Friedrich Nietzsche The Birth of Tragedy Philosophy in the Tragic Age of the Greeks On Truth and Lies in a Nonmoral Sense Untimely Meditations (Nietzsche) Hymnus an das Leben Human, All Too Human The Dawn (book) The Gay Science Thus Spoke Zarathustra Beyond Good and Evil On the Genealogy of Morality The Case of Wagner Twilight of the Idols The Antichrist (book) Ecce Homo (book) Nietzsche contra Wagner The Will to Power (manuscript) Amor fati Apollonian and Dionysian Eternal return Nietzsche and free will God is dead Herd behavior Last man Master-slave morality Nietzschean affirmation Perspectivism Ressentiment Transvaluation of values Tschandala Übermensch World riddle Will to power 1 19 25 29 30 33 35 40 41 44 51 55 60 61 63 76 78 79 81 82 85 91 96 100 104 105 107 108 110 113 114 116 120 122

Influence and reception of Friedrich Nietzsche


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Friedrich Nietzsche


Friedrich Nietzsche

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Friedrich Wilhelm Nietzsche October 15, 1844 Röcken bei Lützen, Prussia August 25, 1900 (aged 55) Weimar, Saxony, German Empire 19th century philosophy Western Philosophy Weimar Classicism; precursor to Continental philosophy, existentialism, Individualism, postmodernism, poststructuralism aesthetics, ethics, ontology, philosophy of history, psychology, value-theory, poetry Apollonian and Dionysian, death of God, eternal recurrence, herd-instinct, master-slave morality, Übermensch, perspectivism, will to power, ressentiment, der letzte Mensch

Friedrich Wilhelm Nietzsche (October 15, 1844 – August 25, 1900) (German pronunciation: [ˈfʁiːdʁɪç ˈvɪlhɛlm ˈniːtsʃə]; in English UK: /ˈniːtʃə/, US: /ˈniːtʃi/[1] ) was a 19th-century German philosopher and classical philologist. He wrote critical texts on religion, morality, contemporary culture, philosophy and science, displaying a fondness for metaphor, irony and aphorism. Nietzsche's influence remains substantial within and beyond philosophy, notably in existentialism and postmodernism. His style and radical questioning of the value and objectivity of truth have resulted in much commentary and interpretation, mostly in the continental tradition. His key ideas include the death of God, perspectivism, the Übermensch, the eternal recurrence, and the will to power. Nietzsche began his career as a classical philologist before turning to philosophy. At the age of 24 he was appointed to the Chair of Classical Philology at the University of Basel (the youngest individual to have held this position), but resigned in 1879 due to health problems that plagued him most of his life. In 1889 he went insane, living out his remaining years in the care of his mother and sister until his death in 1900.

1844. The family then moved to Naumburg. and had two other children: a daughter. in the Prussian Province of Saxony. Here he became friends with Paul Deussen and Carl von Gersdorff. where he became friends with Gustav Krug and Wilhelm Pinder. Nietzsche attended a boys' school and then later a private school. and for the first time experienced a distance from his family life in a small-town Christian environment. Nietzsche grew up in the small town of Röcken. born in 1848. Carl Ludwig Nietzsche (1813–1849). a Lutheran pastor and former teacher. both of whom came from very respected families. his younger brother died in 1850. He was named after King Frederick William IV of Prussia. who turned 49 on the day of Nietzsche's birth. 1861 . where they lived with Nietzsche's paternal grandmother and his father's two unmarried sisters.)[2] Nietzsche's parents. Nietzsche's father died from a brain ailment in 1849. Ludwig Joseph. He also found time to work on poems and musical compositions. At Schulpforta. the family moved into their own house.Friedrich Nietzsche 2 Life Youth (1844–1869) Born on October 15. In 1854. Elisabeth Förster-Nietzsche. Nietzsche received an important introduction to literature. the internationally recognised Schulpforta admitted him as a pupil. After the death of Nietzsche's grandmother in 1856. he began to attend Pforta in Naumburg. and Franziska Oehler (1826–1897). but after he showed particular talents in music and language. and there he continued his studies from 1858 to 1864. and a second son. born in 1846. the year before their son's birth. "Wilhelm". (Nietzsche later dropped his given middle name. married in 1843. Nietzsche. particularly that of the ancient Greeks and Romans. near Leipzig.

For a short time he and Deussen became members of the Burschenschaft Frankonia.[6] . However.[3] This may have happened in part because of his reading around this time of David Strauss's Life of Jesus. a riding accident in March 1868 left him unfit for service. completing them and first meeting with Richard Wagner later that year. dedicating to him his essay Schopenhauer als Erzieher (Schopenhauer as Educator). In 1867 Nietzsche signed up for one year of voluntary service with the Prussian artillery division in Naumburg. After one semester (and to the anger of his mother) he stopped his theological studies and lost his faith. Schopenhauer and Lange influenced him. There he became close friends with fellow-student Erwin Rohde. Darwin's theory. Europe's increased concern with science. one of his Untimely Meditations. 1864 In 1865 Nietzsche thoroughly studied the works of Arthur Schopenhauer.[3] though in an essay entitled Fate and History written in 1862.[4] Nietzsche then concentrated on studying philology under Professor Friedrich Wilhelm Ritschl. the rise of European Materialism.[5] Consequently Nietzsche turned his attention to his studies again. and the general rebellion against tradition and authority greatly intrigued Nietzsche. Nietzsche had already argued that historical research had discredited the central teachings of Christianity. Nietzsche. Nietzsche's first philological publications appeared soon after. Schopenhauer was especially significant in the development of Nietzsche's later thought.Friedrich Nietzsche 3 After graduation in 1864 Nietzsche commenced studies in theology and classical philology at the University of Bonn. which had a profound effect on the young Nietzsche. Lange's descriptions of Kant's anti-materialistic philosophy. whom he followed to the University of Leipzig the next year. The cultural environment encouraged him to expand his horizons beyond philology and to continue his study of philosophy. He owed the awakening of his philosophical interest to reading his Die Welt als Wille und Vorstellung and later admitted that he was one of the few thinkers that he respected. In 1866 he read Friedrich Albert Lange's History of Materialism.

[12] a little-known Russian philosopher and author of Denken und Wirklichkeit (1873). though there is some disagreement on this matter. and (some time later) Wagner's wife Cosima. Nietzsche his inaugural lecture. From left: Erwin Rohde. Nietzsche had already met Richard Wagner in Leipzig in 1868. "Homer and Classical Philology". Walter Kaufmann speculates that he might also have contracted syphilis along with his other infections at this time. expressed little enthusiasm for the work. and enjoyed the attention he gave to the beginning of the Bayreuth Festival Theatre. In response. began to exercise significant influence on Nietzsche during this time. he accepted.[8] Before moving to Basel. Nietzsche remarked freely about the isolation he felt within the philological community and attempted to attain a position in philosophy at Basel. in which Nietzsche eschewed the classical philologic method in favor of a more speculative approach. Philology of the Future. Afrikan Spir. who remained his friend throughout his life. and witnessed the traumatic effects of battle. he delivered von Gersdorff. whose lectures Nietzsche frequently attended. though unsuccessfully.[10] [11] On returning to Basel in 1870 Nietzsche observed the establishment of the German Empire and the following era of Otto von Bismarck as an outsider and with a degree of Mid-October 1871. Nietzsche admired both greatly. Nietzsche is still among the youngest of the tenured Classics professors on record. his colleagues in the field of classical philology. and some biographers speculate that syphilis caused his eventual madness. He also contracted diphtheria and dysentery. Carl skepticism regarding its genuineness. In 1870 he gave Cosima Wagner the manuscript of 'The Genesis of the Tragic Idea' as a birthday gift. and during his time at Basel frequently visited Wagner's house in Tribschen in the Canton of Lucerne.[9] Nevertheless. including Ritschl. However. In a polemic. The Birth of Tragedy. and his colleague the historian Jacob Burckhardt. Nietzsche received a remarkable offer to become professor of classical philology at the University of Basel. In 1872 Nietzsche published his first book. The Wagners brought Nietzsche into their most intimate circle. He was only 24 years old and had neither completed his doctorate nor received his teaching certificate. Rohde (by now a professor in Kiel) and Wagner came to Nietzsche's defense. Nietzsche renounced his Prussian citizenship: for the rest of his life he remained officially stateless. In his short time in the military he experienced much. At the University. 4 . Nietzsche served in the Prussian forces during the Franco-Prussian War of 1870 to 1871 as a medical orderly. Despite the fact that the offer came at a time when he was considering giving up philology for science. Nietzsche also met Franz Overbeck.[7] To this day.Friedrich Nietzsche Professor at Basel (1869–1879) In part because of Ritschl's support. a professor of theology. Ulrich von Wilamowitz-Moellendorff dampened the book's reception and increased its notoriety.

where the banality of the shows and the baseness of the public repelled him. and violent indigestion. Gast and Overbeck remained consistently faithful friends. a contemporary typewriter device. (Since his childhood. especially during this time.) The four essays shared the orientation of a cultural critique.[14] While in Genoa. On the Use and Abuse of History for Life. A past student of his. In 1879. challenging the developing German culture along lines suggested by Schopenhauer and Wagner. and many winters in the Italian cities of Genoa. and lived until 1889 as an independent author in different cities. in the circle of the Wagners. and also began a friendship with Paul Rée. forcing him to take longer and longer holidays until regular work became impractical. Nietzsche occasionally returned to Naumburg to visit his family. Nietzsche's failing eyesight prompted him to explore the use of typewriters as a means of continuing to write. To the end of his life. migraine headaches. During this time. Nietzsche stood at the beginning of his most productive period. Schopenhauer as Educator. his last year of writing. but also received aid from friends.[13] Nietzsche's friendship with Deussen and Rohde cooled as well.Friedrich Nietzsche 5 Between 1873 and 1876. Soon Nietzsche made contact with the music-critic Carl Fuchs. which continued to affect him through his years at Basel. he planned to travel to Tunis to view Europe from the outside. Nietzsche had to resign his position at Basel. With the publication of Human. ca. All this contributed to Nietzsche's subsequent decision to distance himself from Wagner. Moritz in Switzerland. Beginning with Human. during which he completed five. including moments of shortsightedness that left him nearly blind. Malwida von Meysenbug remained like a motherly patron even outside the Wagner circle. Peter Gast (born Heinrich Köselitz). . became a sort of private secretary to Nietzsche. who in 1876 influenced him in dismissing the pessimism in his early writings. as well as by Wagner's celebration of his fame among the German public. In 1873. (These four later appeared in a collected edition under the title. he and his sister had repeated periods of conflict and reconciliation. However. He is known to have tried using the Hansen Writing Ball. All Too Human in 1878.) Independent philosopher (1879–1888) Because his illness drove him to find climates more conducive to his health. All Too Human in 1878 (a book of aphorisms on subjects ranging from metaphysics to morality and from religion to the sexes) Nietzsche's reaction against the pessimistic philosophy of Wagner and Schopenhauer became evident. Nietzsche published separately four long essays: David Strauss: the Confessor and the Writer. various disruptive illnesses had plagued him. Nietzsche also began to accumulate notes that would be posthumously published as Philosophy in the Tragic Age of the Greeks. Nietzsche traveled frequently. when France occupied Tunisia. Nietzsche met Malwida von Meysenbug and Hans von Bülow. after a significant decline in health. which Nietzsche thought a contradiction in terms. He lived on his pension from Basel. The 1868 riding accident and diseases in 1870 may have aggravated these persistent conditions. Nietzsche would publish one book (or major section of a book) each year until 1888. Rapallo and Turin and in the French city of Nice. In 1881. and. Untimely Meditations. he was deeply disappointed by the Nietzsche in Basel. but later abandoned that idea (probably for health reasons). near St. 1875 Bayreuth Festival of 1876. He was also alienated by Wagner's championing of 'German culture'. as well as the influence of Afrikan Spir's Denken und Wirklichkeit. and Richard Wagner in Bayreuth. He spent many summers in Sils Maria.

[18] Through correspondence. After severing his philosophical ties with Schopenhauer and his social ties with Wagner. Here he wrote the first part of Thus Spoke Zarathustra in only ten days. Human. Ernst Schmeitzner. if rather slowly and in a way hardly perceived by him. Nietzsche's relationship with Elisabeth continued on the path of conflict and reconciliation. "And hence my rage since I have grasped in the broadest possible sense what wretched means (the depreciation of my good name. in view of the attitude towards Christianity and the concept of God expressed in Zarathustra. a "Germanic" colony—a plan to which Nietzsche responded with mocking laughter. During the same year Nietzsche encountered the work of Fyodor Dostoevsky. Amidst renewed bouts of illness. but they would meet again only after his collapse. Brandes. Brandes delivered one of the first lectures on Nietzsche's philosophy. interest in Nietzsche's thought did increase at this time. pupils. he slipped too far into sickness. partially because of intrigues conducted by Nietzsche's sister Elisabeth. In fact. Salomé reports that he asked her to marry him and that she refused. Thereafter. That year he also met Lou Andreas Salomé. wrote to Nietzsche asking him to read Kierkegaard. before fulfilling this undertaking. and issued in 1886–1887 second editions of his earlier works (The Birth of Tragedy. and then also with Georg Brandes. disgusted by his anti-Semitic opinions. In 1883 he tried and failed to obtain a lecturing post at the University of Leipzig. and therewith the possibility of obtaining. living in near isolation after a falling-out with his mother and sister regarding Salomé. however. through Malwida von Meysenbug and Paul Rée. During these years Nietzsche met Meta von Salis.Friedrich Nietzsche 6 In 1882 Nietzsche published the first part of The Gay Science. Lou Salomé. Nietzsche had few remaining friends. and The Gay Science). and also Gottfried Keller. Nietzsche. Now. including Helene von Druskowitz. in Copenhagen. Nietzsche and Salomé spent the summer together in Tautenburg in Thuringia. Paul Rée and Nietzsche. often with Nietzsche's sister Elisabeth as a chaperone. my character and my aims) suffice to take from me the trust of. . 1882 Nietzsche recognized this and maintained his solitude. In the beginning of 1888. Carl Spitteler. with the new style of Zarathustra. It was made clear to him that. to which Nietzsche replied that he would come to Copenhagen and read Kierkegaard with him. who had started to teach the philosophy of Søren Kierkegaard in the 1870s. In 1886 his sister Elisabeth married the anti-Semite Bernhard Förster and traveled to Paraguay to found Nueva Germania. All Too Human. with whom he felt an immediate kinship. Dawn. In 1885 he printed only 40 copies of the fourth part of Zarathustra. His books remained largely unsold. In 1887 Nietzsche wrote the polemic On the Genealogy of Morals. He continued to have frequent and painful attacks of illness. his work became even more alienating and the market received it only to the degree required by politeness. he saw his work as completed for a time and hoped that soon a readership would develop. However."[16] In 1886 Nietzsche broke with his editor. he had become in effect unemployable at any German University. which made prolonged work impossible. and distributed only a fraction of these among close friends. though he often complained about it. Nietzsche fled to Rapallo.[19] He also exchanged letters with Hippolyte Taine.[15] Nietzsche's relationship with Rée and Salomé broke up in the winter of 1882/1883. The subsequent "feelings of revenge and resentment" embittered him.[17] He then printed Beyond Good and Evil at his own expense. regarded Salomé less as an equal partner than as a gifted student. accompanied by new prefaces in which he reconsidered his earlier works. though the reliability of her reports of events has come into question. Nietzsche saw his own writings as "completely buried and unexhumeable in this anti-Semitic dump" of Schmeitzner—associating the editor with a movement that should be "utterly rejected with cold contempt by every sensible mind".

and thought that. especially to the recent polemic. Langbehn assumed progressively greater control of Nietzsche until his secretiveness discredited him. ran to the horse. Overbeck traveled to Turin and brought Nietzsche to a psychiatric clinic in Basel."[23] Additionally. Also. but an often-repeated tale states that Nietzsche witnessed the whipping of a horse at the other end of the Piazza Carlo Alberto. G. but the publisher C. Nietzsche began a correspondence with August Strindberg. by that time already printed and bound. and summoned the European powers to take military action against Germany."[21] In December. Overbeck and Gast decided to withhold publishing The Antichrist and Ecce Homo because of their more radical content. after completing Twilight of the Idols and The Antichrist. and then collapsed to the ground. and all anti-Semites abolished. he would attempt to buy back his older writings from the publisher and have them translated into other European languages. 1889 Burckhardt showed the letter he had received from Nietzsche to Overbeck. he planned the publication of the compilation Nietzsche Contra Wagner and of the poems that composed his collection Dionysian-Dithyrambs.[22] In the following few days. The following day Overbeck received a similarly revealing letter. The Ill Nietzsche. do not mistake me for someone else. Moreover. Nietzsche suffered a mental collapse. In March 1890 Franziska removed Nietzsche from the clinic. and decided that Nietzsche's friends had to bring him back to Basel. short of an international breakthrough. In January 1889 they proceeded with the planned release of Twilight of the Idols." He overestimated the increasing response to his writings. Wilhelm. From November 1889 to February 1890 the art historian Julius Langbehn attempted to cure Nietzsche. and in May 1890 brought him to her home in Naumburg.[24] On January 6. What actually happened remains unknown.[20] His health seemed to improve. In February they ordered a fifty copy private edition of Nietzsche contra Wagner. To his former colleague Burckhardt. and his mother Franziska decided to transfer him to a clinic in Jena under the direction of Otto Binswanger.Friedrich Nietzsche Although Nietzsche had in 1886 announced (at the end of On The Genealogy of Morality) a new work with the title The Will to Power: Attempt at a Revaluation of All Values. 1889. and he spent the summer in high spirits. summer 1899 7 . In the fall of 1888 his writings and letters began to reveal a higher estimation of his own status and "fate. claiming that the methods of the medical doctors were ineffective in treating Nietzsche's condition. Bismarck. Above all. Naumann secretly printed one hundred. last year I was crucified by the German doctors in a very drawn-out manner. In the preface to this work—which suggests Nietzsche was well aware of the interpretive difficulties his work would generate—he declares. Nietzsche's reception and Photo by Hans Olde from the photographic series. Nietzsche sent short writings—known as the Wahnbriefe ("Madness Letters")—to a number of friends (including Cosima Wagner and Jacob Burckhardt). he eventually seems to have abandoned this particular approach and instead used some of the draft passages to compose Twilight of the Idols and The Antichrist (both written in 1888). The Case of Wagner. he commanded the German emperor to go to Rome to be shot. he decided to write the autobiography Ecce Homo. Nietzsche wrote: "I have had Caiaphas put in fetters. During this process Overbeck and Gast contemplated what to do with Nietzsche's unpublished works. On his 44th birthday. Two policemen approached him after he caused a public disturbance in the streets of Turin. "Hear me! For I am such and such a person. Mental breakdown and death (1889–1900) On January 3. threw his arms up around its neck to protect the horse. By that time Nietzsche appeared fully in the grip of a serious mental illness.

