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Social Movements

Social Movements

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Published by: ProfBray Leano on Feb 13, 2012
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alternative courses of action five types of resources: 1. Material (money and physical capital); 2.

Moral (solidarity, support for the movement's goals); 3. Social-Organizational (organizational strategies, social networks, bloc recruitment); 4. Human (volunteers, staff, leaders); 5. Cultural (prior activist experience, understanding of the issues, collective action know-how)[9]

Social Movement as a natural process at the onset of insurgency When an insurgent consciousness has emerged in a society, the call to occupy new space is very much compelling. Conspicuously, people demonstrate their gusto collectively through different forms of Non institutional – street demonstration, planking The belief that this new world could be created by means of this alternative course, people This is an adverse reaction either to status quo or change occurring in a specific context. Contest on the issue that has to be addressed massively every movement = own reason - force

important to understand (social theories) = who fuels, what fuels; political dynamics ; access to power Information dissemination; framing, perspective Success; Beginning but not end; little movement in between levels according to the ipact of change and amount of people involved

new movement = new space = new force Social movements

Social movement theory is an interdisciplinary study within the social sciences that generally seeks to explain why social mobilization occurs, the forms under which it manifests, as well as potential social, cultural, and political consequences. More recently, the study of social movements has been subsumed under the study of contentious politics. Collective behavior Main article: Collective behavior Sociologists during the early and middle-1900s thought that movements were random occurrences of individuals who were trying to emotionally react to situations outside their control. Or, as the "mass society" hypothesis suggested, movement participants were those who were not fully integrated into society. These psychologically-based theories have largely been rejected by present-day sociologists and political scientists, although many still make a case for the importance (although not centrality) of emotions. See the work of Gustav LeBon, Herbert Blumer, William Kornhauser,[1] and Neil Smelser.[2] Relative deprivation Main article: Relative deprivation People are driven into movements out of a sense of deprivation or inequality, particularly (1) in relation to others or (2) in relation to their expectations. In the first view, participants see others who have more power, economic resources, or status, and thus try to acquire these same things for themselves. In the second view, people are most likely to rebel when a consistently improving situation (especially an improving economy) stops and makes a turn for the worse. At this point, people will join movements because their expectations will have outgrown their actual material situation (also called the "J-Curve theory"). See the work of James Davies, Ted Gurr,[3] and Denton Morrison. [edit] Rational choice Main article: Rational choice

social movement participation. collective action know-how)[9] [edit] Political opportunity/Political process Certain political contexts should be conducive (or representative) for potential social movement activity. as well as showing that several other approaches surreptitiously rely on rational-choice assumptions without admitting it. 10.[7] Resource mobilization Main article: Resource mobilization Social movements need organizations first and foremost.Individuals are rational actors who strategically weigh the costs and benefits of alternative courses of action and choose that course of action which is most likely to maximize their utility. or social movement organizational founding. Cultural (prior activist experience.[5] and Dennis Chong. 7. social networks. 9. leaders). support for the movement's goals). Organizations can acquire and then deploy resources to achieve their well-defined goals. The primary research problem from this perspective is the collective action dilemma. Social-Organizational (organizational strategies. Moral (solidarity. understanding of the issues. Karl-Dieter Opp incorporates a number of cultural concepts in his version of rational choice theory.[4] Mark Lichbach. Opportunities may include: 1. the climate may be signaled to potential activists and/or structurally allowing for the possibility of social movement activity (matters of legality). instability in the alignment of ruling elites (or conflict between elites) 3. These climates may [dis]favor specific social movements or general social movement activity. 8. Material (money and physical capital). or why rational individuals would choose to join in collective action if they benefit from its acquisition even if they do not participate. Some versions of this theory see movements operate similar to a capitalist enterprises that make efficient use of available resources. declining capacity and propensity of the state to repress dissent [10][11][12] [13] . See the work of Mancur Olson.[6] In Theories of Political Protest and Social Movements. and the political opportunities may be realized through political concessions. access to elite allies (who can then help a movement in its struggle) 4.[8] Scholars have suggested a typology of five types of resources: 6. Human (volunteers. staff. increased access to political decision making power 2. bloc recruitment).

