltage Udc, line current of the first phase ia and output current iB6 of a B6-diode bridge. Left: No inverter output power (inverter losses ≈ 10 W). Right: Inverter output power Pout ≈ 5,5 kW.

Figure 1.2 presents typical voltage and current waveforms of a B6-diode bridge supplied by a stiff grid. As indicated by the dashed lines, the rectifier current iB6 increases, if the absolute value of a line voltage is higher than the dc voltage. Consequently, the dc voltage increases slightly. A dc voltage higher than the current voltage supply causes a reduction of the rectifier input current until the current

[Dub 89] et al. However. The rectifier current iB6 is identically reflected by the line currents. Since the maximal current rating of IGBT modules is around 1 kA and the voltage rating is approximately 3 kV. since switching off an inductive load current generates high voltage peaks probably destroying the power switch. The IGBT is a combination of power MOSFET and bipolar transistor technology and combines the advantages of both. However. If the load draws positive current. reverse recovery diodes are placed conducting the current depending on the switching states and current sign. The higher the line inductances. According to figure 1. Exemplary for one inverter leg. These diodes are required. When transistor T1 is on. respectively. During the last years. During the conducting period. the dc voltage slightly decreases with increasing load. the current increases subsequently.3 presents the basic configuration and the inverter output voltage depending on the switching state and current sign. The switching devices must be capable of being turned “on” as well as turned “off”. they will gradually replace GTOs at higher power levels [Vas 99]. Due to voltage drops of line inductances. Furthermore. bipolar junction transistor (BJT). and reverse recovery diodes D1 and D4.1. the difference of line and dc voltage is active as voltage drop over the line inductances and resistances. The sign of each line current depends on the two non-blocking diodes each conducting the positive and negative rectifier current. The basic configuration of one inverter output phase consists of upper and lower power devices T1 and T4. MOS field effect transistor (MOSFET) and insulated gate bipolar transistor (IGBT). see [Bose 97]. The new generation of switching devices is capable of conducting more current and blocking higher voltages. provide continually rising output power. MOS controlled thyristor (MCT). figure 1. the dc voltage is switched in a three-phase PWM inverter by six semiconductor switches in order to obtain pulses. The maximum dc voltage (no load) is equal to the maximum amplitude of the line voltages. the gate of the IGBT is isolated and its driving power is very low. the smaller the line current peaks. resistances and rectifier diodes. Parallel to the power switches. Presently. . The simpler requirement driving the power switches and the higher maximum switching-frequency. a voltage ½ Udc is applied to the load. forming three-phase ac voltage with the required frequency and amplitude for motor supply. the conducting voltage is similar to that of a bipolar transistor. Considering an inductive load.4 Chapter 1 equals zero and the diode bridge blocks the supply voltage. the average dc voltage depends on the line inductances and the inverter output power. For more details concerning the rectifier. major progress has been made in the development of new power semiconductor devices. In the same way as a MOSFET. the value of the line inductances is limited due to economic and efficiency reasons. enabling higher operating frequencies (higher motor speed). The alternatives at present are gate turn-off thyristor (GTO). IGBTs dominate the mediumpower range of variable speed drives.

the output voltage is slightly changed by the voltage drop of the lower devices T4 and D4. the output voltage will be higher than ½ Udc by the voltage drop across D1. Similarly if T4 is on. the output voltage ua0 will be less than ½ Udc by the on-state voltage drop of T1.Voltage-Source PWM Inverter 5 it will flow through T1 and supply energy to the load.3: Basic configuration of a half-bridge inverter and center-tapped inverter output voltage. the current flows through D4 returning energy to the dc source. the on-state voltage and diode drops (≈1 V) are ignored and the centertapped inverter is represented as generating the voltage ½ Udc and -½ Udc. Neglecting additionally the dead-time interval τdead. Left: Switching states and current direction. which is equal to T1 off. if the load current ia is negative. the behavior of the power devices together with the reverse recovery diode is equally described by ideal two-position switches. Normally. According to figure 1. the current flows back through D1 and returns energy to the dc source. .3. Similarly. To the contrary. a voltage -½ Udc is applied to the load and the current decreases. T1 on ½ Udc C/2 T1 D1 ia > 0 ia 0 ½ Udc C/2 ua0 T4 D4 T1 off T4 off ωt ua0 ½ Udc D1 drop T1 drop ua0 ½ Udc C/2 T1 D1 ia < 0 0 T4 on ½ Udc C/2 ua0 T4 D4 T4 on T1 on -½ Udc τdead ωt D4 drop T4 drop Figure 1. A negative current yields T4 conducting and supplying energy to the load. with T1 on and drawing positive load current ia. Right: Output voltage and line current. If ia is positive. When the load current reverses. respectively.

hysteresis PWM. Pulse width modulation (PWM) is a method whereby the switched voltage pulses are produced for different output frequencies and voltages. the reference voltage is reflected by the fundamental of the switched pulse pattern. hysteresis PWM. there is no fixed pattern modulation in process or fixed voltage to frequency relation in the DTC. Similarly.and off-states of the power switches in one inverter leg are always opposite. Therefore. While the sinusoidal pulse-width modulation and the hysteresis PWM can be implemented using analog techniques. In the following subsections. harmonic currents and skin effect increase copper losses leading to motor derating.3 Pulse Width Modulation Usually. A two-level hysteresis controller is used to define the error of the stator flux. A typical modulator produces an average voltage value. The interaction between the fundamental motor flux wave and the 5th and 7th harmonic currents produces a pulsating torque at six times of the fundamental supply frequency. space vector modulation (SVM) and “optimal” PWM techniques based on the optimization of certain performance criteria. [Vas 97]. Furthermore.6 Chapter 1 1. However. selective harmonic elimination. However. Considering a very short PWM period. the inverter circuit can be simplified into three 2-position switches. e. e. The torque is compared to its reference value and is fed into a three-level hysteresis comparator.g. and minimization of torque pulsation [Jen 95]. increasing efficiency. Apart from the fundamental wave. A modulation scheme especially developed for drives is the direct flux and torque control (DTC). the remaining PWM techniques require the use of a microprocessor. To minimize the effect of harmonics on the motor performance. Therefore. There are various PWM schemes. Either the positive or the negative dc bus voltage is applied to one of the motor phases for a short time. it takes the interaction between the three phases into account. equal to the reference voltage within each PWM period. due to switching losses and dead time distorting the output voltage. However. The phase angle of the instantaneous stator flux linkage space phasor together with the torque and flux error state is used in a switching table for the selection of an appropriate voltage state applied to the motor [Dam 97]. the motor reactance acts as a low-pass filter and substantially reduces high-frequency current harmonics. Well-known among these are sinusoidal PWM. the voltage spectrum at the motor terminals consists of many higher harmonics. the PWM frequency is restricted by the control unit (resolution) and the switching device capabilities. sinusoidal PWM and SVM are discussed in more detail.g. 11th and 13th harmonics produce a pulsating torque at twelve times the fundamental supply frequency [Dub 89]. the PWM frequency should be as high as possible. . the on. The DTC approach is similar to the FOC with hysteresis PWM. Usually. the motor flux (IM & PMSM) is in good approximation sinusoidal and the contribution of harmonics to the developed torque is negligible.

Obviously. there are some inherent drawbacks [Brod 85]: • • • • • No fixed PWM frequency: The hysteresis controller generates involuntary lower subharmonics. Then. Usually. is done in the three phases separately. the dynamic performance of such an approach is excellent since the maximum voltage is applied until the current error is within predetermined boundaries (bang-bang control). Increased switching frequency (losses) especially at lower modulation or motor speed. To increase a phase current. More complicated hysteresis PWM current control techniques also exist in practice. e. Due to the elimination of an additional current controller.Voltage-Source PWM Inverter 7 1.1 Hysteresis PWM Current Control Hysteresis current control is a PWM technique. The signal may leave the hysteresis band caused by the voltage of the other two phases. Phase lag of the fundamental current (increasing with the frequency). . one for each phase (figure 1.3. However. The hysteresis PWM current control. The current error is not strictly limited.4: Hysteresis PWM. there is no interaction between the three phases: No strategy to generate zero-voltage phasors. Each controller determines the switching-state of one inverter half-bridge in such a way that the corresponding current is maintained within a hysteresis band ∆i. The switching logic is realized by three hysteresis controllers. very simple to implement and taking care directly for the current control. the negative dc bus voltage -½ Udc applied as long as the lower limit is reached &c. These modified techniques take care especially for the interaction of the three phases [Jen 95]. adaptive hysteresis current vector control is based on controlling the current phasor in a α/βreference frame. the affiliated phase to neutral voltage is equal to the half dc bus voltage until the upper band-range is reached. also known as bang-bang control. current control and switching logic. the motor parameter dependence is vastly reduced.4). ia Hysteresis band ∆i Current reference Real current Switching logic * ia ia * ib ∆i 0 ib * ic ∆i ua0 1/2 Udc Output voltage ωt ic ∆i 0 -1/2 Udc ωt Figure 1.g.

6. As shown in figure 1. as this compensates for their inferior quality of modulation. u*) a b c are usually calculated by an additional current control loop (FOC). . hysteresis current control is often preferred for stepper motors and other variablereluctance motors. The switching losses restrict its application to lower power levels. In torque controlled ac motor drives using sinusoidal PWM. * ua comparator * ub * uq comparator * uc a.or triangular-shaped carrier wave. as described in the next subsection. u*. determining the fixed PWM frequency. is called sinusoidal PWM because the pulse width is a sinusoidal function of the angular position in the reference signal. calculating the reference voltages. 1. Each comparator output forms the switching-state of the corresponding inverter leg [Dub 89].5: Sinusoidal PWM. Due to the independence of motor parameters. the reference voltages (u*.8 Chapter 1 Hysteresis current control is used for operation at higher switching frequency. when being compared to the hysteresis PWM.b.c comparator Switching logic d. A carrier-based modulation technique.2 Sinusoidal Pulse Width Modulation Three-phase reference voltages of variable amplitude and frequency are compared in three separate comparators with a common triangular carrier wave of fixed amplitude and frequency (figure 1. eliminates the basic shortcomings of the hysteresis PWM controller [Bose 97]. current control and switching logic. is required when subsequent modulation schemes are applied to high-performance motion control systems.q * id * ud id * iq Current controller iq Current controller Carrier wave Figure 1.3. This modulation technique. is simultaneously used for all three phases.6). However. [Leo 85]. a saw-tooth. an additional current control loop. also known as PWM with natural sampling.5-1.

According to figure 1. resulting from a reference voltage being constant within one PWM-period. the positive or negative half dc bus voltage is applied to each phase. the reference voltage is nearly constant during one PWM period TPWM. depends on the on.6: Principle of sinusoidal PWM generation. the reference voltage is multiplied by the inverse half dc bus voltage compensating the final inverter amplification of the switching logic into real power supply.Voltage-Source PWM Inverter 9 Phase a Uref Phase b Phase c Carrier wave ωt ua0 Udc/2 Upper switch “on” -Udc/2 ub0 Lower switch “on” ωt ωt uc0 ωt uab ωt Figure 1. This approximation is especially true considering the sampled data structure within a digital control system.1) . the mean value of the output voltage. Depending on the switching states. equal to the frequency of the carrier wave.7. At the modulation stage.and off-states of the affiliated switch: u ao = 1 TPWM U dc 1 ∫ ua 0 dt = TPWM (∆t1 − ∆t 2 ) 2 T PWM (1. is usually much higher than the frequency of the reference voltage. Since the PWM frequency.

Therefore.3)-(1.10 Chapter 1 1 * ua0 U dc 2 1 * ua0 U dc 2 0 t Saw-tooth carrier wave 0 t Triangular carrier wave -1 -1 ∆t1 ua0 Udc /2 ∆t2 ∆t1/2 ua0 ∆t2 ∆t1/2 ua0 * ua 0 = ua 0 Udc /2 ua0 * ua 0 = ua 0 t -Udc /2 -Udc /2 t TPWM TPWM Figure 1. Left: Saw-tooth shaped carrier wave. Right: Triangular-shaped carrier wave.7: Sinusoidal modulation at constant or sampled reference voltage for one phase.4) Applying (1.and off-times (∆t1 and ∆t2) are calculated according to figure 1. this modulation technique produces an average voltage value.1) shows the mean value of the output voltage ua0 being equal to the reference voltage u* : a0 u ao = 1 TPWM U dc 2  TPWM   2   u*  T 1 + a 0  − PWM  U 2 2 dc    u*  1 − a 0    U 2  dc   (1.5) (1.4) on (1. the . equal to the reference voltage within each PWM period.2) ⇒ ∆t1 = TPWM 2  u*  1 + a 0   U 2 dc   TPWM 2  u*  1 − a 0   U 2 dc   (1.7 by setting the carrier wave equal to the reference voltage related to the dc bus voltage: −1+ 2 TPWM ∆t1 = ! * ua0 U dc 2 (1.6) * ⇒ u ao = u a 0 Apart over-modulation. The switch on.3) ∆t 2 = TPWM − ∆t1 = (1.

software implementation provides sampled data during a PWM period (uniform/ regular sampling) and hence. since it generates less current and voltage harmonics [Bose 97]. On the contrary. resulting in asymmetrical PWM pulses.8). The sinusoidal PWM is easy to realize in hardware by using analog integrators and comparators for the generation of the carrier and switching states [Ter 96].g. The fundamental component of the line voltage then is [Jen 95]: U line 3   1 1 = m ⋅ arcsin  + 1 −  2 U dc π 2 m m    .7) The boundary of the sinusoidal modulation is reached at the modulation index m = 1 (figure 1.8) .Voltage-Source PWM Inverter 11 fundamental of the switched pulse pattern equals the corresponding reference voltage. Compared to the analog implementation. the pulses of a symmetrical PWM signal. e. due to the variation of the reference values during a PWM period. the number of pulses becomes less and the modulation ceases to be sinusoidal PWM. Considering the mean output voltage equal to the reference phase voltage (1. = 2 2 2 U dc m≤1 (1. Since the phase relation between reference and carrier wave is fixed. The ratio of the reference magnitude to that of the carrier wave is called modulation index m. the subharmonics and the associated frequency beats are not present [Dub 89]. are always symmetric with respect to the center of each PWM period. The pulses of an asymmetric edge-aligned PWM signal always have the same side aligned with one end of each PWM period. obtained by using a triangular-shaped carrier wave. the modulation with uniform sampling has lower low-frequency harmonics. [Dub 89]. the pulse widths are proportional to the reference at uniformly spaced sampling times.   m>1 (1. For m > 1. but the output voltages are no longer sinusoidal: they correspond to the reference values with limitation to the half dc bus voltage. the fundamental component of the line voltage is: U line = U dc ˆ 3 3 U phase m. This introduces subharmonics of the reference voltage causing undesired low-frequency torque and speed pulsations. However. The symmetrical PWM is often preferred. even for the asynchronous mode. the relation between reference and carrier wave is not fixed.6) in the linear range (m ≤ 1). In contrary. The modulation technique using a saw-tooth shaped carrier wave always sets the output to a high level at the beginning of each PWM period. The modulation is still working.

8 0. When m is made sufficiently large.2 0. the maximum fundamental phase voltage is limited by the dc bus voltage: . Top: Reference voltages (u* .9) Using sinusoidal PWM generation. u* ) and carrier wave.9: Strong overmodulation and square-wave shaped output voltage with affiliated fundamental. Middle: Phase-to-neutral output voltage ua0 and a0 b0 affiliated fundamental. u * * ub 0 U dc 2 * ua0 U dc 2 1 -1 carrier wave ωt ua0 4 U dc π 2 ua0 fundamental − U dc 2 ωt u U dc U dc 2 uab − U dc 2 −U dc ub0 ωt Figure 1. the phase voltage becomes a square wave and the line voltage becomes a 6-step waveform.1 0 dc 3 2 2 U line /U [] 0 1 2 3 4 m[] Figure 1.8: Line voltage (rms) in function of the modulation index.3 0.6 6 π 0.7 0.12 Chapter 1 0.4 0.5 0. Bottom: Phase-to-neutral output voltage ub0 and line voltage uab. The square wave of the phase voltage expressed in Fourier-coefficients is: ua0 = 4 U dc π 2 ∑ 2n − 1 sin[(2n − 1) ωt ] n ∞ 1 (1.

the introduction of a third harmonic does not distort the line voltages since third harmonic components in the phase voltages are cancelled.10: Measured current at different modulation indexes.11) Therefore.04 0. increasing semiconductor losses and introducing a higher harmonic content at the motor terminals. The same third harmonic is added to each of the three reference voltages.max = U dc π (1. also multiple of third harmonics are present in the voltage spectrum.33) is presented to illustrate the involuntary current distortion.1 Injection of a Third Harmonic According to (1. 4 m=1 2 ia [A] 0 m = 1. Adding third harmonics agrees with a simultaneous variation of the potential in all phases. the current of an induction motor (scalar control) in the linear range (m = 1) and at overmodulation (m = 1. As shown in figure 1. the range of the sinusoidal PWM can be increased by adding third harmonics to the reference voltages. 1.9).2. In figure 1.10. the third harmonics are eliminated and not existent in the current spectrum since the sum of the phase current of a three-phase ac machine equals zero. thus not recognized at the terminals of an ac motor with isolated neutral point: u ab = u a 0 − ub 0 =(u a 0 + uthird ) − (ub 0 + uthird ) ! (1. this maximum voltage should not be exploited since overmodulation results in a strong increased spectrum of lower voltage and current harmonics especially for the 5th.) Basic drawbacks of the sinusoidal PWM are the not ideal use of the dc bus voltage and the non-existent interaction between the three phases resulting in superfluous changes of switching states.33 -2 -4 0 0. 7th and 11th harmonics.03 0.11. Udc = 400 V and Udc = 300 V resp. (induction motor in open loop: uref = 200 V sin(ωt).Voltage-Source PWM Inverter 13 2 ˆ U phase. However.02 t [s] 0.10) However.3.05 Figure 1.01 0. .

still increasing the maximum output voltage without overmodulation by 12%. Instead of using a separate modulator for each of the three phases. the complex reference voltage phasor is processed as a whole.3 Space Vector Modulation (SVM) Space-vector pulse width modulation has become a popular PWM technique for three-phase voltage-source inverters in applications such as control of induction and permanent magnet synchronous motors.11: Injection of a third harmonic and modulation. Such an injection of a third harmonic results in a 15. that SVM generates less harmonic distortion in both output voltage and current applied to the phases of an ac motor and provides a more efficient use of the supply voltage in comparison with direct sinusoidal modulation techniques [Jen 95]. Therefore. 1. the harmonic content of the resulting current spectrum of ac motor drives is minimal at injection of a third harmonic with the amplitude being 1/4 of the reference voltage amplitude. As can be shown [Jen 95]. The mentioned drawbacks of the sinusoidal PWM are vastly reduced by this technique. the subsequently described space vector modulation is equal to the sinusoidal PWM with injection of a suitable triangular-shaped signal containing all existing multiple of third harmonics. It has been shown. . According to [Jen 95]. also multiple of third harmonics do not disturb the current spectrum and are suitable injection signals.3.14 Chapter 1 A geometrical calculation yields the maximum possible increase of the linear area with the harmonic amplitude being 1/6 of the reference voltage amplitude. the interaction between the three motor phases is exploited. u* a0 * ua0 U dc 2 third harmonic reference plus third harmonic 1 t t -1 ua0 U dc 2 − U dc 2 carrier wave t Figure 1.5% higher maximum output voltage without overmodulation. Obviously.

When the desired output voltages are three-phase sinusoidal voltages with 120° .1. The derived α/β voltages in terms of the dc bus voltage Udc are summarized in table 1. The non-zero vectors form the axes of a hexagonal containing six sectors (S1 − S6) as shown in figure 1. the voltage phasor Uref represents the spatial phasor sum of the three phase voltages.12: Hexagon. α/β-transformation of the states State 000 100 110 010 011 001 101 111 S1 OFF ON ON OFF OFF OFF ON ON S3 OFF OFF ON ON ON OFF OFF ON S5 OFF OFF OFF OFF ON ON ON ON Ux.Voltage-Source PWM Inverter 15 As shown in table 1.1: Switching table and α/β transformation of affiliated state voltage vectors. The angle between any adjacent two non-zero vectors is 60 electrical degrees. Switch no. This transformation results in six non-zero voltage vectors and two zero vectors. Table 1. there are eight possible combinations of on and off patterns for the three upper electronic switches feeding the three-phase power inverter (figure 1.α 0 2 U dc 3 U dc 3 Ux. The zero vectors are at the origin and apply a zero voltage vector to the motor. Using the transformation of the three phase voltages to the α/β reference frame.1.1).β 0 0 U dc U dc 3 3 |Ux| 0 2 U dc 3 2 U dc 3 2 U dc 3 − U dc 3 −2 U dc 3 0 − U dc − U dc 2 U dc 3 3 3 2 U dc 3 − U dc 3 U dc 3 2 U dc 3 0 0 0 Uβ 010 S2 S3 S1 000 111 S4 S5 S6 110 011 Uα 100 001 101 Figure 1. formed by the basic space vectors and sector definition (S1 − S6).12. The phase voltages corresponding to the eight combinations of switching patterns can be mapped into the α/β frame through α/βtransformations [Hen 92]. Notice that the on and off states of the lower power switches are opposite to the upper ones and so completely determined once the states of the upper power electronic switches are known.

This gives a maximum rms value of the line-to-line and phase output voltages of . The remaining time t0 is assigned to one or both zero-voltage phasors. the magnitude of Uref must be limited to the shortest radius of this envelope. 40% ‘100’ 50% ‘110’ Uref = U ejωt 5% ‘000’ 5% ‘111’ TPWM Figure 1. as shown in figure 1. results in an asymmetric edge-aligned PWM signal. As illustrated in figure 1.13) Applying only one of the two zero-voltage states during a PWM period. the inverter has to stay in zero state for the rest of the period. The reference voltage Uref can be approximated by having the inverter in switching states Ux and Ux+60 for t1 and t2 duration of time respectively. only the two adjacent states (Ux and Ux+60) of the reference voltage phasor and the zero states should be used [Jen 95] as demonstrated by the example in figure 1.12) Of course. The envelope of the hexagonal formed by the basic space vectors. is the locus of the maximum output voltage. all state changes are obtained in each case by switching only one inverter leg. the reference voltage is actually equal to the desired threephase output voltages mapped to the α/β frame. In order to avoid overmodulation. the remaining time t0 is equally assigned to both states. the affiliated sector must be known first. This is often undesired (higher harmonics) but reduces the required switching number by 33% since one inverter leg does not switch during that particular PWM period. Here.13. The sector identification and the calculation of t1 and t2 are presented in the next subsection. 000 111 000 100 110 110 100 ua0 ub0 uc0 As mentioned above.16 Chapter 1 phase shift.12.13: Example of duty-cycle generation.13. Practically. The objective of the space vector PWM technique is to approximate the reference voltage phasor Uref by a combination of the eight switching patterns. Since the sum of t1 and t2 should be less than or equal to TPWM. U ref = 1 TPWM (t1 U x + t 2 U x+60 ) (1. t 0 = TPWM − t1 − t 2 (1. Uref becomes a revolving phasor with the same frequency and a magnitude equal to the corresponding line-to-line rms voltage.

Voltage-Source PWM Inverter 17 U line . the SVM is often applied as inverter control strategy because of its advantages when compared to other PWM techniques: SVM provides efficient use of the supply voltage and low harmonic distortion in both output voltage and current.e. b* and c* is:  a* + 1 . The relation between the duty cycles of the three phases in percent (relation of the switch-on to the switch-off times of the three inverter legs within one PWM period) and the given duty ratios a*. the sector of the reference voltage is in the upper half of figure 1. etc.g.1. S2 or S3). Furthermore. max = dc 2 (1. the turn-on time during each PWM period is equally distributed to the lower and upper switch and the resulting mean value of the phase voltage ua0 is zero. TI’s TMSM320P14 DSP. At a duty ratio a* = -1. can be approximated easily by a linear combination of the two adjacent states and the zero states. by including handwritten C-code. At a duty ratio a* = 0.g. the sector must be identified to determine the appropriate states. As illustrated in figure 1.3. Even recent developments of the DTC-algorithm are modified in regard to exploit the advantages of the SVM.12 (sector S1. 2 c* + 1   100 % 2  (1. when .15) Usually. As shown in table 1. Further sector splitting/identification is done by comparison (geometrical calculation) of the α. the duty ratios are directly mapped by a DSP into signals driving the inverter switching logic. the reference voltage Uref. b* and c*). the sector is in the lower half. as required for PWM generation using e. the lower switch is continuously closed. Then. the presented algorithm is easily incorporated into the initialization part of the real-time program. as illustrated in figure 1.and β-components. c =   2 b* + 1 .14. usually represented by its α/β * * components Uα and Uβ.14) being approximately 15% higher when compared to the original sinusoidal PWM. duty cycles a . e.14. b. This is performed. The applied normalization at the beginning eliminates the dc bus voltage dependence of the output voltages. are calculated according to following flowchart. 1. For instance. First. Otherwise. a final data processing and transmission is required.3. max = 3 2 U ˆ U phase .1 Real-Time Implementation of the SVM Presently in industry. no trigonometric functions are required to calculate the duty cycles. if the * reference voltage Uβ is positive. by a comparison of the α/β components specifying the position in the α/β-plane. it can easily be implemented with modern DSP-based control systems. A duty ratio a* = 1 indicates a continuously closed upper switch of the first inverter leg. i. The resulting duty ratios (a*.

all duty ratios must be limited to ± 1. For instance. As illustrated in a subsequent chapter (e. Uα*.13) for illustration purpose. as introduced in (1. c*) |u| ≤ 1 Overflow protection 2 -1 16 bit compare register 15 P14 DSP PWM 1−6 Figure 1. the calculated values are adjusted by the given multiplication before they are finally transmitted to the slave DSP generating the PWM signals. e. they are easily calculated by the duty cycles of the three phases. However. t1 and t2 of the applied switching states during each PWM period. Since the P14 DSP uses 16-bit compare registers for the PWM generation.15) multiplied by the PWM period TPWM. The turn-on times t0.12)-(1.g. each two PWM channels are employed to generate the correct pulses for the inverter.g. TI’s TMSM320P14. figure 3. b*. the zero states ‘000’ and ‘111’ are each equal to the minimum of the duty cycles given in (1. Uβ * Voltage reference 3 1 2 U dc normalization uβ ≥ 0 * No Yes * uα ≥ 1 3 u* β No No uα ≥ −1 3 u* β * uα ≥ −1 3 u* β No No * uα ≥ 1 3 u* β Sector 6 Sector 1 Sector 2 Sector 3 Sector 4 Sector 5 Sector 1 & 4: 1 * * a * = uα + uβ 3 * b * = −uα + Sector 2 & 5: * a * = 2 uα Sector 3 & 6: 1 * * a * = uα − uβ 3 3 3 u* β b* = 2 3 u* β b * = −a * * c * = − uα − c * = −a * c * = −b* 3 3 u* β duty ratios: (a*. are not required for implementation of the SVM.2).18 Chapter 1 additionally a slave DSP generating the PWM pulses. is used. To avoid overflow of the fixed-point slave DSP.14: Flowchart of SVM and data transmission to a TMSM320P14 DSP. .