[34] Elisabeth had him buried beside his father at the church in Röcken bei Lützen. Nietzsche applied for the annulment of his Prussian citizenship.. According to a common myth. Elisabeth removed aphorism 35 of The Antichrist. For example. Nietzsche's ancestors were Polish. gave his funeral oration."[39] . and died about noon on August 25. where Elisabeth cared for him and allowed people. Elisabeth Förster-Nietzsche compiled The Will to Power from Nietzsche's unpublished notebooks. Because his sister arranged the book based on her own conflation of several of Nietzsche's early outlines. Orth and Trimble postulate frontotemporal dementia[32] . and took great liberties with the material. Prussia—for a time. ardent fighter against any mysticism–as a tutor to help her to understand her brother's philosophy.[31] . Although most commentators regard his breakdown as unrelated to his philosophy Georges Bataille drops dark hints (""man incarnate" must also go mad")[27] and René Girard's postmortem psychoanalysis posits a worshipful rivalry with Richard Wagner.[37] The official response confirming the revocation of his citizenship came in a document dated April 17. Overbeck eventually suffered dismissal. in one letter claiming.[36] The modern unified nation-state called Germany did not yet exist at the time of his birth. He wrote in 1888. His friend.[28] The diagnosis of syphilis was challenged.. Citizenship. the editor of Nietzsche's Nachlass. called it a forgery in The 'Will to Power' does not exist. in accordance with a prevailing medical paradigm of the time. while other researchers[33] propose a syndrome called CADASIL. where Nietzsche rewrote a passage of the Bible (see The Will to Power and Nietzsche's criticisms of anti-Semitism and nationalism). and piece by piece took control of them and of their publication. certainly not German blood. nationality. In 1893 Nietzsche's sister Elisabeth returned from Nueva Germania (in Paraguay) following the suicide of her husband. In 1898 and 1899 Nietzsche suffered at least two strokes. declaring that it was impossible to teach her anything about philosophy. and published it posthumously. Gast. "My ancestors were Polish noblemen (Nietzky). After the death of Franziska in 1897 Nietzsche lived in Weimar. but the German Confederation of states did. proclaiming: "Holy be your name to all future generations!"[35] Nietzsche had written in Ecce Homo (at the time of the funeral still unpublished) of his fear that one day his name would be regarded as "holy". ethnicity Nietzsche is commonly classified as a German philosopher. Nietzsche himself subscribed to this story toward the end of his life. and Gast finally cooperated. At one point Nietzsche becomes even more adamant about his Polish Identity.] I am proud of my Polish descent. Mazzino Montinari. "I was taught to ascribe the origin of my blood and name 8 . the type seems to have been well preserved despite three generations of German mothers. Elisabeth at one without his approval—an action severely point went so far as to employ Steiner–at a time when he was still an criticized by contemporary Nietzsche scholars.[38] and for the rest of his life he remained officially stateless. the consensus holds that it does not reflect Nietzsche's intent. followed by vascular dementia was put forward by Cybulska[29] prior Schain's.[30] and Sax's studies. Indeed.Friedrich Nietzsche recognition enjoyed their first surge. When he accepted his post at Basel.”[40] On yet another occasion Nietzsche stated “Germany is a great nation only because its people have so much Polish blood in their veins [. After contracting pneumonia in mid-August 1900 he had another stroke during the night of August 24 / August 25. and Nietzsche was a citizen of one of these. Steiner abandoned the attempt after only a few months. without a single drop of bad blood. “I am a pure-blooded Polish nobleman. She read and studied Nietzsche's works. and manic-depressive illness with periodic psychosis.”[41] Nietzsche believed his name might have been Germanized. 1869.[26] Nietzsche's mental illness was originally diagnosed as tertiary syphilis. including Peter Gast would "correct" Nietzsche's writings Rudolf Steiner (who in 1895 had written one of the first books praising even after the philosopher's breakdown and did so Nietzsche)[25] to visit her uncommunicative brother. which partially paralysed him and left him unable to speak or walk.

[48] He indicates his desire to bring about a new. Nietzsche presents master-morality as the original system of morality—perhaps best associated with Homeric Greece. It is not known why Nietzsche wanted to be thought of as Polish. the sort of traits conventionally associated with slaves in ancient times. and modern scholars regard the claim of Nietzsche's Polish ancestry as "pure invention. producing something other than "real" philosophy. and wished to initiate a re-evaluation of the values of the Judeo-Christian world. 1882 In Daybreak Nietzsche begins his "Campaign against Morality". but an exceptionally common one throughout central Germany. or between 'life-affirming' and 'life-denying': wealth.[43] Max Oehler. health. and there is widespread disagreement about their interpretation and significance. the editors of Nietzsche's assembled letters. in this and cognate forms (such as Nitsche and Nitzke). These aspects of Nietzsche's style run counter to traditional values in philosophical writing. The name derives from the forename Nikolaus. today. the sort of traits found in a Homeric hero. assimilated with the Slavic Nitz. it first became Nitsche and then Nietzsche. Some analytic philosophers dismiss Nietzsche as inconsistent and speculative. In Ecce Homo Nietzsche called the establishment of moral systems based on a dichotomy of good and evil a "calamitous error"[47] ."[44] Colli and Montinari. Hans von Müller debunked the genealogy put forward by Nietzsche's sister in favor of a Polish noble heritage. and they alienated him from the academic establishment both in his time and. Nietzsche's genealogical account of the development of master-slave morality occupies a central place. his notions of the will to power and Übermensch. Nietzsche's propagation of the Polish ancestry myth may have been part of the latter's "campaign against Germany". sick. In both these works."[45] The name Nietzsche itself is not a Polish name. Morality Friedrich Nietzsche. Part of the difficulty in interpreting Nietzsche arises from the uniquely provocative style of his philosophical writing. argued that all of Nietzsche's ancestors bore German names. Nietzsche frequently delivered trenchant critiques of Christianity in the most offensive and blasphemous terms possible given the context of 19th century Europe.[39] Oehler claims that Nietzsche came from a long line of German Lutheran clergymen on both sides of his family. and utilitarianism.Friedrich Nietzsche to Polish noblemen who were called Niëtzky and left their home and nobleness about a hundred years ago. while bad is associated with the poor. abbreviated to Nick.[39] 9 Philosophy Nietzsche’s works remain controversial. more naturalistic source of value in the vital impulses of life itself. weak. finally yielding to unbearable suppression: they were Protestants. the curator of Nietzsche Archive at Weimar. A few of the themes that Nietzsche scholars have devoted the most attention to include Nietzsche's views on morality. Here. and pathetic. value arises as a contrast between good and bad.[46] He calls himself an "immoralist" and harshly criticizes the prominent moral schemes of his day: Christianity."[42] Most scholars dispute Nietzsche's account of his family's origins. count as good. and his suggestion of eternal return. his view that "God is dead" (and along with it any sort of God's-eye view on the world thus leading to perspectivism). and power. strength.[39] . According to biographer Reginald John Hollingdale. gloss Nietzsche's claims as a "mistaken belief" and "without foundation. . even the wives' families. to a lesser extent. Kantianism.

He transformed the idea of matter as centers of force into matter as centers of will to power. "If God as the suprasensory ground and goal of all reality is dead. when life is reduced to a condition of poverty and limitation. in contrast. on the other hand. Nietzsche wanted to dispense with the atomistic theory of matter. if the suprasensory world of the Ideas has suffered the loss of its obligatory and above it its vitalizing and upbuilding power. and fluid perspectives. charity. therein introducing the concept of a value-creating Übermensch. As Heidegger put the problem."[52] Will to power An important element of Nietzsche's philosophical outlook is the "will to power" (der Wille zur Macht). cruel. and along with it any coherent sense of objective truth. is not bad. evil seen as worldly. value emerges from the contrast between good and evil: good being associated with other-worldliness." 10 Death of God. 19. It works to overcome the slave's own sense of inferiority before the (better-off) masters. in a number of places. III. and should be left to them. In Nietzsche's view. the death of God may lead beyond bare perspectivism to outright nihilism. meekness. to varying degrees. which Nietzsche deems to be harmful to the flourishing of exceptional people. which provides a basis for understanding motivation in human behavior. then nothing more remains to which man can cling and by which he can orient himself. e. Nietzsche associates slave-morality with the Jewish and Christian traditions. Nietzsche sees slave-morality born out of the ressentiment of slaves. Nietzsche claimed the death of God would eventually lead to the loss of any universal perspective on things. wealthy. In Nietzsche's eyes. relabeling it as "meekness. nihilism. has become one of his best-known remarks. restraint. On the basis of it. exists in a hypocritical state due to a tension between master and slave morality. Here. who had served as the basis for meaning and value in the West for more than a thousand years. as Nietzsche. The natural condition of life. Exceptional people. suggesting that adaptation and the struggle to survive is a secondary drive in the evolution of animals. reads: "Become what you are. Nietzsche wrote Thus Spoke Zarathustra. […] Zarathustra's gift of the superman is given to a mankind not aware of the problem to which the superman is the solution. should follow their own "inner law. also suggests that the will to power is a more important element than pressure for adaptation or survival.[53] According to Nietzsche. occurring in several of Nietzsche's works (notably in The Gay Science). selfish. This view has acquired the name "perspectivism".g. Nietzsche eventually took this concept further still.[55] One study of Nietzsche defines his fully developed concept of the will to power as "the element from which derive both the quantitative difference of related forces and . Nietzsche cautions that morality. recent developments in modern science and the increasing secularization of European society had effectively 'killed' the Christian God.. Alternatively. taken from Pindar.[54] In its later forms Nietzsche's concept of the will to power applies to all living things. piety. diverse."[51] Developing this idea. and submission. most commentators[49] regard Nietzsche as an atheist. perspectivism The statement "God is dead". "the death of God must be followed by a long twilight of piety and nihilism (II. is one of profusion. by. 8). However. comes about as a reaction to master-morality. others (such as Kaufmann) suggest that this statement reflects a more subtle understanding of divinity. This concept may have wide application. less important than the desire to expand one’s power. and aggressive. modern Europe. the values of most Europeans (who are "motley"). per se. the belief that nothing has any inherent importance and that life lacks purpose." Nietzsche sees the slave-morality as a source of the nihilism that has overtaken Europe. it is good for the masses. and speculated that it may apply to inorganic nature as well. It does so by making out slave weakness to be a matter of choice.Friedrich Nietzsche Slave-morality. and its Christianity. both values contradictorily determining. a theory which he viewed as a relic of the metaphysics of substance. according to him. Nietzsche calls for exceptional people to no longer be ashamed of their uniqueness in the face of a supposed morality-for-all.[50] Instead we would retain only our own multiple. only in limited situations the drive for conservation is precedent over the will to power: namely. According to Lampert." A favorite motto of Nietzsche.

In addition to Schopenhauer's psychological views. here are a few of his quotes from Thus Spoke Zarathustra (Prologue. While interpretations of Nietzsche's overman vary wildly.Friedrich Nietzsche the quality that devolves into each force in this relation" revealing the will to power as "the principle of the synthesis of forces. Nietzsche contrasts his notion of the will to power with many of the other most popular psychological views of his day. a reaction to Schopenhauer's praise of denying the will–to–live. and do you want to be the ebb of this great flood. glory.. challenges Schopenhauer's account and suggests that people and animals really want power. Defending his view. In this regard he often mentions the common Greek theme of agon or contest." Writing a generation before Nietzsche.. To comprehend eternal recurrence in his thought.. In each case. however. by British thinkers such as Bentham and Stuart Mill—claims that all people fundamentally want to be happy. living in itself appears only as a subsidiary aim—something necessary to promote one's power. and says that its burden is the "heaviest weight" imaginable. and characteristic of. English society only. Man is something that shall be overcome. What have you done to overcome him? … All beings so far have created something beyond themselves. Nietzsche calls the idea "horrifying and paralyzing". And man shall be that to overman: a laughingstock or painful embarrassment. in Nietzsche's days and before. and even now. tied between beast and overman—a rope over an abyss … what is great in man is that he is a bridge and not an end." Eternal return The idea of eternal return occurs in a parable in Section 341 of The Gay Science. man is more ape than any ape. and much in you is still worm. §§3–4): "I teach you the overman. and even go back to the beasts rather than overcome man? What is ape to man? A laughing stock or painful embarrassment. Once again. Nietzsche seems to take part of his inspiration from the ancient Homeric Greek texts he knew well: Greek heroes and aristocrats or "masters" did not desire mere living (they often died quite young and risked their lives in battle) but wanted power. Nietzsche. "love of fate":[59] . Let your will say: the overman shall be the meaning of the earth. and to not merely come to peace with it but to embrace it. Once you were apes. among other places. and greatness.. Utilitarianism—a philosophy mainly promoted. The overman is the meaning of the earth.. Nietzsche argues that the "will to power" provides a more useful and general explanation of human behavior."[56] Nietzsche's notion of the will to power can also be viewed as a response to Schopenhauer's "will to live. requires amor fati.[57] Also Platonism and Christian neo-Platonism–which claim that people ultimately want to achieve unity with The Good or with God–are philosophies he criticizes. You have made your way from worm to man. such as that of utilitarianism. and also in the chapter "Of the Vision and the Riddle" in Thus Spoke Zarathustra. But this conception of happiness found in utilitarianism Nietzsche rejected as something limited to. thus resulting in all creatures' desire to avoid death and to procreate.. 11 Übermensch Another concept important to an understanding of Nietzsche's thought is the Übermensch. Nietzsche describes instances where people and animals willingly risk their lives to gain power—most notably in instances like competitive fighting and warfare. Man is a rope.("das schwerste Gewicht")[58] The wish for the eternal return of all events would mark the ultimate affirmation of life. too. Schopenhauer had regarded the entire universe and everything in it as driven by a primordial will to live.