morality). etc. feminist. Instead of labor movements engaged in class conflict."[18] Structures not only constrain actors but constitute actors (no dichotomy between culture and structure) Contention is as much a contest over meaning as it is a struggle over resources The rational actor model is problematic. See the work of Robert Benford and David Snow. and potential recruits. Successful frames draw upon shared cultural understandings (e. a number of scholars have developed a powerful critique of the currently dominant political opportunity approach. [edit] Emerging Cultural Perspective Taking up some of the achievements of new social movement theorists. elites. It is called political theory of a social movement [edit] New Social Movements Main article: New Social Movements This European-influenced group of theories argue that movements today are categorically different than in the past.) are engaged in social and political conflict (see Alain Touraine). civil rights.[15] and Steve Buechler. Alberto Melucci.g.[edit] Framing Main article: Framing (social sciences) Certain claims activists make on behalf of their social movement "resonate" with audiences including media. sympathetic allies.[16][17] This emerging cultural perspective argues that • • • • • • Politics and power should be defined more broadly to include "all collective challenges to constituted authority. Also. rights. whether applied to collectives or individuals Opportunities are made as often as they are recognized Emotions are an important part of how we construct and understand our worlds . particularly those from the "new middle class". present-day movements (such as anti-war. environmental. political opportunity theorists have partially appropriated the framing perspective. see the work of Ronald Inglehart. This line of research has stimulated an enduring emphasis on identity even among prominent American scholars like Charles Tilly. This perspective is firmly rooted in a social constructivist ontology. The motivations for movement participants is a form of postmaterial politics and newly-created identities. Jürgen Habermas. [14] Over the last decade.

his theory of action had moved closer to Pragmatism and Symbolic Interactionism.In the late 1990s two long books summarized the cultural turn in socialmovement studies. resisting or undoing a social change.[21] Social movements are a type of group action. By then. on carrying out. in other words. They are large informal groupings of individuals and/or organizations focused on specific political or social issues. However others point out that many of the social movements of the last hundred years grew up. leaving out meanings. Alberto Melucci’s Challenging Codes and James M. Jasper’s The Art of Moral Protest. In the same period. Either way.” whereas Jasper argued that movements allow participants a chance to elaborate and articulate their moral intuitions and principles. Jasper organized a conference in New York in 1999 that helped put emotions on the intellectual agenda for many scholars of protest and movements.[19] He has continued to write about the emotional dynamics of protest in the years since. and agentic way. often vituperatively.[20] In The Art of Moral Protest Jasper also argued that strategic interaction had an important logic that was independent of both culture and structure. education and relative economic independence prevalent in the modern Western culture is responsible for the unprecedented number and scope of various contemporary social movements. Melucci focused on the creation of collective identities as the purpose of social movements. and agency. Along with Jeff Goodwin and Francesca Polletta. Occasionally . although Jasper developed this idea more systematically. emotions. Wisconsin social theorist Mustafa Emirbayer had begun writing in a similar fashion about emotions and social movements. Both recognized the importance of emotions in social movements. and increased mobility of labor due to the industrialization and urbanization of 19th century societies. Charles Tilly and a number of other scholars responded. Daniel Cefaï arrived at similar conclusions in Pourquoi se mobilise-t-on?. and in 2006 he followed up on this claim with Getting Your Way. emotional. In 1999. social movements have been and continued to be closely connected with democratic political systems. like the Mau Mau in Kenya. to oppose Western colonialism. which developed a vocabulary for studying strategic engagement in a cultural. In France. It is sometimes argued that the freedom of expression. Goodwin and Jasper published a critique of the then-dominant political opportunity paradigm. but more explicitly deriving his ideas from the history of sociological thought. a sweeping history and synthesis of thought on collective action and social movements. especially the “new social movements. Modern Western social movements became possible through education (the wider dissemination of literature). using Jasper’s cultural approach to show that political opportunity was too structural as a concept.