Considering the no-load case. and reverse recovery diodes D1 and D4.Voltage-Source PWM Inverter 19 1. All semiconductor-switching devices react delayed to the turn-off signals owing to the storage time.15. to avoid a short circuit of the halfbridge. depending on the operating point. T1 on T4 off ½ Udc C/2 T1 D1 ia > 0 ½ Udc C/2 T1 D1 ia < 0 ½ Udc C/2 ua0 T4 D4 T1 off ½ Udc C/2 ua0 T4 D4 T4 on Ideal gating pulse pattern pulse pattern with dead time T1 T4 T1 T4 ½ Udc τdead Ideal gating pulse pattern pulse pattern with dead time T1 T4 T1 T4 ½ Udc τdead τdead fPWM Udc τdead fPWM Udc UT1 ua0 UD1 ua0 -½ Udc UD4 -½ Udc UT4 Figure 1. Therefore.4 Dead-Time Effect & Voltage Distortion For voltage-source PWM inverters. the storage time of the semiconductors is very small when compared to the dead time: Switching off a power device. Right: Negative load current. a dead-time interval must be introduced between the turn-off signal of a switch and the turn-on signal controlling the opposite switch. During this storage time.15: Error voltage due to the dead-time effect. The dead time τdead is usually constant and determined as the maximum value of storage time τst plus an additional safety margin. it causes deviations from the desired fundamental inverter output voltage. The dead times of common IGBT-inverters used in industry vary between τdead ≈ 1-5 µs. The basic configuration consists of upper and lower power devices T1 and T4. a dead-time interval is required to prevent the “shoot-through” effect of a half-bridge during a change of the switching states. the current . Left: Positive load current. Although the dead time is short. the switch is not able to block the dc link voltage. The effects of the dead time on the output voltage will be described from one half-bridge of the PWM inverter according to figure 1.

16) depending on the dead time τdead. In contrast to this. respectively the voltage drop of the reverse recovery diode UD. This condition results in the desired voltage. This error voltage and the resistances RT and RD of the switch changes the inverter output voltage ua0 from its intended value uref to: u a 0 ≈ u ref − i ⋅ RT + RD − ∆U ⋅ sign(i ) . A reduction of the average voltages occurs according to (1. This condition results in a loss of voltage at the motor terminals indicated by the gray marked area in figure 1. the use of fast switching devices using high carrier frequencies (5-20 kHz) with lower dead-time values (1-5 µs). [Mur 92].15. the PWM frequency fPWM and the voltage drops UD and UT of IGBT and diode [Bose 97]. the motor torque is influenced as it can be observed by speed oscillations at six times of the fundamental frequency. switching on a power device is delayed by the dead time. Higher PWM frequencies improve the . the dc bus voltage Udc.5 V (equal to 15.16 showing the deadtime effect on a 1. With a positive current. The resulting speed oscillation and the voltage distortion are illustrated in figure 1. it generates sub-harmonics. Hence. It is either increased or decreased. Summarizing. In any case.5 kW induction motor drive in open loop (scalar) control at low speed and light-load operation. fPWM = 10 kHz) and according to (1. In generator mode. the voltage drops of the power switches UT. will not free the system of the described distortion. the diode continues conducting until the dead time elapses and the opposite power device is switched on. the duty cycles are shorter and with negative currents longer than required.17) The dead time reduces the effective turn-on time and produces the undesired fifthand seventh-order harmonics in the inverter output voltage [Dod 90]. The motor currents have the tendency to maintain their values after a zero crossing. 2 (1. resulting in torque pulsation and possible instability at low-speed and light-load operation [Leg 97].5 µs. the error voltage amounts to ∆U = 12.3 V in the alpha/beta reference frame). are considered. Furthermore.16). The dead-time problem is more serious in high-power gate-turn-off thyristor (GTO) inverter systems than in the case of IGBT or MOSFET inverters. Considering the given drive setup (τdead = 2.17) when one of the phase currents changes its sign. the actual duty cycle of a bridge is always different from the one of the reference voltage.20 Chapter 1 commutates directly to the diodes. Furthermore. depending on the load current polarity. During the dead-time interval. which is applied to the motor terminals. the voltage distortion can be described by an error voltage ∆U ∆U ≈ UT + U D + τ dead ⋅ f PWM ⋅ U dc 2 (1. However. the behavior of the motor current is contrary resulting in a steeper rise of the current after zero crossing. since the GTO requires a longer dead time.

1. [Jeo 91]. [Sep 94].16: Open-loop control of an induction motor & dead-time effect (Udc =500 V. Right: Measured/reference speed and voltage trajectories. Most dead-time compensation methods are based on an average value theory: the lost voltage is averaged over an operating cycle and added vectorially to the command voltage [Mur 87]. a fixed time delay is either added to or subtracted from the command voltage. Furthermore.75 1 β -40 -40 -20 α 0 20 40 t [s] U [V] Figure 1.5 0. to avoid unnecessary switching losses and short-term overheating of a switching device. 4 2 60 55 n [rpm] 0 0.75 1 I [A] 50 45 40 35 0 0.25 0. . Depending on the sign of the respective phase current. the affiliated switching state must be either extended in time or skipped.25 0. but may increase simultaneously the voltage distortion due to the dead-time effect. [Leg 97].Voltage-Source PWM Inverter 21 waveform quality by raising the order of theoretical harmonics.1 Dead-Time Compensation Remarkable efforts have been made to compensate the voltage distortion due to the dead-time effect [Choi 96].25 0. Dead-time compensation can be implemented in hardware or software. The hardware compensator operates by closed loop control [Mur 87]. Therefore. minimum time duration in the switching states must be forced. a potential-free measurement of the inverter output voltages is required. This causes additional distortion of the inverter output voltages. If the commanded voltage value is less than the required minimum. measured voltage Uα and reference voltage Uref. but low frequency sub-harmonics persist due to the dead time. no load).5 0. However. Left: Measured current Iα. Software compensators are mostly designed in feed-forward mode.5 0.75 1 0 -2 -4 α t [s] 40 20 40 20 t [s] uref uβ (uα) U [V] 0 -20 -40 U [V] 0 -20 α uα uref 0 0.4. a compromise must be made by choosing a suitable PWM frequency: a high PWM frequency improves the theoretical quality of the waveform. Previous commutation times are measured and used to control the next duty cycles.

25 0. they tend to operate partly in discontinuous current mode at light load.25 0. measured voltage Uα and reference voltage Uref. alternatively. Right: Measured/reference speed and voltage trajectories. an additional d-axis current to bridge the discontinuous current time intervals [Bose 97].25 0. 4 2 60 55 n [rpm] 0 0. the PWM generation is a part of a superimposed high-bandwidth current control loop compensating the involuntary torque/speed distortions to a certain extent.5 0. Of course. This may eliminate the need for a separate dead-time compensator. common industrial drives are not always equipped with an additional dead-time compensation.75 1 0 -2 -4 α t [s] 40 20 40 20 t [s] uref uβ (uα) U [V ] 0 -20 -40 U [V ] uα uref 0 0.17: Field-oriented control of an induction motor & dead-time effect (Udc =500 V. but the harmonic distortion of the fundamental voltage is transmitted to the reference voltages. the conditions are the same as in figure 1. the falsification of the motor terminal voltages is the same. These machines require an advanced compensation scheme when applied to high-performance motion control systems or. The influence of the dead time on the current/torque is vastly reduced by the speed and current control loop.5 0.75 1 0 -20 -40 -40 α β -20 α 0 20 40 t [s] U [V ] Figure 1. Furthermore. Left: Measured current Iα. no load). Note. .16. Figure 1. a complete compensation of the dead-time effect may not be achieved since the actual storage delay is not exactly known. Due to the arguable compensation by the current controller.22 Chapter 1 However.5 0. Except the control mode.17 illustrates the dead-time effect on an induction motor drive in field-oriented speed control mode at low speed and light-load operation. that permanent magnet synchronous motor drives behave more sensitive to the dead-time effect than induction motor drives: Due to the absence of a magnetizing component in the stator current and the low main reactance.75 1 I [A] 50 45 40 35 0 0.

a dead-time interval is added between the turn-off signal of a switch and the turn-on signal controlling the opposite switch. During the dead-time interval.1) resulting in a very high short-circuit current only limited by the resistances of the power switches. The high-side driver is not allowed to turn on until the voltage at the junction of the opposite power switch is low and vice versa. Obviously. changing the switching signal Us from a positive to a negative voltage (e.Voltage-Source PWM Inverter 23 1.2 Dead-Time Generation The switching transitions of real switches. After conducting. the current commutates to the opposite recovery diode (constant current direction) and the power switch starts to block the dc voltage.g. Switching off a power device. before a semiconductor switch is able to block the supply voltage. the dead-time τdead passes before the capacitor voltage equals the voltage -Ud. Considering analog circuits. a finite time is required.18.g. such a high short-circuit current may destroy the power switches as well as the drive system and the dc link capacitor. In modern DSP systems. Dead time control prevents any cross-conduction or shoot-through current from flowing through the main power switches during switching transitions by controlling the turn-on times of the semiconductor drivers. The resistance R is calculated by the resistance voltage drop divided by the operating current of the optocoupler IP: R= Us −Ud IP (1. such a hardware realization takes care for galvanic isolation of the digital control system and the power electronics. If a switch of one inverter leg is turned on before the opposite switch blocks the dc bus voltage. the whole dc bus voltage is shorten across this leg (figure 1. the dead time generation is usually programmable.4.18.19) . especially the transition from current conducting to voltage blocking. equal to the on state of photodiode P2 driving the opposite switch of the inverter leg:  −τ dead  ! U c (t = τ dead ) = (U s + U d )  e R C − 1 + U d =− U d     (1. Additionally. each controlling the opposite switches of one inverter half-bridge as described in figure 1. e.: Us = ±12V) results in a discharging of the capacitor depending on the photodiode operating voltage (Ud ≈ 1V if i > 0). the fixed dead-time generation of one half-bridge is easily generated by a RC-circuit coupled to two optocouplers. recovery diodes continue conducting until the dead time elapses and the opposite power device is switched on. are not infinitely fast. While the photodiode P1 directly blocks. To avoid such short-circuit conditions. mainly to remove the space charge.18) According to figure 1. added as extra time in a compare register/timer.

most standard motors are immune to these higher stresses.5 PWM Inverter Drives and Motor Insulation Variable speed ac drives are used in ever-increasing numbers because of their wellknown benefits for energy efficiency and for flexible control of processes and machinery using low-cost readily available maintenance-free ac motors. Right: Switching logic.18: Analog dead-time generation. Following summary provides basic information to enable the correct matching of low voltage ac motors and PWM inverters with respect to motor insulation: Motor winding insulation experiences higher voltage stresses when used with an inverter than when connected directly to the ac mains supply. Left: Exemplary hardware circuit for one inverter leg. . The higher stresses are dependent on the motor cable length and are caused by the fast rising voltage pulses of the drive and transmission line effects in the cable.20) Switching logic t IP1 UC C PWM logic: US = ±12V IP2 Optocoupler 2 -Us UC -Ud -Ud IP IP1 IP2 IP1 UC t R τdead τdead t Figure 1. voltage and affiliated current of an optocoupler driving the power switch. a minimum capacitor value is required to guarantee the dead-time interval τdead: ⇒ C≥ τ dead  2 Ud R ln1 −  U +U s d      US Optocoupler 1 (1. While the connection of a motor to an inverter supply is straightforward. 1. For supply voltages less than 500V ac. Insulation performance is one of the considerations required in engineering variable speed drive solutions. some basic considerations are necessary to ensure trouble free long-term operation.24 Chapter 1 Thus.

Usually. it causes deviations from the desired fundamental inverter output voltage. Where the drive spends a large part of its operating time in braking mode. For drives with PWM active front ends (regenerative and/or unity power factor). it is possible to produce a high-power waveform whose average voltage varies sinusoidally in a manner suitable for driving ac motors.Voltage-Source PWM Inverter 25 For supply voltages over 500V ac. The basic concepts of pulse width modulation are illustrated. By using a sinusoid of the desired frequency as control voltage for a PWM circuit. In this way. Due to the significant flexibility in controlling the inverter switches. 1. a large number of switching algorithms were introduced and some of these have gained wide acceptance and are fully developed. GTOs. Although the dead time is short. MOSFETSs. The greater the control voltage. the behavior of the power devices together with the reverse recovery diode is described by ideal two-position switches. The conversion process allows fast control of voltage.6 Conclusions Controlled power supply for electric drives is obtained usually by converting the mains ac supply. Issues of the resulting phase voltage distortion due to the inverter non-linearity as well as compensation methods are discussed in detail. the effect is similar to increasing the supply voltage by up to 20%. PWM is the process of modifying the width of the pulses in a pulse train in direct proportion to a small control signal. a dead-time interval is required to prevent the “shoot-through” effect of a half-bridge during a change of the switching states. Alternatively. additional components can be added to limit the voltage stresses to acceptable levels. . the required dynamic response requirements of high-performance ac motor drives can be met. transistors. a motor with an enhanced winding insulation system is required. This chapter provides a detailed survey of voltage-source PWM inverter drives with emphasis on the modulators and control methods. a controller to set the operating frequency and a threephase inverter to generate the required sinusoidal three-phase voltage from a dc bus voltage. IGBTs and diodes as well as a host of associated control and interfacing circuits. VS-inverters consist of two main sections. The most common three-phase inverter topology is that of a switch mode voltage source inverter. A typical converter consists of power electronic circuits. employing switching devices such as thyristors. current or power to the motor via the gate circuits of the converter switches. In practice. the effective supply voltage is increased by around 15%. the wider the resulting pulses become.

.

2. therefore could turn out to be quite substantial. Of course. paper mills. Regenerative Braking and RideThrough at Power Interruptions 2. just regenerating a minor amount of power to cover the electrical losses in the inverter. This chapter discusses a design concept avoiding the standstill/restarting interval at power interruptions. This shut down mechanism can be associated with a total loss of system control since the control electronics are usually powered by the (in this case discharged) dc-link capacitor. time and additional workload required to get a plant ready for restart may be considerable. This may entail damage or loss of material in sensitive applications as the production of textile fibers. When the power supply is interrupted. Braking to zero speed and restarting obviously is not an adequate solution. the drive remains controllable even at power interruptions of several seconds.1 Introduction Voltage dips and sags of short duration constitute a serious problem for many applications and especially for variable speed drives (frequency converters) in industry. Generally. since they are supplied from the dc link through a switched mode converter. a dc link voltage control is applied to force an immediate transition into the regenerative mode. a loss of mutual synchronization may be critical. This maintains the dc link capacitor well charged. of what actually is a mere incident. The proposed solution to the problem is to recover some of the mechanical energy stored in the rotating masses by kinetic buffering. or extrusion drives. causing the system to shut down within a few milliseconds after a power interruption in the regular grid. it is required to wait until the machine has come to a complete standstill to enable restarting [Baa 89]. voltage source PWM inverter drives are equipped with an under-voltage protection mechanism. In addition. Particularly in multimotor drives. The economic impact. During the interruption interval. keeping the electronic control circuits active. Many continuous production processes in industry are sensitive to a larger variation in speed or losing control at worst. In this way. Early types of frequency converter for motor drives were notoriously sensitive to supply disturbances and often had to perform a full stop and restart to resume operation. the drive system continues to operate at almost zero electromagnetic torque. the (still controlled) braking of the drive depends on the . Usually.

Since drive control is never lost. a return of the voltage with inadequate values necessarily produces large current/torque transients. but the annual impact is in many cases higher. phase angle and speed changes. in many cases due to network faults somewhere in the energy distribution system. The implemented regenerative braking scheme allows the inverter to keep its dc bus voltage at a predetermined minimum level as long as possible. lasting much longer than the dip itself. This in turn leads to production halts. A major fault more than 100 km away from a customer may still yield a significant voltage dip. Voltage dips are probably the power quality disturbance with the highest impact on customers. They can be caused by nearby events.2 Voltage Dips A voltage dip is a short-duration reduction in the supply voltage. They can also be caused by far away events such as lightning strokes or downed power lines. Considering realistic conditions. Therefore. an automatic circuit recloser may cycle open and close several times within a short period attempting to clear the fault. An ac motor directly connected to the regular grid may slow down during such a power failure. since the most frequent power interruptions last only for a few milliseconds. In case of a fault in the power distribution grid. the ride-through capability at short-time power interruptions is discussed. Measured results are presented and evaluated to demonstrate the performance and the stability of the system. these transients generated by the motor may even cause a break of the drive shaft. drives. In any case. immunity for these types of events should be available to ensure safe and reliable product operation. 2. but its magnitude. The implemented voltage control scheme is derived from a torque controlled dc bus voltage. During a voltage dip. this problem can be overcome using a simple relay as a .g. process computers and switchgears. or perhaps by a large motor or other large load on the same circuit being switched on. As has been reported by industrial users. The voltage drop yields tripping of process control equipment such as adjustable-speed drives. The temporary speed dip is generally tolerable. The economic impact per event may be less than for regular interruptions. causing a number of problems. thus resulting in a sequence of short interruptions noticed by downstream loads. the voltages in the three phases are no longer the same. the voltage changes produced can affect the operation of or even damage nearby electrical equipment as e. However. Then. expanding the time in which supply voltage can be reapplied without the time-consuming dc-link capacitor recharging cycle. the voltage control scheme can be applied to multi motor drives as well. An air-gap flux wave may be still in existence. Mains voltage dips and short interruptions are caused by a wide variety of phenomena. such as a faulty load on an adjacent branch circuit causing a circuit breaker to operate. Voltage dips of 100 ms duration can lead to production halts of 24 hours or more.28 Chapter 2 actual load torque.

Concerning motor drives supplied by voltage source inverters. 2. the time required for synchronization (up to 6 s) is too long for many critical applications. It is then required to wait until the machine has come to a complete standstill to enable restarting. the dc-link energy is absorbed by the motor within a few milliseconds. The dc link capacitor is a major cost item in the drive system and an increase of the capacitor is therefore economically not feasible [Bose 97]. Here. A ride-through scheme at these shorttime power interruptions is presented in the next subsection.Regenerative Braking and Ride-Through at Power Interruptions 29 watchdog or over-current protection. When a power interruption occurs. the mean times between failures due to long time power interruptions are of the order of several 10 000 h. However. modern variable speed drives can tolerate the high peak currents occurring when the power supply is restored after a short disturbance. time-intensive restarting is obviously not an adequate solution. Short time interruptions of the power supply are therefore the most frequent cause for inverter failure. on average. a solution is presented using the high dynamic performance of a field-oriented motor control. Against this. Furthermore. the inverter shuts down commanded by an undervoltage protection in order to avoid possible damage to the electronic or drive equipment [Baa 89]. the kinetic . It becomes even more severe with multi motor drives. whereas a singlephase dip may allow continued operating of the drive. The availability of electrical power from the public supply as a function of the down time at interruptions (in Germany) is given in [Sch 85] indicating that a power interruption of more than 10 ms is likely to occur every 200 h. the amount of energy stored in the dc link capacitor is normally insufficient to maintain the inverter active during a short power failure interval. The control scheme is applicable to general-purpose inverters with scalar motor control. In contrast. powerful digital signal processors enable drive manufacturers to implement regenerative braking schemes allowing the inverter to keep its dc-link voltage at a required minimum level. albeit at higher rectifier stress.3 Ride-Through Scheme A relatively large electrolytic capacitor (100-1000 µF / kW) is usually inserted in the dc link to stiffen the dc bus voltage and provide a path for the rapidly changing currents drawn by the inverter. a dip on all three phases leads to an instantaneous decrease of the dc link voltage. Since the electronic control system loses power as well. However. Nevertheless. a time-consuming restart or other special mechanisms may be required. Although this scheme can catch a running machine. One approach to avoid the standstill interval following a power interruption is described in [Sei 92]. Rectifier bridges must be properly designed to withstand these high peak currents. Due to advances in semiconductor technology.

Normally.30 Chapter 2 energy of the moving masses of motor and driven system is substantially higher. only a low voltage ride-through scheme bridging the time of a three-phase power interruption is considered. This reactivates the regular speed control of the drive at t5 and the motor accelerates to the set value. Udc Udc. The return of the power supply results in a fast rise of the dc link voltage. a common dc bus or a two-way PWM inverter. Energy is fed back from the rotating masses to the dc link circuit to maintain the dc link voltage at a predetermined level. With reference to figure 2. Thereafter. This can be used to save energy rather than a fast deceleration with power dissipation of. a brake-resistance. This is possible also in the presence of additional loads connected to the dc link. fluctuations of the supply voltage or single-phase voltage dips. First. This reservoir can be tapped for bridging the time interval of power interruptions.N UKB Umin t1 1 0 t2 t3 t4 t5 t Regular voltage band Under-voltage protection Dip detection t Figure 2. This signal is used in order to switch between voltage and speed . The lower trace of figure 2.1.1 shows a logic signal indicating the detected event of a power interruption. The power interruption is detected at t2 when the dc bus voltage reaches the predetermined level UKB causing the system to switch automatically to voltage control mode. a rising dc voltage forms no problem since the generated kinetic energy can be conducted using a brake-resistance within the dc link.. Normally. the voltage is maintained by a closed loop control forcing the drive system to operate at almost zero electromagnetic torque. the power supply is interrupted at t = t1. The upper voltage limit may be reached at fast decelerations of the drive.1. The motor regenerates just a minor amount of power by kinetic buffering to cover the electrical losses in the inverter and motor until the return of the power supply at t4. The lower limit allows for voltage sags due to load variations. The latter approach is presented at the end of this chapter. Nevertheless.1: Controlled dc bus voltage during power interruptions. the dc voltage changes within certain limits as indicated by the (shaded) regular voltage band.g. The principle of forcing a fast reversal of power flow at a breakdown of the supply voltage is explained by the trace of the dc bus voltage according to figure 2. the proposed ride-through scheme can be adopted allowing a controlled deceleration within a maximum predetermined dc link voltage. e.

All control and measurement units are supplied by the dc bus. Of course. A dc voltage beyond given limits leads inevitably to a crash of the entire system. resulting in a higher output power of the PV array. the voltage control must become active before this time has been elapsed.g. N − U min = ∫ (Ploss + ω Tload ) dt 2 t1 ( ) t (2. There. The total power failure considered here can be regarded as a worst-case situation. In speed control mode. a maintained and controlled operation of several seconds is possible. The stored kinetic energy is obtained by the inertia of the moving masses and the actual speed at power interruption. the voltage control is designed to withstand abrupt power interruptions. As irradiance increases. The maximum time interval ∆tmax of bridging power interruptions by kinetic buffering can be appraised by solving: 1 1 2 2 2 C U dc . The inverter would shut down at t3 by the under-voltage protection at the voltage level Umin. passing clouds). are of the order of 1-50 ms. The voltage reference is calculated by an overlaid MPP-Tracking and controlled directly or indirectly by the speed of the motor. The most important control loop for the stability of the entire system is the dc bus voltage control. Typical values of this time interval.2) In contrast to (2. the proposed voltage control scheme at power interruptions has been developed for a PV-powered water pump system [Ter 02]. Using kinetic buffering. If the inverter control did not react on this signal. occurring at an instantaneous decrease of the irradiance intensity (e. 2. losses and load torque are now speed dependent. the maximum acceptable duration of a power interruption can be determined by 3 1 2 2 C U dc . mainly depending on the prevailing mechanical power at the motor shaft. the power of the PV array must be used immediately to accelerate the PMSM.Regenerative Braking and Ride-Through at Power Interruptions 31 control mode. normally equal to the reference speed ωref.1) where Ploss is the power dissipation of motor and inverter.1). N − U min + J ω ref = ∫ (Ploss + ω Tload ) dt 2 2 ∆t max ( ) (2. the input power of the dc bus is . Without kinetic buffering. the dc bus voltage continues falling as indicated by the dashed line.4 DC Bus Voltage Control Primarily. The system has been set up to work independently in island operation. the motor speed and consequently the losses as well as the load torque are usually constant. Due to the lack of a major storage element in the dc bus.

Tel = J dω + Tload dt dω + ω Tload dt (2. Hence. The electromagnetic power developed by the motor can be divided in kinetic power Pkinetic accelerating the motor-pump system and pumping power Ppump. With decreasing irradiance. the drive efficiency is not taken into account. The energy generated by the PV array is used to drive the motor/pump system. they are as being a part of . the loss fluctuation is almost as slowly as the variation of the pumping power. because of the opposite influence at acceleration and braking. the dc bus capacitor is charged or discharged: U dc = 1 I dc dt C∫ (2. IPV Solar generator PPV Udc Idc Pkinetic Ppump IInv motor-pump system Figure 2. Only the kinetic power can be used to feed back energy to the dc bus and to control the voltage. the power of the PV array is smaller than the output in the dc bus. This is the most critical condition.4) (2.2: Energy flow of the PV-powered water pump systems.3) The dynamic behavior of the voltage control is determined by energy equations. Figure 2. Furthermore. The dc bus collapses.5) Pel = ω Tel = Pkinetic + Ppump = J ω Subsequently. The losses are small compared to the mechanical energy consumption.2 shows the energy flow within the system without loss considerations.32 Chapter 2 higher than the output. Depending on the difference between energy generation and consumption. the inverter must slow down the PMSM to a new stable operating point. The difference comes from the capacitor. Therefore. being discharged. if this condition remains resulting in a voltage drop beyond given limits. Therefore. the voltage controller has to accelerate/decelerate the motor very quickly guaranteeing a balanced input/output power ratio in the dc bus. The voltage control must immediately accelerate the PMSM to stay in the MPP of the PV array.