However. Ernest Renan's Life of Jesus and Fyodor Dostoyevsky's The Possessed. Rilke.[70] Tolstoy's My Religion. Nietzsche's works became better known. While Nietzsche never mentions Max Stirner.[60] From his Heraclitean sympathy Nietzsche was also a vociferous detractor of Parmenides. whom he saw as his "precursor" in some respects[63] but as a personification of the "ascetic ideal" in others. Nietzsche himself had acquired the publication-rights for his earlier works in 1886 and began a process of editing and re-formulation that placed the body of his work in a more coherent perspective. but responded to those appeals divergently. However.[73] Reception Nietzsche’s works did not reach a wide readership during his active writing career.[69] Notably. During the late 19th century Nietzsche's ideas were commonly associated with anarchist .Friedrich Nietzsche 12 Influence from Heraclitus The philosophy of Nietzsche. John Stuart Mill. in 1888 Georg Brandes (an influential Danish critic) aroused considerable excitement about Nietzsche through a series of lectures he gave at the University of Copenhagen.[70] [71] Nietzsche called Dostoevsky "the only psychologist from whom I have anything to learn. He had some following among left-wing Germans in the 1890s. His symbolism of the world as "child play" marked by amoral spontaneity and lack of definite rules was appreciated by Nietzsche. He read Immanuel Kant. and later Spinoza. Nietzsche referred to Kant as a "moral fanatic". Jean de La Bruyère and Vauvenargues. Andreas-Salomé had known Nietzsche well in the early 1880s.[67] as did that of Rudolf Virchow and Alfred Espinas. and readers have responded to them in complex and sometimes controversial ways. in her work Lebensrückblick – Grundriß einiger Lebenserinnerungen (Looking Back: Memoirs) (written in 1932). years later. and his embrace of "flux" and incessant change. Germany. who opposed Heraclitus and believed all world is a single Being with no change at all. was indebted to the pre-Socratic Greek thinker Heraclitus.[62] who became his main opponents in his philosophy."[72] Comments in several passages suggest that he responded strongly and favorably to the work of Ralph Waldo Emerson.[66] The residence of Nietzsche's last three years. while highly innovative and revolutionary.[65] as well as for Stendhal.[68] Nietzsche early learned of Darwinism through Friedrich Lange. Arthur Schopenhauer and Afrikan Spir. Heraclitus was known for the rejection of the concept of Being as a constant and eternal principle of universe. In the years after his death in 1900. which covered her intellectual relationships with Nietzsche. Many Germans eventually discovered his appeals for greater individualism and personality development in Thus Spoke Zarathustra.[61] Reading As a philologist. in 1894–1895 German conservatives wanted to ban his work as subversive. which holds many of Nietzsche's papers The organicism of Paul Bourget influenced Nietzsche. Then in 1894 Lou Andreas-Salomé published her book. Mill as a "blockhead". Nietzsche had a thorough knowledge of Greek philosophy. and she returned to the subject of Nietzsche. and of Spinoza he said: "How much of personal timidity and vulnerability does this masquerade of a sickly recluse betray?"[64] Nietzsche expressed admiration for 17th century French moralists such as La Rochefoucauld. the similarities in their ideas have prompted a minority of interpreters to suggest he both read and was influenced by him. Friedrich Nietzsche in seinen Werken (Friedrich Nietzsche in His Works). and Freud. along with archive in Weimar. he also read some of the posthumous works of Charles Baudelaire.

[79] and Martin Buber went so far as to extoll Nietzsche as a "creator" and "emissary of life". calling his work the "mere power-phantasies of an invalid".[81] Nietzsche's growing prominence suffered a severe setback when he became closely associated with Adolf Hitler and the German Reich. Richard Nixon read Nietzsche with "curious interest". Hollingdale. for example. A vocal minority of recent Nietzschean interpreters (Bruce Detwiler.J.L. Michel Foucault. probably never read Nietzsche. and if he did. there was a revival of Nietzsche's philosophical writings thanks to exhaustive translations and analyses by Walter Kaufmann and R.[80] Bertrand Russell. particularly in France and the United States. Yeats helped to raise awareness of Nietzsche in Ireland. By World War I. Domenico Losurdo. it is not always possible to determine whether or not they actually read his work. Jean-Paul Sartre. additions in 1879. Alexander Nehamas. Hollingdale. well known philosophers in their own right. William E. wrote commentaries on Nietzsche’s philosophy. Many political leaders of the twentieth century were at least superficially familiar with Nietzsche's ideas. Albert Camus. Many 20th century thinkers (particularly in the tradition of continental philosophy) cite him as a profound influence. It has been argued that his work influenced Theodore Herzl.[78] Nietzsche had a distinct appeal for many Zionist thinkers at the turn of the century. such as "lords of the earth" in Mein Kampf. J. Others. whose philosophy of immanence has significant similarities to Nietzsche's will to power. and Gilles Deleuze. this association with National Socialism caused Nietzsche's reputation to suffer following World War II. which rehabilitated Nietzsche as a philosopher.[74] The poet W.[82] although he was a frequent visitor to the Nietzsche museum in Weimar and did use expressions of Nietzsche's. including Martin Heidegger.[84] [85] It has been suggested that Theodore Roosevelt read Nietzsche and was profoundly influenced by him. in his History of Western Philosophy was scathing about Nietzsche.[86] and in more recent years. In the Anglo-American tradition he has had a profound influence on Bernard Williams due to the scholarship of Walter Kaufmann and R. referring to him as a "megalomaniac". Jacques Derrida. Mussolini and Charles de Gaulle read Nietzsche.[76] [77] The Dreyfus Affair provides another example of his reception: the French anti-semitic Right labelled the Jewish and Leftist intellectuals who defended Alfred Dreyfus as "Nietzscheans". 1880) The Dawn (1881) The Gay Science (1882) Thus Spoke Zarathustra (1883–1885) Beyond Good and Evil (1886) On the Genealogy of Morality (1887) The Case of Wagner (1888) • Twilight of the Idols (1888) • The Antichrist (1888) .Friedrich Nietzsche movements and appear to have had influence within them. Abir Taha) have contested what they consider the popular but erroneous egalitarian misrepresentation of Nietzsche's "aristocratic radicalism". Connolly and Brian Leiter continue to study him today. and writing that he was a philosophical progenitor of the Nazis and fascists. Mencken produced translations of Nietzsche's works that helped to increase knowledge of his philosophy in the United States. who produced a four-volume study. including Martin Heidegger. his reading was not extensive.[75] H. German soldiers received copies of Thus Spoke Zarathustra as gifts during World War I. However. and American philosophers such as Allan Bloom.[87] A decade after World War II. Nietzsche had acquired a reputation as an inspiration for right-wing German militarism. Hitler. All Too Human (1878.B. 13 Works • • • • • • • • • • The Birth of Tragedy (1872) On Truth and Lies in a Nonmoral Sense (1873) Untimely Meditations (1876) Human.[83] The Nazis made selective use of Nietzsche's philosophy. Fredrick Appel.

sup. in Edward N. Sellner. His thought in the context of Prussian militarism. Zalta. ISBN 0-7391-1130-2 • Tanner. only recently in Dutch .K. Timothy F.and an English translation is in progress by Stanford University Press in a 20-volume series called "The Complete Works of Friedrich Nietzsche". ""Studies in Nietzsche and the Judaeo-Christian Tradition" (University of North Carolina Press)1985 ISBN 0-8078-8104-X • Porter. ISBN 0192876805. Forrest E. Oxford: Oxford University Press. James I. • Benson.cgi?x=series& y=The%20Complete%20Works%20of%20Friedrich%20Nietzsche) 14 References Bibliography • Baird. Pious Nietzsche: Decadence and Dionysian Faith.called Nachlass or Legacy -. 1011–1038. in The Cambridge Companion to Nietzsche. Walter Kaufmann (2008). • Wicks. Robert. Helm. 2000). Lanham.. The Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy (Fall 2004 Edition ed. "Studies in Nietzsche and the Classical Tradition" (University of North Carolina Press)1979 ISBN 0-08078-8085-X • O'Flaherty. cultural intentions. Hugh Tomlinson. ISBN 0485112337. Gilles (1983). 2005. pp. • Young. anti-Semitism. social. 21–58. Laurence (1986). ISBN 0300044305. Walter (1974). pp. James I. These Unpublished Writings are vital to a good understanding of Nietzsche's philosophy and provide a clue to Nietzsche's political. 296. Nietzsche's Epic of the Soul: Thus Spoke Zarathustra. Robert M.). New Haven: Yale University Press. • Magnus and Higgins.called Nagelaten Fragmenten . Friedrich Nietzsche: A Philosophical Biography (Cambridge University Press. Helm. "The Invention of Dionysus: An Essay on The Birth of Tragedy" (Stanford University Press. Upper Saddle River. New Jersey: Pearson Prentice Hall. but the project won't be finished before 2013. Princeton University Press. "Nietzsche's works and their themes". Magnus and Higgins (ed... Nietzsche's Teaching: An Interpretation of "Thus Spoke Zarathustra". MD: Lexington Books. "Nietzsche and the Philology of the Future" (Stanford University Press. and other phenomena of his era. Antichrist. published in Germany for the first time in 1967 . 2010) 649 pages.from which The Will to Power is only a small selection -. Indiana University Press. ISBN 0-8047-3700-2 • Nietzsche and Philosophy.Friedrich Nietzsche • • • • • Ecce Homo (1888) Nietzsche contra Wagner (1888) The Greek State (1871) (http://nietzsche. "Friedrich Nietzsche" [88].. ISBN 0-8047-3698-7 • Porter. • Kaufmann. pp. ISBN 0-521-36767-0 • O'Flaherty. Sellner. Julian. http://www. Only 3 volumes have been published as of yet. trans. T. James C.holtof. 1996.. 2000). Michael (1994). .htm) The Will to Power (unpublished manuscripts edited together by his sister) Unpublished Writings (1869-1889) (the whole of Nietzsche's notebooks . • Deleuze. Psychologist. Darwinian science. University of Cambridge Press. Bruce Ellis (2007). James C. From Plato to Derrida.). Nietzsche: Philosopher.. Robert M. ISBN 0691019835.. ISBN 0-13-158591-6. Timothy F. • Lampert. Athlone Press.

University Park (Penn State). not by name. and in French. Eduard: "Friedrich Nietzsches Heimatlosigkeit". "Förster-Nietzsche. but it had a lasting impact on Nietzsche. Friedrich Nietzsche. 1388-1391. Nietzsche and The Legend of Nietzsche's Syphilis (Westwood: Greenwood Press. 40. Basler Zeitschrift für Geschichte und Altertumskunde. Hellmuth: "Nietzsches Staatsangehörigkeit als Rechtsfrage". polls.iep. Harlow. com/ corresp. but by presenting a "proposition by an outstanding logician" (2. Correspondences [18] Encyclopædia Britannica Online. with daily quotes Brian Leiter's Nietzsche Blog [97]: News. vol. 2004. 2007-11-14 • "Nietzsche's Moral and Political Philosophy [93]" article by Brian Leiter in the Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy. All Too Human cited Spir. org/ navigate. p. Friedrich Nietzsche. Note that some authors (among them Deussen and Montinari) mistakenly claim that Nietzsche became a Swiss citizen. "Beyond Good and Evil [99]". . 159-186. All Too Human. Longman pronunciation dictionary.49 [16] Letter to Peter Gast – August 1883 [17] The Nietzsche Channel (http:/ / thenietzschechannel. p. Friedrich Nietzsche (1974. edu/ eb/ article-9034925). p. lclark. and discussion about Nietzsche and current events in Nietzsche scholarship from Brian Leiter (University of Chicago). Nietzsche Forum [98]: Nietzsche Forum for discussing Friedrich Nietzsche's life and work. W. htm). 2008. Walter. p. Walter Kaufmann. Neue Juristische Wochenschrift. [19] Letter to Peter Gast. PUF. The Nietzsche Canon. 2001) [21] From the Preface. 478.85 in: Journal of Nietzsche Studies 25 (Spring 2003). 22. com/ adiphilunclassified3. 23. p. 1996. Antichrist. nlm." (http:/ / radicalacademy. HH I §18) [14] Stephan Güntzel. p117 [9] Hecker. [5] For Nietzsche's account of the accident and injury see his letter to Karl Von Gersdorff: Letter of Friedrich Nietzsche to Karl Von Gersdorff – June. section 1 (English translation by Walter Kaufmann) [22] Kaufmann. "Nietzsche's Geophilosophy" (http:/ / www. eb. trans. "Nietzsche and the Judaeo-Christian tradition. William. Nietzsche: A Philosophical Biography (trans. translated into German in 1991. Elisabeth. article by Dale Wilkerson. Schaberg. Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy. p. p. References [1] [2] [3] [4] Wells. htm#Spir).38. [7] Kaufmann. The Pennsylvania State University Press. . 2007-07-27 http://www.Friedrich Nietzsche 15 External links • Nietzsche Source: Digital version of the German critical edition of the complete works / Digital facsimile edition of the entire Nietzsche estate [89] • Works by Friedrich Nietzsche [90] at Project Gutenberg • Works by Nietzsche in audio format [91] from LibriVox • "Friedrich Nietzsche [92]" article by Robert Wicks in the Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy. php?sigle=sgunzel-4). [20] Mazzino Montinari. De Gruyter. 1941." Search. 1987. [23] The Portable Nietzsche. • • • • • • • • BBC (1999).utm. ISBN 0582053838. nr. 32 Jörg Salaquarda. entry "Nietzsche" Kaufmann. and (http:/ / www. Nietzsche: Philosopher. p. (1990)." in The Cambridge Companion to Nietzsche (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. March 1887. [11] Richard Schain. 1868 [6] A letter containing Nietzsche's description of the first meeting with Wagner. librarypx. . Norton & Company. 25. [10] "What was the cause of Nietzsche's dementia?" (http:/ / www. p. [8] Paul Bishop. 99. Berlin-New York. re-published on HyperNietzsche's website (English)/(German) [15] Kaufmann. Psychologist. 161: "This work [Denken und Wirklichkeit] had long been consigned to oblivion. W. 2003-10-15. gov/ pubmed/ 12522502). hypernietzsche. Accessed October 10. 1996). John C. Shelley Frisch). England: Longman. Jg. Human. Section 18 of Human. University of Chicago Press. 2001 [12] "A biography of Spir. p. 67. com.EB.. search. ncbi. Eine Einführung. nih. 2009 Nietzsche [94] from the radio program Philosophy Talk Friedrich Nietzsche [95] at the Open Directory Project Free scores by Friedrich Nietzsche in the International Music Score Library Project Nietzsche Quotes [96] Searchable database of Nietzsche quotations. fws1. 40. 2003. [13] Rüdiger Safranski.

asp?lang=en& navid=133& id=14389& mod=acta). Munich: Carl Hanser. Nietzsche's Reading and Private Library. The Antichrist. 2007. December 1882. frontotemporal dementia".8. pp. Routledge guide to Nietzsche on morality.L. Superman in the Underground: Strategies of Madness—Nietzsche. Nietzsche. August 30. [37] Er beantragte also bei der preussischen Behörde seine Expatrierung [Translation:] "He accordingly applied to the Prussian authorities for expatrification". Vol.37. Devreese D (March 2008). Volume 4. 313. philosophos. Wagner. page 263. T. Cambridge. O. Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica 114 (6): 439–444. Aaron Ridley. [32] Orth M. (Spring. 2005. London: Routledge. Urmson. Mass. See Sharp Press. p. Fisher Unwin. 287. 2005). 1885–1889. ISBN 3 11 012277 4. Nietzsche's Teaching. Friedrich Wilhelm. Twilight of the Idols. Print. 4. overwhelmingly label Nietzsche as a "German philosopher". Others do not assign him a nationalist category. Bufe." [51] Heidegger. 16 . Richard. Un-Knowing. com/ books?id=nnEOAAAAIAAJ& pg=PA6& dq=Nietzsche+ Polish& as_brr=3) [42] Letter to Heinrich von Stein.1 p. hook). "Why I Am a Destiny". Milan. 42–45. "Roger Boscovich. 1986). and Dostoevsky. doi:10.51. discussion 445. 342. Mencken: The Philosophy of Friedrich Nietzche. [53] Beyond Good & Evil 13. Introduction and comments by Charles Q. What Nietzsche Means. ein Kämpfer gegen seine Zeit. 1888. Hemelsoet K. 1900. quoted in Janz (1981) p. pg. Nietzsche's Madness. Nr. (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. For example: The Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy (http:/ / plato. 293. reprinted by University of Michigan 2006. [39] Hollingdale. Published in Journal of History of Ideas." 61. "Nietzsches Vorfahren. Broadview Press. p. "The Word of Nietzsche. Ecce Homo. 1999. Oxford: Oxford University Press. USA. [59] Dudley. edu/ entries/ nietzsche/ ). December 1882. Simon Blackburn: The Oxford Dictionary of Philosophy. 251.29. [25] Rudolf Steiner: Friedrich Nietzsche. com/ books?id=Xeb80itrlRIC& pg=PA1& dq="German+ philosopher"+ Nietzsche& lr=& sig=TGo0nlA9H07fxr4GbfMlDcFRgrQ). R. "The Philosophy of Friedrich Nietzsche". ISBN 0-415-32924-8. 1908. 1978. "The Word of Nietzsche. [50] Lampert.40. google. Nietzsche. George Allen (1941). 6. ISBN 083717404X. 17–18. pp. [46] Kaufmann. Translated by Judith Norman. Curt Paul Janz: Friedrich Nietzsche: Biographie volume 1. 6. First Philosophy: Fundamental Problems and Readings in Philosophy. 1976). Hegel. Stefan (1939) Master Builders [trilogy].187. . pg. Hospital Medicine 61 (8): 571–575. Nietzsche's Teaching. page 566. Britannica (http:/ / www. Sacrifice. See: Nietzsche. (December. com/ eb/ article-9108765/ Friedrich-Nietzsche#387226. 37–39 [61] Roochnik. 2006. 1996 p207 [56] Gilles Deleuze. Accessed via JSTOR on May 18. The Anti-Christ." Nietzsche-Studien 25.2006. [44] H. David. MLN. Volz (1990). pages 726–741. Ecce Homo. (Ecce Homo-M I) [47] Nietzsche. p. actaneurologica. [49] Morgan. KGB III 1. 579. and Philosophy: Thinking Freedom. com/ dp/ 0192854143). p. "The madness of Nietzsche: a misdiagnosis of the millennium?".).6 [40] Some recently translations use this latter text. KGB III 7.3/1 p. 10. be/ acta/ article. Abingdon: Routledge. . Cambridge University Press.1111/j. p46 [57] Brian Leiter. p704 [27] Georges Bataille & Annette Michelson. 1993. [28] René Girard. Vol. For example: Edward Craid (editor): The Shorter Routledge Encyclopedia of philosophy. whether emphasizing his cultural background or his language. 48 [62] Brobjer. Source: Nietzsche: A Very Short Introduction (See Preview on Amazon) (http:/ / www. Thomas. 221. "Nietzsche's Visionary Values — Genius or Dementia? (http:/ / www. 121 [58] Kundera. [60] Roochnik. 2002. Gay Science 349 & Genealogy of Morality II:12 [54] Twilight of the Idols. and Letter to Georg Brandes. see G. page 201. KSA 9 p. The Concise encyclopedia of western philosophy (3rd ed. Whitlock." reprinted Nietzsche-Studien 31 (2002): 253–275. [35] Schain. (http:/ / books. [33] Hemelsoet D. britannica. §3 [48] Nietzsche. pp. Nietzsche ad Philosophy. 18. [31] ""Nietzsche 'died of brain cancer'"" (http:/ / www. pp. "Friedrich Nietzsche's mental illness—general paralysis of the insane vs. Friedrich Wilhelm. Viking Press. KGB III 7. Benedict de Spinoza and Friedrich Nietzsche: The Untold Story. 2004: 4. au/ articles/ 2003/ 05/ 05/ 1051987657451. p.57. [34] Concurring reports in Elisabeth Förster-Nietzsche's biography (1904) and a letter by Mathilde Schenk-Nietzsche to Meta von Salis. smh. 1999. 524. 1161–1185 [29] Cybulska EM (August 2000). Retrieving the Ancients (2004) pg. and Other Writings: And Other Writings. Heidegger. 77.00827. Skirmishes of an untimely man.2 [45] Letter to Heinrich von Stein. translated by Hugh Tomlinson. Grand Rapids: Kessinger. 2003. [52] Lampert.59. KGW V 2. 681 [43] von Müller. 36.1600-0447. The Unbearable Lightness of Being.: Harvard University Press. pp. Acta Neurologica Belgica 108 (1): 9–16. google.J: Nietzsche: The Man and His Philosophy. 36. Jonathan Rée and J. The Cambridge Companion to Nietzsche. pages 252–253. The Struggle with the Daimon. p. amazon. ed (2005) [1960]. PMID 11045229.Friedrich Nietzsche [24] Zweig. Cf. page 1 (http:/ / books. com.18. stanford. html) [36] General commentators and Nietzsche scholars. Part I. 2005. [38] German text available as Entlassungsurkunde für den Professor Friedrich Wilhelm Nietzsche aus Naumburg in Giorgio Colli and Mazzino Montinari: Nietzsche Briefwechsel: Kritische Gesamtausgabe. 267–270. No. html). "The neurological illness of Friedrich Nietzsche" (http:/ / www. Will. com/ philosophy_article_31.x. Weimar 1895 [26] Andrew Bailey. p. page 5. Berlin: Walter de Gruyter. Georges Bataille: Writings on Laughter. §14 [55] Nietzsche comments in many notes about matter being a hypothesis drawn from the metaphysics of substance. 91. PMID 17087793. October. Comparative Literature. 2002. [41] Henry Louis Mencken. PMID 18575181. Trimble MR (December 2006).