social movements have been involved in democratizing nations. they have become part of a popular and global expression of dissent.[3] [edit] History . displays and campaigns by which ordinary people made collective claims on others . He specifically distinguishes social movements from political parties and advocacy groups. opponents and authorities.[1] Modern movements often utilize technology and the internet to mobilize people globally.[1] For Tilly. statements to and in public media. Repertoire (repertoire of contention): employment of combinations from among the following forms of political action: creation of specialpurpose associations and coalitions. Over the past 200 years. unity. Political science and sociology have developed a variety of theories and empirical research on social movements. Adapting to communication trends is a common theme among successful movements. Campaigns: a sustained. vigils. demonstrations. some research in political science highlights the relation between popular movements and the formation of new political parties as well as discussing the function of social movements in relation to agenda setting and influence on politics. and commitments on the part of themselves and/or their constituencies. authorities. public meetings. organized public effort making collective claims of target authorities. Charles Tilly defines social movements as a series of contentious performances. petition drives. and pamphleteering. Sidney Tarrow defines a social movement as collective challenges [to elites. and 3. but more often they have flourished after democratization. 2. WUNC displays: participants' concerted public representation of worthiness. social movements are a major vehicle for ordinary people's participation in public politics. For example.[2] He argues that there are three major elements to a social movement:[1] 1. solemn processions. numbers. rallies. other groups or cultural codes] by people with common purposes and solidarity in sustained interactions with elites.

gay rights. to the formation of green parties and organisations influenced by the new left. peace. Similar tendencies were seen in other countries as pressure for reform continued. anti-nuclear and environmental movements emerged. Britain after victory in the Napoleonic Wars entered a period of social upheaval. in front of the Lincoln Memorial during the 1963 March on Washington for Jobs and Freedom The term "social movements" was introduced in 1850 by the German Sociologist Lorenz von Stein in his book "History of the French Social Movement from 1789 to the Present" (1850). 1791 are among the first documented social movements. Britain after victory in the Second World War entered a period of radical reform and change. From 1815. market capitalization.[1] Political movements that evolved in late 18th century. for example in Russia with the Russian Revolution of 1905 and of 1917. although Tilly notes that the British abolitionist movement has "some claim" to be the first social movement (becoming one between the sugar boycott of 1791 and the second great petition drive of 1806). In the post-war period. resulting in the collapse of the Russian State around the end of the First World War. Some find in the end of the 1990s the emergence of a new global . The labor movement and socialist movement of the late 19th century are seen as the prototypical social movements. often dubbed the New Social Movements.American Civil Rights Movement is one of the most famous social movements of the 20th century. like those connected to the French Revolution and the Polish Constitution of May 3. Here. civil rights. In 1945. They led. women's rights. and proletarianization. among other things. Martin Luther King is giving his "I Have a Dream" speech. leading to the formation of communist and social democratic parties and organisations. Tilly argues that the early growth of social movements was connected to broad economic and political changes including parliamentarization.

Finally.from printed pamphlets circulating in the 18th century coffeehouses to newspapers and Internet. Some social movement scholars posit that with the rapid pace of globalization. [edit] Key processes Several key processes lie behind the history of social movements. [edit] Types of social movement Types of social movements. where the process of mass education brought many people together. where people of similar goals could find each other. Many other social movements were created at universities. Similarly.social movement. With the development of communication technologies.[4] . Urbanization led to larger settlements. gather and organize. the anti-globalization movement. the potential for the emergence of new type of social movement is latent—they make the analogy to national movements of the past to describe what has been termed a global citizens movement. the spread of democracy and political rights like the freedom of speech made the creation and functioning of social movements much easier. the process of industrialization which gathered large masses of workers in the same region explains why many of those early social movements addressed matters such as economic wellbeing. creation and activities of social movements became easier . This facilitated social interaction between scores of people. and it was in urban areas that those early social movements first appeared. all those tools became important factors in the growth of the social movements. important to the worker class.

etc. values. advocating the change of the political system. For example. o individual-focused movements . or a movement supporting introduction of a capital punishment or the right to abortion. o conservative movement . the anti-technology 19th century Luddites movement or the modern movement opposing the spread of the genetically modified food could be seen as conservative movements in that they aimed to fight specific technological changes. but many remain outside the reformist party political system.movements which want to preserve existing norms. The singularitarianism movement advocating deliberate action to effect and ensure the safety of the technological singularity is an example of an innovation movement. or the South African shack dwellers' movement Abahlali baseMjondolo which demands the full inclusion of shack dwellers into the life of cities.movements which want to introduce or change particular norms. Examples would include the American Civil Rights Movement which demanded full civil rights and equality under the law to all Americans. o radical movement .Sociologists distinguish between several types of social movement: • • • • Scope: o reform movement . Methods of work: o peaceful movements .focused on affecting groups or society in general.various movements which use nonviolent means of protest as part of a campaign of nonviolent resistance. Some of these groups transform into or join a political party. The American Civil Rights movement. Targets: o group-focus movements . civil . such as condemnation of pornography or proliferation of some religion. for example. the Polish Solidarity (Solidarność) movement which demanded the transformation of a Stalinist political and economic system into a democracy. Type of change: o innovation movement . Some reform movements may aim for a change in custom and moral norms. etc.focused on affecting individuals.movements advocating changing some norms or laws. also often called civil resistance. a green movement advocating a set of ecological laws. Examples of such a movement would include a trade union with a goal of increasing workers rights. Polish Solidarity movement or the nonviolent. Most religious movements would fall under this category. regardless of race. values.movements dedicated to changing value systems in a fundamental way.