Regenerative Braking and Ride-Through at Power Interruptions

33

the load. Without considering the drive efficiency, the input power of the inverter matches the electromagnetic output power generated by the motor.
Pel ≈ U dc I Inv = U dc (I PV − I dc )

(2.6)

In steady state, the voltage Udc and motor speed ω are constant. The energy generated by the PV array is completely used to pump water:

• •

U dc = const ⇒ I dc = 0

(2.7) (2.8)

ω = const ⇒ 

 Pkinetic = 0  Ppump ≈ U dc I PV

2.4.1

Speed controlled dc bus voltage

Normally, the motor speed of a conventional drive supplied by a regular grid via a diode rectifier is completely independent of the dc bus voltage. Here, a PV array is the source and a water pump acts as load. A relation between motor speed and dc bus voltage can be obtained by linearization of the dynamic behavior. The electromagnetic torque of the motor can be controlled very fast given the bandwidth of the current control loop (960 Hz), whereas the load torque varies slowly with speed. The speed can be controlled beyond current/torque limitation with a bandwidth of approximately 26 Hz. Therefore, also the kinetic power Pkinetic can be varied faster than the pumping power Ppump. Due to similar considerations, the dc current Idc can be controlled faster than the dc bus voltage Udc. Therefore, the following equation is valid during transients:
J dT dω d 2ω >> load 2 dω dt dt

(2.9)

Using (2.5)-(2.6) and assuming constant pumping power and constant current IPV of the PV array for a short time, the linearized relation between dc voltage and motor speed ω is described by:
U dc I PV − U dc I dc = J ω dω + ω Tload dt

(2.10) (2.11) (2.12)

Ppump = Tload ω ≈ U dc I PV ≈ const
Pkinetic = J ω dω ≈ − U dc I dc dt

34

Chapter 2

⇒ U dc C

dU dc dω = −J ω dt dt

(2.13)

With the transfer function of the closed loop speed control beyond current/torque limitations

ω (s) 1 = ω * ( s ) s τ speed + 1

(2.14)

and using (2.13), the resulting linearized transfer function with the reference speed ω* as input and the dc bus voltage Udc as output can be written as
U dc ( s ) =− ω * (s) J 1 1 , ⋅ ⋅ C s τ speed + 1 s τ Vf + 1

(2.15)

where τspeed is the equivalent time constant of the speed control loop and τVf the time constant of the voltage measurement including all other smaller time constants. In fact, the loop to be controlled covers a dominant time constant and a smaller time constant. Using a PI controller, the dominant time constant can be equalized. The cut-off frequency of the control loop is calculated by setting the time constant of the PI controller equal to the largest open loop time constant and choosing a phase margin guaranteeing a stable system:

τ u = τ speed
ϕ R (ω c ) = π − arctan (τ Vf ω c ) −
⇒ ω c = tan(

(2.16)

π
2

(2.17) (2.18)

π
2

− ϕ R ) / τ Vf

The gain of the PI controller Kpu is determined by setting the broken-loop amplification at the cut-off frequency A(ωc) to zero:

  C τu ω c  − 20 log τ Vf ω c A(ω )ω =ω = −20 log −    J K pu   
c

(

)

2

+ 1 =0  

!

(2.19)

⇒ K pu = −τ u

C ωc J

(ω τ )
c Vf

2

+1

(2.20)

Regenerative Braking and Ride-Through at Power Interruptions

35

During practical investigations, the best results have been obtained using a common PI controller for the voltage control and choosing a phase margin ϕR = 85°. The input of this inner control loop is the voltage error, calculated from the measured and filtered dc bus voltage and a reference voltage given by the main control loop. The PI controller used is equipped with an anti-windup system limiting the maximum allowed speed of the drive (figure 2.3).
* Udc

Kpu

T s /τ u z
-1

ω*
|ω| < ωmax

Udc

Figure 2.3: PI controller with anti-windup.

The dc bus voltage controlled by the speed of the motor has significant drawbacks. Choosing a phase margin ϕR = 85°, the voltage control loop has a very low bandwidth fB = 14 Hz. Decreasing the phase margin leads to involuntary speed oscillations. By no means, the voltage can be controlled faster than the underlying speed, if such a cascaded structure is proposed. The speed control loop has a bandwidth fB ≈ 26 Hz. Some approaches described in literature suffer also from such oscillation effects [Mul 97]. Subsequently, the described MPPT is performed by varying the dc voltage triangularly. However, applying a ramp (∆U/s2) as a reference voltage and using (2.15) results in a steady state voltage error Uerror:
U error = −

∆U τ u K pu

C J

(2.21)

The implemented speed based voltage control turned out to malfunction at very quickly changing irradiance power. However, no undesired crash of the entire system due to a completely discharged capacitor has been detected during the practical tests. Nevertheless, the voltage error between optimum and measured voltage amounts to 10% (~20 V) during such power transients (e.g. passing clouds), what is absolutely not acceptable for a good working MPPT and for the claim to pump as much water as possible. Therefore, the voltage has to be controlled in another way as described in the next subsection.

2.4.2

Torque controlled dc bus voltage

The electromagnetic torque developed by the motor is proportional to the q-axis current and can be controlled very fast with the equivalent time constant τeq,i of the current control loop.

25) (2. Replacing the speed ω in (2.23) In fact.i + τ Vf = k τ σ . results in a linearized transfer function with the reference torque Tel* as input and the dc bus voltage Udc as output: U dc ( s ) Tel ( s ) * =− 1 1 1 ⋅ ⋅ ⋅ . = Tel ( s ) J s Tload = 0 (2.36 Chapter 2 Tel ( s ) Tel ( s ) * = 1 s τ eq. being true considering pumping and PV power to be equal in steady state. K pu = − kJC ( ) with: k > 1 (2. being 16 times larger than the other approach.24) The voltage can be controlled directly by the electromagnetic torque of the motor. The parameters of the PI controller are determined by choosing the time constant τu larger than the sum of the two open loop time constants and setting the gain Kpu in order to get a maximum possible phase margin ϕR.22) Neglecting the load torque. A PI controller equipped with an anti-windup system limiting the maximum allowed torque/current is used to calculate the reference torque.15) by the electromagnetic torque Tel defined in (2. corresponding to a phase margin of 55° < ϕR < 72°. s s τ eq . The calculation of the bandwidth takes no current/torque limitation into account.26) τu 1 ⇒ ϕ R (ω c ) = arctan ( k ) − arctan ( k ) (2.23). guaranteeing a stable system: Tu = k τ eq . The practically implemented torque controlled voltage loop has a bandwidth fB ≈ 235 Hz.14)-(2.i + 1 (2. the following relation between motor speed and electromagnetic torque is valid: ω (s) 1 .22)-(2. .i + 1 s τ Vf + 1 JC 1 (2. the load torque is presently handled as a system disturbance.27) Best results are obtained by choosing 10 < k <40.

This property is very advantageously for the implementation of a MPPT. the speed/position estimation within this PV powered water pump system is not superfluous.5) switches only in speed control mode. The high performance speed/torque control of the given ac motor drives are described in chapter 7 as well as the calculation of the controller parameter. Both.Regenerative Braking and Ride-Through at Power Interruptions 37 Applying a ramp (∆U/s2) as reference voltage. Whenever the logic signal (‘dip logic’. if the maximum speed is reached and the PV array generates sufficient power or if the motor/pump system pumps too much water for the storage capacity. The structure of the dc bus voltage control integrated into the speed control system is presented in figure 2. The voltage controller (figure 6. Considering a four-quadrant drive.4) indicates a power interruption. Thus.4. the dc bus voltage directly controlled by the torque has many advantages regarding speed of response. The integrator is used for both speed and voltage control. Only measurements of motor current and dc bus voltage are necessary. considering the given installation. the dc bus voltage can be maintained only when negative electromagnetic power is generated by the motor. The mechanical position sensor is replaced by an observer requiring no additional measurements. The predetermined reference voltage Udc should be within these boundaries to prevent involuntary torque transients or oscillations of the logic signal: Ideal is the switch on point.24).28) The multiplication with the sign of the motor speed is dropped in the PV-powered control system since the pump is driven only in one (positive) direction. In spite of controlling the dc bus voltage by the electromagnetic torque. Note the negative sign of the voltage controller gain as well as the multiplication by the sign of the motor speed. Of course. During power interruptions. a switch on point UKB = 340 V and a switch off * point at 360 V. The well-known principle of field orientation [Leo 85] is employed here. all following experiments are made based on this approach. steady-state error and robustness. PMSM and induction motor. the integrator time constant is automatically tuned. figure 2. results in a zero steady-state voltage error. negative electromagnetic power is generated by inverse signs of torque and speed: Pel = ω Tel (2. This prevents involuntary torque transients and saves computation time. The proposed control algorithm requires a fast torque control scheme. being obviously due to the integrating term in (2. Compared to the other approach. being part of a high performance drive. the torque reference is temporarily switched from the regular speed controller to the voltage controller. . A positive power decreases the dc voltage. require information of the field position. The ‘dip logic’ is obtained using a simple (digital) relay with.

5 presents a measurement of dc bus voltage and motor speed without applying the proposed voltage control. The speed reference amounts to ω* = 1000 rpm and no load is applied. . The under-voltage protection switches on and the drive is out of control. only the efficiency of the former is lower especially at partial load. 2. A dc voltage beyond given limits leads inevitably to an undesired crash of the entire system. Figure 2. This time is much shorter with applied load torque. The used load machine is a dc motor drive with constant electrical excitation coupled with a variable resistor bench. The dc link capacitor is discharged to a critical level within ∆t ≈ 0. The performance of the ride-through at power interruptions has been tested using a regular grid as power supply and applying an abrupt power interruption on all three phases for a short time (approximately 2 s).4: Block diagram of the dc bus voltage control integrated into the speed control system. In particular. The dynamic performance of induction motor and PMSM are similar. Instead of using a PMSM.1 s. the supply of power to the electronic control circuits of the inverter must continue without interruption to maintain the system in operation.5 Experimental Examples at Power Interruptions A 3 kW permanent magnet synchronous machine (PMSM) supplied by a voltage source PWM inverter has been used to verify the proposed approach. the implemented regenerative voltage control is also suitable for an induction motor driving the load. The entire system is controlled by a digital signal processor (DSP) realizing dc bus voltage control. All control and measurement units are supplied by the dc bus. speed/torque control of the drive and start-up and shut down automatism's.38 Chapter 2 Power supply Udc PI voltage control Udc Enable voltage control Speed reference -Kpu Dip logic Ts /τu * * Tel Torque * Control ub & * uc |T| < Tmax EKF Udc ua * SVM Inverter ω* ω Kpn Ts /τn z-1 ib ia PI speed control sign(ω) ω load AC motor Figure 2.

the deceleration is much faster. . The deceleration of the motor during the power interruption is small. Figure 2. Initially. In fact. this power (~20 W) generated by the kinetic energy of the drive system is nearly constant and almost completely used to compensate the inverter losses. After detecting the voltage dip.6 shows the experimental result of the voltage control enabled when a short time three-phase power interruption is applied. Due to the load. as can be seen at the small negative q-axis current during the interruption interval. a voltage dip is detected and the system switches automatically to the voltage control * mode with a predetermined voltage reference of Udc = 340V. Choosing the reference * voltage Udc lower than the ‘dip logic’ switch on point UKB results in a current/torque peak at the beginning of the voltage control mode: As can be seen in [Ter 00b]. the drive system is in speed control mode with a reference speed n* = 1000 rpm.Regenerative Braking and Ride-Through at Power Interruptions 39 500 400 [V ] 300 200 100 0 0 2 4 6 U dc Under-voltage protection 8 10 12 14 t [s] 1000 800 n [rpm] 600 400 200 0 Out of control 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 t [s] Figure 2.5: Power interruption without voltage control (no load). the controller starts then with an involuntary acceleration of the drive. However. The applied load amounts to 75% of the rated torque. because no load is applied. the voltage controller has to decelerate the motor very quickly guaranteeing a balanced input/output power ratio in the dc bus. Figure 2. expanding the time in which supply voltage can be reapplied without the timeconsuming dc-link capacitor recharging cycle.7 shows the experimental results of a comparable power interruption but with a load torque applied to the motor. the power needed to keep the voltage at a minimum level is the same. Otherwise. Bottom: Motor speed. the implemented regenerative braking scheme allows the inverter to keep its dc bus voltage at the pre-determined minimum level. the dc bus would be discharged and the system collapses. Top: Voltage of the dc link. The system returns to the speed control mode at a voltage level higher than Udc = 360 V or if the motor speed is higher than the speed reference. However. If the capacitor is discharged to a level lower than UKB =340 V.

5 1 1.40 Chapter 2 420 400 [V ] 380 360 340 320 -1 1200 1000 -0.5 0 voltage dip U dc 0.29) .5 0 0. 420 400 voltage dip [V ] dc 380 360 340 320 -1 1200 1000 -0. the capacitor is completely discharged.5 4 U t [s] n [rpm] i [A] 0 1 2 3 4 800 600 400 200 -1 10 5 0 -5 -1 0 1 2 3 4 t [s] q t [s] Figure 2.5 2 20 15 2. Top: Voltage of the dc link.7: Ride-through at power interruption with load torque (75% rated torque).5 2 20 15 2.5 4 t [s] n [rpm] i [A] 0 1 2 3 4 800 600 400 200 -1 10 5 0 -5 -1 0 1 2 3 4 t [s] q t [s] Figure 2.6: Ride-through at power interruption without load torque. considering the given experiment and according to 1 C U 2 ≈ Tload ω ∆t 2 1 CU 2 ⇒ ∆t = 2 Tload ω (2. Top: Voltage of the dc link.5 1 1. Without the voltage dip control. Bottom: Motor speed and q-axis current. Bottom: Motor speed and q-axis current.5 3 3.5 3 3.

A critical voltage level according to (2. e.8: Ride-through at everlasting power failure (no load). With the implemented voltage control.Regenerative Braking and Ride-Through at Power Interruptions 41 in ∆t = 29 ms. this deceleration tool can be used. Regularly. The upper voltage limit of the inverter may be reached at fast braking of the drive. a common dc bus or a twoway PWM inverter (figure 2.6 Special Drive Deceleration Tool The proposed ride-through scheme at power interruptions can be easily transformed into a special drive-braking tool. Before the drive gets uncontrolled by the under-voltage protection. the economic gain is considerable. Top: Voltage of the dc link. .1) is reached after ∆t = 10 ms requiring a time-intensive restart of the converter. The span of time depends on the drive moment of inertia and the actual speed at the moment of the voltage dip.g. Thus. The kinetic energy is usefully conducted to the load mainly responsible for the braking during the voltage control mode. the motor stays controllable during braking. 2. Nevertheless. Figure 2. when saving energy is preferable to a fast braking with power dissipation in. a brake-resistance. 400 [V ] U dc 300 200 100 0 -1 1200 1000 Under-voltage protection 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 t [s] n [rpm] 800 600 400 200 0 -1 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 t [s] Figure 2. the installation of a brake-resistance. However. the surplus generated kinetic energy is handled using a braking-resistance within the dc link. the motor has come to a complete standstill. the voltage control can be adopted allowing a controlled braking with a maximum predetermined dc link voltage and without redirecting the kinetic energy. being important especially for critical applications as multi-motor drives. Especially in small motor drives.8 presents a measurement at sustained power failure.9). If the dynamic performance is not crucial.. a kinetic buffering during a total energy drop is possible for several seconds. power switch and cooler may be eliminated. Bottom: Motor speed.

the motor would. Thereafter. the system continues to operate with the predetermined * voltage reference Udc = 600V. the system switches automatically to voltage control mode at a preset level higher than Udc > 600 V. The block diagram of the dc bus voltage control integrated into the speed control system is equal to the earlier described structure (figure 2.10). brake to zero and wait until the capacitor is discharged by the inverter losses to the level of Udc = 590 V. the speed reference changes to n* = 500 rpm and the switch on point (Udc = 600V) of the voltage control is reached 60 ms later.10: Switching logic of the braking tool.9: Active front end. Using a brake-resistance within the dc link. Initially.42 Chapter 2 Power supply PWM converter Common dc bus Inverter 1 Motor 1 Load 1 Inverter 2 Brakingresistance S1 Motor 2 Load 2 Figure 2. The ‘switching ω logic’ is obtained using a simple (digital) relay linked to the required Figure 2.4). Figure 2. Finally. once in voltage control mode. The implemented control scheme enables the inverter to keep its dc bus voltage at the predetermined level. braking-resistance and common dc bus. the kinetic energy ∆Wkin ∆Wkin = 1 2 J ω12 − ω 2 2 ( ) (2. dc dc The design constraint of the absolute value of reference speed being lower than the absolute value of real speed is very important.30) . With reference to the given drive. Udc the system turns back to speed control Switching logic mode when the motor speed reaches U > 600V ⇒ 1 * U < 590V ⇒ 0 the reference speed or at a voltage level ω | ω* | ≤ | ω | lower than Udc = 590 V. Reaching the reference speed. At t = 0 s. Once in voltage control mode. the drive system is in speed control mode with a reference speed of n* = 1500 rpm. the motor accelerates to the reference speed. Otherwise. the system returns to the speed control mode.11 shows the experimental result of the implemented drive deceleration tool using the 3 kW PMSM. speed information (figure 2. The braking of the drive is mainly caused by the load torque.

energy is saved.5 20 10 2. Considering the load torque as useful.7 Conclusions Voltage dips and sags of short duration constitute a serious problem for electrical drives in industry.5 1 1.5 t [s] i [A] 0 -10 -20 -0. the time interval of the power interruption is bridged by kinetic buffering. Here.5 t [s] 600 [V ] U dc 500 Speed control voltage control 0 0. A fast reversal of the machine operation from motor to generator mode is commanded at the event of a power failure. 1500 n [rpm] 1000 500 -0. in general.Regenerative Braking and Ride-Through at Power Interruptions 43 is almost completely dissipated in the resistance.5 2 2. this energy is directed to the load.11: Voltage dip with load torque (speed dependent load). Middle: Voltage of the dc link.5 0 0.5 1 1. time and additional workload to get a plant ready for restart is then required.5 2 Speed control 400 -0. Especially multi-motor drives lose mutual synchronization.5 q 0 0. Energy is fed back from the rotating masses to the dc . Usually. voltage source PWM inverter drives shut down even at short interruptions of the power supply.5 t [s] Figure 2. Top: Motor speed. With the proposed deceleration tool. this and the resulting economic losses can be avoided by using the proposed ride-through scheme. Bottom: Electromagnetic torque producing q-axis current. The resulting shut down of critical applications as a production line may entail loss or damage of material. However.5 2 2.5 1 1. 2. Initiated by their under-voltage protection.

The proposed voltage control scheme was primarily developed for the PV-powered water pump system. The drive continues operating even after a quite long power interruption of several seconds. Measured results are presented and evaluated to demonstrate the performance and the system stability. since the most frequent power interruptions last only for a few milliseconds. the proposed ride-through scheme at power interruptions is transformed into a special drive deceleration tool for saving energy and simplifying the inverter setup.44 Chapter 2 link circuit to maintain the dc link voltage at a predetermined level. the dc bus voltage is directly controlled by the electromagnetic torque of the motor. Keeping the capacitor well charged has the additional advantage of the control electronics being powered over a longer time span. the voltage control scheme can be applied to multi-motor drives as well. Due to advances in semiconductor technology. . Since drive control is never lost. The temporary speed dip is generally tolerable. This is possible also in the presence of additional loads connected to the dc link. expanding the time in which supply voltage can be reapplied without the time-consuming dc-link capacitor recharging cycle. avoiding a time-consuming restart of the drive. In voltage control mode. Finally. Powerful digital signal processing is used to implement the proposed regenerative braking schemes. modern electric drives can withstand the high peak currents occurring when the power supply is restored after a short disturbance.

to be considered in the final stage of the development process. offer improvement over analog circuits. Regular adjustment is required in those cases. as the design is hardwired. Finally. temperature drift and reliability due to EMC problems. Furthermore. A slave processor is employed to perform the digital input and output and generate the PWM signals. A standard VS-PWM inverter with IGBTs is adapted to be commanded by the DSP controller board. . implementation of complex control approaches is possible and the drive system reliability can be improved. code generation. on the other hand. The controller board can be directly programmed using MATLAB/SIMULINK. Issues of phase voltage distortion/identification due to the inverter non-linearity are discussed in detail. the used inverter and different PWM generation schemes are evaluated. The mentioned drawbacks as drift and external influences are eliminated since most functions are performed digitally. there are several drawbacks with analog systems including aging. A dynamic control algorithm adapts itself in real time to variations in system behavior. The DSP controller board. Nevertheless. Digital systems.1 Introduction Classically. Furthermore. The heart of the controller board is a TMS320C31 digital signal processor. any upgrade is difficult. Upgrades can easily be made in software. For development purpose. a high level of performance and cost reduction. motor control was designed with analog components as they are easy to design and can be implemented with relatively inexpensive components. DSP-based Drive Control and Measurements 3. DSP’s have the capabilities to concurrently control a system and simultaneously monitor it. a commercially available DSP based environment is used. experiment management and hardware interface including required measurements are explained. This chapter presents the mutual interactions between control design and real-time implementation. Optimizing (slimming down) a working control algorithm regarding required computational effort.3. DSP technology allows both. code optimization and implementation on a more inexpensive hardware for the final product is something.

This user interface . space vector modulation) or in very extensive programs. Addressing the TI compiler and automatic download to the DSP is done via the Real-Time Interface (RTI). sensorless speed control with Kalman filtering. it is referred to the appropriate manuals.g. Software tools. SIMULINK is a graphical user interface integrated in MATLAB® for modeling and constructing block diagrams via drag & drop operations. all digital signals via Sub-D connectors. The main DSP of the controller board can be directly programmed using MATLAB/SIMULINK by The MathWorks™. such as CONTROLDESK. It generates C-code automatically from block diagrams and state-flow systems. In addition. This application software is de-facto standard in the control community. Its large block library is enhanced by specific dSpace-blocks and own user-defined libraries simplifying automatic code generation and experiment setup including initialization of the I/O subsystems and PWM generation. Real-Time Workshop is the code generation extension provided by The MathWorks™.2 Controller board. The Total Development Environment (dSpace’ TDE) bundles a set of tools supporting seamless transition from theory to simulation of new control algorithms to real-time implementations. the used development platform contains a comprehensive selection of I/O interfaces that meet typical requirements for rapid motor control prototyping: • • • • • 4 analog-to-digital converters 4 digital-to-analog converters 16 bit-selectable digital I/O lines PWM generation on up to 6 channels 2 incremental encoder interfaces A connector panel provides easy access to all input and output signals: Analog signals via BNC connectors.g.46 Chapter 1 3. The singleboard hardware (appendix A) is integrated on a standard 16-bit PC/AT card slotted straight into a PC using the ISA bus as a backplane. For more information on programming and implementation software. control and automation of experiments. For flexibility. the user can introduce own C-code into the block diagram by computation-time extensive S-functions or alternatively by special usercodes implying a change of the support software. CONTROLDESK is the comprehensive experimental environment software providing management. The own C-code should be preferred. allow parameter tuning/changing and data recording during the experiment in real-time mode. Programming and Experiment Management The motor control is implemented using a DSP based controller board with additional I/O features and an encoder interface. whenever a part of the control algorithm contains many if-loops (e. so no further explanation is given. The DS1102 single-board system from dSpace™ (Germany) employs a TMS320C31 digital signal processor operating at 60 MHz for the main program and a slave subsystem with a TMSM320P14 fixed-point DSP for the I/O subsystems and PWM generation. e.

Usually. Controller parameters can be changed on-line (e. the support software has been changed in order to implement different PWM strategies as well as variable PWM frequencies. current/voltage sensors and an incremental encoder. Compared to the original three-phase PWM generation performed in 73 µs.3 Controller Interface The laboratory test drive consists of a host PC for the controller board. an IGBT inverter.1: Screen plot during ac motor control experiment with the DS1102.Voltage-Source PWM Inverter 47 enables access to every variable of the original block diagram.1 gives an idea on how the experiment management looks like. However. This new code is automatically included at every compilation of the main program. Figure 3. and ac motor drive with variable load. The modification of the support software has been made in assembler code. This is extremely valuable during the development of high-performance motor control using PWM outputs in order to drive power switches. since no C-compiler for the slave-DSP exists.: speed reference) while the response is observed/recorded simultaneously. no code for the TMSM320P14 fixed-point DSP is generated. Figure 3. The implemented modifications are summarized in a separate manual.g. . the computation time has been significantly reduced to 17 µs. but the appropriate I/O functions are automatically included by the slave-DSP’s EPROM. Figure 3. 3.2 shows the control setup with the DS1102 controller board. Photos of the experimental set-up are presented in appendix A.

The dc bus voltage is measured via a galvanically isolated potentiometer. An interface provides a galvanic isolation between controller board and inverter. the motor currents are measured in two phases using LEM sensors. the measured signals should be filtered in either an analog or digital way. allowing to keep both inverter and drive several meters from the PC with the controller board. An enable signal. The TMSM320P14 slave DSP generates duty cycles with 40 ns edge resolution and 160 ns PWM period resolution. These signals are fed to the interface connected to the inputs of the A/D converters. The rotor position is measured using an incremental encoder and directly fed to the encoder interface of the controller board. the signal transmission is unaffected by EMC-problems. PWM generation on up to 6 channels is possible. In general. control prototyping MPPTracking Current [A] Power supply Interface Udc ua ub uc * * * Voltage [V] DS1102-Processor Board C31 P14 ib ia PWM 1 PWM 2 PWM 3 PWM 4 PWM 5 PWM 6 enable EXOR EXOR EXOR PWM Inverter Incremental encoder signal Θ AC motor Load Figure 3. digital filtering is preferred. supervises both entire control system and inverter. Only low-weighted analog first order filters with a cut-off frequency 5 kHz are added between voltage/current measurements and the A/D converters of the controller board. Due to involuntary parasitic disturbances (EMC-problems).48 Chapter 1 High performance motor control requires accurate information on motor currents and dc bus voltage. resulting in . Phase shifts introduced by filtering can be corrected (if necessary) by the transformation angle from the stator to the rotor reference frame. The inverter used is a modified standard VS-PWM inverter with IGBTs.2: Control setup with DS1102. the P14 always sets the output to a high level at the beginning of each PWM period. The PWM switching signals are fed directly from the slave processor to the inverter using a high performance optical link. Both subharmonic PWM generation and space vector modulation have been implemented. Here. In this high precision mode. Therefore. using one of the digital I/O lines together with the same high performance optical link. The PWM generation scheme implemented in the slave processor is based on phase voltage reference values.