Deleuze. Psychologist. 400–426. Berlin: Walter de Gruyter. Misinterpretation. J. History of Western Philosophy. July 30. P. "Anti-Statism in German Literature. L. 2004 [82] Weaver Santaniello. Transaction Publishers. Beyond Peace. Vol. p135 [77] Kaufmann. 306–340. U. p. 1881 [64] Russell. pp. 97–117 [75] Everdell. 2008. S. 1994. Wilder Publications. 1993. The First Moderns.000 copies of a specially durable wartime Zarathustra were distributed to the troops" in The Nietzsche Legacy in Germany.439 [69] Note sur Nietzsche et Lange : « le retour éternel » (http:/ / fr. Touchstone. 2004. 508. History of Western Philosophy. T. [79] Francis R. Cambridge University Press. jstor. S. a race of predators." [83] William L. The Selected Writings of Friedrich Nietzsche. Laska: Nietzsche's initial crisis (http:/ / www. T. East Central Europe in the Modern World. God. certainly. Routledge. pp. De la fin du XIXe siècle au temps présent. p100-101 [84] Simonetta Falasca-Zamponi. William (1998). Stanley). Antichrist. 2006. R. Vol. §3 [67] Johan Grzelczyk. Fascist Spectacle: The Aesthetics of Power in Mussolini's Italy. Mencken (Ed. p.8 [78] Schrift. Routledge. Revue philosophique de la France et de l'étranger.). Essays in Socialism and Philosophy. 2008. hypernietzsche. T. pp. org/ navigate. Post-Holocaust: Interpretation. Ewald. Berlin/New York. p214 "J. p217: "The son of a history teacher. Nixon in Winter. against the view of particular influence on Herzl. Forth. Grzelczyk quotes Jacques Le Rider. The Rise and Fall of the Third Reich. University of California Press. Chicago: U Chicago Press.". "Féré et Nietzsche : au sujet de la décadence" (http:/ / www. Neither Mein Kampf nor Hitler's Table Talk (Tischgesprache) mentions his name. L. Bertrand.Friedrich Nietzsche [63] Letter to Franz Overbeck. Solomon & K. E. as Exemplified by the Work of John Henry Mackay". a History of Nazi Germany. H. Éditions de l'Éclat. p197. "German Philosophy in 1907". 2003. Band 17. org/ sici?sici=0016-8831(197905)52:3<303:NALR>2. "Féré et Nietzsche : au sujet de la décadence" (http:/ / www.-Israeli Relations at the Crossroads. Indiana University Press. Cold War Statesmen Confront the Bomb. Alexandre Herzen (fils) und Charles Féré 1888" in Nietzsche Studien. Philip Morgan. de Gaulle read voraciously as a boy and young man — Jacques Bainville. 2005-11-01 (French). No. Decadence. Nietzsche and Philosophy. lsr-projekt. 1890–1990. Nietzsche. Vol. [74] O. (translated by Hugh Tomlinson). Fascism in Europe. p36. org/ navigate. Nietzsche and Zion. it was not extensively". Paris. 1981. I. E. C. 2005-11-01 (French). An. No. Rosenberg. HyperNietzsche. Routledge. through what was coffeehouse Quatsch in Vienna and Munich. Nietzsche en France. and. p300. Berel Lang. Nietzschean ideas reached him through the filter of Alfred Rosenberg's Myth of the Twentieth Century. The Politics of German Expressionism 1910–1920. p70. Beer and Revolution: The German Anarchist Movement In New York City. Goyens. 2002. 2005. Cornell University Press. A. 519–525 (on French Wikisource) [70] Mazzino Montinari. Jacob Golomb. pp 693–697 [65] Brendan Donnellan. SUNY Press. ISBN 0226224813. p21: "We know that Mussolini had read Nietzsche" [85] J. G." 17 . if he did read him. "La Volonté de puissance" n'existe pas. Riley. 54. p162: "Arguably. pp. p41: "Hitler probably never read a word of Nietzsche". ISBN 0-415-91147-8. p144. HyperNietzsche.).Tauris. From Hegel To Nietzsche. Berkeley and Los Angeles. in The Philosophical Review. A. 1990. Roosevelt appealing to Americans to become conquerors. it is almost certain that Hitler either never read Nietzsche directly or read very little. Gaddis. p9: "To be sure. Left Wing Nietzscheans. Friedrich Nietzsche.". 2000.D. Andrew C. Bourdeau has pointed out the strange similarity between the ideas of Andrew Carnegie and Roosevelt. Shirer. 1997. Nietzsche and Jewish Culture. The Age of German Idealism.S. 3 (May. R. 62. php?sigle=jgrzelczyk-4). 1908. Nietzsche's French Legacy: A Genealogy of Poststructuralism. Jacob Golomb. Georges Sorel (trans.. §13 [71] Walter Kaufmann. July.8–9 [68] Johan Grzelczyk. 1997. Routledge. (1995). Routledge. pp 234–235 [81] Bertrand Russell. p170 [80] Jacob Golomb (Ed. 1. M. [73] K. Routledge. J. in PMLA. 67. "Irgendwie. Aschheim notes that "[a]bout 150. Oxford University Press. January. jedenfalls physiologisch. Paris 1909. Hitler himself never read a word of Nietzsche. p351: "He read with curious interest the writings of Friedrich Nietzsche […] Nixon asked to borrow my copy of Beyond Good and Evil. 1919–1945. "The Philosophy of Force. 1998. Zionism and Anti-Semitism in Nazi Germany. 1997. and the Claims of History. de/ poly/ ennietzsche. Wahrig-Schmidt. see: Gabriel Sheffer. Löwith. 2007. 1987. and Regeneration in France. [72] Twilight of the Idols. 1959. "Nietzsche. 1947. p153 (referring to Roosevelt's published speech The Strenuous Life): "It is inconceivable that Mr. 1999. org/ wiki/ Note_sur_Nietzsche_et_Lange_:_«_le_retour_éternel_»). The Meta Phenomenon. §45). 34. 52. Nietzsche: Philosopher. "Why I am So Clever". PUF. 3. Routledge. Nietzsche and Jewish Culture. php?sigle=jgrzelczyk-4). C. A. pp. Grzelczyk quotes B." [87] Monica Crowley. p187. [76] Steven E. September. Taylor. 1992. Stanford University Press. 1999. 33 (2): 109–133. CO. Albert Fouillée. p184: "By all indications. Illinois. 0. hypernietzsche. more simply. Friederich [sic] Nietzsche. 1964. Routledge. This at least is the impression he gives in his published conversations with Dietrich Eckart. R. 17. 1988. Nicosia. 2004. 1996. 1993.2-6& size=LARGE) in The German Quarterly. Vol. Roosevelt should have formulated his present confession of faith independently of Nietzsche". and the Jews. New York. Hitler never read Nietzsche. Henri Bergson. May. html) In: Germanic Notes and Reviews. in Journal of the History of Ideas.B. Walter de Gruyter." [86] H. pp 25–27. Maurice Barres — and was steeped in conservative French historical and philosophical traditions. Samek. "Nietzsche and La Rochefoucauld" (http:/ / links. p44: "In 1908 he presented his conception of the superman's role in modern society in a writing on Nietzsche entitled. wikisource. No. pp. 1889. Janos. 303–318 (English) [66] See for example Ecce Homo. Higgins. 828–843. 1979). New York. Gordon. No. 1891–1895". a title that inspired the title of his final book. pp153-154. a special treatise on that question is: Bernd A. and those of Nietzsche: Carnegie deploring the wasting of money on the support of incompetents. Friedrich Nietzsche. pp. 4.

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) 30702580 [1] 111/. wherein Nietzsche commented on this very early work. An Attempt at Self-Criticism. It was reissued in 1886 as The Birth of Tragedy. Oder: Griechentum und Pessimismus). the Apollonian/Dionysian opposition Dramatic theory 1872 Paperback. . hardcover 160 (1993 Penguin ed.) ISBN 978-0140433395 (1993 Penguin ed. 1872) is a 19th-century work of dramatic theory by the German philosopher Friedrich Nietzsche. The later edition contained a prefatory essay.The Birth of Tragedy 19 The Birth of Tragedy The Birth of Tragedy Out of the Spirit of Music Cover of the 1993 Penguin edition Author Original title Translator Country Language Subject(s) Genre(s) Publication date Media type Pages ISBN OCLC Number Dewey Decimal LC Classification Followed by Friedrich Nietzsche 'Die Geburt der Tragödie aus dem Geiste der Musik' Shaun Whiteside Germany German Athenian tragedy. Or: Hellenism and Pessimism (Die Geburt der Tragödie.G42 E55 1993 The Untimely Meditations (1876) The Birth of Tragedy from the Spirit of Music (Die Geburt der Tragödie aus dem Geiste der Musik.85 20 B3313.

of Dionysus. in music. but in the terror and ecstasy alike celebrated in the performance of tragedies. while the Apollonian element was found in the dialogue which gave a concrete symbolism that balanced the Dionysiac revelry. He theorizes that the chorus was originally always satyrs. they have an Apollonian dream vision of themselves." Yet neither side ever prevails due to each containing the other in an eternal. in a rebirth of tragedy. there was an era of static. The combination of these elements in one art form gave birth to tragedy. he argues. the Apollonian was checked and destroyed.The Birth of Tragedy 20 The book Nietzsche found in classical Athenian tragedy an art form that transcended the pessimism and nihilism of a fundamentally meaningless world. because they saw things too soberly and rationally. The Dionysian element was to be found in the wild revelry of festivals and drunkenness. It’s a vision of the god. passionately and joyously.) Thus. affirmed the meaning in their own existence. And the actors and the plot are the development of that dream vision. they participated with and as the chorus empathetically. Before the tragedy.. allowing the spectator to experience the full spectrum of the human condition. by looking into the abyss of human suffering and affirming it. represented by Socrates. or the forms themselves). The Dionysiac element was to be found in the music of the chorus. there was an age where tragedy died. wherever the first Dionysian onslaught was successfully withstood. "Wherever the Dionysian prevailed. as satyrs. Noah Guiney was particularly moved. these two intellectuals helped drain the ability of the individual to participate in forms of art. who appears before the chorus on the stage. making it more reflective of the realities of daily life. Originally educated as a philologist. most importantly. the authority and majesty of the Delphic god Apollo exhibited itself as more rigid and menacing than ever. the Apollonian spirit was able to give form to the abstract Dionysian. or balance. They knew themselves to be infinitely more than the petty individuals of the apparent summer school trip to Greece. goat-men. finding self-affirmation. The Greek spectators. . much of man's ability to live creatively in optimistic harmony with the sufferings of life. Euripides reduced the use of the chorus and was more naturalistic in his representation of human drama. Socrates emphasized reason to such a degree that he diffused the value of myth and suffering to human knowledge. idealized plastic art in the form of sculpture that represented the Apollonian view of the world. The participation mystique aspect of art and myth was lost. although the word “tragedy” τραγωδία is contracted from trag(o)-aoidiā = "goat song" from tragos = "goat" and aeidein = "to sing". Nietzsche argues that the tragedy of Ancient Greece was the highest form of art due to its mixture of both Apollonian and Dionysian elements into one seamless whole. Basically. each battling for control over the existence of humanity. (This is speculative. Nietzsche discusses the history of the tragic form and introduces an intellectual dichotomy between the Dionysian and the Apollonian (very loosely: reality undifferentiated by forms and like distinctions versus reality as differentiated by forms. “the illusion of culture was wiped away by the primordial image of man” for the audience. of the energy they're embodying. the essence of which is the ecstatic dismembering of the god and of the Bacchantes' rituals. Nietzsche ties this to the influence of writers like Euripides and the coming of rationality. Nietzsche concludes that it may be possible to reattain the balance of Dionysian and Apollonian in modern art through the operas of Richard Wagner. and along with it. In Nietzsche's words.” But in this state. of the inseparable ecstasy and suffering of human existence… After the time of Aeschylus and Sophocles. not in another life. natural check.. but. “so that they imagined themselves as restored natural geniuses. For Nietzsche.. not in a world to come. Nietzsche claims life always involves a struggle between these two elements.