like the feminist movement. and use similar methods. lobbying for the lowering of tolls in a certain motorway. Protestants.[6] They are focused on local or regional objectives.most of the social movements have a local scope. the Peoples' Global Action and the anarchist movement seek to change society at a global level. they are usually armed and in extreme cases can take a form of a paramilitary or terrorist organization. Movements such as the first (where Marx and Bakunin met). such as protecting a specific natural area. fought for specific social groups. Old and new: o old movements . or a formal system of membership agreements. There can be great differences in the way that is done. for example. peace movement. whites. etc. Examples: the Rote Armee Fraktion. Most of the oldest recognized movements.social movements with global (transnational) objectives and goals. Range: o global movements . They were usually centered around some materialistic goals like improving the standard of living or. o new movements . anti-nuclear movement.movements for change have existed for many centuries. environmental movement.various movements which resort to violence. aristocrats. declare similar goals. activists will typically use diverse labels and descriptive phrases that require scholars to discern when they are referring to the same or similar ideas. dating to late 18th and 19th centuries. peasants. neither insiders to a movement nor outsiders apply consistent labels or even descriptive phrases.[5] o violent movements . [edit] Identification of supporters A difficulty for scholarship of movements is that for most of them. free software movement. such as the working class. the World Social Forum. alter-globalization movement. second. or preserving a building about to be demolished for gentrification and turning it into a social center. pro-choice movement. gay rights movement.movements which became dominant from the second half of the 20th century . civil rights movement. Unless there is a single leader who does that. Al-Qaida. They are usually centered around issues that go beyond but are not separate from class. adopt similar programs of action. Sometimes they are known as new social movements.• • disobedience-orientated wing of the Indian independence movement would fall into this category. men. the political autonomy of the working class. to recognize who is and who is not a member or an allied group: . third and fourth internationals. o local movements .

they grow. each of whom may have their own purposes and agendas in characterization or mischaracterization of it. the label for the levellers political movement in 17th century England was applied to them by their antagonists. They have a life cycle: they are created. Social movements occur in liberal and authoritarian societies . freedom of speech and civil disobedience. For example. by including or excluding those that insiders would exclude or include. It is often outsiders rather than insiders that apply the identifying labels for a movement. as a term of disparagement.[7] Social movements are not eternal. they dissolve and cease to exist. Outsiders: Those not supporters who may tend to either underestimate or overestimate the level or support or activity of elements of a movement. they achieve successes or failures and eventually. and it is the term by which they are known to history. Yet admirers of the movement and its aims later came to use the term. or are even seen as adversaries. They are more likely to evolve in the time and place which is friendly to the social movements: hence their evident symbiosis with the 19th century proliferation of ideas like individual rights. which the insiders then may or may not adopt and use to selfidentify.• • Insiders: Often exaggerate the level of support by considering people supporters whose level of activity or support is weak. but also reject those that outsiders might consider supporters because they discredit the cause. supporters and antagonists. [edit] Dynamics of social movements Stages of social movements. Caution must always be exercised in any discussion of amorphous phenomena such as movements to distinguish between the views of insiders and outsiders.