3. the computation requirement of the implemented SVM and the data transmission to the slave DSP amounts to 22 µs. are calculated according to the example reflecting the calculation for the first motor phase: PWM 1 = PWM 2 = 1 − duty cycle phase a 2 1 + duty cycle phase a 2 PWM 1 PWM 2 EXOR (3.1) (3. each of the two PWM channels are employed to generate the pulses for one phase as shown in figure 3. since it generates less current and voltage harmonics [Bose 97]. depending on the required duty cycle. . In order to overcome the problem of asymmetrical PWM generated by the P14. On the contrary. Every S-function block used in a Simulink model introduces an execution time overhead of about 9 µs in the real-time program due to the associated function calls. Considering the given development platform (DS1102 60MHz). the pulses of a symmetrical PWM signal are always symmetric with respect to the center of each PWM period. The symmetrical PWM is often preferred. The pulses of an asymmetric edge-aligned PWM signal always have the same side aligned with one end of each PWM period.Voltage-Source PWM Inverter 49 asymmetrical PWM pulses.3: Principle of symmetrical PWM generation with DS1102. pulses symmetrical to the center of the PWM period can be achieved if the switching times of each two channels.2) u* a TPWM TPWM Figure 3. By means of an EXOR gate. The ‘user-code’ offers the inclusion of handwritten C-code into the initialization part and the timer-driven task running with the base sample time and is preferable compared to the use of Simulink C-coded S-function since it saves computation time.2 and 3. The presented algorithm is incorporated into the ‘user-code’ of the real-time program. [Dub 89].

as described in the following subsections.4. This means that the motor current can directly be measured without the common-mode voltage problems mentioned before. Filtering a feedback signal additionally decreases the dynamic response time of the loop [Leo 85]. are isolated by their very nature. is always forced to be zero. accuracy and temperature independence of these transducers has proven to be sufficient for motor drive applications. The output of the current transducer is the canceling current. Therefore. A built-in feedback amplifier drives current through the canceling coil in such a way that the flux.g. dc current can be measured. measured by the Hall-effect sensor.50 Chapter 1 3. because the signal of interest is a millivolt differential value across the resistor. The rotor position is measured here for control purpose or for comparison with sensorless drive schemes. Current is typically measured by one of two methods: voltage drop across a resistor or magnetic transducer. This complicates the measurement. Magnet sensors. 3. This signal is directly fed to the encoder interface of the controller board. but the common-mode voltage of the motor phase is typically hundreds of volts switching at high frequency with rapid du/dt. . Since the actual motor current is the desired value. They use a ring-type magnetic core with a Hall-effect semiconductor element placed in an air gap to measure the magnetic flux resulting from the primary current ip through the center of the core (figure 3. The overall bandwidth. An incremental encoder with 1024 lines is used. The measurement of the motor speed/position may be eliminated by estimation techniques.4). A drawback is the trade-off between sensitivity and power dissipated in the resistor. Measurement accuracy and bandwidth influence directly the current control loop as well as all overlaid loops.1 Phase Current Measurement Accurate measurement of the phase current is a key element in obtaining optimum high-performance motor control. equal to the measured current scaled-down by the ratio of coil turns. More details on position measurement and the transformation to a speed signal are given in chapter 4. Resistive shunt sensing has the advantage of a relatively low-cost sensor. 1000 turns is wound around the magnetic core.4 Measurements Phase current and dc bus voltage measurements. on the other hand. are required for most high-performance motion control systems. In “closedloop” Hall effect current sensors. a canceling coil of e. the sensing resistor is usually placed in series with the motor phase.

However. Furthermore. Usually. braking schemes.4). the dc voltage varies due to load variations.5 Phase Voltages The field-oriented control of ac motor drives. Subsequently. 3. knowledge of the dc bus voltage makes a more complicated measurement of the phase voltages superfluous. a high-performance galvanic isolation and a first-order analog filter (cut-off frequency 5 kHz) connected to one A/D-converter of the controller board. the measurement of the dc bus voltage is required for the exact transformation of the reference voltages into the duty cycles for the inverter PWM.2 Measurement of DC Bus Voltage In most high-performance motor control applications. This makes a more complicated measurement of the phase voltages superfluous. the motor currents are measured by LEM-modules. The measurement of the dc bus voltage is not as crucial as the current measurement since the dc voltage is filtered and smoothed by a capacitor of appreciable size present in the dc bus. demands the measurement of the motor current in two phases and the knowledge of the dc link voltage. power interruptions. the measured signals may be filtered by a digital low-pass filter. observer-based techniques can be used in order to reduce phase lags. the dc voltage is measured via a resistive potentiometer. one side of the dc bus is grounded eliminating the common-mode problem already described at the current measurement.4. This signal is fed to an anti-aliasing filter connected to the inputs of the A/D converters. induction motor and PMSM. The bandwidth of the used magnet sensor devices is 150 kHz and the response time is smaller than 1 µs. Even when the inverter is supplied by a constant voltage (regular grid). rather than additionally filtering the current signals. the dc bus voltage is the main control variable. in some applications. such as sensorless field- . The secondary (canceling) current is is transformed into a voltage signal ui by measuring the voltage drop across the sensing resistor RM (figure 3. However. In this work. PVsystems). 3.Voltage-Source PWM Inverter 51 Figure 3. In the applications mentioned.4: Principle of current measurement via “closed-loop” Hall effect current sensor.g.g. In some applications described later (e. e.

52 Chapter 1 oriented control and exact flux estimation. the frequency spectrum of the output voltages generated by SVM consists of a fundamental frequency and many higher harmonics around the PWM frequency. However. all high-frequency components should be eliminated by a low-pass filter. turn on/off time and delay of the control signals. In a voltage-source PWM inverter several causes distorting the output voltages can be found. The output voltage can be measured or. the inverter output voltages are much distorted when compared to the reference voltages and the use of the estimation is therefore not obvious. However.5. problems due to the accuracy of measurement may arise: The fundamental phase voltage is very small in these operating points and only a fraction of the measured pulses with a magnitude equal to the dc link voltage. the exact inverter output voltages are required to calculate desired state values. Thus. limited by the number of available analog-to-digital converters. The reasons for this originate from the inherent characteristics of the power switches such as voltage drop. However. However. 3. Particularly at low-speed and light-load operation. a potential-free measurement is required.5. voltage transition slope.1 Phase Voltage Measurement A phase voltage measurement is difficult since the inverter output voltages are composed of discrete high-voltage/high-frequency pulses. Due to the low-pass filter. three A/D converters are already reserved for the measurement of dc bus voltage and motor current in two phases. Beyond over-modulation. 3. Only the fundamental voltage wave contains useful information for the digital motion control. A possible measurement setup and affiliated problems are described in [Maes 01]. considering the given control setup. Therefore. Nowadays. a measurement of the phase voltages is seldom used. the inverter output voltages are required to calculate desired state values. estimated by means of the reference voltages. such as sensorless speed control and flux estimation.2 Phase Voltage Estimation For some subsequent described applications. the measured voltages suffer from phase delay and are not adequate for use in control purposes [Choi 96]. where the undesired phase delay is negligible. the motor voltages must be calculated considering the inverter’s non-linearity. Thus. this delay distortion is small when compared to the dead-time effect [Bose 97] and is therefore usually disregarded. The development platform used here enables a simultaneous measurement of only four signals. they are not measured due to the lack of sufficient analog-todigital converters. This is mainly caused by the complexity and extra costs of the additional measuring devices. by using the information of the dc link voltage. but calculated by means of the reference voltages with .

fPWM = 10 kHz. [Lee 96]. Figure 3.5 presents a comparison of the error voltage calculated by (1. Practical investigations have shown even a deterioration of the observer performance by using an inadequate compensation approach: If the compensation is not perfect. varying depending on the operating point. where the error voltage becomes a multiple of the reference voltage. is not exactly known.11) -15 -10 -8 -6 -4 -2 1 0 2 4 6 8 10 I [A] Figure 3. the dead-time effect is considered at the estimation of the phase voltages. Actually. Due to the delayed reaction of almost all semiconductor switches at turn-on and turn-off. especially at low motor speed. a duplication of the dead-time effect at zero crossings of the current may occur. 15 10 5 10 [V ] U -5 ref -U 0 Measurement -10 Equation (3.3) .5 µs).17) and the measured falsification of the fundamental voltages. The speed-controlled ac motor is supplied by a voltage-source PWM inverter. A compensation of the dead-time effect is not implemented since the actual storage delay. u0 = 1 (ua + ub + uc ) 3 (3. the phase voltages strongly deviate from the reference voltages. Therefore.Voltage-Source PWM Inverter 53 consideration of the inverter non-linearity and the homopolar component generated by the SVM. τd = ± 2. SVM provides a more efficient use of the supply voltage in comparison with sinusoidal modulation methods by imposing a homopolar system u0 in all three phases (multiple of third harmonics). The voltage distortion does not depend on the magnitude of the reference voltages and hence its relative influence is very strong in the lower speed range where the reference voltage is small.5: Dead-time effect: Measured and estimated error voltage (Udc =400 V. Disregarding this distortion yields in the subsequently described speed/flux observer to large position and speed errors. The PWM generation is performed by space vector modulation. the dead-time error is one of the major reasons limiting the performance of sensorless control in low speed operation [Choi 94].

6 Safety Issues & Enable Subsystem A computer-aided control system is used as a development platform monitoring and recording the experimental data. a current controller with a special anti-windup system (see subsection 2. the safety-related monitoring and the start-up and shut down automatisms are implemented in software on the main DSP . this homopolar system reflected in the line-to neutral voltages.54 Chapter 1 However. The voltage spectrum in normal operation consists approximately of one fundamental and many higher harmonics around the PWM frequency.10) Equation (3.3) has been implemented. xref = (a . In fact. |c*| ≤ 1 (3. Furthermore.13) uα uβ sign Figure 3. b*. Note that the calculation of the alpha/beta voltages described above is only valid without strong over-modulation.(3. the fundamental voltages at the motor terminals assume the shape of the reference voltage.6.4) In the case of an ideal inverter. must be considered in the Park transformation:  2  1  3   0  − 1 2 3 2 1  ua   2  u  b 3   uc  − 2    − uα  u  =  β (3. 3. Over-modulation yields a voltage spectrum consisting of all uneven harmonics.5) All together. The reference voltages Uref are equal to the duty ratios xref = (a*. |b*| ≤ 1. using these reference voltages. c ) * * * SVM 1/2 Udc i1 i2 i3 Eq. uβ are calculated according to the block diagram in figure 3.6: Block diagram of voltage estimation.14) multiplied by the half dc bus voltage: U ref = 1 U dc x ref . b . c*) calculated by the SVM (figure 1.6 considering both the nonlinearity of the inverter and the homopolar system of the SVM. the required alpha/beta voltages uα. avoiding these operating points as well as the low harmonics. 2 |a*| ≤ 1.

7: Safety-related monitoring & enable logic of the drive system.β n 1 reset 0⇔1 error logic u>0 z -1 z -1 Figure 3. The minimum and maximum admissible dc bus voltage mainly depends on the inverter used. The implemented safety-related monitoring (figure 3. All gating pulses of the power switches are set to zero in case of an error. special care has to be paid when a PMSM with high motor speed is operated in flux weakening mode. The laboratory test set-up consists of a host PC for the controller board. if no additional power dissipation is connected in the dc link. However. A disabled inverter causes the return of the unrestrained permanent magnet flux linkage and the dc bus voltage may reach unacceptable (dangerous) high values. current/voltage sensors and an . The reset signal is activated only by the rising edge of a manual reset protecting the drive/inverter from an everlasting reset while an error may be still active. and a predetermined voltage window. In addition. the user can introduce own C-code into the block diagrams. The offset of the current measurement is seldom exact equal to zero. This feature resets all registers at a restart and prevents an unwanted overflow of integrator registers. In this chapter.7) consists of detecting over-current and over-speed. error ≡ 0 no error ≡ 1 enable 0⇔1 enable signal Udc Iα. which causes a summation by the integrators of the controller even when the drive is disabled. An inadmissible failure disables the entire system. all integrator values within the control scheme are multiplied by the enable signal. The enable signal controls both the entire control system and the inverter (figure 3. 3. Software tools allow parameter tuning/changing and data recording during the experiment in real-time mode. fuses are integrated in the motor current circuit as well as in the dc bus voltage measurement. an IGBT inverter. and ac motor drives with variable load. an overview of the given controller board and the hardware interface between DSP and drive system has been presented. both depending on the drive system. Therefore. The main DSP of the controller board can be directly programmed using MATLAB/SIMULINK. requiring a manual reset.2).Voltage-Source PWM Inverter 55 board. For flexibility.7 Conclusions All subsequently described motor control algorithms are implemented using the DSP-based development platform DS1102 from dSpace™.

A hardware interface providing symmetric PWM signals and transforming required measurements has been added to the experimental set-up. Issues of phase voltage distortion/identification due to the inverter non-linearity are discussed in detail. . A standard VS-PWM inverter with IGBTs is adapted to be commanded by the DSP controller board. Different PWM generation schemes are evaluated. the inverter is supervised by an enable subsystem. Support software has been changed in order to implement different PWM strategies as well as variable PWM frequencies on the TMSM320P14 slave-DSP. The required inverter output voltages are not measured but calculated by means of the reference voltages with consideration of the inverter nonlinearity and the homopolar component generated by the SVM.56 Chapter 1 incremental encoder. The PWM switching signals are fed directly from the slave processor to the inverter using a highperformance optical link. Furthermore.

especially at low motor speed and speed reversals. This chapter deals with the speed control of induction motor drives without a shaft sensor. The estimated states are time-dependent resulting in an error driven nature of the observer even at steady state. Brunsbach estimates four states in a rotor-fixed reference frame. etc. accurate speed and torque control or even a higher efficiency by means of flux optimization. since it does not contain conversions between the stator and field coordinate system. has shown a more stable behavior. When the drive requirements include fast dynamic response and accurate speed or torque control.4. This is a drawback when the EKF algorithm has to be implemented in real-time. However. However. There are many models of sensorless speed controllers described in literature dealing with the Extended Kalman Filter theory. speed change. it is necessary to achieve precise motor control without using position or speed sensors. They are mostly based on the models of [Bru 90] or [Vas 94]. the estimated speed is lagging the real speed during transients. Sensorless Speed Control of Induction Motor Drives 4. The structure of the implemented sensorless control is based on the Extended Kalman Filter theory (EKF). the speed sensor has several disadvantages from the viewpoint of drive cost.1 Introduction Induction motors are relatively cheap and rugged machines. using the motor equations in a stator-fixed reference frame. The model of Vas. braking. this model also causes some problems. reliability and signal noise immunity. Furthermore. resulting in comparable execution times for both. because the speed is assumed to be constant during the sampling period. Only a closed loop control of the motor meets the requirements including fast dynamic response. but its disadvantage is its higher order (5 states are observed). together with an estimation of the motor speed. Both rotor field magnitude and position are estimated by summation of rotor speed and slip frequency. the model is much simpler than the first one. However. This approach has become commonplace. Therefore. . speed reversal. The field oriented control (FOC) technique is used. it is necessary to operate the motor in a closed loop mode with feedback of the motor speed. Much attention has been given to induction motor control for starting.

3) (4. The discussion ends by evaluating the influence of motor parameter variations and designing a parameter adaptation scheme in real-time to track these variations. the rotor flux lies entirely in the d-axis. The speed estimation does not lag the actual motor speed. Results are presented to demonstrate the performance of the system. also rotor flux. The angle of the transformation from the stator to the rotor reference frame coincides with the rotor flux angle γ rotating at synchronous speed ωµ. Here.5) . At steady state. Then. 4.5 kW induction motor experimental system has been built to verify this approach. their advantages and drawbacks are briefly discussed. Signal lags are inevitably increased. are constant. Two marginal different models are given. a motor model is required for the implementation of speed estimation via the Kalman filter approach. Choosing a stator flux reference frame causes time-dependent states resulting in an error driven nature of the observer even at steady state. the design and implementation of the observer are explained in detail.2 Model of the Induction Motor in Discrete Time As mentioned above. flux position and acceleration of the drive are estimated. Significant problems arise especially due to the zero crossing of the states at low motor speed and speed reversal. The electrical properties of the induction motor in continuous time are completely described by two voltage equations of the stator.2) diµ dt + i µ = id iq (4. a new model for speed estimation is proposed. the system model of the induction motor used is based on the motor equations in a rotor flux reference frame [Bla 72]. two rotor equations and a torque equation: στ 1 στ 1 τ2 diµ did u + id = d + στ 1ω µ iq − (1 − σ )τ 1 dt Rs dt diq dt + iq = uq Rs − στ 1ω µ id − (1 − σ )τ 1ω µ iµ (4. Along with the speed. all values. apart from the flux angle.4) ωµ = ωr + Tel = p τ 2 iµ L2 L1h ψ rd iq = p 1h iµ iq Lr Lr (4. both in steady state and during periods of acceleration or braking.58 Chapter 5 Here. This approach is shown to offer a significant improvement of the drive performance. The discussion starts by selecting a suitable motor model. Thus. A 1. [Hen 92].1) (4.

the substitutions in the model matrices should be made by using (4.4).8 0.1. but yields no significant advantage with regard to the computing effort. Thus.1)-(4. q-axis and magnetizing current.2 0. such an approximation can be the origin of a poor estimation during transients.6) The choice of input and output vector of the model has been determined by the structure of the electrical equivalent circuit. The induction motor is supplied by a voltage source PWM inverter. This property is neglected in many speed observers assuming the speed of the rotor flux to be constant during the small sample time interval Ts [Bru 91]. However.1: Flux. Neglecting a change of the magnetizing current in (4. 250 ωµ ωr 200 ω [rad/s] 150 100 50 ωslip Load step 0 0. [Lut 93] uses this approximation even for the discrete state space control of the induction motor.e.4). slip and rotor speed during transients. the flux speed ωµ can be written as a function of the electrical rotor speed.1) may be an acceptable approximation of the d/q-axis current equations. According to (4. In fact. The current has to be measured for the implementation of the field-oriented control. illustrated in figure 4.1 0.2): .3)-(4. The voltages are not necessary measured. i.4 0. changes directly with and as fast as the q-axis current. but can be calculated by means of the reference voltages.9 1 t [s] Figure 4.8 kW induction motor drive) Furthermore. The mechanical equation of the drive is: Tel − Tload = J dω J dω r = dt p dt (4. the derivative of the magnetizing current is often disregarded [Bru 91].3 0. the speed of the rotor flux.6 0.7 0. the electromagnetic torque.Sensorless Speed Control of Induction Motor Drives 59 The torque equation (4.5 0. This eliminates both flux speed and flux derivative in the stator voltage equations (4.5) clearly shows the required torque control property of providing a torque proportional to the torque command current iq. (simulation of a 0.

9)  uq id − Ts (1 − σ ) ω r iµ + Ts (4.60 Chapter 5 iq did − id  = + ω r +  dt στ 1  τ 2 iµ  iq − (1 − σ ) id − iµ + u d  στ 2 στ 1 Rs  ( )  iq  − 1 (1 − σ )   =  στ − στ id +  ω r + τ i  2  2 µ  1  diq dt =  iq − ω r +  στ 1  τ 2 iµ − iq  iq + (1 − σ ) iµ + u d  στ 2 στ 1 Rs  (4.8) Assuming a very small sample time Ts. This discretization error is usually disregarded.4) lead directly to an expression of the magnetizing current respectively the flux position in the discrete time domain: iµ .k +1 ≈ 1 − Ts  +  στ   στ 2   τ 2 iµ  1      iq + Ts (1 − σ ) iµ + Ts u d  στ 2 στ 1 Rs  (4. the transformation from continuous to the discrete time state space causes a negligible error.3)-(4. a suitable state equation is required. This non-linearity reflects no negative influence on the EKF. The speed must be estimated by the filter. but might be considered later as a part of the noise covariance matrix.   iq  1 (1 − σ )     id .7)  i  uq  id − (1 − σ )  ω r iµ + q  +   στ R  σ  τ2  1 s   uq id − (1 − σ ) ω r iµ +  σ στ 1 Rs   iq  − 1 (1 − σ )   =  στ − στ iq −  ω r + τ i  2  2 µ  1  (4. Consequently.k +1 ≈  T  id + 1 − s iµ  τ  τ2 2   Ts iq (4.10)  σ στ 1 Rs  Equations (4.12) The flux angle is limited to |γ | < π avoiding an overflow of a register at rotation of the rotor in one direction over a long time span.k +1 ≈ 1 − Ts   στ + στ   id + Ts  ω r + τ i   2  2 µ  1     i  1 (1 − σ )     iq − Ts  ω r + q iq . a simplification of the mechanical equation is necessary. The electrical behavior of the induction motor is completely described by these equations in discrete time and with the rotor speed as a variable.11) γ k +1 ≈ γ + Tsω µ = γ + Tsω r + Ts τ 2 iµ (4. the error is compensated by the filter feedback matrix. Thus. Because usually neither the load torque nor its time variation is known. .

the electrical rotor speed ωr is assumed to be constant in the small time interval (sampling time Ts). rotor. s U β   k (4. Nevertheless. Information on drive inertia is not required. The selection of the first motor model in discrete time is completed by choosing dand q-axis current id.2. which is not correct.   ω r     γ k x k +1 = A k x k + B k u k .13) The known electromagnetic torque must not be used as part of the speed calculation in (4. The resulting system model and its Kalman filter are referred in following discussions as “Model 1”:  id     iq  x k =  iµ  . this model causes some problems.14)   iq  1− σ  1 − T  1 + 1 − σ     Ts  ωr + Ts  0 s   στ      τ 2i µ   2   στ 1 στ 2     iq   1 1− σ   1− σ     − Ts  ωr + τ i  1 − Ts  στ + στ  − Ts  σ ωr  0     2 µ  2   1  Ak =  Ts Ts  0 1− 0  τ2 τ2  0 0 0 1  Ts  Ts 0 0  τ 2i µ   0    0  (4. Mechanical and electrical model are fully decoupled.1 System model without load torque estimation In a first approach. Rs. both electromagnetic and load torque must be handled as system disturbances while the speed is treated as a constant. ω r . the estimated speed is lagging the real speed during transients.Sensorless Speed Control of Induction Motor Drives 61 4. This would lead to a steady state speed error since the Kalman algorithm assumes a zero mean value of the disturbances. iq. Lr.13) when also the load is disregarded. flux position γ and the electrical rotor speed ωr as state variable xk and the fundamental voltage as input uk. U s  uk =  α  . Thus. Lh.15)  0  0 1   • • • Ls. except at no-load. rotor flux iµ. As will be shown. considering only the load torque as a disturbance. main inductance Stator and rotor resistance Blondel coefficient .k +1 ≈ ω r + Ts p 2 L2 p h iµ iq − Ts Tload = ω r + model noise J Lr J (4. Rr σ = 1-Lh2/(LsLr) Stator.

indices: ‘s’). The motor speed as well as all other states are considered as both. UαS UβS + + Measurement: z-1 xk+1 ⇒ xk Iαs Iβ s ∆yk γk yk + - Bk + + Ck ∆x γk+1 xk+1 Ak EKF Figure 4.62 Chapter 5 • • τ1 = Ls/Rs τ2 = Lr/Rr. The model matrices Bk and Ck depend on the position of the rotor flux γ. uses additional information on the electromagnetic torque generated by the motor. the sin/cos-terms of the flux angle should be calculated only once and used in both input and output matrix. state and parameter.2: Block diagram of the discrete motor model and EKF.16) The resulting output vector yk consists of the estimated motor current in a statorfixed reference frame (α/β-system. Stator time constant Rotor time constant The input matrix Bk describes the weighted transformation from a stator-fixed to the rotor flux reference frame.  cos (γ ) sin (γ )     − sin (γ ) cos (γ ) T Bk = s  0 0 . the matrix Ak on q-axis current iq.  σLs   0 0    0 0   (4.17) A block diagram of the discrete motor model together with the feedback matrix of the observer is shown in figure 4. To avoid double calculations. in future referred to as “Model 2”. rotor flux iµ and rotor speed ωr. Additionally to .2. 4.2. ˆ Is   cos (γ ) − sin (γ ) 0 0 y k =  ˆα  = Ck x k =  s  sin (γ ) cos (γ ) 0 0  Iβ     0  xk 0  (4.2 System model with load torque estimation The second motor model.

as in this way acceleration is controlled.18)-(4.18) (4. rather than the speed gives a better handle on the mechanical behavior. being the input to the speed variations. the inaccuracy of (4. but constant at steady state.13). Thus. Iron and friction losses of the induction motor are also part of the estimated load torque. Using the torque. It creates a disturbance of the speed control loop. The load torque is generally unknown. the differential equation of the acceleration due to the load torque is: dα l d  p  =  Tload  ≈ 0 dt dt  J  ⇒ α l . Only a variation of the load is handled as model inaccuracy. the influence of both an incorrect estimation of the electromagnetic torque due to electrical parameter variations and an incorrect identification of the drive inertia are small compared to a potential load variations.19) Now. but will be taken into account afterwards at the evaluation of the noise covariance matrix. The model presented in this subsection does not assume the velocity ωr but the load torque Tload to be constant in a small time interval (sampling time Ts). The acceleration of the drive equals the difference between electromagnetic Tel and load torque Tload related to the drive inertia J. However. also the acceleration due to the load torque is estimated. erroneous electromagnetic torque calculation and inertia identification are handled as model noise.k +1 ≈ α l = p Tload J (4.20) In contrast to the remarks concerning the load torque in (4. being a precondition of the Kalman algorithm.Sensorless Speed Control of Induction Motor Drives 63 the given states. In addition.k +1 ≈ ω r + Ts p 2 L2 h iµ iq − Ts α l J Lr (4. the acceleration of the drive is zero by definition. This results in an improved performance during transients of the motor speed.20) has a zero mean value. The discrete form of the second model is:  id     iq  i  xk =  µ  ω r    γ  α   l k x k +1 = A k x k + B k u k . U s  uk =  α  . the known electromagnetic torque is used as part of the speed calculation. improving the accuracy of the speed: ω r .21) . In steady state. which is compensated by the controller. This inaccuracy is neglected here. s U β   k (4.