. as Nietzsche observes. which tends not to have clear boundaries. (BT. elegant and grandiose[2] . pp. and. but he sees German Romanticism (especially Richard Wagner) as a possible re-introduction of the Dionysian. It was precisely this human-dreamt world that the Greeks had developed into perfection from the Homeric legends onward. had developed a rich world view based on Apollo and the other Olympian gods. Apollo being the god who most typifies the Olympian complex in this regard. Only in the distant past. Hence. invites participation among its listeners through dance. intoxication. Thus. The universe in which we live is the product of great interacting forces. The problem—and it is a problem for all times and all human life—is that the dark side of existence makes itself apparent and forces us to confront whatever we have tried to shut out of our nice. Nietzsche claims sculpture as the art-form that captures this impulse most fully: sculpture has clear and definite boundaries and seeks to represent reality. But it is. and largely outside of Athens. never actually addresses the underlying realities. sobriety and emphasis on superficial appearance. dissolution of the individual (occasionally. by contrast. had Dionysian festivals paved the way to direct (and destructive) experience of life's darkest sides—intoxication. 2. What we put together as our conceptions of the world. Nietzsche sees the Dionysian impulse as best realized in music. Nietzsche's theory of Athenian tragic drama suggests exactly how. The book shows the influence of Schopenhauer. but we neither observe nor know these as such. non-rationality. they had rendered themselves largely ignorant of reality's dark side. capable of greatness. sexual license. It is a beautiful creation. 36) Apollo is the god of plastic arts and of illusion. in its perfectly stable form.[3] The issue. as represented in the god Dionysus. to become entirely absorbed in the rule of one or the other. There is. rather than the detached. always of significance. Nietzsche believed the Greeks were grappling with pessimism. while the Greeks. formed a world picture in which individual people can live. The Greek spectator became healthy through direct experience of the Dionysian within the protective spirit-of-tragedy on the Apollonian stage. then. 1. objective clarity. absorption by the primal horde. in short. is unstable and non-representational. an Apollonian aesthetics. The beings are almost sculpted. and inhumanity. features immersion in the wholeness of nature. at the same time. The soundest (healthiest) foothold is in both. or for a whole society. which might offer the salvation of European culture. whereby man separates himself from the undifferentiated immediacy of nature. combined with all the details of their heroic lives and their numerous interactions with men and women of earth. This picture literally rendered humans as individuals. It is human destiny to be controlled by the darkest universal realities and. the Dionysian impulse involves a frenzied participation in life itself. simple. tidy livable world.The Birth of Tragedy 21 The Apollonian and the Dionysian In contrast to the typical Enlightenment view of ancient Greek culture as noble. actual dismemberment) and re-immersion into a common organic whole. The Olympian complex of deities. or so Nietzsche thought. before Euripides and Socrates. to live life in a human-dreamt world of illusions. is how to experience and understand the Dionysian side of life without destroying the obvious values of the Apollonian side. Nietzsche thought. p. It is not healthy for an individual. Athenians mature within the illusions of a world and life that is under control and that has clear models of personal significance and greatness. (BT. rational representation of the Apollonian that invites similarly detached observation. the Dionysian and Apollonian elements of life were artistically woven together. in this world. The Dionysian impulse. for Nietzsche. in Nietzsche's view. Nietzsche argues that the Apollonian has dominated Western thought since Socrates. and the Athenians in particular. 39–40) The Apollonian in culture he sees as Arthur Schopenhauer's concept of the principium individuationis (principle of individuation) with its refinement.

Prompted by Nietzsche. then a professor of classical philology at the University of Basel. philosophical insight. especially The World as Will and Representation. and simple people.. one in which a battery of questions are asked. This is what I want to illuminate. sentimental. Nietzsche himself had reservations about the work. and their synthesis in Greek tragedy. More important influences include Hegel. He argued that life is worth living despite the enormous amount of cruelty and suffering that exists. Erwin Rohde -. It stands. His solution is to belittle the historical-critical method. His interest in classical Greece as in some respects a rational society can be attributed in some measure to the influence of Johann Joachim Winckelmann. . In addition.. in her introduction to Nietzsche's Philosophy in the Tragic Age of the Greeks. In suggesting the Greeks might have had problems. describes the situation in these words: The Birth of Tragedy presented a view of the Greeks so alien to the spirit of the time and to the ideals of its scholarship that it blighted Nietzsche's entire academic career. but his action only served to characterize Nietzsche as the composer's lackey. which viewed the Greeks as a happy. although Nietzsche departed from Winckelmann in many ways. [and] without the will to logical cleanliness.. The work is a web of professional philology. The Apollonian experience bears great similarity to the experience of the world as "representation" in Schopenhauer's sense. The music theme was so closely associated with Richard Wagner that it became an embarrassment to Nietzsche once he himself had achieved some distance and independence from Wagner.a friend who had written a favorable review that sparked the first derogatory debate over the book -. badly written. . he treats a series of very important questions of Greek literary history. embarrassing. scholarship and sanity. had no students in his field. whose concept of the dialectic underlies the tripartite division of art into the Apollonian. and shows the influence of many of the philosophers Nietzsche had been studying. it was almost immediately rejected.. Particularly vehement was philologist Ulrich von Wilamowitz-Moellendorff. and he published a preface in the 1886 edition where he re-evaluated some of his main concerns and ideas in the text. ponderous. Wilamowitz says: Herr N.. It provoked pamphlets and counter-pamphlets attacking him on the grounds of common sense. sketchily identified. who denounced Nietzsche's work as slipshod and misleading. and the experience of the Dionysian bears similarities to the identification with the world as "will. uneven in tempo. especially through the work of Gottfried Hermann and Karl Lachmann.responded by exposing Wilamowitz-Moellendorf's inaccurate citations of Nietzsche's work.. As a work in philology." Nietzsche opposed Schopenhauer's Buddhistic negation of the will. perhaps even naive. and to ascribe a "complete misunderstanding of the study of antiquity" to the age in which philology in Germany. Nietzsche was departing from the scholarly traditions of his age. Nietzsche. In his denunciation of The Birth of Tragedy. saccharine to the point of effeminacy. was raised to an unprecedented height. For a time. and admiration of musical art. as Nietzsche's first complete. Marianne Cowan. Richard Wagner also issued a response to Wilamowitz-Moellendorf's critique. His lectures were sabotaged by German philosophy professors who advised their students not to show up for Nietzsche's courses."[5] . virtually destroying Nietzsche's academic aspirations. and questionably answered. Nietzsche referred to The Birth of Tragedy as "an impossible book. Also of great importance are the works of Arthur Schopenhauer.[4] Reception The Birth of Tragedy was angrily criticized by many respected professional scholars of Greek literature. to scold any aesthetic insight which deviates from his own. published philosophical work.The Birth of Tragedy 22 Influences The Birth of Tragedy is a young man's work. . then. and it is easy to prove that here also imaginary genius and impudence in the presentation of his claims stands in direct relation to his ignorance and lack of love of the truth. Nietzsche uses the term "naive" in exactly the sense used by Friedrich Schiller. In this post-script.. image-mad and image-confused.. By 1886. its Dionysian antithesis. is also a professor of classical philology.

of which songs of all primitive men and peoples speak. He defends the The Birth of Tragedy by stating: ". used to illuminate each other.] We must keep in mind the measured restraint. (translated by Walter Kaufmann) • Even under the influence of the narcotic draught." But of course such poor wretches have no idea how corpselike and ghostly their so-called "healthy-mindedness" looks when the glowing life of the Dionysian revelers roars past them. that calm of the sculptor god." Still.. In the German Middle Ages. An 'idea'—the antithesis of the Dionysian and the Apollinian—translated into the metaphysical. 'Rationality' against instinct. [.. or with the potent coming of spring that penetrates all nature with joy. for example. even when it is angry and distempered it is still hallowed by beautiful illusion [.. and as they grow in intensity everything subjective vanishes into complete self-forgetfulness. [. turn away from such phenomena as from "folk-diseases. is also ruler over the beautiful illusion of the inner world of fantasy... is at the same time the soothsaying god.] (translated by Walter Kaufmann) • [. hostile silence about Christianity throughout the book. and the cadaverous perfume of Schopenhauer sticks only to a few formulas.. His eye must be "sunlike. first. the freedom from the wilder emotions. and it is considered as one root of the whole of Greek art. If we add to this terror the blissful ecstasy that wells from the innermost depths of man. its understanding of the Dionysian phenomenon among the Greeks: for the first time.. who embodies the "Dionysian principle.] There are some who. and the revolution.— The two decisive innovations of the book are.. in Ecce Homo.] But we must also include in our image of Apollo that delicate boundary which the dream image must not overstep lest it have a pathological effect [.. as a typical décadent. once. Nietzsche was back on the attack.. Opera. these Dionysian emotions awake. it negates all aesthetic values—the only values that the 'Birth of Tragedy' recognizes: it is nihilistic in the most profound sense. That is neither Apollinian nor Dionysian." with contempt or pity born of consciousness of their own "healthy-mindedness.. indeed of nature. we steal a glimpse into the nature of the Dionysian. singing and dancing crowds." In the title of his novel The Magic Mountain. as "falling stillborn from the press. a psychological analysis of this phenomenon is offered.] Schopenhauer has depicted for us the tremendous terror which seizes man when he is suddenly dumbfounded by the cognitive form of phenomena because the principle of sufficient reason. too.The Birth of Tragedy Its reception was such a personal disappointment that he referred to it. in tragedy this antithesis is sublimated into a unity.. 24] to Christian priests as a 'vicious kind of dwarfs' who are 'subterranean' . and the influence of Nietzsche's work can be seen in the novel's character Mynheer Peepercorn. 'Rationality' at any price as a dangerous force that undermines life!— Profound. under this perspective things that had never before faced each other are suddenly juxtaposed. (translated by Walter Kaufmann) . There is one allusion [The Birth of Tragedy."[6] 23 Quotations • The joyous necessity of the dream experience has been embodied by the Greeks in their Apollo: Apollo.It is indifferent toward politics.. whirled themselves from place to place under this same Dionysian impulse. He. The other is the understanding of Socratism: Socrates is recognized for the first time as an instrument of Greek disintegration. in some one of its manifestations.—'un-German. seems to suffer an exception." In 1888. Thomas Mann alludes to a passage from The Birth of Tragedy.." the deity of light. while in the Dionysian symbol the ultimate limit of affirmation is attained.. which is brought home to us most intimately by the analogy of intoxication.. he defended the "arrogant and rhapsodic book" for inspiring "fellow-rhapsodizers" and for luring them on to "new secret paths and dancing places.' to use the language of the present time—it smells offensively Hegelian. ever increasing in number. at this collapse of the principium individuationis." as befits his origin. history itself as the development of this 'idea'. the god of all plastic energies. and comprehended. from obtuseness or lack of experience. who (as the etymology of the name indicates) is the "shining one.

2008: pgs. Friedrich. then is more fundamental than tragic drama and is its basis. Basic Writings of Nietzsche. Washington. zeno. Stanford: Stanford University Press. org/ etext/ 7206 [9] http:/ / www. Philosophy in the Tragic Age of the Greeks. Walter ed. Friedrich. 2000. 2000. • Gründer. org/ Philosophie/ M/ Nietzsche. Music. 11. The Birth of Tragedy.The Birth of Tragedy 24 References • Kaufmann. Nietzsche asserted that tragic drama was derived from music. Oxford University Press. • Nietzsche. ed. von Wilamowitz-Möllendorff. D. impulsive will. [4] Kaufmann. which is blind.. Translated with an introduction by Marianne Cowan. The Invention of Dionysus: An Essay on The Birth of Tragedy. Der Streit um Nietzsches "Geburt der Tragödie"': Die Schriften von E. viu. Inc.+ Friedrich/ Die+ Geburt+ der+ Trag%C3%B6die . [6] Nietzsche. direct expression of the world's essence. Trans.: Regnery Publishing. Hildesheim: Georg Olms. 18. 109. translated by Ian C. 1962.C. 1969. Karlfried. Douglas Smith. htm [8] http:/ / www. See also • Pessimism • Optimism External links • The text. R. und U. Johnston [7] • Die Geburt der Tragödie [8] at Project Gutenberg (German) • Original German text [9] References [1] http:/ / worldcat. ISBN 978-0199540143 [7] http:/ / records. James I. 28. org/ oclc/ 30702580 [2] Johann Winckelmann. Rohde. xxxii. This is Schopenhauerian in that Schopenhauer's aesthetics place music as the most basic. History of Ancient Art. • Porter. ca/ ~johnstoi/ Nietzsche/ tragedy_all. New York: Modern Library. 140. Wagner. 1764 [3] As the original title (The Birth of Tragedy Out of the Spirit of Music) claimed. gutenberg. [5] Kaufmann.

Heraclitus. Anaximander. he wanted to know the one important common property of all things. They did not live their lives in accordance with their personal outlooks. myth.C. at one time." Nietzsche wanted future humans to be able to say. In order to communicate his vision of oneness. Thales' generalization was the result of creative imagination and analogy.. This was a first attempt to think about nature without the use of myths about gods. A justification of philosophy Nietzsche felt that it is important to know about these philosophers because they were dedicated to finding the truth about life and the world. or allegory. unified style. Their works and personalities were combinations of previous types. 1.. The tragedians of that age addressed the same issue with their plays. this way of looking at the human scene. It uses language that has nothing to do with fable or myth.. He had a clean copy made from his notes with the intention of publication. 3. In it he discussed five Greek philosophers from the sixth and fifth centuries B. intended to include Democritus. Empedocles. They are Thales. and Socrates. He had. They became sectarian and didn't contribute to a unified culture. He did not use reason. Nietzsche claimed that this must be taken seriously for three reasons.Philosophy in the Tragic Age of the Greeks 25 Philosophy in the Tragic Age of the Greeks Philosophy in the Tragic Age of the Greeks (Philosophie im tragischen Zeitalter der Griechen) is a publication of an incomplete book by Friedrich Nietzsche. However. Parmenides.. philosophers then lost their own individual stylistic unities. In such a time of wealthy and successful life. "The task is to bring to light what we must ever love and honor. "So this has existed – once. Their concern was with the elaboration of their unique personal point of view.C. Early preface Nietzsche stated that he wanted to present the outlooks of very worthy individuals who originated in ancient Greece from 600 B. The book ends abruptly after the discussion of Anaxagoras's cosmogony. Plato and subsequent philosophers lacked a pure. at least – and is therefore a possibility. With Plato. they had the strength and independence to question the general worth of existence. he expressed himself by applying the analogy of water. and Anaxagoras. logical proof.." Later preface By selecting only a few doctrines for each philosopher. to 400 B. The pre-Socratics existed at a time when Greece was at its height. It makes a statement about the primal origin of all things.C. this way of life. Thales This philosopher proposed that water is the origin af all things. instead of trying to gain knowledge of everything. 2. Nietzsche hoped to exhibit each philosopher's personality. The notes were written around 1873. It reflects the vision that all things are really one. .

The shortness and terseness of Heraclitus's statements may seem to result in their obscurity. he intuited that the particular changes that occur with strict necessity are. the strife among all things follows a built-in law or standard. When they are part of the fire again. but Nietzsche stated that they are unclear only for readers who do not take the time to think about what is being said. He dressed and spoke in a dignified. each definite individual thing must pay a price by returning. It has no justification or value in itself." Heraclitus's way of thinking was the result of perception and intuition. and certainty that shows itself in all change and becoming. Heraclitus did not think that there is a metaphysical. Also. the play of a game. Also. after a short time. too. which seek to re-unite. passing back into its indefinite (apeiron) source. for they pay penalty and retribution to each other for their injustice according to the assessment of Time. But things soon come into being again as a result of the fire's impulse to play a game with itself. "You use names for things as though they rigidly." This pessimistic expression presented existence as something that should not be. solemn manner. on the whole. separate existence of each and every thing is unjust. logical. yet even the stream into which you step a second time is not the one you stepped into before." "Being and nonbeing is at the same time the same and not the same. undefinable indefinite (apeiron) out of which all definite things come into existence. persistently endured. His pronouncements were purposely self-contradictory. Due to the contradictions that occur in Heraclitus's brief sayings. conceptual thought. the things of the world show a desire to be consumed in the all-destroying cosmic fire. According to Heraclitus. happens according to necessity. . His manner of living was in accordance with his thought. continuous becoming and passing away is the order of nature." as indicating that he possessed great self-esteem and conviction. he pronounced that he saw fixed law in the continual change of becoming. This unity of style was typical of the pre-Platonic philosophers Heraclitus As the opposite of Anaximander. Any definite thing must pay for its individuality by. "We are and at the same time are not. Therefore it is indefinite and does not pass away. Nietzsche asserts that he was very clear. regularity. Every object that is perceived through time and space has an existence that is relative to other objects. he denied that there is any permanent being. Heraclitus saw no injustice. In accordance with the Greek culture of contest. "The source of coming-to-be for existing things is that into which destruction. the one is the many. To him. Every thing is really fire. This source cannot also be definite. In passing away. Heraclitus wanted future humanity to know his timeless truths. By emerging from the primeval oneness. However. "I sought for myself. he has been accused of being obscure." This intuitive thinking is based on seeing the changing world of experience which is conditioned by never-ending variations in time and space. The unending strife between opposites. their desire is briefly satisfied. Nature and reality are seen as a continuous action in which there is no permanent existence. This meant that the individual. evil.Philosophy in the Tragic Age of the Greeks 26 Anaximander Anaximander of Miletus was the first philosopher who wrote his words. Without concern as to whether his thoughts appealed to anyone beside himself. Anaximander was the first Greek to provide an ethical or moral interpretation of existence. His most famous passage is. or penance in the emergence and disappearance of worldly objects. There is a wonderful fixed order. guilt. Nietzsche paraphrased him as saying. is a kind of lawful justice for Heraclitus. Nietzsche interpreted Heraclitus's words. He despised rational.