it would look good on a résumé. individual event that will begin a chain reaction of events in the given society leading to the creation of a social movement.but in different forms. Chronologically they include: . the social crisis can be encouraged by outside elements. they were the poverty and wealth gaps. Such an event is also described as a volcanic model . which will usually come after the given movement had some successes and is trendy. [edit] Social movement theories Sociologists have developed several theories related to social movements [Kendall. ethics and values. they are more likely to be the differences in customs. one possessing charismatic authority. instead of following the mentality 'why should I trouble myself when others can do it and I can just reap the benefits after their hard work'. Eventually. However there must always be polarizing differences between groups of people: in case of 'old movements'. i. Second is overcoming the free rider problem . In case of the 'new movements'. Many social movements are created around some charismatic leader. The Polish Solidarity movement. The second phase. One of the main difficulties facing the emerging social movement is spreading the very knowledge that it exists. However. Some of the better-known approaches are outlined below. being revived by some hardcore activists even after several decades. The South African shack dwellers' movement Abahlali baseMjondolo grew out of a road blockade in response to the sudden selling off of a small piece of land promised for housing to a developer. like opposition from government or other movements. For example. many movements had survived a failure crisis.e.convincing people to join it. 2005]. the birth of a social movement needs what sociologist Neil Smelser calls an initiating event: a particular. which eventually toppled the communist regimes of Eastern Europe. Finally. Rosa Parks. developed after trade union activist Anna Walentynowicz was fired from work. American Civil Rights movement grew on the reaction to black woman. After the social movement is created. The first phase will gather the people deeply interested in the primary goal and ideal of the movement. riding in the whites-only section of the bus (although she was not acting alone or spontaneously—typically activist leaders lay the groundwork behind the scenes of interventions designed to spark a movement).a social movement is often created after a large number of people realize that there are others sharing the same value and desire for a particular social change. People who join in this second phase will likely be the first to leave when the movement suffers any setbacks and failures. there are two likely phases of recruitment.

[9] [edit] Marxist Theory Derived from Karl Marx.often the only evidence for deprivation is the social movement.[8] There are two significant problems with this theory. Marxism arose from an analysis of movements structured by conflicts between industrial workers and their capitalist employers in the 19th century. Second. have always been stronger in Europe than in the US and so has Marxist theory as a tool for understanding social movements. or comfort are more likely to organize a social movement to improve (or defend) their conditions. Marxist approaches have been and remain influential ways of understanding the role of political economy and class differences as key forces in many historical and current social movements. both revolutionary and labor-reformist. If deprivation is claimed to be the cause but the only evidence for such is the movement. Marxism as an ideology and theory of social change has had an immense impact on the practice and the analysis of social movements. and they continue to challenge approaches that are limited by their inability to imagine serious alternatives to consumer capitalist social structures. First. individuals who are lacking some good. service.• • • • • • • • collective behavior/collective action theories (1950s) relative deprivation theory (1960s) marxist theory (1880s) value-added theory (1960s) resource mobilization (1970s) frame analysis theory (1980s) (closely related to social constructionist theory) new social movement theory (1980s) political process theory (1980s) [edit] Deprivation theory Deprivation theory argues that social movements have their foundations among people who feel deprived of some good(s) or resource(s). the theory has a hard time explaining why the groups that form social movements do when other people are also deprived. since most people feel deprived at one level or another almost all the time. environment. Class-based movements. but important Marxist movements and theories have also evolved in the US. gender. . the reasoning is circular. According to this approach. In the twentieth century a variety of neo-Marxist theories have been developed that have opened themselves to adding questions of race. the reasoning behind this theory is circular . and other issues to an analysis centered in (shifting) political economic conditions.

[edit] Social strain theory Social strain theory. deprivation theory and relies upon it. according to this theory. legitimacy.people come to believe their society has problems 2. In fact. in his study of Idaho Christian Patriotism. media. However.[10] Very little support has been found for this theory. Resources are understood here to include: knowledge. Aho (1990).a solution to the problems people are experiencing is proposed and spreads 4. and social/structural strain for the underlying motivation of social movement activism.people experience deprivation 3. social movement activism is.discontent usually requires a catalyst (often a specific event) to turn it into a social movement 5.[edit] Mass society theory Mass society theory argues that social movements are made up of individuals in large societies who feel insignificant or socially detached. it may never materialize 6. the key to joining the movement was having a friend or associate who was a member of the movement.this is the actual organizing and active component of the movement. Social movements. proposes six factors that encourage social movement development:[11] 1. The theory argues that social movements develop when individuals with grievances are able to mobilize . often the only indication that there was strain or deprivation. solidarity. labor. [edit] Resource mobilization theory Resource mobilization theory emphasizes the importance of resources in social movement development and success. at least in part. money. mobilization . if the social movement is quickly and powerfully repressed. structural strain . also known as value-added theory. did not find that members of that movement were more likely to have been socially detached. like in the case of deprivation theory. growth and spread of a solution . lack of social control . people do what needs to be done This theory is also subject to circular reasoning as it incorporates. precipitating factors . provide a sense of empowerment and belonging that the movement members would otherwise not have.the entity that is to be changed must be at least somewhat open to the change. and internal and external support from power elite. structural conduciveness .