64 Chapter 5   iq  1 − T  1 + 1 − σ     Ts  ω r + s    τ 2iµ   στ 1 στ 2      iq   1 1− σ   1 − Ts   − Ts  ω r +  στ + στ  τ 2iµ  2  1     Ts 0 Ak =  τ2  p 2 L2  h Ts iµ 0  J Lr  Ts  0  τ 2iµ  0 0       1−σ   Ts   στ   2  1−σ  ωr  − Ts   σ  Ts 1− 0 0 0 1 Ts 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 τ2 0 0 0  0     0    (4. nearly constant during both changing the speed reference and applying load torque. the performance of the system increases as the information of the known electromagnetic torque is used. However. Obviously. Nevertheless.22) 0    − Ts   0    1   cos (γ ) sin (γ )     − sin (γ ) cos (γ ) 0 0  T   Bk = s  0  σLs  0   0 0    0 0    ˆ Is   cos (γ ) − sin (γ ) 0 0 y k =  ˆα  = Ck x k =  s  sin (γ ) cos (γ ) 0 0  Iβ     0 0  xk 0 0  (4. In fact. apart from an initial change. If the load-speed relation is known. This is a drawback when the EKF algorithm has to be implemented in real-time. A lower value indicates a more accurate estimation and accordingly results in a smother speed signal. being true for many motor drives. This special drive property is caused by the current/torque limitation within the speed control loop. The other advantage originates from the higher accuracy of the speed specification. the estimation of the acceleration is insignificantly lagging at a continuous load torque variation. this information can be used for further improvement of the .24) This model has a disadvantage: its order is higher. Only the load torque is handled as if it were an unknown system disturbance.23) (4. the acceleration is. The involuntary lag of the speed signal is avoided by the additional estimation of the load acceleration. Thus. This accuracy is considered at the calculation of the noise covariance matrix. one major advantage of this model is that it does not assume the speed to be constant during the sample time. the acceleration is almost constant and can be estimated accurately.

Sensorless Speed Control of Induction Motor Drives

65

estimation performance. In that case, the equation of the load acceleration αl is determined employing equations (4.5), (4.6) and (4.19):
dTload dTload dω r dTload T − Tload = = ⋅ p el dt dω r dt dω r J

(4.25)

⇒ α l ,k +1 ≈ α l ,k + Ts

 dTload p  p 2 L2 h    J L i µ i q − α l , k  dω J r r 

(4.26)

If the known load-speed relation is applied to the algorithm, also the system model inaccuracy is lower. The noise covariance Q can be reduced, resulting in a very smooth steady state speed signal and almost no lag during acceleration or braking periods. Both with and without applying the load-speed relation, the performance of the estimator is only slightly affected by a precise knowledge of the inertia. If the inertia J is set to infinite, the behavior of the algorithm is like the one neglecting the torque command inputs and assuming the speed to be constant in a small time interval. Naturally, the inertia must not be set to zero to guarantee a stable functioning. In all other cases, a mismatch of the inertia is handled by the EKF as system noise. The steady state estimation of the load torque becomes erroneous but the speed estimation remains correct.

4.3 Extended Kalman Filter Algorithm
The induction motor torque depends on both air-gap flux and speed, but neither torque versus flux nor torque versus speed relations are linear. This complicates the design of control systems and speed estimation for induction machines. Due to the lack of a system with linear equations, also the state model of the induction motor used is non-linear. The mechanical speed and position of the flux are considered as both, state and parameter. The model matrices Bk and Ck depend on the position of the rotor flux, the matrix Ak on q-axis current iq, rotor flux iµ and rotor speed ωr. Therefore, the extended Kalman filter (EKF) has to be used to estimate the parameters of the model matrices, as well. The EKF performs a re-linearization of the non-linear state model for each new estimation step, as it becomes available. Furthermore, the EKF provides a solution that directly cares for the effects of measurement or system noise. The errors concerning the parameters of the system model are also handled as system noise. A more complete introduction to the general idea of the Kalman filter can be found in literature [Bram 94], [May 79], Bro 92]. Here, only the basic equations of the EKF are repeated. The EKF algorithm used is based on [Bram 94]. The Kalman filter estimates a process by using a form of feedback control. The signal flow of the EKF in a recursive manner is shown in figure 4.3.

66

Chapter 5

ud   uq 

∂Φ ∂x

Predictor
Pk+1|k
1/z

Pk|k-1

x k +1 k

x k k −1

1/z

∂h ∂x

Filter
Pk|k Kk Kk ∆Yk

∆ xk k
−y

∆Y k = y

measured

k

Figure 4.3: Block diagram of the extended Kalman filter.

The Kalman algorithm distinguishes between filter and predictor equations. The predictor equations are responsible for projecting the state to obtain the “a priori” estimation of the next time step. The filter equations, also called measurement update, are responsible for the feedback to obtain an improved “a posterior” estimate. The predicted value of the state vector xk+1|k is corrected by adding the product of filter gain and the difference between estimated and measured output vector yk to the state vector xk|k. In addition still the equation for the corrected covariance matrix Pk|k is required.
x k |k = x k |k −1 + K k y k − h x k |k −1 , k
Pk|k = Pk|k −1 − K k

(

(

))

(4.27) (4.28)

∂h |x= x ∂x

k |k −1

Pk |k −1

The matrix Kk is the feedback matrix of the extended Kalman filter. This matrix determines how the state vector xk|k is modified after the output of the model yk is compared to the measured output of the system. The filter gain matrix is defined by:
∂h | x = x | −1 ∂x
kk

T

K k = Pk |k −1

T  ∂h  ∂h  | x = x | −1 Pk |k −1 | x = x | −1 + R   ∂x  ∂x  
kk kk

−1

(4.29)

in which R is based on the covariance matrix of the measurement signal noise. Based on the calculated state vector xk|k, a new value of the state vector can be predicted. The same applies to the error covariance matrix. The prediction is:
x k +1|k = Φ k + 1, k , x k |k −1 , u k
Pk +1|k =

(

)
k |k

(4.30) (4.31)

∂Φ ∂Φ T | x = x Pk |k |x = x + Γ k Q Γ k ∂x ∂x
k |k

T

Sensorless Speed Control of Induction Motor Drives

67

with the covariance matrix Q reflecting the system noise. All equations of the EKF algorithm can be written as a function of a system vector Φ and an output vector h describing the re-linearized model of the induction motor. The system and output vector respectively can be derived from the model equations of the induction motor.
Φ k + 1, k , x k |k −1 , u k = A k x k |k x k |k + B k x k |k u k |k
k |k −1

( h(x

)

( )

( )

(4.32) (4.33)

, k = Ck x k |k −1 x k |k −1

)

(

)

In addition, the derivatives of system and output vector are required for the EKF algorithm. The derivative of the system vector of Model 2 results in:

3} to zero. Note that the q-axis voltage influences the linearized specification of d-axis current and vice-versa.68 Chapter 5   iq  1 − T  1 + 1 − σ     Ts  ω r + 2 s    τ 2 iµ   στ 1 στ 2      1 1−σ  iq  id      − Ts  ω r + τ i  1 − Ts  στ + στ + τ i 2 µ  2 2 µ  1   Ts  ∂Φ 0 = τ2 ∂x  p 2 L2  h Ts iµ 0  J Lr  Ts  0  τ 2 iµ  0 0       0 0 0 0    0 0 0 0   0 0 0 0 +  0 0 0 0   0 0 0 0  0 0 0 0  (4. The corresponding derivative of the system vector of Model 1 is obtained by dropping the last column as well as the last row in (4. Thus.34)  0    0   + 0   0   0  0  2  1−σ iq  Ts  Ts  uq Ts iq −  στ 2 τ 2iµ 2  σLs     iq id 1 − σ T 1−σ   − 0 Ts  iµ  − s ud ω r  − Ts  id + 2   τ 2 iµ σ σLs σ     Ts 0 1− 0 0 0 0 0 0 p 2 L2 h iq Ts J Lr iq − Ts τ 2iµ 2 0 τ2 1 Ts 0 0 1 0  0     0    0    − Ts    0   1   where uq and ud are voltages in a rotor-flux reference frame. already calculated by the product of α/β-voltages and input matrix Bk. The derivative of the output vector of Model 2 is: . the influence of electromagnetic and ∂x load torque on the speed is canceled. the result can be used to save computing time.2} and ∂ x {4.34) and setting the elements ∂Φ ∂Φ {4. In this way.

They are often set to the unity matrix. Q has to be increased at stronger noise levels driving the system.35). Increasing R reflects a stronger disturbance of the current. The noise covariance Q describes the system model inaccuracy. causing a more filtered current but also a slower transient performance of the system.35) The calculation of the estimated α/β-current is already executed by the output matrix C of the system model and should be used in (4. The corresponding derivative for Model 1 is obtained by dropping the last column in (4.Sensorless Speed Control of Induction Motor Drives 69 ∂ h  cos (γ ) − sin (γ ) = ∂ x  sin (γ ) cos (γ )   cos (γ ) − sin (γ ) =  sin (γ ) cos (γ )  0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 − id sin (γ ) − iq cos (γ ) 0   id cos(γ ) − iq sin (γ ) 0   ˆβ 0  −i  ˆ iα 0  (4. The noise is weighted less by the filter. Thus. In order to achieve the optimal .35) to avoid double calculations. Furthermore. Varying P0|0 affects neither the transient performance nor the steady state conditions of the system and can be chosen at random. An initial matrix P0|0 represents the matrix of the covariance in knowledge of the initial conditions. the entries of the covariance matrices are unknown and cannot be calculated.4 Real-Time Implementation of the EKF 4. changing the covariance matrices R and Q affects both the transient duration and the steady state operation of the filter. the errors of the parameters and the noise introduced by the voltage estimation. The noise covariance R accounts for the measurement noise introduced by the current sensors and the quantization errors of the A/D converters. 4. Q and P0|0 are assumed to be diagonal due to the lack of sufficient statistical information to evaluate their off-diagonal terms. entailing a more heavily weighting of the measured current and a faster transient performance. In general. the diagonal characteristic holds the possibility of saving a lot of computing time as shown in the next subsection. The remaining variables of the algorithm are the noise covariance matrices Q and R and an initial matrix P0|0 representing the covariance of the known initial conditions.1 Measurement & system noise One critical step towards the implementation of the extended Kalman filter algorithm is the search for the best covariance matrices. The covariance matrices R. They have to be set-up based on the stochastic properties of the corresponding noise.4. They consist only of diagonal elements.

9)-(4. changing the sample time requires a new tuning process. apart from an anti-aliasing filter of course. The calculated values are valid for both system models. which may be significant. the filter performance may change dramatically by varying only one value. The measurement covariance R can be measured easily in advanced. Furthermore. Considering (4. Without any previous knowledge and considering the high dimension of the matrices. that the measured current should not be supplementary filtered. However. this is already an optimal filter. it is preferable to have a rational basis for choosing the required parameters. This is done by applying a constant line-to-line voltage across two phases containing a current sensor and measuring the resulting dc current.5 ⋅10 −4  U dc A − R= −6   0  0 V  1. whether or not a superior filter performance can be obtained by an additional tuning process.70 Chapter 5 filter performance. an estimation of the matrix elements is possible using some simplifications. the inaccuracy of the current calculation is mainly affected by the accuracy of the voltage identification being the input of the system. A design equation has the additional advantage of being independent of the given installation. being almost proportional to the dc bus voltage within a voltage range 300V < Udc < 600V: 1. As shown. It must be noted. . an initial guess of the values is welcome.5 kW induction motor drive and a sample time Ts = 200 µs.5 ⋅10 − 4  1. Therefore.10). All given values are calculated using the parameters of the 1.8 ⋅10    (4. Measuring is generally possible because the current measurement is needed anyway while operating the filter. the filter parameters R and Q can be obtained by tuning based on experimental investigations. This describes an iterative process of searching the best values.36) In case of the system covariance. It is almost impossible to find a plausible evaluation of these parameters in literature with regard to the sensorless control of motor drives. tuning is very arduously or can even lead to an unstable behavior of the observer.8 ⋅10 −6 0  2 0  A 2 1. and it can easily be assigned to other drive installations without an expert tuning the parameters. the value of the different parameters differs a lot. The Kalman approach handles white and uncorrelated measurement noise and produces the minimum variance estimate. The noise on the raw measurements will possibly be non-linearly transformed resulting in second order terms. In either case. Some off-line sample measurements are taken in order to determine the variance of the measurement error. the calculation is less deterministic. For instance. Furthermore. the given assumptions have been examined experimentally. A current measurement respecting the given installation yields a measurement noise covariance matrix. Nevertheless.

Considering a very small sample time. the covariance amounts to: Q(1. Therefore. described by an error voltage ∆U.3) = var ∑ Ts dt  − ∫   k =0 τ2 τ2 kT   s s (4.42) . the phase voltages are calculated. these errors are negligible. a dead-time τdead = 2 µs and a PWM-frequency fPWM = 10 kHz. In contrast to Model 1. the dc bus voltage Udc and the PWM-frequency fPWM of the inverter: ∆U ≈ τ dead f PWM U dc (4. White noise is a much better approximation than zero. the worst of all approximations is to set the model inaccuracy to zero. Thus. this discretization error is considered by a very small value in the noise covariance matrix Q.1) For the given drive. This non-linearity has its origin in the delayed reaction of the switches at turn-on and off.k ( k +1)T id .k − iµ .37) The voltage can be either measured or calculated by means of the reference voltages being the output of the entire control loop.2) = 0.1) = Q(2. also called dead-time effect [Bose 97]. Nevertheless.38) The influence of parameter variation is marginal compared to this dead-time effect. The inaccuracy is much lower and mainly caused by the discretization error.k  Q(3.Sensorless Speed Control of Induction Motor Drives 71 current model inaccuracy ≈ Ts ⋅ voltage inaccuracy σ Ls (4.0018 A 2 (4. Here.k − iµ .  ∞ id . The maximum discretization error of the magnetizing current is dependent on the maximum motor current and the rotor time constant. the accuracy is only affected by the non-linearity of the converter.1) ≈  s 3  σ Ls      2 (4.39) (4. the speed specification within Model 2 is very accurate. is simplified dependent on the deadtime τdead.2) = Q(1. using a sample time Ts = 200 µs. the accuracy of the voltage calculation. the covariance of the current model inaccuracy can be estimated by: 1  T ∆U Q(1.41) The model estimation inaccuracy of magnetizing current iµ and flux position γ is only caused by the discretization of the continuous equations. Therefore. So.40) Q(2.

4) < var max s  2 τ torque  2  α max Ts4 1 = ≈ 0.6 ⋅ 10 −5 A 2 2  3τ2  (4. Considering . The load torque is generally unknown. The variance of the acceleration in system Model 2 equals the variance of the inertia related load.4) = var ∑ Ts α k − ∫ α (t ) dt    k =0 kTs   (4. ( k +1)Ts   ∞ QModel 2 (4.5) < var max s  2  2  α max Ts4 = ≈ 3. the speed inaccuracy for Model 2 is transferred to the acceleration equation. For Model 1.47) These values are very small resulting in smooth signal shapes.45) For Model 2.72 Chapter 5 i T ⇒ Q(3.0033 2  48 τ 2 s torque  (4. the inaccuracy of the motor speed calculation is also caused by the discretization error dependent on the maximum acceleration and its time variation.44)     k =0 kTs kTs     α T 2 ⇒ Q(5.013 2 3 s (4. the inaccuracy of the motor speed calculation is higher due to the simplified specification and can be found from the maximum inertia related torque variation: QModel 1 (4.4) < 2 Ts2 α max 1 ≈ 0.5) = var ∑ Ts ω k − ∫ ω (t ) dt  < var Ts α max k Ts − ∫ α max t dt  (4.43) Assuming a maximum acceleration of αmax = 1000 s-2 and a sample time Ts = 200 µs. an estimation of the variance top-limit can be obtained by assuming a maximum torque-inertia relation of the drive. the variance of the flux position is estimated by: ( k +1)Ts ( k +1)Ts     ∞ Q(5. a maximum variation time constant τtorque = 1 ms is chosen. The calculation is based on the considerations made in chapter 4: A constant relation of Tmax/J = 1000 s-2 is assumed. However.46) α T 2 ⇒ QModel 2 (4. They could be set to the maximum in order to achieve maximum dynamic performance of the drive.3) < var max s  τ 2  2  imax Ts2 = ≈ 2.3 ⋅10 −11  48  (4.4) =< var(2 Ts α max ) ⇒ QModel 1 (4.49) In contrast to Model 1.48) (4. Based on common bandwidth of torque control loops.

Thus.51) in order to obtain a good compromise between dynamic performance and smooth torque command response. The computing demand grows almost with the third power of the state dimension. Q(6. the resulting algorithm leads to a program that is not suitable for real-time implementation.2 Computing requirements The speed estimation and the entire control of the induction motor are implemented on a TMS320C31 DSP with 128 K × 32-bit RAM.Sensorless Speed Control of Induction Motor Drives 73 the number of pole pairs p and a maximum torque variation time constant τload = 2 ms.50)   ≈ 1482 1  s4  2 (4.6) <  12  J τ torque  (4.51) The dynamic and smoothness of both speed and acceleration estimation is tuned by Q(6. Furthermore. A high value increases the dynamic performance.4. The algorithm can be implemented with relatively few instructions using matrix calculation. it is a major advantage of the proposed model. using the given DSP. 4. It should be noted.k −1   T p Tmax Ts  model inaccuracy <  p load . In consequence. respectively 700 µs. All other coefficients of the system covariance matrix are set to the given values. also the bandwidth of the current/torque controller would be very small.6) is set to 5% of the value given in (4. This parameter should be smaller. Furthermore. they contain conversions between stator and field coordinate system and a computation time intensive matrix inversion. However. if a different sample time is chosen. but also the noise of the estimated signals. that estimation accuracy and stability of the entire control system are much less sensitive to tuning the covariance matrices compared to other models. With respect to the given drive setup. that the calculation of all process covariance matrices is proportional to the square of the sample time. the top-limit of the acceleration inaccuracy and of the process variance is: − Tload . the given constants should be adapted accordingly.6). if the load torque is known very well or a smooth speed signal is more important than the loop dynamic. without any modification. the performance of the EKF decreases as the sample time increases. . since it is very complex especially due to the matrix inversion. However.k ≈   J J τ torque  max  1  p Tmax Ts ⇒ Q(6. The implemented algorithm estimates five states for Model 1 and six for Model 2. The execution time would be higher than 400 µs.

Furthermore. The first one is based on an approach. Model 1 optimized Model 2 optimized Number of Multiplications [ ] Turnaround time of the entire control [µs] 546 881 207 255 662 1026 254 320 >400 >700 167 187 Keeping the size of the program limited is achieved by optimizing the model with hand calculations and exploiting matrix symmetry. In effect. the execution time is not that meaningful. Model 2 Matrix calc.g. An overview of the computing requirement considering the different approaches is summarized in table 4. Thus. Number of Summations [ ] Model 1 Matrix calc. The used sample time is set to Ts =220 µs. The second motor model uses the additional information on the electromagnetic motor torque. In consequence.1: Computation requirement of different EKF approaches. such techniques treat the known torque command input as if it were an unknown disturbance torque. However. Several matrix calculations of the EKF algorithms are the same and can be used in different equations. they generally lag the actual motor speed during periods of acceleration or braking. the acceleration due to the load torque is estimated. the sine and cosine of the flux angle is calculated only once and used in the EKF as well as in the Clarke-transformations [Bose 97] of currents and voltages. R and initial matrix P0|0 are set to be symmetrically. This model does not assume the velocity but the load torque to be constant in a small time interval (sampling time Ts). also the matrix Pk|k-1 becomes symmetrical which can be exploited avoiding double calculations and higher memory demand. The implemented EKF covers no superfluous multiplications by zero. the remaining field-oriented control is not optimized regarding the computation requirement: e.1. Only a few extra calculations are necessary compared to the speed observer based on Model 1 requiring a turnaround time of 167 µs.g. amounts to 187 µs. 4.4. the implemented FOC contains three different speed controllers for performance comparison. Due to developing reasons of the installation. Additionally. using Model 2. This results in an improved . e.. which is usually unknown anyway.28)-(4. that has become commonplace in almost every speed observer.29). Table 4. They do not recognize the actual torque command inputs to the system and assume the velocity ω to be constant in a small time interval. The DSP power is simultaneously used for monitoring and recording the experimental data.3 Model comparison Two models are closely examined.74 Chapter 5 The turnaround time of the final control system. The inaccuracy of the speed calculation is transferred to the load. in (4. The covariance matrices Q.

1 0. A simultaneous real-time implementation of both algorithms requires a faster DSP.3 t [s] Figure 4. Bottom: Estimation of electromagnetic and load torque.4 0 -0.05 0.1 0.1 15 10 5 0 -5 -0.7).2 0. The smoothness and the transient performance of the signals are adjustable by the noise covariance matrix Q of the EKF algorithm [Ter 01]. Top: Details indicated by Box 1.05 0 0.04 0.015 0.25 0.4.4. 600 n [rpm] 400 With αl estimation Without αl estimation 0 0.3 0. With the other algorithm in the control loop.15 0.01 0.05 0 0.4 t [s] Figure 4.15 0. the simulation has the advantage of calculating the real motor speed without any delay in contrast to a real-time implementation using a filter for the measured speed signal (see also figure 5.3 0.05 200 0 t [s] 1050 n [rpm] 1000 950 900 0.4: Step of the speed reference and response to a load step.35 0.2 0. Figure 4.02 0.025 0. 1500 2 n [rpm] 1000 500 1 -0. The estimated speed signal requires no additional filter.25 0.25 0.Sensorless Speed Control of Induction Motor Drives 75 performance during transients (figure 4.35 0.15 0. Simulations are performed to compare both algorithms using the improved algorithm as feedback to control the motor.1 0.4) presenting the response to a step of the speed reference and to a load step.005 0.03 0. the obtained results are almost the same but with a higher overshoot due to the delayed response of speed and current controller.1 t [s] Tel T [Nm] Tload -0.05 0. Top: Real and estimated speed with and without load torque estimation. Nevertheless.5 shows some important details of figure 4.2 0.035 0.05 0. .045 0. Bottom: Details indicated by Box 2.5: Details of figure 4.

As mentioned earlier. Rejecting load disturbances improves the dynamic stiffness of the drive.error iq. they are calculated regarding the inverter nonlinearity as explained in chapter 3.4 Observer integrated into the field-oriented control The proposed algorithm can be implemented in software with an arguable requirement of computation time.error Speed * id & * * iq Flux ∆ud Control decoupling ∆u * q Speed reference * ud * uq sin(γ) cos(γ) 2 Udc * uα Udc * SVM ua Inverter * ub * uc iα iβ ωr ud* uq* SVM * uβ PWM generation 3⇒2 EKF current control inverse Park Trans. It should be noted. Digital motion control Load AC motor Figure 4. An offset generates erroneous estimations. this feedback causes the disturbance to perceive a more robust system less sensitive to disturbances. Here. . Pre-filtering decreases the performance of the proposed observer. The voltages required as input for the EKF are either measured or obtained from the reference voltages. the current should not be additionally filtered.4. Model 2 offers a large improvement of the performance.6: Velocity observer integrated into a field-oriented speed control loop. 4.6 shows the closed loop observer integrated into a simplified field-oriented speed control loop of an induction motor drive. that the velocity estimation described here can easily be extended to allow for further improvement of the entire drive performance especially at load torque variation by adding acceleration feedback. The information of load acceleration can be used directly by compensating for the load torque. The presented observer achieves the objective of eliminating lag of the estimated motor speed by additional load estimation. especially at very low motor speed. The current is measured in two phases. Therefore. The price to be paid is only marginally extra computing effort. Power supply uα cos(γ) uβ id iq iα iβ iµ sin(γ) Udc Voltage calculation ia ib id. only the second model is considered. Figure 4. The current measurement should be offset-free as the Kalman filter assumes a zero mean value of the error.76 Chapter 5 From now on.

1000 n [rpm] 500 0 -500 -1000 0 50 25 0 -25 -50 0. The behavior at low motor speed is shown in figure 4.35 0.5 kW induction motor has been used to verify the applied approach.15 0. rotor flux and flux angle as feedback to control the motor. The experiments at low motor speed are done with the dc motor supplied by a thyristor converter.5 t [s] Figure 4. the response to a square wave shaped speed reference is given.008 kgm2. With a sinusoidal speed reference.5 t [s] ∆ n [rpm] ∆n = nest .1 0.4 0.15 0.1 0. The current controller. Additionally.7 shows the experimental results of a speed reversal using the estimation of speed.7: Speed reversal test. The inertia of the whole drive system (motor and load machine) is about 0.45 0. the dc motor is coupled with a resistor bench. The load machine can be controlled in either torque or speed control mode.3 0.3 0. At high motor speed. Top: Reference.4 0. .35 0. It can be seen that there is a very good accordance between real and estimated speed.Sensorless Speed Control of Induction Motor Drives 77 4. there is almost no difference between estimation.05 0.8 presents the response of the induction motor to a load step at a motor speed of 1500 rpm.9.5 Experimental Results A 1. has a bandwidth of 847 Hz.nm 0 0.and q-axis current. the estimation of the speed is even faster thus better than the measured one. using also the estimated values of d.45 0. Figure 4. The used load machine is a dc motor drive with constant excitation. measured and estimated speed. because a filter is used for the speed measurement causing a delay of the signal (incremental encoder with 1024 lines.05 0. without any steady state error. During transients. Bottom: Difference between estimation nest and measurement nm.25 0. measurement and reference. All presented results are obtained with the second model in the loop.2 0. First. Figure 4. the real speed is measured and compared.25 0.2 0. cut-off frequency of the used speed filter ≈ 1 kHz). The applied load amounts to 65% of the rated value.