Philosophy in the Tragic Age of the Greeks


Many of Parmenides's qualities were the direct opposite of Heraclitus. Heraclitus grasped his truths through intuition. He saw and knew the world of Becoming. Parmenides, however, arrived at his truths through pure logic. He calculated and deduced his doctrine of Being. Parmenides had an early doctrine and a later, different, teaching. Nietzsche claimed that Parmenides's two ways of thinking not only divided his own life into two periods but also separated all pre-Socratic thinking into two halves. The earlier way was the Anaximandrean period. This dealt with two worlds: the world of Becoming and the world of Being. The second was the Parmenidean. In this world, there is no becoming, change, or impermanence. There is only Being. The qualities of the world, Parmenides thought, were divided into opposites. There are positive qualities and there are their opposite negations. His division was based on abstract logic and not on the evidence of the senses. This dichotomy of positive and negative then became the separation into the existent and the nonexistent. For things to become, there must be an existent and a non-existent. Desire unites these opposites and creates the world of Becoming. When desire is satisfied, the existent and the nonexistent oppose each other and the things pass away. Nietzsche did not think that an external event led to Parmenides's denial of Becoming. The influence of Xenophanes is made negligible by Nietzsche. Even though both men gave great importance to the concept of unity, Xenophanes communicated in ways that were alien to Parmenides. Xenophanes was a philosophical poet whose view of mystic unity was related to religion. He was an ethicist who rejected the contemporary values of Greece. Nietzsche claimed that the common attribute between Parmenides and Xenophanes was their love of personal freedom and unconventionality, not their emphasis on oneness. The internal event that led to Parmenides's denial of Becoming began when he considered the nature of negative qualities. He asked himself whether something that has no being can have being. Logically, this was the same as asking whether A is not A. Parmenides then realized that what is, is. Also, what is not, is not. His previous thinking about negative qualities was then seen as being very illogical. Heraclitus's contradictory statements were considered to be totally irrational. If that which is, is, and that which is not, is not, then several conclusions follow. That which truly is must be forever present. The existent also is not divisible, because there is no other existent to divide it. It is also immobile and finite. In sum, there is only eternal oneness. The senses lead us to believe otherwise. Therefore, for Parmenides, the senses are illusive, mendacious, and deceitful. He accepted only his logical and rational conclusions. All sensual evidence was ignored. Parmenides only affirmed his extremely abstract, general truth which was totally unlike the reality of common experience. Although logically certain, Parmenides's concept of being was empty of content. No sense perception illustrated this truth. "What is, is" is a judgement of pure thought, not experience. Nietzsche claimed that Parmenides created his concept of being from his own personal experience of feeling himself as alive. He then illogically attributed this general concept of absolute being to everything in the world. Thus, Nietzsche saw being as a subjective concept that was mistakenly asserted to be objective. Nietzsche's paraphrase of Parmenides's truth was, "I breathe, therefore being exists." Along with his disciple Zeno of Elea, Parmenides stated that there is no such thing as infinity. If infinity exists, it would be the indivisible, immobile, eternal unity of being. In other words, it would be finite. Zeno's examples of flying arrows and Achilles chasing a tortoise show that motion over an infinite space would be impossible. But we do experience motion. The world does exhibit finite infinity. Parmenides rejects, then, the perceivable world of motion and asserts that reality agrees only with his logical concepts, which do not include finite infinity. For him, thinking and being are the same. What he thinks is what exists. Objections can be raised against Parmenides's principles that sensual perception does not show true reality and that thinking is unmoving being. If the senses are unreal, how can they deceive? If thinking is immobile being, how does

Philosophy in the Tragic Age of the Greeks it move from concept to concept? Instead, it can be stated that the many things that are experienced by the senses are not deceptive. Also, motion can have being. No objection, however, can be made to Parmenides's self-evident main teaching that there is being, or, what is, is.


Anaxagoras raised two objections against Parmenides: 1. the origin of semblance, and 2. the mobility of thought. He did not object, however, to Parmenides's main doctrine that there is only being, not becoming. Anaximander and Heraclitus had claimed that there is becoming and passing away. Thales and Heraclitus had said that the world of multiple qualities comes out of one prime substance. With Anaxagoras, all subsequent philosophers and scientists rejected all coming into existence out of nothing and disappearance into nothing. If the many things that we experience in the world are not mere semblance but do not come from nothing and do not come from one single thing, what is their origin? Since like produces like, the many different things come from many different things. In other words, there are infinitely many different prime substances. Their total is always constant but their arrangements change. Why do the forms and patterns of these real substances change? Because they are in motion. Change and motion are not semblance and are truly real. Does the movement come from within each thing? Is there another external thing that moves each object? Movement is not mere appearance. Movement occurs because each substance is similar to each other substance in that they are all made of the same matter. There is no total isolation or complete difference between substances. This common material substratum allows them to interact. When two substances try to occupy the same space, one of the substances must move away. This is actual motion and change. If it is certain that our ideas appear to us in succession, then they must move themselves because they are not moved by things that are not ideas. This proves that there is something in the world that moves itself. Ideas are also capable of moving things that are different from themselves. They move the body. Therefore, there is a thinking substance that moves itself and other substances. This nous (mind, intelligence) is made out of extremely fine and delicate matter. It is an ordering, knowing, purposeful mover. Nous was the first cause of every subsequent mechanical change in the universe. Originally, before nous moved the first particle of matter, there was a complete mixture which was composed of infinitely small components of things. Each of these was a homoeomery, the small parts being the same as the large whole. For example, a tooth is made of small teeth. This is the result of the thought that like must come from like. After the movement began, individual objects became separated from this mixture when like combined with like. When one substance finally predominated, the accumulation became a particular thing. This process is called "coming to be" or "becoming." Nous is not a part of the original mixture. It started the revolutionary motion which separated things from the primal mixture. The motion is a centrifugal, spiralling vortex in which likes attach to their likes. There is no god who moves things with a purpose in mind. There is only a mechanical whirlpool of movement. Unlike Parmenides's motionless sphere of being, Anaxagoras saw the world as a moving circle of becoming. Nous started the spinning. Thereafter the universe developed on its own, according to lawful necessity. To be able to start and sustain motion against the resistance of the infinite mixture, nous had to use a sudden, infinitely strong and infinitely rapid, force. It also had to move the first point in a circular path that was larger than its own size. In this way, it affected other points. Nous freely chose to start the vortex. It thereby created its own goal and purpose in a playful game. This was not a moral or ethical process. Rather, it was aesthetic, in that nous simply wanted to enjoy the spectacle of its own creation.

Philosophy in the Tragic Age of the Greeks Later philosophers, such as Plato, wanted to attribute ethical properties to nous's creation of the world. For them, it should be made in the most perfect, beautiful, useful manner. Anaxagoras, however, did not employ teleology. Nous, for him, was a mechanical, efficient cause, not a final cause. Any future purpose would have eliminated a freely chosen start. Nietzsche's book abruptly ends here with a description of a nous that created the world as a game. The freedom of nous's creative will is opposed to the necessary determinism of its creation, the universe. Nous is referred to as a mind (Geist) that has free, arbitrary choice. The created world, physis, is a determined, mechanical piece of machinery. Any order or efficiency of things is only an outcome of purposeless change.


• Nietzsche, Friedrich, Philosophy in the Tragic Age of the Greeks, Regnery Gateway ISBN 0-89526-944-9

On Truth and Lies in a Nonmoral Sense
Über Wahrheit und Lüge im außermoralischen Sinn (in English: "On Truth and Lies in a Nonmoral Sense", also called "On Truth and Lie in an Extra-Moral Sense"[1] ) is an (initially) unpublished work of Friedrich Nietzsche written in 1873, one year after The Birth of Tragedy.[2] It deals largely with epistemological questions of truth and language, including the formation of concepts. Every word immediately becomes a concept, inasmuch as it is not intended to serve as a reminder of the unique and wholly individualized original experience to which it owes its birth, but must at the same time fit innumerable, more or less similar cases—which means, strictly speaking, never equal—in other words, a lot of unequal cases. Every concept originates through our equating what is unequal.[3] According to Paul E. Glenn, Nietzsche is arguing that "concepts are metaphors which do not correspond to reality."[4] Although all concepts are human inventions (created by common agreement to facilitate ease of communication), human beings forget this fact after inventing them, and come to believe that they are "true" and do correspond to reality.[4] Thus Nietzsche argues that "truth" is actually: A mobile army of metaphors, metonyms, and anthropomorphisms—in short, a sum of human relations which have been enhanced, transposed, and embellished poetically and rhetorically, and which after long use seem firm, canonical, and obligatory to a people: truths are illusions about which one has forgotten that this is what they are; metaphors which are worn out and without sensuous power; coins which have lost their pictures and now matter only as metal, no longer as coins.[5] These ideas about truth and its relation to human language have been particular influential among postmodern theorists,[4] and "On Truth and Lies in a Nonmoral Sense" is one of the works most responsible for Nietzsche's reputation (albeit a contentious one) as "the godfather of postmodernism."[6]

published posthumously. org/ on-truth-and-lies-in-a-nonmoral-sense Untimely Meditations (Nietzsche) Untimely Meditations (in the original German Unzeitgemässe Betrachtungen.On Truth and Lies in a Nonmoral Sense 30 External links • Über Wahrheit und Lüge im außermoralischen Sinn [7] at the German Wikisource." though this levity was not continued by Nietzsche much in later works. Thus: Untimely Meditations (Kaufmann). The titles and subjects vary with each entry. • On Truth and Lies in a Nonmoral Sense [8] at filepedia. Wiley-Blackwell. It combines the naivete of The Birth of Tragedy with the beginnings of his more mature polemical style. Publication Unzeitgemässe Betrachtungen has been one of the more difficult of Nietzsche's titles to be translated into English. most of them showing a total of thirteen essays. pp. Thoughts Out of Season (Ludovici). and also translated as Unfashionable Observations[1] and in many other ways (see below). especially German.) A typical outline dated "Autumn 1873" reads as follows: .org. Glenn. with each subsequent translation offering a new variation. . Lawrence E. had the title "We Philologists". From modernism to postmodernism: an anthology (http:/ / books. com/ books?id=S5CaF_otgZcC& pg=PT107& lpg=PT107& dq=On+ Truth+ and+ Lies+ in+ a+ Nonmoral+ Sense+ postmodern& source=bl& ots=2PAF9zAVtj& sig=V-fEDCvIMy4ykdhap6vVSP3cARc& hl=en& ei=eTBfS5TWGYnOlAe24t3XCw& sa=X& oi=book_result& ct=result& resnum=8& ved=0CCEQ6AEwBw#v=onepage& q=& f=false). org/ wiki/ %C3%9Cber_Wahrheit_und_L%C3%BCge_im_aussermoralischen_Sinn [8] http:/ / filepedia. Many different plans for the series are found in Nietzsche's notebooks. especially for "David Strauss: the confessor and the writer. References [1] [2] [3] [4] [5] [6] Walter Kaufmann's translation. "The Politics of Truth: Power in Nietzsche's Epistemology". and gave as a "Task for philology: disappearance". Portable Nietzsche 46-47. Untimely Reflections (Hayman). Unmodern Observations (Arrowsmith) and Inopportune Speculations Unfashionable Observations or Essays in Sham Smashing (Menken). the project conceived to last six years (one essay every six months. Cahoone. started in 1873 and completed in 1876. appearing in The Portable Nietzsche. (2004-12).[2] Nietzsche here began to discuss the limitations of empirical knowledge. consists of four works by the philosopher Friedrich Nietzsche. Portable Nietzsche 46. 1976 edition. google. The work comprises a collection of four (out of a projected 13) essays concerning the contemporary condition of European. Portable Nietzsche 42. Viking Press. (2003). A fifth essay. It was Nietzsche's most humorous work. culture. Paul E. Political Research Quarterly 57 (4): 576. and presented what would appear compressed in later aphorisms. wikisource. [7] http:/ / de. 109.

since a major aspect of man resides in his a vulgar reading of history in the service of a degenerate culture. along with a description of how this might improve the health of a society. who would have referred to Leon Battista Alberti's treatise. to the first humanism of the Renaissance. The Cultural Philistine 2. The Philosopher 4. History 3. The Teacher 7. seeming to lose interest after the publication of the third.Untimely Meditations (Nietzsche) 31 1. 1873 (David Strauss: der Bekenner und der Schriftsteller) attacks David Strauss's The Old and the New Faith: A Confession (1871). De commodis litterarum atque incommodis (1428 — "On the Advantages and Disadvantages of Literary Studies"). to Humboldt's humanism. as Nietzsche used the term Historie and not Geschichte. Art 6. State War Nation 9. Furthermore. and. one where living life becomes the primary concern. It also introduced an attack against the basic precepts of classic humanism. Language Nietzsche abandoned the project after completing only four essays.[3] David Strauss: the Confessor and the Writer David Strauss: the Confessor and the Writer. Glenn Most argues that the untimeliness of Nietzsche here resides in calling to a return. beyond historicism. but rather above him. 1874 (Vom Nutzen und Nachteil der Historie für das Leben) offers — instead of the prevailing view of "knowledge as an end in itself" — an alternative way of reading history. in the following essay. polemically attacking not only the book but also Strauss as a Philistine of pseudo-culture. The Scholar 5. The Press 10. In this essay. Religion 8. Natural Science 11.scientifically-determined universal mechanism based on the progression of history . "Schopenhauer Unzeitgemässe als Erzieher" ("Schopenhauer as Educator"). Nietzsche expands the idea that the essence of Draft for the first chapter of the second man dwells not inside of him. Commerce 13. he alleges that this title may have its origins via Jacob Burckhardt. which Nietzsche holds up as an example of the German thought of the time. Glenn Most argues for the possible translation of Betrachtung the essay as "The Use and Abuse of History Departments for Life". He paints Strauss's "New Faith" . Nietzsche attacks both the historicism of man (the idea that man is created through history) and the idea that one can possibly have an objective concept of man. Folk Society 12. maybe even beyond.[2] . On the Use and Abuse of History for Life On the Use and Abuse of History for Life.

pp.31-2 [4] Nietzsche (1995). William H. org/ navigate. despite Schopenhauer's noted pessimism. Nietzsche considered not publishing it because of his changing attiudes to Wagner and his art. honesty and steadfastness as well as his cheerfulness. org/ Philosophie/ M/ Nietzsche. Nietzsche visited Bayreuth for the opening of the Bayreuth Festival. However in the event the Festival confirmed Nietzsche's growing misgivings. • Friedrich Nietzsche. 1995 ISBN 0804734038 External links • Unzeitgemäße Betrachtungen. Stanford. after a gap of two years from the previous essay) investigates the music.Untimely Meditations (Nietzsche) 32 Schopenhauer as Educator Schopenhauer as Educator. hypernietzsche. References • Schaberg. The original draft was in fact more critical than the final version.+ Friedrich/ Unzeitgem%C3%A4%C3%9Fe+ Betrachtungen . Nietzsche gives special attention to Schopenhauer's individualism. php?sigle=gmost-1). 1874 (Schopenhauer als Erzieher) describes how the philosophic genius of Schopenhauer might bring on a resurgence of German culture. Chicago: University of Chicago Press. 2003-11-09 (English) [3] Schaberg. Richard T. The essay was well-received by Wagner and his circle. the enthusiastic Wagnerian Peter Gast who helped him prepare a less contentious version. He was persuaded to reraft the article by his friend. "On the use and abuse of ancient Greece for life" (http:/ / www. 281. The essay thus foreshadows the philosopher's imminent split with Wagner and his ideas.that is. dama and personality of Richard Wagner — less flatteringly than Nietzsche's friendship with his subject might suggest. tr. Grey. Unfashionable Observations. ISBN 0226735753. zeno. Richard Wagner in Bayreuth Richard Wagner in Bayreuth (1876 . original German text [5] References [1] Nietzsche (1995) [2] Glenn W. Most. The Nietzsche Canon: A Publication History and Bibliography.[4] Shortly after its publication. HyperNietzsche. (1995). pp. 406 [5] http:/ / www.

in 1874.. after communicating the main idea of Zarathustra along with an aspect of his "gaya scienza". This song's melody was also used earlier in Hymn to Friendship for piano.) Thereafter it was published under Nietzsche by E. During 1884.. Oft-regarded to be idiosyncratic for a philosopher.. conclude that these changes are significant enough to demerit Life as an unfeigned work by Nietzsche and classify it as a work by Köselitz. on the other hand. a Hymn to Life. displays of his work on Nietzsche's music are included. W.that Hymn to Life. Nietzsche wrote a letter to the German conductor Felix Mottl.Hymnus an das Leben 33 Hymnus an das Leben The Hymn to Life is a musical composition for mixed chorus and orchestra by German philosopher Friedrich Nietzsche. I want to have a song made that could also be performed in public in order to seduce people to my philosophy. Walter Kaufmann).. irrelevant to his philosophical work.. in the manner of words. which is Friendship simply put to Andreas-Salome's Lied and with orchestral alterations. [4] . Nietzsche accorded to his music that it played a role in the understanding of his philosophical thought. in Ecce Homo: ". must remain by necessity unclear. The composition Hymn to Life was partly done by Nietzsche in August and September 1882. which I call the tragic pathos. Fritzsch in Leipzig as the first edition amid the summer of 1887. Origin Nietzsche stated. entitled Hymnus an das Leben." With this request Lebensgebet was further emended to Friendship and orchestrated by "maestro Pietro Gasti"[1] ." The following December. (Some. was alive in me to the highest degree. supported by the second stanza of the poem Lebensgebet by Lou Andreas-Salome.—a scarcely trivial symptom of my condition during that year when the Yes-saying pathos par excellence. [3] • Customer review by John Bell Young on Nietzsche's music with criticism of the reviewed CD. his music has largely been regarded as a biographical curiosity. he wrote to Georg Brandes a letter in which he commented: "A choral and orchestral work of mine is just being published. Nietzsche wrote to Gast: "This time. led to the first sign of a break with his friend Richard. The affect of my philosophy finds its expression in this hymn. In particular. In spite of Nietzsche's intonations about his music. It is the one composition of mine that is meant to survive and to be sung one day 'in my memory'. etc. according to Cosima Wagner. 'music' will reach you. this was laden upon Hymn to Life." See also • List of works by Friedrich Nietzsche • Nietzsche Music Project External links • Nietzsche Music Project [2] • John Bell Young's discography.. The time will come when it will be sung in my memory" (trans. which was once conducted by Nietzsche at Bayreuth for the Wagners and had. In October of the same year. Lauretta Altman. who modestly denied any reference in publication to his alterations of what Nietzsche had done previously. including Benjamin Moritz. to whom he expressed about his composition Life that which pertains to its high aesthetical import for his philosophical oeuvre: "I wish that this piece of music may stand as a complement to the word of the philosopher which..

html http:/ / www. amazon. virtusens. com/ frame-discography. ru/ english/ music." • Nietzsche's music in four volumes. htm . edu/ bmoritz/ nietzsche_project http:/ / www. com/ gp/ product/ B0000049P9 http:/ / sitemaker. de/ walther/ n_komp_e. nietzsche. Walter Kaufmann http:/ / nietzschemusicproject. johnbellyoung. org http:/ / www.Hymnus an das Leben • "The Music and Thought of Friedrich Nietzsche"—a dissertation by Ben Moritz (PDF) [5]: "the original Hymnus an die Freundschaft is a generally well-written and delightful work. php3 http:/ / www. worthy of inclusion in the piano repertoire. [6] • Nietzsche as Composer [7] 34 References [1] [2] [3] [4] [5] [6] [7] Ecce Homo. trans. umich.