access to a TV station will result in the extensive use TV media) movements develop in contingent opportunity structures that influence their efforts to mobilize. the civil rights movement in the U.. especially financial resources. Some of the assumptions of the theory include: • • • • • • • • there will always be grounds for protest in modern. . The emphasis on resources offers an explanation why some discontented/deprived individuals are able to organize while others are not.. but tends to emphasize a different component of social structure that is important for social movement development: political opportunities. politically pluralistic societies because there is constant discontent (i.).. as each movement's response to the opportunity structures depends on the movement's organization and resources.sufficient resources to take action. [edit] Political process theory Political process theory is similar to resource mobilization in many regards. commitment is maintained by building a collective identity and continuing to nurture interpersonal relationships movement organization is contingent upon the aggregation of resources social movement organizations require resources and continuity of leadership social movement entrepreneurs and protest organizations are the catalysts which transform collective discontent into social movements. grievances or deprivation).g. Political process theory argues that there are three vital components for movement formation: insurgent consciousness. and political opportunities. organizational strength. Some movements are effective without an influx of money and are more dependent upon the movement members for time and labor (e.e. they weigh the costs and benefits from movement participation members are recruited through networks. social movement organizations form the backbone of social movements the form of the resources shapes the activities of the movement (e. this de-emphasizes the importance of these factors as it makes them ubiquitous actors are rational.g. there is no clear pattern of movement development nor are specific movement techniques or methods universal Critics of this theory argue that there is too much of an emphasize on resources.S.

The insurgent consciousness is the collective sense of injustice that movement members (or potential movement members) feel and serves as the motivation for movement organization. The theory. Political opportunity refers to the receptivity or vulnerability of the existing political system to challenge. then. but because political opportunities are closed. Organizational strength falls inline with resource-mobilization theory. Presidential inauguration protest. . arguing that in order for a social movement to organize it must have strong leadership and sufficient resources.Insurgent consciousness refers back to the ideas of deprivation and grievances. Photo taken at the 2005 U. argues that all three of these components are important.S. Critics of the political process theory and resource-mobilization theory point out that neither theory discusses movement culture to any great degree. the leading factions are internally fragmented a broadening of access to institutional participation in political processes support of organized opposition by elites One of the advantages of the political process theory is that it addresses the issue of timing or emergence of social movements. The idea is that certain members of society feel like they are being mistreated or that somehow the system is unjust. they will not have any success. This vulnerability can be the result of any of the following (or a combination thereof): • • • • • growth of political pluralism decline in effectiveness of repression elite disunity. Some groups may have the insurgent consciousness and resources to mobilize.

and arguments. linking them through an underlying organizing idea that suggests what is essential . it emphasizes the importance of movement culture.collectively shared beliefs. an issue frame marks off some part of the world. An additional strength of this model is that it can look at the outcomes of social movements not only in terms of success or failure but also in terms of consequences (whether intentional or unintentional. it attempts to address the freerider problem. Like a building frame. in order for social movements to successfully mobilize individuals. which render them relevant and significant or irrelevant and trivial. First. while it places others out of the picture. it holds things together.This has presented culture theorists an opportunity to expound on the importance of culture. but infer its presence by its characteristic expressions and language. they must develop an injustice frame. "Like a picture frame. positive or negative) and in terms of collective benefits. We do not see the frame directly.what consequences and values are at stake. It provides coherence to an array of symbols. Each frame gives the advantage to certain ways of talking and thinking. Both resource-mobilization theory and political process theory include a sense of injustice in their approaches. One advance on the political process theory is the political mediation model. Second. . Culture theory brings this sense of injustice to the forefront of movement creation by arguing that. ideologies. values and other meanings about the world. [edit] Culture theory More recent strains of theory understand social movements through their cultures . Culture theory builds upon both the political process and resourcemobilization theories but extends them in two ways. which outlines the way in which the political context facing movement actors intersects with the strategic choices that movements make."[12] Important characteristics of the injustice frames include:[13] • Facts take on their meaning by being embedded in frames. images. These include explorations into the "collective identities" and "collective action frames" of movements and movement organizations. An injustice frame is a collection of ideas and symbols that illustrate both how significant the problem is as well as what the movement can do to alleviate it.