08 0. Middle: Sinusoidal speed reference (20 Hz). Load is applied using a dc motor operating in torque control mode.09 0.05 0. Bottom: Sinusoidal speed reference (100 Hz). .9: Behavior at low motor speed. The arising torque ripple components are typical of a thyristor converter and are returned to the signals of speed and load torque estimation respectively.03 0. Top: Square wave speed reference (20 Hz).1 0.04 0.1 t [s] 25 n [rpm] 0 -25 0 50 0.07 0.02 0.10-4.02 t [s] Figure 4.014 0.4 0.008 0. 50 n [rpm] 25 0 -25 -50 0 0.06 0.012 0.02 0.3 0.8 0.25 0.018 0.08 0.016 0.01 nm 0. Even at low motor speed and standstill the proposed control scheme is able to manage the load torque (figure 4.05 0. Top: Measured speed nm and estimated speed nest.5 0.07 0.01 0.25 0.75 1 i [A] 4 2 0 10 load q 5 0 0 0.9 1 t [s] 6 [Nm] T 0 0.8: Response to a load step.78 Chapter 5 1600 1550 nm n [rpm] 1500 1450 1400 nest 0 0. Bottom: q-axis current and load torque estimation.11).75 1 t [s] t [s] Figure 4.5 0.004 0.6 15 0.03 0.7 0.002 nref 0.2 0.06 0.09 0.1 t [s] nest n [rpm] 25 0 -25 -50 0 0.5 0.006 0.01 nm nest 0.04 0.

5 4 t [s] [Nm] T 10 5 0 0 0. The minimum flux for the given induction motor drive amounts to approximately 10% of the rated value. Bottom: Estimation of the load torque. a good performance of the EKF can be obtained.and q-axis current. Middle: Measured and estimated speed. the applied fundamental motor voltage remains nearly constant.5 2 2. The flux is inversely proportional to the motor speed. In consequence.12 demonstrates the behavior of the speed and flux estimation in this speed range.5 4 t [s] 120 n [rpm] 60 0 15 0 0.5 3 t [s] 60 40 n [rpm] 20 0 -20 -40 -60 0 nest nm 0. 8 6 [A] I dc 4 2 0 -2 0 0.5 3 3.5 1 1. Top: Armature current of the load machine.5 3 3. Also at high motor speed and flux weakening.Sensorless Speed Control of Induction Motor Drives 79 8 6 dc [A] I 4 2 0 -2 0 0.10: Response to a load step at standstill. Figure 4.5 4 load t [s] Figure 4. Only a small transient is needed to adapt the required d.5 1 1. Bottom: Measured speed nm and estimated speed nest. Top: Armature current of the load machine.11: Response to a load step at low motor speed (nref = 60 rpm).5 2 2.5 2 2.5 2 2.5 1 1.5 2 2.5 1 1.5 1 1. .5 3 3. a minimum flux is required to guarantee a stable operation of the EKF.5 3 t [s] Figure 4. However. This feature of the EKF makes the proposed system also suitable for applications with flux optimization increasing the drive efficiency.

As can be . equation (4.5 2 100 0 -100 -200 -300 -300 -200 -100 α µ 1.12: Behavior at high motor speed and flux weakening.52) Equation (4. However. Bottom: Magnetizing current and applied voltage. rotor time constant τ2 and leakage (Blondel) coefficient σ. 4. guaranteed by the flux controller of the field-oriented control system. the error ε becomes non-zero at a mismatch of stator resistance and inductance respectively. as well as the implemented EKF.15 0. stator resistance Rs.1 Flux weakening 0. the relevant parameters are stator resistance and stator self-inductance. Possibly more important is the steady-state accuracy of the speed control.05 0. as e.5 1 0 100 200 300 t [s] u [V] Figure 4.15 0.5 3 300 α t [s] 200 Flux weakening u [V] 0 0.25 β i [A] 2. Obviously.15 0.05 0. the stator time constant τ1.6 Motor Parameter Sensitivity and Adaptation The used motor model. impairing the dynamic performance of the drive.1 0. If the machine operates under no-load conditions.2 0.25 t [s] 3.05 0. should be properly tuned to the actual leakage inductance of the machine. Also the leakage inductance value.2 0. being the decisive parameter at high motor speed.g. the speed estimation is sensitive to an inaccurate stator resistance value in the observer model. Particularly at low motor speed.25 0. being poor with detuned model parameters. Assuming a constant rotor flux. Inaccurate model parameters lead to misalignment of the field-oriented coordinate system.2 0. contains four electrical motor parameters: stator inductance Ls.52) is valid in every steady-state operating condition. Top: Speed response and applied voltage amplitude. All other parameters. are linked to these parameters.3) can be simplified: ε = id − i µ = τ 2 diµ dt =0 (4. The implemented real-time adaptation of these parameters is based on monitoring of magnetizing and d-axis current in steady state.80 Chapter 5 3000 2500 n [rpm] 2000 1500 1000 500 0 0 |U + U | [V] nref nest nm β 300 250 200 150 100 50 0 0 0. the quality of the speed estimation in the observer depends on the accuracy with which the motor parameters are known. 1 0.

that erroneous inductance estimation.6 i [A] 3.5 s.5 4 4. stator resistance detuning causes a negligible speed estimation error [Wang 99].13 presents the experimental result of the stator resistance adaptation at standstill.5 4 4. rational stator resistance adaptation is possible only at low motor speed. they are kept constant. After a short period.2 3 2.8 0 id iµ 0. switched on at t = 0.5 1 1. 3. The error value ε introduced by an inaccurate estimation of the stator resistance decreases as the supply frequency increases.2 s.5 5 t [s] Figure 4. detects the steady-state deviation of magnetizing and d-axis current and tunes the inductance. Figure 4.5 2 2. Thus. Therefore.5 2 2. parameter .2).Sensorless Speed Control of Induction Motor Drives 81 derived from (4.1)-(4.5 1 1.5 3 3. Top: Magnetizing and d-axis current. It should be noted. At high motor speed. stator inductance detuning affects the speed estimation only at higher motor speed.13: Stator resistance adaptation at low speed (n = 0 rpm). Figure 4. Beyond these boundaries. The implemented speed controller with load torque rejection consists of a proportional gain and contains no integral-acting part. if the resistance is underrated. is not compensated by the speed controller. the error is positive.5 5 t [s] 6 5 R [Ω ] s 4 3 2 Real Rs Estimated Rs 0 0.5 3 3. confirming the well-tuned resistance value. The same applies for a positive detuned inductance. a resistance detuning yields an error of the d-axis current estimation.14 illustrates the stator inductance adaptation at n = 1000 rpm. knowing that there is a finite precision in measurements of stator voltages and currents. The parameter adaptation scheme. magnetizing current matches the d-axis current.8 3. the error ε is used as a feedback signal to adapt accurately stator resistance at low supply frequencies (|ωµ| < 5 Hz) and inductance at high motor speed and supply frequencies (|ωµ| ≥ 5 Hz) respectively. Starting with an initial error of 60 %. Bottom: Estimated and real stator resistance value. Thus. the adaptation is enabled at t = 0.4 3. Due to similar considerations. A starting error of the inductance (±44%) has been introduced resulting in a poor estimation of the motor speed. Practically. directly reflected in both incorrect torque-current mapping and load estimation.

25 1. No major problem exists in determining the stator frequency ωµ.5 2 350 id 0 0. As can be seen.25 1.25 Parameter adaptation switched ON 0. Left: Initial inductance value 44 % overrated.75 1 1.5 Figure 4. Rotor flux variations due to both load and electromagnetic torque changes are small and do not significantly affect the observer performance. the estimation error of the rotor frequency ωslip. With respect to the given drive setup. Top: Magnetizing and d-axis current. alternatively to the proposed algorithm. 3.14: Adaptation of the stator inductance. this steadystate error can be used as an adaptation watchdog or. Right: Initial inductance value 44 % underrated. initial start. However. Usually.5 0 0. the influence of the leakage coefficient σ on the observer performance is very low and hardly measurably.5 t [s] 0.25 0.g.5 n [rpm] 1025 1000 975 nest n [rpm] nm nref 1000 998 996 994 0 0.75 1 1.5 s t [s] 0. Middle: Stator inductance. the rotor time constant changes with the machine temperature.75 1 1. Furthermore. However.5 nm t [s] 0.5 i [A] id iµ 3 2.5 5 i [A] 4 3 0 550 iµ 0. Applying load torque. Actual and estimated speed are in excellent agreement. This error increases proportionally to the q-axis current and load respectively.75 1 1. Bottom: Estimated. as a parameter-correcting feedback signal. a mismatch is partially compensated by the inductance adaptation.25 0.25 1. flux weakening and flux optimization. directly reflected in the accuracy of the rotor speed estimation ωr.25 0. Therefore. the obtained results are equivalent. an adaptation of σ is not implemented.5 t [s] 0. depends on the rotor time constant.25 1. Furthermore.5 t [s] 0.25 Parameter adaptation switched ON 300 250 200 0 1002 0.75 1 1. confirming the well-tuned inductance value. real and reference speed.5 L [mH] L [mH] 500 450 400 350 1050 0 0. according to (4. the stator inductance adaptation .52). a flux controller keeps the rotor flux constant.25 1.5 s 0.5 t [s] 0. Figure 4. Variations of the rotor inductance are caused by changes of magnetization. The rotor time constant varies in a fairly wide range during operation. the adaptation must be disabled during fast rotor flux transients at e.15 shows the experimental result of the real-time inductance adaptation at variable rotor flux. Assuming an equivalent influence of the saturation level on both the stator and rotor inductance.82 Chapter 5 mismatch yields a steady-state error of the speed control loop.75 1 1. To the contrary.25 1.25 0. the inductance is clearly dependent on the saturation level of the machine.

7 Conclusions This chapter presents the design and the implementation of a field-oriented highperformance motor drive with speed. flux and torque estimation. To the contrary. the dynamic performance of the proposed observer is excellent. However. Results of the dynamic and steady-state behavior of a sensorless speed control of an induction motor are given. A simulation scheme based on the feedback of the observer state error ∆x (figure 4. d-axis current and stator inductance. the results are satisfactory. since the obtained signals are too low and noisy to carry suitable information. The structure of the implemented sensorless control is based on the extended Kalman filter theory. compensating slow temperature variations. This method permits high speedaccuracy in steady state and allows even position control. Together with the detection of rotor slot harmonics.15: Adaptation of the stator inductance. a system with both high dynamic performance and high steady-state accuracy is obtained. since the dynamic performance of such systems is very poor [Ish 82]. 4. However. A promising solution of tuning the rotor time constant in real-time is based on the evaluation of rotor slot harmonics [Jia 97].2) turned out to malfunction in practice. Bottom: Estimated. However. After the correct system model is chosen for the Extended Kalman Filter.Sensorless Speed Control of Induction Motor Drives 83 scheme is used to compensate these variations. a real-time adaptation scheme of the rotor time constant compensating the temperature variations has not yet been realized. 5 4 3 2 1 450 400 L [mH] 0 10 20 30 40 50 i [A] 350 300 250 s 0 10 20 30 40 50 t [s] 1010 1005 1000 995 990 t [s] nm L [mH] 450 400 350 300 250 n [rpm] nest 0 10 20 30 40 50 s 1 2 3 4 5 t [s] iµ [A] Figure 4. reference speed and flux dependence of the stator inductance. Both at very low and at high . Top: Magnetizing current. real. no additional measurements are required. The speed controlled induction motor drive requires no shaft sensor measuring speed or position. detection of rotor slot harmonics should not be used as a stand-alone solution for speed estimation. The price to be paid is a more extensive and complicated control algorithm. [Kre 92].

The speed estimation does not lag the actual motor speed. Keeping the size of the program reasonable and still reaching a very good performance is achieved by optimizing the model by hand calculations and exploiting matrix symmetry. Only the load torque is handled as if it were an unknown system disturbance. The described control system is a solution without mechanical sensors for a wide range of applications where good steady state and dynamic properties are required. If the load-speed relation is known. The performance of the system increases as the information of the known electromagnetic torque is used. Steady-state errors are used for parameter adaptation. .84 Chapter 5 motor speed with flux weakening. this information can be used for a further improvement of the performance. the proposed control scheme is working very well. both in steady state and during periods of acceleration or braking.

The approaches to sensorless drives vary depending on the rotor flux distribution. The rotor speed and position can be determined by the electromagnetic field induced in the unexcited winding [Erd 84]. It is enough to detect the rotor position every 60° to obtain a proper switching sequence. synchronous motors with permanent magnets became an attractive alternative for applications in high performance variable speed drives. A motor with a trapezoidal rotor flux distribution (BLDM. The control scheme as well as the position detection is relatively simple. The position detection methods are mainly based on Kalman filtering or Model Reference Adaptive Systems using the motor parameters and measurements of motor currents and voltages. However. the PMSM is applicable for fine torque control where a very low level of torque pulsations is required. Significant advantages arise from the simplification in construction.g. On the contrary. excites all three windings at the same time. Elimination of the shaft-mounted sensor is required in many applications since this device is often one of the most expensive and fragile components in the entire drive system. the permanent magnet synchronous motor (PMSM). One of the most active areas of control development during recent years involving these motor types has been the evolution of new techniques for eliminating the position and speed sensor.1 Introduction With the introduction of permanent magnets with a high flux density as well as a high coercivity in the late eighties.5. the reduction in losses and the improvement in efficiency. This is usually done either by a zero crossing approach of the back-EMF or by a phase-locked loop technique to lock on to the back-EMF waveform in the unexcited winding. The information on the rotor position is required continuously. Several schemes for position sensorless operation of PMSM have been reported in literature and are reviewed e. [Mat 90]. . in [Raj 94]. Sensorless Speed Control of PMSM 5. Both the control algorithm and the speed/position estimation become more complicated. brushless dc motor) provides an attractive candidate: Two out of three stator windings are excited at the same time and the unexcited winding can be used as a sensor. having a sinusoidal flux distribution.

A mathematical model describing the PMSM motor dynamics in a rotor flux reference frame is well known [Jah 86]. In case of interior permanent magnets. the flux angle γ rotates synchronously with the rotor speed. the additional reluctance torque can be exploited: Tel = p iq ΨMd − Lq − Ld id ( ( ) ) (5. 5. The controller has to ensure that the motor never experiences loss of synchronization. Theoretical analyses based on the physical viewpoint are presented and the associated experimental results are shown. On top of the speed.86 Chapter 6 The drive system studied in this chapter is a sensorless control of a PMSM based on the extended Kalman filter theory using only the measurements of motor current and dc bus voltage for the estimation of speed and rotor position.3) In contrary to the induction machine. is only produced if the excitation is precisely synchronized with the rotor speed and instantaneous position. Due to rotor asymmetry. since the instantaneous electromagnetic torque can be expressed similarly to that of the dc machine as the product of q-axis current iq and magnet flux ΨMd. this chapter explains only differences in detail while many still valid statements of previous chapters are not repeated.1) (5. The resulting back-EMF voltage induced in each stator phase winding during rotation can be modeled quite accurately as a sinusoidal waveform.2) In a PMSM with surface-mounted magnets. the PMSM is also suitable for position control. This chapter also describes the influence on the control design reflected by the feedback of the estimated values. The electrical properties of the PMSM in continuous time are completely described by two stator voltage equations: u d = Rs id + Ld u q = Rs iq + Lq did − ω r Lq iq dt diq dt + ω r Ld id + ω r ΨMd (5. [Hen 92].2 Model of the PMSM in Discrete Time The system model considered is a PMSM having permanent magnets mounted on the rotor. A 3 kW. The applied approach is mainly a transfer of the earlier described sensorless control of the induction motor to the motor equations of the PMSM. also the acceleration of the drive is estimated offering a significant improvement of the drive performance. With the same simplifications as introduced in the induction motor study. A torque that at average differs from zero. the mechanical equation is: . torque control can be achieved very simply. Therefore. The discussion ends by evaluating a parameter adaptation scheme in realtime to track motor parameter variations. 4 kW and 45 kW PMSM have been used to verify this approach.

5) dγ = ωr dt Tolerating a small discretization error. since the Kalman algorithm assumes a zero mean value of the disturbances.8) (5. As mentioned in the previous chapter. the transformation from continuous time to the discrete time state space is equivalent to: Lq  R  u id . this approach requires information on the load. which is verified by measurements [Van 98] and numerical calculations of the given PMSM [Pah 98].7) ω r . the acceleration due to the load torque is estimated additionally: dα l d  p  =  Tload  ≈ 0 dt dt  J  ⇒ α l .Sensorless Speed Control of PMSM 87 Tel − Tload = J dω J dω r = dt p dt (5. and permanent magnet flux linkage ΨMd.6) (5. However. the PMSM has four electrical parameters: stator resistance Rs.9) γ k +1 ≈ γ + Ts ω r From the control viewpoint.and q-axis inductance Ld and Lq. The inductances are considered to be constant. an additional estimation of the load torque increases the observer performance as well as the performance of the speed control loop. The influence of parameter variations is compensated by real-time adaptation of the flux linkage ΨMd. The price to be paid is a minor extra computing time. d. Therefore.k +1 ≈ ω r + Ts p2 p iq ΨMd − Lq − Ld id − Ts Tload J J ( ( ) ) (5.k +1 ≈ 1 − Ts s  id + Ts ω r iq + Ts d   Ld  Ld Ld   uq R  L Ψ iq .11) .k +1 ≈ α l = p Tload J (5. The known electromagnetic torque is used as part of the speed calculation.k +1 ≈ 1 − Ts s  iq − Ts ω r d id − Ts Md + Ts   Lq  Lq Lq Lq  (5. vastly increasing the accuracy of the speed specification and the dynamics of the drive.4) (5.10) (5.

the matrix Ak on d-axis current id. iq.   γ     αl k x k +1 = A k x k + B k u k . The block diagram of the discrete motor model together with the feedback matrix of the observer is equal to the one shown in chapter 5. is described by following equations. rotor position γ and the acceleration αl as state variable xk and the fundamental voltage as input uk.15) The model matrices Bk and Ck depend on the position of the rotor γ.and q-axis current id.12)  T  1 − Rs s Ld   Ld  − ω r Ts Lq Ak =   0   0   0  Ld T 1 − Rs s Lq Ts p 2 ΨMd − Lq − Ld id J 0 ω r Ts Lq − Ts 0 ΨMd Lq 0 0 0 1 0 ( ( ) ) 1 Ts 0 0  0    0    − Ts   0  1   (5.88 Chapter 6 The dynamic model for the PMSM. s U β   k (5. the current is estimated in two stages to correct the predicted states by the Kalman feedback matrix.14) At each time step. the flux angle is limited to . the electrical rotor speed ωr. U s  uk =  α  . flux linkage ΨMd and rotor speed ωr. ˆ Is   cos (γ ) − sin (γ ) 0 0 y k =  ˆα  = C k x k =  s  sin (γ ) cos (γ ) 0 0  Iβ     0 x 0 k  (5. using the previously predicted position and current information.  id     iq  x k = ω r  . In speed control mode. choosing d.13) Ts   Ts cos (γ ) sin (γ )   Ld Ld     Ts Ts sin (γ ) cos (γ ) − Lq B k =  Lq  0 0     0 0     0 0   (5. The output vector yk consists of the estimated motor current in a stator-fixed reference frame.

Therefore. referring to the 3 kW PMSM drive installation. Q and P0|0 are diagonal due to the lack of sufficient statistical information to evaluate their off-diagonal terms. However.3 Real-Time Implementation According to the EKF algorithm described in chapter 5. In contrary to the induction motor drive. yields a measurement noise covariance matrix. the overflow protection has to be disregarded in position control mode. which is almost proportional to the dc bus voltage within a voltage range 300V < Udc < 600V: . The derivatives of the output and the transposed system vector are: ∂ h ∂ (C k x k )  cos (γ ) − sin (γ ) 0 − id sin (γ ) − iq cos (γ ) = =  sin (γ ) cos (γ ) 0 id cos(γ ) − iq sin (γ ) ∂xk ∂xk  ˆ  cos (γ ) − sin (γ ) 0 − iβ =  sin (γ ) cos (γ ) 0 i ˆα  T T 0  0  0  0  (5. P0|0 affects neither the transient performance nor the steady state conditions of the system and can be chosen at random. their diagonal nature saves a lot of computing time. all equations can be written as a function of a system vector Φ and an output vector h describing the relinearized model of the PMSM. The matrices R. a loss of exact position information is not admissible in any case.Sensorless Speed Control of PMSM 89 |γ | < π. 5. the studied PMSM is also suitable for position control since the rotor asymmetry can be exploited.17) The noise covariance matrices Q and R and an initial matrix P0|0 are evaluated corresponding to the remarks on the induction motor drive. Furthermore. An off-line current measurement.16)  ∂ (A k x k + B k u k )   ∂Φ k   =      ∂x  =  ∂xk    k   T L − Ts p 2 1 − R s s Lq − Ld iq − ω r Ts d Ld Lq J   L T Ts p 2  ω r Ts q ΨMd − Lq − Ld id 1 − Rs s Ld Lq J   L T  Ts q iq − s (Ld id + ΨMd ) 1 Lq  Ld  T T  s uq − s ud 0 Lq  Ld  − Ts 0 0  ( ) 0 0 Ts 1 0 ( ( ) )  0   0   0   0  1  (5.

23).2 k p 2 Ts2 ⋅108 1 1 = k ⋅ 43.19) (5. This is mainly due to the smaller inductances of the PMSM smoothing the PWM pulses.15 0  A 2 1.2 4 .4. Within the implemented speed control.18) The measurement of the noise largely exhibits independence of the motor current. Rejecting load disturbances inproves the dynamic stiffness of the drive and is superior compared to common PI controller [Lor 99]. All other coefficients of the system covariance matrix are set to the given values.7 0  −3 2  U dc 10 −5  10 A − R=  0 1.21) (5. being nearly equivalent to maximum drive efficiency [Bose 97].and q-axis current. . The values a larger compared to the measurement noise of the induction machine supplied by the same inverter.1 taking a sample time Ts = 200 µs and the parameter of the 3 kW PMSM into account: 1  T ∆u Q(1.0059 A 2   1 s2 2 2 (5.1). Figure 5. the information on load acceleration is used as input of the speed controller directly compensating the load torque (figure 5.1 shows the structure of the implemented position and speed controller with load torque rejection. a rough torque command results in increased torque ripples and motor heating by current harmonics. In order to obtain a good compromise between dynamic performance and a smooth torque command response and with respect to the given installation.5) = 1.2) =  s 3  Lq    = 0. The calculated reference torque Tel* is mapped into reference commands for d.2 ⋅10 −5 (5.3) = 2 Ts4 ⋅1010 s −6 = 3.4) = 2 Ts4 ⋅10 4 s −4 = 3. The coefficients of the system covariance matrix are calculated according to subsection 4. For an external field (armature reaction) the magnets behave as air. but also the noise of the estimated signals.22) (5.90 Chapter 6 1. A high tuning factor k increases the dynamic performance. The current * * commands id and iq are extracted according the constraint of maximum torque-perampere operation. introducing a large reluctance and thus a low main inductance. However.20) Q (3. with: k ≤ 1 6 s s The transient performance of the observer is tuned by the factor k in (5.021 A 2     = 0.1) =  s 3  Ld  1  T ∆u Q(2. the tuning factor k is set to 10%.2 ⋅ 10 −11 Q(5.23) Q ( 4.15  V  0 1.7      (5.

Therefore. Due to the non-linearity of the inverter.1: Position and speed controller with load torque rejection. The voltages required as input for the EKF are obtained from the reference voltages. the speed reference is given by an overlaid position controller (figure 5. both the EKF program code and the control algorithm are less extensive. because they are less disturbed compared to measured values. The computing requirement of the final algorithm takes up 236 multiplications and 178 summations.1). a phase voltage calculation block is added compensating for this non-linearity. ib ia ia ib iα iβ iα cos(γ) iβ id iq uα uβ EKF & model sin(γ) 3⇒2 Udc A/D AC voltage calculation id.error id* Speed iq* Control decoupling Speed reference sin(γ) cos(γ) uα* SVM uβ* 2 Udc PWM generation αl ωr ∆ud* ∆uq* ud* uq* ud* uq* ua * ub * uc * current control inverse Park Trans. Generally. Furthermore.2 shows the block diagram of the entire control system with the proposed observer integrated in the digital motion control loop. Due to the higher q-axis inductance. In position control mode. the estimated states are used as feedback signals of the controller. The measurements should not be additionally filtered since the Kalman filter handles with white and uncorrelated measurement noise and produces the minimum variance estimate. The real-time . Figure 5. a negative d-axis current is impressed to benefit from the reluctance torque. Figure 5. available at the output of the system. The entire speed control system consists of a speed and two current controllers.Sensorless Speed Control of PMSM 91 ω* ω⇔Θ 1 − z −1 Ts / K pn Control mode ω* ω* ω Tel* Kn Proportional gain |Tel|<Tmax Θ* Position reference Kpp Θ Position controller Speed controller with load torque rejection J ˆ ˆ Tload = α l p Figure 5. The program code of the EKF is optimized according to the remarks specified in chapter 5. calculated by the speed controller. The torque of the PMSM is controlled by a reference current. this is already an optimal filter. the smoothness of the state signals can be tuned by the system and measurement covariance matrices. using the estimated rotor position as input. Compared to the induction machine.error iq. The homopolar component of the phase voltages arising due to the SVM [Leo 85] is also considered within this block. The inputs of the control system are measured motor current in two phases and the dc bus voltage.2: Velocity observer integrated into the digital motion control loop.