” Instead of a preface. The first installment’s 638 aphorisms are divided into nine sections by subject. which are as short as a sentence. In 1879. and a short poem as an epilogue. Assorted Opinions and Maxims (Vermischte Meinungen und Sprüche). 1778. a style which he would use in many of his subsequent works. Human. originally published in 1878. The Birth of Tragedy. The aphoristic style was suited to many of the ideas and thoughts in the book. The Wanderer and his Shadow (Der Wanderer und sein Schatten). but also a break in his friendship with composer Richard Wagner two years earlier. when he was already frequently suffering from vision problems as well as painful migraine headaches that would have made reading and writing very difficult. It was also likely due to Nietzsche’s decline in health at the time. the first part originally included a quotation from Descartes’ Discourse on the Method. Hollingdale Germany German philosophy. May 30.Human. All Too Human 35 Human. to as long as a few pages. Allzumenschliches). All Too Human Human. he was forced to leave his professorship at Basel University because of his deteriorating health. psychology 1878 1984 Paperback 275 0-8032-8368-7 33165928 128 20 B3313. All Too Human (Menschliches. with Stephen Lehmann/ or R. The second and third installments are an additional 408 and 350 aphorisms respectively. . Nietzsche later republished all three parts as a two-volume edition in 1886. Reflecting an admiration of Voltaire as a free thinker.M52 E5 1996 Untimely Meditations (1873-1876) The Dawn (1881) [1] Human. adding a preface to each volume. was published in 1879. subtitled A Book for Free Spirits (Ein Buch für freie Geister). A second part.J. which was written in essay style. Nietzsche dedicated the original 1878 edition “to the memory of Voltaire on the celebration of the anniversary of his death. Style and structure Unlike his first book. and removing the Descartes quote as well as the dedication to Voltaire. followed in 1880. All Too Human Author Original title Translator Country Language Genre(s) Publication date Published in English Media type Pages ISBN OCLC Number Dewey Decimal LC Classification Preceded by Followed by Friedrich Nietzsche Menschliches. Allzumenschliches Marion Faber. and a third part. a year after publishing the first installment. is a book by 19th century philosopher Friedrich Nietzsche. All Too Human is a collection of aphorisms.

claiming great art is the result of hard work. asserting that "Christianity wants to destroy. each movement can be calculated mathematically. he would be able to tell into the farthest future of each being and describe every rut that wheel will roll upon. Nietzsche challenges the Christian idea of good and evil [2] . not a higher power or “genius. the dissatisfaction with oneself. and language as well. the sicklier man may have occasion to be alone. each step in the progress of knowledge. named in honor of his friend Paul Rée’s On the Origin of Moral Sensations. a truncation.” [4] From the Soul of Artists and Writers Nietzsche uses this section to denounce the idea of divine inspiration in art. and certainly hear better. Excerpt: "At the waterfall. Note the style: reluctant to construct a systemic philosophy. Something similar also happens in the individual. each act of malice. one would be able to calculate each individual action in advance. deviating natures are of greatest importance. we think we see freedom of will and choice in the innumerable turnings. or even a vice or any physical or "moral" loss without an advantage somewhere else. stun. windings. The strongest natures retain the type. breakings of the waves. ranging in length from a single line to a few pages. Every progress of the whole must be preceded by a partial weakening. 36 Of First and Last Things In this first section Nietzsche deals with metaphysics. The acting man's delusion about himself. and may therefore become quieter and wiser. for example. each error. and as it was philosophized by Arthur Schopenhauer. shatter. the weaker ones help to advance it. intoxicate. instead simply using the term “the artist. if the wheel of the world were to stand still for a moment and an omniscient. This book comprises more a collection of debunkings of unwarranted assumptions than an interpretation. the famous theory of the survival of the fittest does not seem to be the only viewpoint from which to explain the progress of strengthening of a . In a warlike and restless clan. though it offers some elements of Nietzsche's thought in his arguments: he uses his perspectivism and the idea of the will to power as explanatory devices. though the latter remains less developed than in his later thought.Human. is trading in a new version of the Providential): Wherever progress is to ensue. [3] Religious Life Here Nietzsche attacks religious worship. There is rarely a degeneration. his assumption that free will exists. with a break from German Romanticism and from Wagner and with a definite positivist slant. To be sure the acting man is caught in his illusion of volition. the one-eyed man will have one eye the stronger. if one were omniscient. When we see a waterfall. but everything is necessary. as typically understood. as naive and derivative of Hobbes and early English economists and without an account of life from the "inside" (and consider in this light Darwin's own introduction to the first edition of Origin) (consider also Nietzsche's critique to the effect that Darwinism. as he frequently does. the blind man may see deeper inwardly (if there is a "inward" in Nietzsche?) (isn't surface all?). calculating mind were there to take advantage of this interruption. On the History of Moral Feelings This section.” [5] This can be interpreted as a subliminal attack on his former friend Wagner (a strong believer in genius) though Nietzsche never mentions him by name. Thus it is with human actions. specifically its origins as relating to dreams. All Too Human This book represents the beginning of Nietzsche's "middle period". To this extent.” [6] Signs of Higher and Lower Culture Here Nietzsche criticizes Darwin. Nietzsche composed these works as a series of several hundred aphorisms. is also part of the calculable mechanism.

He also speaks on Europe’s Jews.” [11] He continues. this would eventually be one of his works taken out of context and reinterpreted by the Nazis to paint Nietzsche as an early philosopher of Nazism. the mightiest book. The first installment was originally printed in 1. section seven. has resulted in Nietzsche’s "popular" reputation for misogyny. is that Nietzsche presents Zarathustra as failing." in Nietzsche's subtle and anti-Darwinian sense." as Nietzsche might put it. saying that they have “had the most sorrowful history of all peoples. on account of shallow interpretations. claiming that obscurantism is that which obscures existence rather than obscures ideas alone: "The essential element in the black art of obscurantism is not that it wants to darken individual understanding but that it wants to blacken our picture of the world. Nietzsche’s aphorisms here are mostly short.000 copies in 1878. All Too Human is no exception. A free spirit is one who goes against the herd. [16] It was first translated into English in 1909 by writer Helen Zimmern as part of a complete edition of Nietzsche’s books in English. The entire section bears comparison to Republic V. though he never read it. and sold only 120 of these. He believes or at least says in one aphorism that free spirits will not marry and “prefer to fly alone.” [14] Reception and translation Within his lifetime. Man Alone with Himself Like sections six and seven. [9] "Better. but was never translated by . prior to his mental breakdown in 1889. [7] (See Twilight of the Idols for more of Nietzsche's critique of Darwin. and Human. as scapegoats for every possible public and private misfortune.” [13] Nietzsche also distinguishes the obscurantism of the metaphysicians and theologians from the more subtle obscurantism of Kant's critical philosophy and modern philosophical skepticism.Human. Nietzsche considers that the world must be "redeemed. [15] Though his friendship with Richard Wagner was nearly over. saying Nietzsche would thank him for this one day. appears to mean ordered toward the production of rare genius and is hardly to be confused with what "a newspaper reader.” [12] Though not anti-Semitic. few of Nietzsche’s books sold particularly well. worrying that “in the literature of nearly all present-day nations…there is an increase in the literary misconduct that leads the Jews to the slaughterhouse. One is compelled to wonder why.) Nietzsche writes of the “free spirit” or “free thinker” (Freigeist). of course. the purest philosopher (Spinoza). While section six is relatively mild. and speaks strongly against war and nationalism. forming the basis of a concept he extensively explores in his later work Thus Spoke Zarathustra. would expect. #412 together with #411. and without kneejerk reaction. and darken our idea of existence. for example.” [10] A Look at the State Here Nietzsche studies power in a state." for Nietzsche. but also poetic and at times could be interpreted as semi-autobiographical." and if there is not something Christian (residual in the modern and especially in the "post-modern" or Nietzschean) in the concern for saving the world? 37 Man in Society and Women and Child These two sections are made up of mostly very short aphorisms on man’s and women and child’s natures or "evolution. [8] A sort of proto-Übermensch. in anticipation of the next volumes: “He who has come only in part to a freedom of reason cannot feel on earth otherwise than as a wanderer. and “onwards along the path of wisdom” in order to better society. Consider thoughtfully. and the most effective code in the world. The essential thing to keep in mind in considering Zarathustra. All Too Human man or of a race. and to whom we owe the noblest human being (Christ). Wagner actually received a signed copy. and his role in society. which is highly paradoxical. and still less than half of these by 1886 when it was resold as the complete two-volume set. in general. or doctrinaire demands as to what may or may not be said.

” [19] In Zarathustra. 4th ed. Most notoriously. Zalta (The Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy) Nietzsche Chronicle [24] by Malcolm Brown. Edward N. 1984. A History of Philosophy. • Nietzsche. Walter A. Hollingdale the same decade. book • • • • Menschliches. Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press. Basic Writings of Nietzsche. Antichrist. Oxford: Oxford University Press. The Portable Nietzsche. though out of context. Finally.Human. both of which he writes against. Trans. New York: Modern Library. All Too Human: A Book for Free Spirits. Friedrich W. Oxford: Oxford University Press. Hollingdale. 1997. (Dartmouth College) . Psychologist. Allzumenschliches [21] at Project Gutenberg (German) [22] Human. All Too Human was used by archivist Max Oehler. German Philosophers: Kant. Human. Walter A. All Too Human [20] . Frederick C. New York: Doubleday. All Too Human. and Nietzsche. Germany: 1866-1945. J. lampooning his anti-semitism in the process. Hegel. Oehler also had control of Nietzsche’s archive during the Nazi’s rule. 2000. • Nietzsche. All Too Human: A Book for Free Spirits. • Tanner. Friedrich Nietzsche und die Deutsche Zukunft. Human. Gordon A. Trans. External links • Human. Walter A. • Nietzsche. Kaufmann. Trans. Nietzsche: Philosopher. Friedrich W. Kierkegaard. Trans. R. Michael. 1996. Nietzsche. until her death. a Hitler supporter herself. with Stephen Lehmann. [17] Nietzsche would speak against anti-Semitism in other works including Thus Spoke Zarathustra and. Elisabeth Förster-Nietzsche. in the 1980s the first part was translated by Marion Faber and completely translated by R. a strong supporter of Hitler. • Nietzsche. • Kaufmann. All Too Human Walter Kaufmann when he translated most of Nietzsche’s works into English in the 1950s and ‘60s. in The Antichrist [18] : “An anti-Semite is certainly not any more decent because he lies as a matter of principle. 1994. et al. 1954. when he took it over. Volume VII: Modern Philosophy: From the Post-Kantian Idealists to Marx. Human. Oehler wrote an entire book. most strongly. Friedrich W. 1974. All Too Human: A Book for Free Spirits. Nietzsche set up Wagner as a straw man. • Craig. Marion Faber. dealing with Nietzsche and his connection to nationalism (specifically National Socialism) and anti-Semitism. Ed. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. which he shared with Nietzsche’s sister. as supposed evidence of Nietzsche’s support for nationalism and anti-Semitism. New York: Viking Press. using quotes from Human. Friedrich W. It wasn’t until much of Walter Kaufmann’s work in the 1950s through the 1970s that Nietzsche was able to shed this connection with nationalism and anti-Semitism.J. 38 Bibliography • Copleston. Schopenhauer. Princeton: Princeton University Press. Hebrew Translation from Magnes Press Friedrich Nietzsche [23] by Robert Wicks. 1978.

[3] Ibid. [16] Tanner. All Too Human: A Book for Free Spirits. Princeton: Princeton University Press. Pp. P. 1984. §27. §114. Schopenhauer. P.189. [14] Nietzsche. “The Master Race.. P. Antichrist. P.67-8. il/ website/ index. Kaufmann. asp?id=2986 http:/ / plato. 641. §292 [10] Ibid. 1954. 4th ed. [11] Ibid. §475 [12] Ibid. [6] Ibid. et al.229. P. P. Friedrich W. Pp. Trans. stanford. All Too Human 39 References [1] http:/ / worldcat. §55 http:/ / nietzsche. §39. §638. Trans. 220.Human. P. Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press.. Human. 298 Nietzsche. Hollingdale. New York: Viking Press. 288-92. All Too Human: A Book for Free Spirits. magnespress. Introduction. pp. [4] Ibid. P. 74 §106. html . P. Nietzsche: Philosopher. xii. holtof. and Stephen Lehmann. Friedrich W.. 370 [17] Kaufmann.96. §146. [5] Ibid. Pp. Nietzsche. [18] [19] [20] [21] [22] [23] [24] Ibid. The Portable Nietzsche. Walter A.229. P. 103-04. Human. 1996... §475 [13] Ibid. German Philosophers: Kant. com/ Nietzsche_human_all_too_human/ index. edu/ ~fnchron/ index. [9] Ibid. Michael. edu/ entries/ nietzsche/ http:/ / www.139. P.. dartmouth. org/ oclc/ 33165928 [2] Nietzsche.205. J.... Oxford: Oxford University Press. Trans. 138-39. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Marion Faber. Friedrich W. [7] Ibid. [15] Ibid. 266. Psychologist. R.” Pp. §426.107-08. co.174. 1974. §224 [8] Ibid. org/ etext/ 7207 http:/ / www.43-4... htm http:/ / www.. Hegel. §155-57.. P. gutenberg. Walter A. 1997. §225.

His relativism. The clear. Nietzsche de-emphasizes the role of hedonism as a motivator and accentuates the role of a "feeling of power". All Too Human (1878) The Gay Science (1882) The Dawn (Morgenröte. He would develop many of the ideas advanced here more fully in later books. "This book was written for psychologists. Gedanken über die moralischen Vorurteile) is a book written by the German philosopher Friedrich Nietzsche in 1881 (also translated as "The Dawn of Day" and Daybreak: Reflections on Moral Prejudices). psychology Publication date 1881 Preceded by Followed by Human. both moral and cultural. In Daybreak Nietzsche devoted a lengthy passage to his criticism of Christian biblical exegesis.The Dawn (book) 40 The Dawn (book) The Dawn Author Original title Country Language Genre(s) Friedrich Nietzsche Morgenröthe Germany German philosophy." . calm and intimate style of this aphoristic book seems to invite a particular experience. including its arbitrary interpretation of objects and images in the Old Testament as prefigurements of Christ's crucifixion. Early English translator JM Kennedy says of The Dawn. rather than showing concern with persuading his readers to accept any point of view. and his critique of Christianity also reaches greater maturity.

