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Book by Hanan Polansky (Purple Book)

Book by Hanan Polansky (Purple Book)

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Published by Cathalijne Zoete
Very interesting and informative scientific book about the origin of chronic disease. Only for those who can read scientific research studies.
Very interesting and informative scientific book about the origin of chronic disease. Only for those who can read scientific research studies.

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Published by: Cathalijne Zoete on Feb 13, 2012
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03/09/2013

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a) Prediction

Infection with a GABP virus increases susceptibility to atherosclerosis (see
chapter on atherosclerosis, p 97). Atherosclerosis increases susceptibility to
cardiovascular disease. If MPA results from microcompetition with a GABP

MPA and other chronic diseases

379

virus in infected sebocytes, MPA should be associated with cardiovascular
disease. Consider the following observations.

b) Observations

Several recent studies reported an association between MPA and
cardiovascular disease initially reported in Cotton 19721029

. Consider the

following examples.
A study (Lesko 19931030

) compared the extent of baldness in men under
the age of 55 years admitted to a hospital for a first nonfatal myocardial
infarction (n = 665) and in controls, men admitted to the same hospitals with
noncardiac diagnoses (n = 772). The results showed an age adjusted relative
risk (RR) of 0.9 (95% confidence interval (95% CI), 0.6-1.3) for myocardial
infarction in men with frontal baldness compared to men with no hair loss.
However, relative risk (RR) of myocardial infarction in men with vertex
baldness was 1.4 (95% CI, 1.2-1.9). Moreover, the results showed an
increase in RR of myocardial infarction with the degree of vertex baldness (p
< 0.01), reaching 3.4 (95% CI, 1.7-7.0) for severe vertex baldness. Based on
these observations, Lesko, et al., (1993, ibid) concluded: “these data support
the hypothesis that male pattern baldness involving the vertex scalp is
associated with coronary artery disease in men under the age of 55 years.”
Another study (Herrera 19951031

) used a Cox proportional hazards
regression to evaluate the relation between the extent and progression of
baldness, determined in 1956 and in 1962 in a cohort of 2,017 men from
Framingham, Massachusetts, and the incidence of coronary heart disease
(CHD), CHD mortality, cardiovascular mortality, noncardiovascular
mortality, and all-cause mortality in the same cohort during the subsequent
24 years (1962-1986). The results showed lack of association between
extent of baldness and occurrence of a cardiovascular event or death.
However, for men with rapid progression of baldness, the relative risk,
adjusted for age and other cardiovascular disease risk factors, was 2.4 (95%
CI, 1.3-4.4) for a coronary heart disease event, 3.8 (95% CI, 1.9-7.7), for
coronary heart disease mortality, and 2.4 (95% CI, 1.5-3.8), for all-cause
mortality. Based on these observations, Herrera, et al., (1995, ibid)
concluded: “rapid hair loss may be a marker for coronary heart disease.”
Another study (Lotufo 20001032

) examined the relation between male
pattern baldness and CHD events. A CHD event was defined as nonfatal
myocardial infarction (MI), angina pectoris, and/or coronary
revascularization. The study asked 19,112 US male physicians aged 40 to 84
years enrolled in the Physicians’ Health Study to complete a questionnaire at
the 11-year follow-up concerning their pattern of hair loss at age 45 years.
All participants were free of CHD at baseline. During the 11 follow-up
years, 1,446 CHD events were recorded in this cohort. The results showed
an age-adjusted relative risk of CHD equal to 1.09 (95% CI, 0.94-1.25) for
men with frontal baldness relative to men with no hair loss. However, RR
for men with mild, moderate, or severe vertex baldness was 1.23 (95% CI,
1.05-1.43), 1.32 (95% CI, 1.10-1.59), and 1.36 (95% CI, 1.11-1.67),
respectively (p for trend, < 0.001). RR of CHD for men with vertex baldness

Alopecia

380

increased with hypertension (multivariate RR=1.79; 95% CI, 1.31-2.44), or
high cholesterol levels (multivariate RR=2.78; 95% CI, 1.09-7.12).
Multivariate adjustment for age, parental history of MI, height, BMI,
smoking, history of hypertension, diabetes, high cholesterol level, physical
activity, and alcohol intake, did not significantly change the results.
Independent analysis of nonfatal MI, angina, and coronary revascularization,
or analysis of events among men older and younger than 55 years at
baseline, produced similar results. Based on these observations, Lotufo, et
al.
, (2000, ibid) concluded: “vertex pattern baldness appears to be a marker
for increased risk of CHD events, especially among men with hypertension
or high cholesterol levels.”
Another study (Matilainen 20011033

) measured onset of MPA in all 85
males living on 31 December 1999 in a Finnish town with total population of
7,200, who had had a coronary revascularization procedure between March
1987 and January 1999. The onset of MPA was also measured in
individually selected age-matched controls living in the same town. MPA
was defined as grade 3 vertex or more on the alopecia classification scale of
Hamilton, modified by Norwood. The results showed an unadjusted odds
ratio (OR) of 3.57 (95% CI, 1.19-10.72) for coronary revascularization under
the age of 60 years in men with early onset of MPA compared to men with
late onset of MPA or no hair loss. Unadjusted OR for men at any age was
2.14 (95% CI, 1.08-4.23). OR, adjusted to the traditional cardiovascular
disease risk factors, was 3.18 (95% CI, 1.01-10.03). Based on these
observations, Matilainen, et al., (2001, ibid) concluded: “our results support
the hypothesis that the early onset of androgenic alopecia is a risk factor for
an early onset of severe coronary heart disease.”
As expected, MPA is associated with cardiovascular disease.

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