25 kHz. Without any delay. Since the DSP power is simultaneously used for monitoring purposes and recording experimental data. or a theoretical system bandwidth of 3. Additionally. To the contrary.92 Chapter 6 implementation of the Kalman filter integrated into the motion controller is carried out using a TMS320C31 DSP in which the turnaround time of the entire control system amounts to 153 µs.1 and 5. All experimental results and measurements are carried out using the estimated states as feedback to a speed controller with load torque rejection (figures 5.and q-axis current is about 950 Hz. There is a very good agreement between real and estimated speed and position respectively. figure 5. are directly available in the control loop. the filter can operate in a system having a maximum sampling frequency of 6.3 shows the experimental results of a speed reversal using the estimated speed and position as feedback. The observer presented achieves the objective of eliminating the lag of the estimated motor speed by additional estimation of the load. the load torque is measured by a torque transducer. the real speed and position are measured for comparison. Some additional experiments regarding the 4 kW motor. the sample time used is fixed to Ts =200 µs. Using the information on generated electromagnetic torque and drive acceleration.3 exhibits the influence of signal lag due to data transmission. Therefore. A dc generator with constant excitation coupled to a variable resistor bench is used to load the PMSM. the affiliated current response is measured not before the next sample period of the digital control system. specially designed for PV-powered water pump systems. This high bandwidth allows the EKF to be used in high-performance realtime motion systems.5 kHz. The bandwidth of the current loop is not decreased by using the EKF instead of the fieldoriented control with position measurement. Figure 5. 4 kW and 45 kW PMSM (data are given in appendix B). calculated by means of the voltage references controlling the inverter. Therefore.4 presents the response of . all experimental results presented in this chapter are measurements using the 3 kW prototype motor. Neglecting the current signal lag causes a poor estimation of the position angle. The bandwidth of both current controllers using also the estimated values of d. Via a power switch a load step can be applied. are presented in chapter 7. 5. the required phase voltages. Additionally.2). However. Figure 5. to keep the presented results clear.4 Experimental Results The proposed speed sensorless control scheme has been tested using a 3 kW. an extra sample delay is added in the loop of the estimated phase voltages used in the observer algorithm. the noise as well as the lag in the estimated speed signal is even lower than the measured and filtered speed signals during transients. Furthermore.

the overshoot at steps of both speed reference and load torque is vastly decreased or even vanishes since the speed controller used (figure 5.3 0.6 0.7 With extra delay 0.4 0.5 0.1 -0.Sensorless Speed Control of PMSM 93 the PMSM to a load step (75% rated torque) at a motor speed of 1000 RPM.1 0 -0.2 0. estimated speed nest and measured speed nm.8 0.8 0. Compared to a common PI speed controller. The information on load acceleration is directly used to compensate for the load torque.4 0.3 0.7 0. Bottom: Error of the angle estimation and influence of current/voltage signal lag.8 0.3 ∆n = nest .3 0.9 1 1.6 0.nm 0.2 0.5 0.1 1.4 0.1 1.5 0. Rejecting load disturbances increases the dynamic stiffness of the drive.7 0.9 1 1.1 0.1 nref (a) 0.7 0. this feedback causes the disturbance to perceive a more robust system responding less to disturbances.2 0.2 Without extra delay 0 0. Top: Speed reference nref.2 t [s] i [A] 10 5 0 -5 20 0 i* q iq (b) 0.1 1.1 0.2 (d) t [s] Figure 5.1 0.3: Speed reversal test.6 0.5 0. Middle: Estimated q-axis current (b) and difference between estimated and measured speed (c).2 q t [s] ∆ n [rpm] 10 0 -10 -20 0.8 0.1 1.2 (c) t [s] ∆ γ [rad] 0.9 1 1.6 0. Therefore.2 0.1) contains of no integral-acting part. 500 n [rpm] 250 0 -250 -500 0 20 15 0.2 0 0.4 0. .9 1 1.

Only the dynamics of the load estimation are important for exact speed calculation without any delay.2 0.6 0. In all experimental results presented the following d-axis reference current is used: * id .8 2 q t [s] T [Nm] 10 5 0 -5 0 Tel Tm Tload 0. the necessary flux variation must be forced by impressing a test signal into the system. This is not obvious since iron and friction losses of the PMSM are part of the estimated but not of the measured torque.4 1.2 0. as the voltage induced by the magnets is very small. no prediction can be made on the position of the magnets and the EKF fails. Bottom: Estimated load Test. Middle: Estimated q-axis current.2 1.4 1. the torque calculation might be incorrect.4 0.94 Chapter 6 1020 n [rpm] nm nest 0 0. is an additional sinusoidal reference current in the d-axis of the motor. A signal.6 1.6 0. this influence is small compared to a potential load variation.8 2 i [A] 10 5 0 -5 15 0 0.6 1. The amplitude and frequency of the test signal is .4 0. the proposed speed control offers a vast improvement of the drive performance also if the load is not absolutely known. the delay between estimated and measured load is insignificant. However. Top: Measured and estimated speed.8 1 1.6 1.4 equals to the measured load. the estimated load in figure 5. easy to implement. the equations of the PMSM are simplified. measured load Tm and electromagnetic torque Tel.4 0. Furthermore. At low motor speed (n ⇒ 0).2 1.4: Response to a load step (75% rated torque). Therefore. using the d/q axis-symmetry of the rotor to estimate the real position.8 Tel 1. In steady state. Therefore. Since at standstill only dc-values are given. As can be seen.6 0. erroneous electromagnetic torque calculations and inertia identification are directly reflected at the load calculation.24) * whereby the reference d-axis current id results from the speed controller calculating the required torque motor.2 0. n 1 *  = id + 3A sin( 2π 100 t ) ⋅ 1 −  300 rpm  s   with: |n| ≤ 300 rpm (5.8 1000 980 20 15 t [s] 1 1.2 1.ref = id + itest  . but the real load is compensated by the real torque and the steady state speed error sticks to zero.8 2 t [s] 1 Figure 5. In fact.4 1.

ref ΨMd − Lq − Ld id .6 0. The bandwidth of the speed control with the EKF is comparable to the common control with speed measurement due to the omission of the filter for speed measurement.6 0. The unwanted reluctance torque.2 0. not disturbed by the impressed test signal. the maximum torque using optimum torque control is higher. showing the corresponding speed response.4 0. Top: Reference i* and q-axis current iq.ref   Lq − Ld         (5. is obtained by the demand for a constant electromagnetic torque.ref ( ( )   itest * = i q 1 + ΨMd − id .6. calculated by the speed controller. yielding a faster acceleration of the motor.6. * * * Tel = p iq ΨMd − Lq − Ld id = p iq .4 -10 t [s] Figure 5.8 1 1. a comparison is given of motor control with feedback of the estimated speed and position.25) * ⇒ iq . Figure 5. In the same figure.8 1 1.2 1.and q-axis current to a step of the speed reference from standstill to 1000 rpm. Nevertheless.4 q t [s] id n = 300 rpm i [A] 0 d -5 n = 1000 rpm 0 0. further investigations on optimal shape.ref ( ( ) ) ) ! ( ( ) ) (5.5: Current at a speed step (figure 5.Sensorless Speed Control of PMSM 95 experimentally chosen regarding observer stability and low acoustic noise level. . marked optimum torque control. frequency and magnitude of the additional d-axis current have to be made. is compensated by an appropriate * q-axis current.6). optimum d-axis current and no d-axis current respectively. q Bottom: Reference i* and d-axis current id. generated by the test signal in the d-axis.ref = iq * ΨMd − Lq − Ld id ΨMd − Lq − Ld id . The optimal control of the motor takes advantage of the reluctance torque by introducing a negative (Ld < Lq) direct axis current component. The modification of the q-axis current iq. In spite of identical maximum current amplitude.5 presents the response of the d. The corresponding speed signal is shown in figure 5.2 1. d The developed torque remains nearly constant as can be seen on figure 5.2 0.4 0.26) 20 15 i [A] 10 5 0 0 5 0.

the difference is detected by the Kalman algorithm and the estimated position converges automatically to the real position. Comparison of torque control with optimum d-axis current and no d-axis current respectively.2 1. However. a special start-up strategy is required to find the absolute rotor position as indicated by an encoder index pulse. Here.5 Position Estimation and Start-up Using a position sensor as feedback device. A torque is only produced if the excitation is precisely synchronized with the rotor speed and instantaneous position.2 0.24). the starting torque of the motor decreases and the motor may temporarily rotate in the wrong direction after start.7 presents the initial start-up of the digital control system.4 t [s] Figure 5. Impressing the test signal (5. If the rotor position can not be exactly estimated. Once the index is found.96 Chapter 6 1200 nref Optimum torque control 1000 800 n [rpm] id = 0 600 400 200 0 0 0. all registers are reset and the drive is ready for normal operation. A starting strategy often proposed is based on energizing two windings by a large armature current (about rated current) and expecting the rotor to align with a certain definite position. Due to the low permeability of the magnet material. This method yields the direction of the magnet axis but cannot distinguish between North and South Pole. This start-up procedure is necessary in both position control and speed or torque control mode.6 0. the inductance along the q-axis of the PMSM with interior permanent magnets is larger than the inductance along the d-axis. the variation of the inductance as a function of the rotor position is used to obtain the position. the presented sensorless control scheme is self-starting. Figure 5. A start-up strategy is executed by impressing a (assumed) q-axis current and slowly increasing the initial assumption of the rotor angle until the motor rotates and the index pulse is found. it is generally difficult to estimate the initial rotor position.8 1 1. the motor has to rotate up to one mechanical revolution.6: Speed step with feedback of the estimated speed and position (EKF). In drive systems without a position sensor. 5. To the contrary.4 0. Aligning the initial value of the estimated position to the .

2 0 -0. This error. as well as the performance of the algorithm.4 γ [rad] γm 0 -2 -4 γest 0 0. Once the position is detected.7: Start-up of the sensorless speed control. .5 1 1. Right: Initial value of the position estimation almost aligned to the rotor position. 4 2 γm γ [rad] 0.5 1 1. the steadystate error of the electrical position angle is smaller than 2. However. Left: Initial value of the position estimation almost opposite to the rotor position. If the initial value of the estimated position is opposite to the rotor position.Sensorless Speed Control of PMSM 97 magnet position. mainly depends on the quality and accuracy of voltage and current measurement. the rotor asymmetry makes the PMSM also suitable for position control (figure 5. Top: Estimated position γest and measured positionγm.5 5 0 -5 -10 nest 0 0.5 γest 0 0. the drive returns to the closed-loop control. For the drive setup with the 3 kW PMSM.8).5 t [s] t [s] Figure 5. the resulting convergence is very smooth. Bottom: Estimated and measured speed. The absolute mechanical rotor position is not detectable. It should be remarked.3°. The controller has to ensure that the motor never experiences loss of synchronization. the motor temporarily rotates in the wrong direction.5 t [s] 100 50 10 t [s] nm n [rpm] 0 -50 -100 n [rpm] nest nm 0 0.5 1 1.2 -0. that the proposed algorithm only identifies the electrical position. This effect can be avoided by operating the drive in open-loop control and impressing a test signal in one motor phase.5 1 1.

45 0.15 0.2 0.3 0.45 0.1 200 150 0 ∆γ = γest .05 0 -0.05 -0.25 0.05 0.1 0.4 0.25 0.4 0. Middle: Difference between estimated and measured position. Top: Position reference γref.4 0.γm 0.35 0.5 t [s] nref nest n [rpm] 100 50 0 -50 0 0.1 γref 0.8: Position control of the 3 kW PMSM.2 0.1 0.98 Chapter 6 3 γ [rad] 2 1 0 0 0.5 t [s] Figure 5. estimated position γest and measured position γm. .45 0.3 0.15 0.1 nm 0.5 t [s] ∆ γ [rad] 0. estimated speed nest and measured speed nm.35 0.35 0. Bottom: Speed reference nref.25 0.3 0.2 0.05 0.05 0.15 0.

For the given PMSM. Furthermore. is the permanent magnet flux linkage ΨMd. the negative sign in (5. Erroneous flux estimation yields incorrect speed estimation. the torque reference Tel*. it is directly reflected in the torque-current mapping.8). only the case Ld ≤ Lq (PMSM with inset magnets) is considered.28) must be used. this error is used for flux adaptation. Applying flux adaptation. an adaptation of Rs and J is not considered. Here. the speed controller with load torque rejection and the modified torque-current mapping is shown in figure (5. However. the optimum torque control of the PMSM yields two solutions * for the d-axis current reference id:   ΨMd ΨMd *  + iq 2 i = ±   2 ( Lq − Ld )  2 ( Lq − Ld )   * d 2 (5. Therefore.9). Assuming exact knowledge of the motor parameters and using the d-axis current.50).28) The positive sign is valid for PMSM with Ld > Lq.Sensorless Speed Control of PMSM 99 5. affecting the steady-state error and the observer performance.3) and (5. According to (5. stator resistance Rs and permanent magnet flux linkage ΨMd. Thus. Thus. erroneous flux estimation results in a steady-state error of the speed control loop. increasing the estimated flux linkage results in a higher absolute value of .12 is no longer suitable. The key mechanical drive parameter is the moment of inertia J.27) According to (2.6 Motor Parameter Adaptation The motor model of the PMSM as well as the implemented EKF contains four electrical motor parameters: d/q-axis inductances Ld and Lq. A mismatch of the inertia affects the observer performance only during transients and causes no steady-state error. the torque-current mapping via a look-up table according to figure 2. An incorrect torque-current mapping is not compensated by the speed controller since the implemented speed controller with load torque rejection consists of a proportional gain and contains no integral-acting part. The electromagnetic torque is almost proportional to the flux linkage. is * transformed to a q-axis current reference iq: * iq = * Tel − ( Lq − Ld ) id ) p (ΨMd (5. the ohmic voltage drop is very small. determined by the speed controller. The most influential motor parameter. the influence of a stator resistance variation is very low and hardly measurably. Thus. The structure of the implemented flux adaptation.

.5 1 1.5 2 2.5 3 0.9: Real-time adaptation of the flux linkage. Right: Initial flux linkage 20 % underrated.5 2 2. estimated speed nest and measured speed nm.26 0. Bottom: Difference between reference speed (nref = 1000 rpm).29 0.nref 0 0.5 3 t [s] t [s] Figure 5.10 presents experimental results of the proposed flux adaptation. Left: Initial flux linkage 20 % overrated. Top: Estimated and real flux linkage.21 Md Ψ Ψ Md real flux linkage 1 1. 0.26 0.23 0.27 0. The flux adaptation detects the steady-state error and corrects the initial flux linkage.5 3 t [s] 10 5 0 -5 -10 t [s] 10 5 0 -5 -10 Parameter adaptation switched ON ∆ n [rpm] Parameter adaptation switched ON ∆ n [rpm] ∆n = nest .31 0. the estimated speed matches the measured speed.5 3 ∆n = nest .5 1 1.3 0.2 0 0. ∆ω sign( ω*) KΨ ∆ΨMd ∆ΨMd Tel* Flux error ∆Ψ Md = ∫ KΨ ∆ ω dt ω* ω α Kn Tload |Tel| < Tmax J/p Speed control and flux adaptation ΨMd Initial value i* q p x1 x2 2 Current mapping 2 x12 + x2 id Lq-Ld Initial value i* d Figure 5.5 2 2. An initial error of the flux linkage (±20 %) has been introduced resulting in poor motor speed estimation. The presented adaptation must be disabled at steps of the speed reference to avoid erroneous flux calculation during transients. Figure 5.nm 0 0.10: Adaptation of the flux linkage. indicating the correct estimation of the flux linkage.5 2 2. speed control with load torque rejection and modified current mapping (Ld ≤ Lq).5 estimated flux linkage 0. After a short period.5 1 1.25 [Vs] [Vs] 0.24 0.100 Chapter 6 the estimated electromagnetic torque and speed respectively.22 0.25 0 0. The speed estimation as well as the steady-state error is affected by a parameter mismatch.28 0.

id* = 0 A and a motor speed n = 1000 rpm. a mismatch of motor parameters is not arbitrary.24 4 Ψ 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 45 50 55 60 ∆ n [rpm] 2 0 -2 -4 0 5 ∆n = nest . are set constant. Middle: Estimated flux linkage. are also required for exact tuning of the current controller. except for the flux linkage. the coincidence of estimated and measured speed shows the validity of the approach. Furthermore. Thus. guaranteeing the stable operation of the observer.estimated speed nest and measured speed nm.27 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 45 50 55 60 i [A] d t [s] [Vs] Md 0. . based on the structure shown in figure 5.11 presents the flux adaptation.12 demonstrates the flux adaptation at variable load torque. Figure 5. 15 10 5 0 -5 -10 -15 0.nm t [s] ∆n = nest .Sensorless Speed Control of PMSM 101 Considering PMSM’s with magnet placing of the inset-type. the d-axis inductance Ld is generally independent of the load state [Cha 85]. Approximate values. The coincidence of estimated and measured speed verifies the proposed approach.11: Flux adaptation at variable d-axis current (no load). Bottom: Difference between reference speed (nref = 1000 rpm).9.26 0. Again. all motor parameters. A slight Ld-mismatch and variations due to different saturation levels are completely compensated by an appropriate variation of the flux linkage ΨMd [Van 98]. Figure 5. no load and a motor speed n = 1000 rpm. Top: d-axis current. at variable d-axis current. The influence of parameter variations is compensated by flux adaptation.25 0. experimental investigations have shown the capability of the flux adaptation to compensate also for a slight mismatch of the q-axis inductance Lq as well as for a load-dependent variation/saturation. The approach of setting the inductances of the given PMSM constant is also verified by numerical calculations [Pah 98] and measurements [Van 98]. However.nref 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 45 50 55 60 t [s] Figure 5.

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5.7 Conclusions
This chapter presents the design and the implementation of sensorless speed control of permanent magnet synchronous motor drives. The algorithm used is based on the extended Kalman filter theory. A systematic and analytic approach for developing the algorithm is given. The discrete extended Kalman filter is well suited to speed and rotor position estimation of a PMSM. The proposed approach has been validated by means of real-time experiments using a TMS320C31 DSP. The high bandwidth allows the EKF to be used in high-performance real-time motion systems. The known electromagnetic torque is used as part of the speed estimation, vastly increasing the accuracy and dynamic performance of the drive. The implemented speed controller with load torque rejection contains no integral-acting part, providing a system with extremely high stiffness to disturbance inputs. The speed estimation does not lag the actual motor speed, both in steady state and during periods of acceleration or braking. A negative d-axis current is impressed to benefit from the reluctance torque. The presented sensorless control scheme is self-starting. At low motor speed, the required flux variation is forced by impressing a test signal in the d-axis. The unwanted reluctance torque is compensated by a complementary q-axis current. Due to the rotor asymmetry, the PMSM is also suitable for position control.

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Mismatch of motor parameters yields incorrect speed estimation and erroneous torque-current mapping. Therefore, a real-time flux adaptation scheme, tracking motor parameter variations, has been implemented. All proposed control approaches are verified by experimental results.

and the other is to pump directly from the PV power without battery. While many of the references for residential applications are available in technical details. it is not economically viable to connect such remote areas to the national electric grid. The system analyzed here is a PV powered water pumping system avoiding the use of the additional dc-dc converter. Furthermore. septic tanks or wet latrines). Human health depends on an adequate supply of potable water. a system is designed. the system energy generated by the sun can be stored in the battery. In this work. it is difficult to locate technical references for the interaction between PV arrays and an electric machine. There are advantages and drawbacks associated with each design. the motor/pump subsystem can be powered either by directly connecting to the PV array. is receiving considerable attention. Large urban populations in developing countries do not have access to safe drinking water sources (standpipes or boreholes) or to sanitary services (sewers. especially in water pumping without battery storage [Mul 97]. With a battery module.1 billion [WHO 96]. This chapter briefly reviews present technology and applications of PV powered water pump systems and exhibits an extensive description of a new control approach. PV-Powered Water Pump Systems 6. PV-powered water pump systems can improve peoples living conditions. According to statistics of the World Health Organization. the number of people without access to safe water in 1990 was 1. for a backup of the pumping system. or by using a maximum power point tracker (MPPT). too (read: they are often stolen). The fact that no battery is required is a key element in the design. The two basic design approaches of PV arrays for water pumping system applications are the use of battery.6. Several new approaches . Therefore. especially in remote or rural areas in developing countries. Batteries tend to be very unreliable in the overall framework and furthermore. a dc-dc converter and an inverter interfacing motor and PV array. where power from a utility is not available or too expensive to install. a battery and its losses. not requiring a battery. With the second approach.1 Introduction The use of photovoltaic (PV) energy sources for water pumping and irrigation applications. they are of “interest” to people living there for other purposes.

Due to the lack of storage in the dc bus. a field-oriented control with feedback of speed and position is proposed. when tested under realistic conditions.U.106 Chapter 8 are developed. a novel MPPT algorithm. The inverter operates as a variable frequency source (PWM) for the PMSM driving the pump.32 kW. has been implemented. Since a PMSM in open loop is unstable (see section 7. dc bus voltage control. speed and field position are estimated by an extended Kalman filter described in chapter 6. A block diagram of the pilot installation is shown in figure 6. However. Therefore. realized by feeding back the dc voltage and current to a controller. . The PV array has a peak power of 4. reliability and signal noise immunity. a low cost inverter. To optimize the energy captured by the PV array and to pump as much water as possible. a mechanical speed/position sensor has several drawbacks from the viewpoint of drive cost. The entire system is controlled by a digital signal processor (DSP) based developing platform realizing MPPT. advantages and drawbacks of the different control units are discussed. Measured results are presented and evaluated to demonstrate the performance and the stability of the system developed here. is a PV powered water pump system. as the algorithms described in literature [Mul 97]. To avoid a power supply by an electric grid.1). analyzed and tested.2 Pilot Installation The system. consisting of a PV array. [Dus 92] for this kind of systems turned out to malfunction. an installation of the additionally sensor is problematic or even impossible. Considering realistic conditions. Here.1. 6.4. Especially in submerged-motor/pump systems. the output power should always be at its maximum power point. experimentally installed both at the K. a permanent magnet synchronous motor (PMSM) and a water pump with water storage. Solar generator inverter PMSM pump water storage Phase current for EKF Current [A] PWM DC bus voltage/current measurement for MPPT MPPTracking Voltage [V] control prototyping Figure 6. speed/torque control of the drive and start-up and shut down automatism's. the system has been set up to work independently in island operation.1: Block diagram of the PV-powered water pump systems. the power of the PV array must be used immediately to accelerate an ac motor. Leuven and in industry. All control and measurement units are supplied by the dc bus between inverter and PV array.

but calculated from the reference voltages determining the PWM output of the controller. The Maximum Power Point (MPP) is characterized by the voltage. 9 135 MPP 8 7 120 105 current 6 90 75 [A] 5 PV 3 2 1 0 45 30 15 0 5 10 15 20 25 U dc [V] Figure 6. the control system is equipped with a MPPT and a voltage control guaranteeing a balanced input/output power ratio in the dc bus.Ride-Through at Power Interruptions 107 Furthermore.2: Characteristic of one PV element at constant cell temperature. also the output power of the PV element is drawn as a function of the module voltage. However. The I/O subsystems and the PWM generation are based on TMS320P14 working as a slave-DSP. High current curves correspond to high insolation levels while low current curves correspond to lower insolation levels. the final algorithms are intended to be implemented in a simple microcontroller ensuring an overall low cost system. 6. The MPPT and voltage control are realized by feeding back the dc bus voltage and current to the controller. six different levels of insolation are illustrated. The motor voltages required for the EKF are not measured. the MPP moves P 4 60 I PV power [W] .2. A computer-aided control system is used as a developing platform monitoring and recording the experimental data. where the PV array generates maximum output power. Additionally. In the same figure. In figure6. The PV element characteristics are a function of the irradiance of the sunlight and the cell temperature. the entire control algorithm.3 PV Array The voltage-current characteristic of one PV element at constant cell temperature and with the irradiance of the sunlight as a parameter is shown in figure 6. measurements of motor currents in two phases are required for speed estimation and torque control of the PMSM. Provisionally. With increasing irradiance. The power PPV is calculated by the product of dc bus voltage Udc and current IPV. safetyrelated monitoring and the start-up and shut down automatism’s are implemented on a TMS320C31 DSP.2.

The practically studied PV array consists of 36 modules with a total peak power of 4. their use is limited by a number of factors [Bose 97]: • Need for regular maintenance of the commutator.1: Various connections of the PV array with a peak power of 4. all experimental results presented in this chapter are measurements using 12 modules in series and 3 modules in parallel. Therefore. Number of modules in series 6 9 12 18 Number of modules in parallel 6 4 3 2 Imax [A] 44. the optimum output voltage of the PV array is not constant and moves as condition varies.8 22. However. All wires of the single PV elements are assembled in a modular way using a switchboard panel. small . The experimental results obtained are similar demonstrating the high flexibility of both the previously and later described control algorithms. but they are not applicable for submersible installations. connected in series or parallel.5 258 387 6. ±5 %. Table 6. • Relatively heavy rotor with a high inertia. The voltage at the MPP changes with the array temperature while the current is almost unaffected. However. the MPP characteristic is situated in a higher voltage range. i. the current in the dc bus must be increased.108 Chapter 8 along the marked line.7 29. • Relatively high cost.9 Umax [V] 129 193.32 kW. Commutator motors have very desirable control characteristics. submersible motor/pump system) applications. connecting 12 modules in series and a temperature variation of 10 K results in an optimum voltage shift of 9. to match the requirements of the final inverter and to keep the presented results clear. The different experimental connections are presented in Table 6. • Difficulty in producing a totally enclosed motor as required for some hazardous (e.84 V on a rated voltage of 180 V. At lower cell temperature.1. A pumping system based on an ac motor drive is an attractive alternative where reliability and maintenance-free operation is important [Bhat 87]. In order to stay at the point of maximum power at rising irradiance. Thus. while the dc voltage remains nearly constant. Furthermore.4 Motor/Pump Subsystem Surface applications for irrigation systems are mostly driven by dc machines while for installations in the drilling holes submersible induction motor/pump systems are used.32 kW.e.g. The voltage temperature coefficient of the PV elements used amounts to –82 mV/°C.35 14.

A centrifugal pump commonly requires a single quadrant drive. This U/f ratio is pre-determined for every (steady state) motor speed. to vary the output of the water pump. Considering figure 6. The load torque of the centrifugal pump expressed as a function of speed is Tload = K ω ω 2 (6. If all motor parameters and the load characteristic are known. motor selection and design theory [Hen 96] were limited to a permanent magnet synchronous motor (PMSM) coupled to centrifugal or submersible pumps. choosing a voltage level corresponding to the lowest motor current.3: Cross sectional view of the 4-pole PMSM rotor geometry. In fact.4. The properties of the PMSM used are summarized in appendix B. The calculations are made at a frequency of 10 Hz corresponding to a motor speed of n = 300 rpm. e. Pumping pure drinking water is mainly done by a submersible combination of motor and pump. Therefore. Rotor bars have been implemented in order start up the motor and to balance disturbances.1 Open loop control of a PMSM with damper cage The open loop control of a PMSM is based on a constant voltage-frequency ratio.4. an erroneous . a direct control of the current is impossible proposing this approach. the first approach of the PV powered water pump system was an open loop control of a PMSM with a damper cage (figure 6. the speed of the motor driving the pump must be varied. However. Due to this hazardous application.g. Copper bars magnets Figure 6. the optimal U/f ratio can be calculated for every motor speed.3).1) where Kω is the constant of the hydraulic system. encoder for speed and position measurement. a lower efficiency especially at partial load. is costly and problematic or even impossible.4. 6. Thus. when compared to permanent magnet motors. placing additionally sensors. The voltage-current characteristic at different load torque levels is presented for the studied PMSM in figure 6.Ride-Through at Power Interruptions 109 induction motors have.3. a slight variation of the voltage can easily lead to a very high over-current of the motor with the risk of demagnetization. Thus. The current is settled automatically depending on the difference between induced (EMK) and supply voltage.