This in turn prompted widespread government censorship of the web and social networking sites.. In other words. Culture theory argues that. . money. The free-rider problem refers to the idea that people will not be motivated to participate in a social movement that will use up their personal resources (e.) if they can still receive the benefits without participating. such as Flickr.this is free-riding. All frames contain implicit or explicit appeals to moral principles. if person X knows that movement Y is working to improve environmental conditions in his neighborhood.• • • People carry around multiple frames in their heads. In emphasizing the injustice frame.g. in conjunction with social networks being an important contact tool. Framing processes includes three separate components: • • • Diagnostic frame: the movement organization frames what is the problem or what they are critiquing Prognostic frame: the movement organization frames what is the desirable solution to the problem Motivational frame: the movement organization frames a "call to arms" by suggesting and encouraging that people take action to solve the problem [edit] Social movement and social networking Much discussion has been generated recently on the topic of social networking and the effect it may play on the formation and mobilization of social movement. the emergence of the Coffee Party first appeared on the social networking site. If he believes the movement will succeed without him. The party has continued to gather membership and support through that site and file sharing sites. The 2009–2010 Iranian election protests also demonstrated how social networking sites are making the mobilization of large numbers of people quicker and easier. he can avoid participation in the movement. Facebook.[14] For example. culture theory also addresses the freerider problem. Iranians were able to organize and speak out against the election of Mahmoud Ahmadinejad by using sites such as Twitter and Facebook. the injustice frame will provide the motivation for people to contribute to the movement. he is presented with a choice: join or not join the movement. Successful reframing involves the ability to enter into the worldview of our adversaries. A significant problem for social movement theory has been to explain why people join movements if they believe the movement can/will succeed without their contribution. time. and still reap the benefits . save his resources. etc.

Karl Marx has contributed significantly to the overall ideology of Marxism. and theory of social change has influenced the desire to develop social movements. Scholars have argues that social movements have developed because people have the ability to express freely who they are. Social networking sites takes a compilation of the information available on politicians. Resource Mobilization: Empathizes the importance of resources in social movement. Social movements “can be viewed as collective enterprises to establish a new order of life” (Blumer. Social Movement Theory Define: It was introduced in 1850 by the German Sociologist Lorenz von Stein in a book he wrote. They have evolved because of education and increased mobility of labor due to industrialization and urbanization. laws. money. bills. Adapt: Social movements have evolved because people want a new order of life.In this modern age where everything can be found on the Internet. This helps in understanding why some movements do not succeed and why others do. There will most likely always be a need for resources in any social institution or social movement. "History of the French Social Movement from 1789 to the Present" (1850). and campaigns. TellMyGov puts it all together on one website to give a voice to all voters and inform the American people. 1951) Apply: Social Movement Theory can be helpful because 1) In the scope of social work it is important to understand resource mobilization and how social movements are able to develop these mobilizing structures. and internal/external support from those who are seen as superior. 2) It is beneficial to analyze the range of causes that are present in any social change theory and understand how they homogenized into the movement. . legitimacy. solidarity. and people are more liberal in the way they think about themselves and the world. labor. and. rather than just examining the end result. Resources can be seen as things like knowledge. have the privilege to be educated. Social Movement Theory works to understand how and why social movements happen. media.

or Twitter. they were talking about how there is a new movement called Revolution Muslim which goal is to focus on homegrown Terrorism and eventually Hamas. social movement has led to the whole new idea of social networking. LGBT movements that are focusing on the importance of bringing awareness as to how serious it is. which includes insurgent consciousness. and social work. gender expression (It Gets Better. o n NPR. How do social movements relate to now: We are seeing an increase in new social movements that are forming because the world is ever changing. and with each other. I am curious to see what the next social movement will be in 10 years from now. Most recently. *Both resource and political process theory look at some sense of social injustice Culture theory: Culture plays a major role in the basis of social movement theory. urban planning.Political process theory: Focuses on the importance of the overall structure of social movements. We see this in social networking sites such as Facebook. . You Tube Channel) Also. and political opportunities. When people do not feel accepted based on their sexual orientation. connect with the world. Social networking has revealed a new way we see the world. organizational strength. There are three vital components in the movement formation. We are seeing movements that are focusing on the well being of our planet such as importance of agriculture.

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