3) (6. Slight variations of the electrical angle ϑ = ϑ0 + ∆ϑ result in a self-exited oscillation with an undamped natural frequency fe: J d 2 ∆ϑ + Tmax ∆ϑ cos ϑ0 = 0 p dt 2 ∆ϑ = sin( 2π f e t ) ⇒ fe = 1 2π Tmax cosϑ0 J p (6. the error between reference and output voltage of the inverter used amounts to ∆U ≈ 15 V resulting unaccompaniedly in a current variation of 22 A for the studied PMSM at a speed of 300 rpm.2) (6. Due to dead-time effects. oscillating system [Mel 91]. Without a damper cage.110 Chapter 8 calculation of the optimum voltage cannot be avoided due to parameter and load torque variations as well as measurement errors and the non-linearity of the inverter. dead time and current direction.4: Voltage-current characteristic at variable torque (f = 10 Hz). the voltage error ∆U depends on PWM frequency. the PMSM in open loop is an undamped.4) (6.5) The frequency fe of the PMSM used varies between 0 Hz < fe <10 Hz for maximum load (ϑ0 = 90°) and no load (ϑ0 = 0°) respectively.16)(1.17). This oscillation creates a . 25 20 15 I [A] Torque [0->10Nm] 10 5 0 10 11 12 13 14 U [V] 15 16 17 Figure 6. This non-linear effect creates a distortion of motor current and torque. [Hen 91]. According to (1. dc bus voltage.

including a completely closed damper cage [Con 86] and inset magnets. Therefore. could improve the performance. amongst others: • • • Switching losses Valve losses Copper and iron losses in the filter coil In control systems without a battery. As explained in the next sections. this value is far too large.6) The modified PMSM used has a damper time constant of Tdamp ≈ 60 ms. the PMSM should be equipped with a damper cage [Hen 91].5 Control of a PV-Powered Water Pump System Most PV powered water pump systems consist of two different control units.Ride-Through at Power Interruptions 111 distortion of current and torque generated by the motor. it is much better to consider another control approach. systems without battery require a more complex and complicated control algorithm. The first is a dc unit with or without a battery as energy storage. a stable and dynamic open-loop control of the given PMSM is impossible. The influence of a changing irradiance level during a searching procedure is reduced. leading to an electromagnetic instability of the drive. A modification of the PMSM geometry. In this unit. Therefore. Varying the dc bus voltage can be done more quickly and without changing the power or frequency of the motor. the MPPT is controlled by varying the duty ratio of a dc-dc converter. Considering the natural frequency. The overall control of the PV-powered water pump system consists of a current/torque controller. this has been the starting motivation for the development of the earlier described high-performance motor drive with speed. In order to soften the system. Nevertheless. this converter introduces many losses. Here. For a sufficiently damped system. a novel control approach is proposed avoiding the use of the additional dc-dc converter. The second unit controls the speed of motor and pump. the dc bus may collapse when an unbalanced input/output power ratio occurs at the dc bus. The resulting damper time constant Tdamp can be calculated using: Tdamp = 2 J ω12 ' R2 (1 + σ 1 ) 2 3 p 2 U 12 (6. flux and torque estimation. a high dynamic drive is indispensably for a correct operation of the water pump system. a speed controller without a shaft sensor and a main control consisting of a dc bus voltage controller and the . In fact. the time constant and thus the rotor resistance must be smaller. 6. Using this converter leads to a less complicated control algorithm for the MPPT. On the other hand. a battery and its losses.

The voltage control varies the speed/torque of the PMSM in order to stay within the calculated optimum voltage given by the MPPT. The high-performance speed/torque control of the PMSM is described in previous chapters. being even slower than using an extra speed control loop. The structure of the overall control system is shown in figure 6. . However. Otherwise. With sufficient power generated by a PV array. the cell temperature of the PV array and thus the dc voltage in the MPP varies very slowly. The dc bus voltage can be controlled either by the speed of the motor requiring an additional speed control loop or directly by the electromagnetic torque affecting the motor speed derivation. when tested under extreme but realistic conditions. Only measurements of motor current and dc bus voltage are necessary.5. e. In contrast to the very quickly and frequently changing irradiance intensity. Therefore. many algorithms described in literature are based on the variation of the speed reference. Advantages and drawbacks of both control approaches are explained in the next section. The mechanical position sensor is replaced by an observer requiring no additional measurements. the control of the PV-powered water pump system is performed by varying the dc voltage in a small range. The applied load at n = 2000 rpm amounts 85% of the rated motor torque. According to subsection 2. PV power supply IPV IPV Tel* PI with anti windup Udc Udc -1 START-UP & * Udc MPPT Tel* * Tel ω* PI with anti windup |ω|<ωmax * ua SVM Torque * Inverter ub Control & * uc EKF Voltage control ω PID with anti windup ib ia pump AC motor Figure 6.5: Block diagram of the entire control system. The adaptive MPPT algorithm is described in detail in sections 7. the dc bus would be discharged and the system collapses.5.112 Chapter 8 MPPT.6 shows the experimental results of a speed step with a centrifugal pump as load and using a regular grid as power supply (Udc = 220V). searching the MPP and controlling the speed/torque characteristic of the motor in order to stay within the calculated optimal voltage corresponding to the highest efficiency of the system.: [Mul 97] varies the power by changing the frequency output of the inverter stepwise. the results obtained would be the same. The first approach turned out to malfunction. The current/torque controller has a bandwidth of 960 Hz.7.5. Figure 6.1.g. The different control approaches are indicated by the switch in figure 6.

6 DC Bus Voltage Control . 6.Ride-Through at Power Interruptions 113 the optimal torque control of the motor takes advantage of the reluctance torque by introducing a negative (Ld < Lq) direct-axis current component increasing the efficiency of the drive. 2500 2000 Reference n [rpm] 1500 1000 500 0 0 0. the system goes in standby modus and all PWM pulses are disabled if the PV power supply is definitively too low.25 1. A non-productive idle run is not conducive for the durability of the pump and all other wear. Bottom: d. The start-up and shut down logic is based on the motor speed and the open-circuit voltage.25 1. The energy consumption of all control and measurement units and the inverter in standby modus amounts to 20 W.25 0.75 1 1. no such failure has been detected during weeks of testing. Top: Measured and reference speed. The implemented safety-related monitoring consists of detecting over-current and over-speed. being higher than the minimum speed of the shut down automatism.5 10 0 -10 0 t [s] Figure 6.and q-axis current. A start-up procedure requires a pre-determined minimum opencircuit voltage guaranteeing a productive motor speed. However.25 0.5 0.5 0. the centrifugal pump used is not able to pump water. both depending on the motor/pump system.6: Speed step with a pump load using a regular grid as power supply. Therefore. and a pre-determined voltage window mainly defined by the PV array coupled to the inverter. An inadmissible failure disables the entire system. requiring a manual reset by an expert.5 Measurement t [s] 30 20 i [A] iq id 0.75 1 1. Below a speed of n ≈ 180 rpm.

8 1 t [s] 900 n [rpm] 800 700 600 0 0. It can be seen. The averaged voltage error of this inner control loop is smaller than 0. Slightly increasing the motor speed in this unstable area.7: Step of the voltage reference from 225V to 125V and back to225V. They are already in steady state. The pumping head or water pressure can be varied by a throttle lever increasing/decreasing both water pressure and reversely water flow.8 demonstrates this independence by varying the pumping head from a ½ m (=½ bar) to 10 m (=10 bar) and back to ½ m. Thus. The speed of the motor changes indirectly. while the speed still varies. Middle: q-axis current.7 the response of the voltage. Bottom: Motor speed.4 0.6. Figure 6.6 0. also the pipe characteristic changes. the error reaches a maximum of 0. The averaged voltage error delivers the minimum search range for the later described main control (MPPT) providing the reference voltage.2 0. 250 U dc [V] 200 150 Reference Measurement 100 0 0. that the voltage and the torque producing q-axis current are controlled very fast.4 0.1%.2 0.5%.8 1 30 15 t [s] i [A] 0 -15 -30 q 0 0. An important feature of the system is the independence of the pipe characteristic.2 0.6 0. q-axis current and speed for a step of the voltage reference from 225 to 125 V and back to 225 V is shown. Top: dc bus voltage.4 0. The MPP of the PV array used is situated between 185 and 195 V. The . controlled by the electromagnetic torque until the reference voltage is reached.114 Chapter 8 6.6 0. results in a very quick discharge of the capacitor leading inevitably to a crash of the entire system.1 Experimental results of the voltage control In figure 6.8 1 t [s] Figure 6. Without voltage control the voltage area below the MPP (Udc < 185 V) is unstable. Even at the starting procedure and under very quickly changing irradiance.

8: Variation of the pumping head. below the speed. the sunlight irradiance and the cell temperature. 200 195 200 195 Reference [V] dc U 185 180 U 0 1 2 3 4 5 dc 190 [V] 190 185 180 0 1 2 3 4 5 t [s] 1500 1400 1500 1400 t [s] n [rpm] 1300 1200 1100 n [rpm] 0 1 2 3 4 5 1300 1200 1100 0 1 2 3 4 5 t [s] t [s] Figure 6.5. occurring at instantaneous decrease of irradiance (e. expanding the time in which supply voltage can be reapplied without the time-consuming dclink capacitor recharging cycle. solar irradiance and cell temperature-dependent voltage and current characteristics of the PV array.g. The characteristics are affected by the contamination. Left: ½ m ⇒ 10 m. where the PV array generates maximum output power. The reaction time of the voltage control is quite slow due to the time intensive valve closure.7 Maximum Power Point Tracking (MPPT) The voltage reference of the dc bus voltage control is calculated by an overlaid maximum power point tracking (MPPT). The MPP is characterized by the voltage. The implemented regenerative braking scheme allows the inverter to keep its dc bus voltage at the pre-determined minimum level. One of the most important features of the voltage control is its robustness during power interruptions. 3 kW prototype PMSM. The experiments are made with a reference voltage of Udc = 191V approximately agreeing with the MPP of the PV array.Ride-Through at Power Interruptions 115 response of the voltage control is plotted above. the efficiency of the output power of a PV array can be increased about 2 % by MPP-Tracking. 6. Right: 10 m ⇒ ½ m. passing clouds). To reach the MPP at rising irradiance level. This property has been tested using a regular grid as power supply and applying a complete power interruption on all three phases for a short time agreeing with the worst-case condition of the system. The experimental results of such short time threephase power interruptions are shown in section 8. the current in the dc bus must be increased while the dc bus . Compared to a common voltage tracking. These tests were done with a smaller. The main problems of matching the MPP with a PV array as power supply are related to the non-linear.

Figure 6. At lower cell temperature. Startup with initial values • • • Optimum voltage: Uopt Search range: ∆U Search speed: dU/dt Measurement Calculate Uopt Calculate ∆U Decrease Uref NO Uref < Uopt . the MPP characteristic is situated in a higher voltage range. the MPP-voltage seems to change. Thus. the calculated voltage drifts from the MPP.g. If the second condition occurs. The previous values are very important for the calculation of the new optimum voltage and search range.. After the default voltage is reached. The new optimum voltage and the new search range are calculated from these actual measurements and in its stored values by an adaptive control algorithm. The same considerations are also valid for decreasing irradiance. A new optimum voltage is only calculated. calculating the MPP and the search range of the dc bus voltage. the controller should not change the new optimum voltage. With these new quantities. a default voltage and search range is given. The voltage at the MPP changes with array temperature and current is almost unaffected. it is varied slightly around this point.9 shows the flow chart of the MPP-Tracking. the new calculated optimum voltage during a searching procedure with rising voltage is situated higher than the last optimum voltage. . Thus. the controller starts again a searching procedure to find the MPP. when a tendency is indicated by a searching procedure with both rising and falling voltage reference. the power generated by the PV array is measured and the voltage linked to the maximum power is stored during the respective searching procedure. First. the optimum output voltage of the PV array is not constant and moves as conditions vary. However.116 Chapter 8 voltage remains nearly constant. the adaptive control must be able to distinguish between a changing MPP and changing conditions. The MPPT is the main control loop. If. Otherwise.9: Flow chart of the MPP-Tracking. e.∆U YES Increase Uref Uref Reference voltage Uref Uref Uref t NO Uref > Uopt + ∆U YES Figure 6. During this variation. and delivers a reference quantity to the voltage control loop. this can also indicate an increasing irradiance. The quantity of this variation is given by the search range.

12 indicated by “Start 1” shows the mentioned power as a function of the dc voltage. the power generated by the PV array is measured and the voltage. the search range and the search speed are reduced. The MPP is reached after approximately 15 s and the voltage is varied from now on slightly around this point.g. The MPPT is switched on after reaching this operation point and searches subsequently for the optimum voltage. is calculated.11 exemplifies the dc bus voltage for the same span of time. the voltage decreases in voltage control mode to a pre-determined reference value.10-6.10 shows the power generated by the PV array and the speed of the motor driving the pump during 5 min of MPPT. voltage control and torque control. the optimum voltage is situated in a higher voltage range. linked to the maximum power. 4 3 2 1 0 P PV [kW] 0 50 100 150 200 250 300 t [s] 2000 1500 n [rpm] 1000 500 0 0 50 100 150 200 250 300 t [s] Figure 6. e. If a new calculated MPP is situated in the half of the past voltage range. while figure 6. Top: PV power. The implemented system tracks automatically the present conditions. the shape of the reference voltage looks like the movement playing an accordion. The characteristic of figure 6. with increasing insolation. search range and speed depends on the variation of the calculated optimum voltage. As can be seen from the details of figure 6.8 Experimental Results Figures 6. 6.Ride-Through at Power Interruptions 117 Pictorially expressed. otherwise both are increased. During the MPPT. in which the power generated by the PV array supplies only the control and measurement electronics (~20 W). Figure 6. Starting with the open-circuit dc voltage.11. where the PV array generates maximum power. Bottom: Motor/pump speed. If the irradiance power changes very often and too fast to track the real MPP.12 demonstrate the start-up procedure and the automatic operation mode of the entire control system consisting of MPPT. the variation of the voltage depends on external influences as insolation .10: Start-up procedure and MPP-Tracking. Both. the MPPT algorithm behaves as a common constant voltage tracking.

Bottom: Details indicated by Box 1. 240 Udc [V] 220 Box 1 200 180 0 50 100 150 200 250 300 t [s] 195 194 Udc. This starting point is reached by first using the voltage * control mode with a reference Udc = 120V and then switching over to the MPPT control mode. The artificial starting point exhibits the MPPT starting in an unstable area.12 showing the power of the PV array as a function of the dc voltage Udc. However. The direction of the searching procedure is indicated by the arrows. the variation of reference voltage is very small and almost constant. where slightly increasing the motor speed results in a very quick discharge of the capacitor. Measurements during a sunny day of the implemented MPPT are plotted in figure 6. In steady state. this artificial starting point is never reached during regular operation. Due to the lack of storage element in the dc bus.118 Chapter 8 or temperature variations and is adjusted automatically. The measured results demonstrate the ability of reproduction as well as the stability of the entire system. Top: dc bus voltage.ref Udc [V] 193 192 191 190 265 270 Udc 275 280 285 290 295 t [s] Figure 6.10-6.11: Start-up procedure and MPP-Tracking. the power of the PV array must be used immediately to accelerate the PMSM. The characteristic indicated by ‘Start 1’ refers to the time exposure of figures 6.11. Three different starting conditions are shown to demonstrate the ability of reproduction of the MPPT. .

with this second installation. Characteristic ‘c’ and ‘d’ starts in an artificial operation point. The MPPT during a cloudy day. The performance of induction motor and PMSM are similar.2 kW and a 1.Ride-Through at Power Interruptions 119 3. 250 MPP 200 d 150 [W] c 100 PV P b 50 a 0 120 130 140 150 160 170 180 190 200 210 U dc [V] Figure 6. The characteristic ‘a’ is situated in a higher voltage range.32 kW and a PMSM driving a centrifugal pump (sunny day). the implemented MPPT and voltage control are also suitable for an induction motor driving the pump. Instead of a permanent magnet synchronous motor. a PV array with a peak power of 1.5 [kW] 2 P 1.5 0 100 120 140 160 180 200 220 240 U dc [V] Figure 6.5 Artificial starting point Start 2 PV 1 Start 1 0. in contrast to all other earlier presented results. is presented in figure 6.5 MPP 3 2.13.12: Measured results of the MPP-Tracking using a PV array with a peak power of 4. because it shows the first searching procedure at a lower cell temperature. only the induction motor efficiency is lower especially at partial load.5 kW induction motor driving the centrifugal pump was used. . Here.2 kW and an induction motor driving the pump (6 hours of a cloudy day). Four different starting conditions (a-d) are shown.13: Measured results of the MPP-Tracking using a PV array with a peak power of 1.

The classical rotor design of a permanent magnet synchronous machine with surface mounted magnets would inherit the fixing of the magnets with glue and a polymer bandaging. This applies even for coated magnets. only a marginal efficiency increase can be expected by replacing the induction motor with the PMSM. The price to be paid is a more extensive and more complicated control algorithm. an increased efficiency of the entire system is achieved. a novel MPPT algorithm. Therefore.9 Conclusions This chapter presents the design and the implementation for PV-powered water pump systems using a PMSM without a shaft sensor. flux and torque estimation. Practical investigations are done to demonstrate the stability of the dc bus voltage control. Due to the lack of storage in the dc bus. To optimize the energy captured by the PV array and to pump as much water as possible. The measured results of the MPPT exhibit the ability of reproduction and the stability of the entire control system. Additionally. However. has been developed and implemented. Due to the design constraints. together with the filling of the motor interior with water yield a very unusual mechanical rotor construction. a request for the installation of the presented PV powered water pump system has been received from four different countries: Mali. realized by feeding back the dc voltage and current to a controller. In a first approach. the output power should always be at its maximum power point. the independence of the pump characteristic and its robustness during power interruptions. Due to the insufficient damper cage. a simple U/f control is absolutely inferior compared to a field-oriented high performance motor drive with speed. In the meantime. However. The development of a second prototype PMSM for submersible applications has been stopped for practical and economic reasons. the implemented MPPT and voltage control are suitable for both a PMSM and an induction motor driving the pump. a stable and dynamic open-loop control of the given PMSM is impossible. Mauritania. the power of the PV array is used immediately to accelerate the motor. The design constraints due to the mechanical construction of the motor housing and stator iron. The long-term stability for use directly in water of both permanent magnets and bandage cannot be guaranteed by the manufacturer. The production costs of such a machine are enormous. Senegal and Chad. the performance of a PMSM with damper cage in open loop control is evaluated.120 Chapter 8 6. Increasing the efficiency of the system is very advantageously considering the cost-intensive PV array installation amounting to 70% of the total system costs. Furthermore. no additionally measurements are required. .

In the realized implementations. an automatic flux adaptation scheme has been implemented. Considering field-oriented control. Flux weakening is widely known in literature. The approach has been further refined by flux optimization. it can be switched over easily and in real-time to different strategies. the dc bus voltage is variable over a wide range requiring an alternative approach. maps very directly into current control because of the close association between current and torque generation in any PMSM and induction motor drive. Basic control techniques. Therefore. The basic FOC-scheme is refined systematically adding additional features step by step. the concept of field orientation and the resulting ability to directly control the electromagnetic torque were discussed in chapter 2. Considering flux weakening of the PMSM. this feature makes the induction motor superior compared to the PMSM in a wide operation range when efficiency is considered especially in the range where iron losses are dominant. Contrary to the assertions in literature. the FOC has been chosen as final control scheme. In particular. However. The choice of a suitable flux control strategy depends on the respective application. the DTC provides a better dynamic torque response whereas the FOC provides a better steady-state behavior. that allow dynamic torque and flux control in a decoupled way. Torque control. the algorithms presented in literature are based on pre-calculations postulating a constant dc bus voltage. There are many excellent books on the topics of electrical machines and drives. it is possible to control separately the flux and torque producing components of the supply currents. Summarizing.7. which constitutes the most basic motor control function. Conclusions 7.1 Summary & Conclusions This thesis concerned high-performance motion control systems with a voltage source inverter supplying both squirrel-cage induction motors and permanent magnet synchronous motors. Less appreciated is the ability to operate the induction motor above the nominal flux at low speed to enhance the torque per ampere relation and thus better utilize the available power supply current. are direct torque control (DTC) and fieldoriented control (FOC). In this work. . it is believed that the present thesis is novel in many respects. With respect to the planned applications where the motor speed is the main control variable.

However. Among the speed. also rotor position and the acceleration of the drive are estimated. The DSP controller board. code generation. Issues of measurement distortion/identification due to the inverter non-linearity are discussed in detail. the presented current control with anti-windup is essential considering the dc bus voltage variable over a wide range. New models for speed estimation are proposed. designed and implemented in this work. Chapter 4 exhibits a new approach of speed estimation employing an incremental encoder as measurement device. an anti-windup system within the current controller is neglected since the maximum voltage is limited by the power inverter itself. Special care has been taken for the viability of the real-time implementation: A comprehensive and clear description of controller design and affiliated parameter calculation is given for all treated applications. the support software has been changed in order to implement different PWM strategies as well as variable PWM frequencies. This chapter can be also regarded as a smart introduction into observer theory. The sensorless speed control of both permanent magnet synchronous motor and squirrel-cage induction motor drives. both in steady state and during acceleration/braking. also rotor flux. However. This system reflects one application employing many of the drive features. A commercially available DSP based environment is used for development purpose. flux position and the acceleration of the drive are estimated.122 Chapter 9 Whereas anti-windup systems are well known in literature. Furthermore. The implementation of a PV-powered water pump system using a PMSM without a shaft sensor is described in chapter 7. The implemented algorithm is based on a linear Kalman Filter. This is extremely valuable during the development of high-performance motor control using PWM outputs in order to drive power switches. Chapter 3 presents the collaboration between control design and real-time implementation. It has been shown that this approach offers a significant improvement of the entire drive performance. they are reconstructed by using the monitored dc bus voltage and the switching functions of the inverter considering non-linearities due to the dead time of the power switches. The approach requires no additional measurements. New . The discussion extends to the implementation of an advanced speed control loop. The terminal voltages are not measured. the experimental results have shown to offer a significant improvement of the drive performance. Among the speed. Within this thesis. which is nowadays the most attractive research area of electrical motor drives. The speed estimation does not lag the actual motor speed. Compared to sensorless control schemes described in literature. Advanced observer theory has been applied to approaches eliminating the need of position/speed measurement. The structures of the implemented sensorless control schemes are based on the extended Kalman filter theory. different control approaches considering respective applications were developed and implemented. all proposed control schemes were verified by experimental results. is presented in chapter 5 and 6. experiment management and hardware interface including required measurements are explained.

The proposed solution to the problem is to recover some of the mechanical energy stored in the rotating masses by kinetic buffering. among other control loops. It is expected that the dynamic performance. which constitutes the most important control function guaranteeing the stability of the drive. Various reluctance motors will have an increased role in the future. The limit of the possible code and memory size has been reached. Presently. sample time. This new development platform provides a system. is under construction within the ELECTA group. Considering a more powerful control system. a new DSP development platform based on TI’s most recent processor-generation. the realized dc bus voltage control is also applicable for ride-through schemes at power interruptions considering inverter-controlled drives supplied by a regular grid. power switch and cooler may be eliminated. Furthermore.g. The temporary speed dip is generally tolerable. since the most frequent power interruptions last only for a few milliseconds. which will be capable of implementing even more extended and computation time intensive algorithms.2 Further Research Using the TMS320C31 DSP providing 60 MFlops. An expansion of the proposed sensorless control schemes to these motor types forms surely an interesting task. In particular. e.g.g. especially of the torque control loop.: measurement filter. The PV-powered water pump system consists. As discussed in chapter 8. there are many applications possible. can be vastly increased. The calculation of the closed loop current transfer function has shown the large influence of delays within the loop as e. the proposed ridethrough scheme at power interruptions has been transformed into a special drive braking tool saving energy and simplifying the inverter setup: the installation of brake-resistance. the proposed algorithms have been realized only by means of costly code optimizations. This maintains the dc link capacitor well charged keeping the electronic control circuits active. another extended Kalman filter or artificial intelligence. the TMS320C6711 DSP providing 1000 MFlops. 7.: The noise covariance matrices within the mentioned sensorless speed control system can be adapted in real-time dependent on the given operating point. which are no longer suitable for high-performance motion control. . This can be done by e. Further increasing the program size will lead to execution times. of a highperformance dc bus voltage control.Conclusions 123 approaches were developed because the algorithms described in literature for this kind of systems turned out to malfunction. PWM frequency and signal lag of data transmission. A novel maximum power point tracking optimizing the energy captured by the PV array has been designed and implemented. it is interesting to implement the proposed algorithms on faster DSPs.

[Vas 99]. These drives will not require machine or controller parameters. These problems can be overcome by using artificial-intelligence-based control techniques. In literature. of the controlled system. e. timeinvariance etc. . and all the control and estimation tasks are performed by a single artificial-intelligence-based system. Classical control theory suffers from some limitations due to non-linearity. promises a vastly increased performance. which forms nowadays an interesting field in the area of power quality. it is expected that intelligent sensorless instantaneous torque-controlled drives incorporating some form of intelligence will become the standard in the future. similar to the proposed load torque rejection approach within the speed/current control loop of drives.124 Chapter 9 The proposed observer together with advanced control techniques can be applied to the active filter (active front-end) design.g. Especially a disturbance (current harmonics) rejection approach.