The very last poem above all. It was derived from a Provençal expression for the technical skill required for poetry writing that had already been used by Ralph Waldo Emerson and E. if I may say so. are quite emphatically reminiscent of the Provençal concept of gaya scienza—that unity of singer. in 1887. is a book written by Friedrich Nietzsche. This alludes to the birth of modern European poetry that occurred in Provence around the 12th century. Title The book's title uses a phrase that was well known at the time. is a perfect Provençalism. It was noted by Nietzsche to be "the most personal of all [his] books". by Thomas Carlyle (see The dismal science). written for the most part in Sicily. saying they were. first published in 1882 and followed by a second edition. S. which was published after the completion of Thus Spoke Zarathustra and Beyond Good and Evil. an exuberant dancing song in which." In Ecce Homo Nietzsche refers to the poems in the Appendix of The Gay Science. poetry Publication date 1882 Preceded by Followed by Dawn (1881) Thus Spoke Zarathustra (1883–1885) The Gay Science [German: Die fröhliche Wissenschaft]. "To the Mistral". other poets in the 14th century ameliorated and thus cultivated the gai saber or gaia scienza. This substantial expansion includes a fifth book and an appendix of songs. and free spirit which distinguishes the wonderful early culture of the Provençals from all equivocal cultures.The Gay Science 41 The Gay Science The Gay Science Author Original title Country Language Subject(s) Genre(s) Friedrich Nietzsche Die fröhliche Wissenschaft Germany German the death of God philosophy. . whereupon. The book's title was first translated into English as The Joyous Wisdom. Kaufmann cites The Shorter Oxford English Dictionary (1955) that lists "The gay science (Provençal gai saber): the art of poetry. in inverted form. but The Gay Science has become the common translation since Walter Kaufmann's version in the 1960s. Dallas and. knight. one dances right over morality. after the culture of the troubadours fell into almost complete desolation and destruction due to the Albigensian Crusade (1209–1229). and contains the greatest number of poems in any of his published works.

love as passion—which is our European speciality—[was invented by] the Provençal and I. • The Gay Science: With a Prelude in Rhymes and an Appendix of Songs by Friedrich Nietzsche. and is typically translated as "science".." first in section 108. The affirmation of the Provençal tradition is also one of a joyful "yea-saying" to life. ISBN 0-394-71985-9) External links • Die fröhliche Wissenschaft [2] at Nietzsche Source • Oscar Levy's 1924 English edition. you will have to live once more and innumerable times more' .§108 Section 125 depicts the parable of the madman who is searching for God. translated. but a propensity toward any rigorous practice of a poised. and disciplined quest for knowledge. God is dead: but as the human race is constituted. with commentary. Psychologist. by Walter Kaufmann (Vintage Books. He accuses us all of being the murderers of God.. Antichrist.' " . in which people will show his shadow.. After Buddha was dead people showed his shadow for centuries afterwards in a cave. there will perhaps be caves for millenniums yet. (Section 260) Another indicator of the deficiency of the original translation as The Joyous Wisdom is that the German Wissenschaft never indicates "wisdom" (wisdom = Weisheit). Nietzsche: Philosopher.. a concept which would become critical in his next work Thus Spoke Zarathustra and underpins much of the later works.The Gay Science In a similar vein. Princeton University Press. Would you not throw yourself down and gnash your teeth and curse the demon who spoke thus? Or have you once experienced a tremendous moment when you would have answered him: 'You are a god and never have I heard anything more divine. 42 Content In The Gay Science Nietzsche experiments with the notion of power but does not advance any systematic theory.[1] "What. The book is usually placed within Nietzsche's middle period. Thomas Common at the Internet Archive [3] • Free audio download of the Levy translation [4] from LibriVox . trans. We have killed him. "'Whither is God?' he cried.—And we—we have still to overcome his shadow! . Walter. if some day or night a demon were to steal after you into your loneliest loneliness and say to you: 'This life as you now live it and have lived it. and intellectual discipline as routes to mental freedom. 1974. in Beyond Good and Evil Nietzsche observed that. All of us are his murderers.[§341] "God is dead" Here also is the first occurrence of the famous formulation "God is dead. those magnificent and inventive human beings of the "gai saber" to whom Europe owes so many things and almost owes itself. controlled.—an immense frightful shadow. skepticism. March 1974." References • Kaufmann. 'I will tell you. The book contains the first consideration of the idea of the eternal recurrence. during which his work extolled the merits of science.

The Gay Science 43 References [1] [2] [3] [4] Kaufmann. archive. org/ texts/ eKGWB/ FW http:/ / www. 188. org/ details/ completenietasch10nietuoft http:/ / librivox. p. org/ the-joyful-wisdom-by-friedrich-nietzsche . nietzschesource. http:/ / www.

which were first introduced in The Gay Science. paperback The Gay Science Beyond Good and Evil Thus Spoke Zarathustra: A Book for All and None (German: Also sprach Zarathustra: Ein Buch für Alle und Keinen) is a philosophical novel by German philosopher Friedrich Nietzsche. this note related to the concept of the Eternal Recurrence.Thus Spoke Zarathustra 44 Thus Spoke Zarathustra Thus Spoke Zarathustra: A Book for All and None Title page of the first edition. which is. he made a small note." as evidence of this. prose poetry Ernst Schmeitzner Publication date 1883–1885 Media type Preceded by Followed by Hardcover.000 feet beyond man and time. and the "prophecy" of the Overman. according to Elisabeth Förster-Nietzsche in the introduction of Thomas Common's early translation of the book. this idea occurred to him by a "pyramidal block of stone" on the shores of Lake Silvaplana in the Upper Engadine. the central idea of Zarathustra. ultimately. He wrote that the ideas for Zarathustra first came to him while walking on two roads surrounding Rapallo. featuring as protagonist a fictionalized prophet descending from his recluse to mankind. Zarathustra. Much of the work deals with ideas such as the "eternal recurrence of the same". by Nietzsche's admission. the parable on the "death of God". . he composed only the fourth part.[2] More specifically. a high alpine region whose valley floor is at 6. reading "6." the book is a dense and esoteric treatise on philosophy and morality.[1] Described by Nietzsche himself as "the deepest ever written. he subsequently decided to write an additional three parts. Nietzsche planned to write the book in three parts over several years. A central irony of the text is that Nietzsche mimics the style of the Bible in order to present ideas which fundamentally oppose Christian and Jewish morality and tradition. however. which is viewed to constitute an intermezzo. composed in four parts between 1883 and 1885. Author Original title Country Language Genre(s) Publisher Friedrich Nietzsche Also sprach Zarathustra: Ein Buch für Alle und Keinen Germany German philosophical novel.000 ft. While developing the general outlook of the book. Genesis Thus Spoke Zarathustra was conceived while Nietzsche was writing The Gay Science.

and his alone. apart from seven others that were distributed to Nietzsche's close friends. one who turns traditional morality on its head. The fourth part remained private after Nietzsche wrote it in 1885. Kaufmann). He goes on to characterize "what the name of Zarathustra means in my mouth. Zarathustra also contains the famous dictum "God is dead". The name of this character is taken from the ancient prophet usually known in English as Zoroaster (Avestan: Zaraθuštra). some examples include "superman" or "overman". – Nietzsche. a scant forty copies were all that were printed. out of truthfulness. "overgoing". which had appeared earlier in The Gay Science. It is the Eternal recurrence of the same events. evident in newly invented "dithyrambs" narrated or sung by Zarathustra. Walter Kaufmann Zarathustra has a simple characterisation and plot. the self-overcoming of the moralist. featured twice in the book. the book lacks a finale to match that description. In March 1892. Ecce Homo. neither for the first nor for the third and last. Apart from its salient presence in Zarathustra. Kaufmann). as a force. one that is. posits truthfulness as the highest virtue. At any rate. he must also be the first to recognize it. consequently. […] His doctrine.Thus Spoke Zarathustra Nietzsche commented in Ecce Homo that for the completion of each part: "Ten days sufficed. into his opposite—into me—that is what the name of Zarathustra means in my mouth. sect. Since then. that he at last ascertains "the supreme will to power". as the corollaries of Zarathustra's "abundance". cause. towering. "downgoing" and "self-overcoming". its actual ending focuses more on Zarathustra recognizing that his legacy is beginning to perpetuate. trans. and end in itself. did I require more" (trans. once near the story's close: .g. morality.[5] This inspiration finds its expression with Zarathustra's Roundelay. the Persian founder of Zoroastrianism. pyramidal rock. The original text contains a great deal of word-play. It possesses a unique experimental style. the separate Dithyrambs of Dionysus was written in autumn 1888. the version most commonly produced has included all four parts. for instance. he was inspired by the sight of a gigantic. Nietzsche had mentioned the concept in the fourth book of The Gay Science (e. However. 45 Synopsis The book chronicles the fictitious travels and pedagogy of Zarathustra. §3. "Why I Am a Destiny". and printed with the full volume in 1892. […] Zarathustra created this most calamitous error. it is also echoed throughout Nietzsche's work. Nietzsche states that the book's underlying concept is discussed within "the penultimate section of the fourth book" of The Gay Science (Ecce Homo. this means the opposite of the cowardice of the "idealist” who flees from reality […]—Am I understood?—The self-overcoming of morality. the mouth of the first immoralist:" [F]or what constitutes the tremendous historical uniqueness of that Persian is just the opposite of this. in no case. Likewise. Some speculate that Nietzsche intended to write about final acts of creation and destruction brought about by Zarathustra. 341). Before Zarathustra. An example of this exists in the use of the words "over" or "super" and the words "down" or "abyss/abysmal". The first three parts were first published separately. Zarathustra was the first to consider the fight of good and evil the very wheel in the machinery of things: the transposition of morality into the metaphysical realm.[4] In his autobiographical work Ecce Homo. is his work. and consequently choosing to leave the higher men to their own devices in carrying his legacy forth. this was the first public proclamation of the notion by him. Nietzsche is clearly portraying a "new" or "different" Zarathustra. and were subsequently published in a single volume in 1887. This concept first occurred to Nietzsche while he was walking in Switzerland through the woods along the lake of Silvaplana (close to Surlei). the four parts were finally reprinted as a single volume..[3] narrated sporadically throughout the text. it is by Zarathustra's transfiguration that he embraces eternity.

the book that is truly characterized by the air of the heights—the whole fact of man lies beneath it at a tremendous distance—it is also the deepest. Walter Kaufmann The book embodies a number of innovative poetical and rhetorical methods of expression. trans. Let your will say: the overman shall be the meaning of the earth! I beseech you. §3. remain faithful to the earth. or the sun's rise and culmination at its midday zenith. The Übermensch is one of the many interconnecting. and even now. as stated. – Ecce Homo. Preface. wants deep eternity. and "self-overcoming". "Whoever is the wisest among you is also a mere conflict and cross between plant and ghost. and is represented through several different metaphors. Zarathustra declares: "I teach you the overman. It serves as a parallel and supplement to the various philosophical ideas present in Nietzsche's body of work. J. whether they know it or not. English translators Thomas Common and R. And man shall be just that for the overman: a laughingstock or a painful embarrassment. however. "self-cultivation". Emphasizing its centrality and its status as his magnum opus. The symbol of the Übermensch also alludes to Nietzsche's notions of "self-mastery". "self-direction". Prologue. Expostulating these concepts. Deeper than day had been aware. or a man traversing a rope stationed above an abyss. Despisers of life are they. He has. too. my brothers. He . is not only the highest book there is. Man is something that shall be overcome. moving away from his uncultivated animality and towards the Übermensch. and do you want to be the ebb of this great flood and even go back to the beasts rather than overcome man? What is the ape to man? A laughingstock or a painful embarrassment. superhuman or overhuman. and Parkes uses overhuman). said that "among my writings my Zarathustra stands to my mind by itself" (Ecce Homo. I teach you the overman! The overman is the meaning of the earth. You have made your way from worm to man. Examples include: the lightning that is portended by the silence and raindrops of a travelling storm cloud. Preface. with a voice bridging centuries. many of the book's ideas are also present in his other works. of whom the earth is weary: so let them go!" – Thus Spoke Zarathustra. Hollingdale use superman.Thus Spoke Zarathustra 46 “ O man. man is more ape than any ape. What have you done to overcome him? "All beings so far have created something beyond themselves. But do I bid you become ghosts or plants? "Behold. and do not believe those who speak to you of otherworldly hopes! Poison-mixers are they. With the book. Nietzsche embraced a distinct aesthetic assiduity. 4. an inexhaustible well to which no pail descends without coming up again filled with gold and goodness. §4. and much in you is still worm. Kaufmann). This book. interdependent themes of the story. or. born out of the innermost wealth of truth. take care! What does the deep midnight declare? "I was asleep— From a deep dream I woke and swear:— The world is deep. Walter Kaufmann Since. decaying and poisoned themselves. Zarathustra is seen to have served as a precursor to his later philosophical thought. is the designation of human beings as a transition between apes and the "Übermensch" (in English. it is stated by Nietzsche that: With [Thus Spoke Zarathustra] I have given mankind the greatest present that has ever been made to it so far. either the "overman" or "superman". trans. Once you were apes. Deep is its woe— Joy—deeper yet than agony: Woe implores: Go! But all joy wants eternity— Wants deep. sec. first presented in the prologue." ” Another singular feature of Zarathustra. while Kaufmann uses overman.

generally. a self-mastered individual who has achieved his full power. A vulnerability of Nietzsche's style is that his nuances and shades of meaning are very easily lost — and all too easily gained — in translation.[7] It offers formulations of eternal recurrence. is an almost omnipresent idea in Thus Spoke Zarathustra. 47 Themes Nietzsche injects myriad ideas into the book.[6] Noteworthy for its format.J. found elsewhere in Nietzsche's writing. The Übermensch is particularly problematic: the equivalent "Superman" found in dictionaries and in the translations by Thomas Common and R. or happiness. The will to power is the fundamental component of human nature. while simultaneously detracting from Nietzsche's repeated play on "über" as well as losing the gender-neutrality of the German. but has frustrated academic attempts at analysis (as Nietzsche may have intended). adding that its rhapsodic fiction is "now unreadable". The eternal recurrence is the idea that all events that have happened will happen again. infinitely many times. The will to power is a psychological analysis of all human action and is accentuated by self-overcoming and self-enhancement. his intention was to show an alternative to repressive moral codes and to avert "nihilism" in all of its varied forms. Nietzsche achieves all of this through the character of Zarathustra (referring to the traditional prophet of Zoroastrianism). Hollingdale may create an unfortunate association with the heroic comic-character "Superman". the will to power is the summary of all man's struggle against his surrounding environment as well as his reason for living in it.Thus Spoke Zarathustra later reformulated many of his ideas. pleasure. Copious criticisms of Christianity can be found in Thus Spoke Zarathustra. This incomplete project began with The Antichrist. The overman (Übermensch). and Nietzsche for the first time speaks of the Übermensch: themes that would dominate his books from this point onwards. He continued to emphasize his philosophical concerns. Man as a race is merely a bridge between animals and the overman. is also mentioned. an overman would be elated as he has no regrets and loves life. Thus Spoke Zarathustra remained unpopular as a topic for scholars (especially those in the Anglo-American analytic tradition) until the second half of the twentieth century brought widespread interest in Nietzsche and his unconventional style that does not distinguish between philosophy and literature. . has helped its eventual enthusiastic reception by the reading public. in his book Beyond Good and Evil and various other writings that he composed thereafter. Contrasted with living for procreation. The eternal recurrence. All this. Other aspects of Thus Spoke Zarathustra relate to Nietzsche's proposed "Transvaluation of All Values". Such a reality can serve as the litmus test for an overman. It also features frequent references to the Western literary and philosophical traditions. at times resembling pre-Socratic works in tone and in its use of natural phenomena as rhetorical and explanatory devices. along with the book's ambiguity and paradoxical nature. One can view this characteristic (following the genre of the bildungsroman) as an inline commentary on Zarathustra's (and Nietzsche's) philosophy. in particular Christian values of good and evil and its belief in an afterlife. Everything we do is an expression of the will to power. Faced with the knowledge that he would repeat every action that he has taken. but more the journey toward self-mastery. who makes speeches on philosophic topics as he moves along a loose plotline marking his development and the reception of his ideas. Nietzsche also makes a point that the overman is not an end result for a person. but there are a few recurring themes. implicitly offering an interpretation of these traditions and of their problems. Nietzsche sees the complacency of Christian values as fetters to the achievement of overman as well as on the human spirit. the book comprises a philosophical work of fiction whose style often lightheartedly imitates that of the New Testament and of the Platonic dialogues. Style Harold Bloom calls Thus Spoke Zarathustra a "gorgeous disaster".

but this work remains unpublished. excising and annihilating the insidious "truths" of the herd. in 1898. which renders the title Thus Spake Zarathustra.Thus Spoke Zarathustra The "Übermensch" is the being that overcomes the "great nausea" associated with nihilism. Common. originally under the title What Man Tells Me. Martin suggests that Kaufmann "took it upon himself to become his editor". He is a "harvester" and a "celebrant" who endlessly affirms his existence.[9] Graham Parkes describes his own 2005 translation as trying "above all to convey the musicality of the text (which was not a priority for Walter Kaufmann or R. separately by R. He is the being that "sails over morality". which improved on Alexander Tille's earlier attempt. Common has taken the German "most evil" and rendered it "baddest". Common's poetic interpretation of the text. Hollingdale. aesthetically. and consequently reclaiming the chaos from which pure creativity is born.J. titled Thus Spoke Zarathustra. He notes that the German text available to Common was considerably flawed. and that dances over gravity (the "spirit of gravity" is Zarathustra's devil and archenemy). The Common translation. Clancy Martin's 2005 translation opens with criticism and praise for these three seminal translators. style of language. a pseudo-King-James-Biblical style would be fitting in the English translation. received wide acclaim for its lambent portrayal. Carl Orff also composed a three-movement setting of part of Nietzsche's text as a teenager. and Kaufmann. Hollingdale and Walter Kaufmann. and dampening some of Nietzsche's more controversial metaphors. and that the German text from which Hollingdale and Kaufmann worked was itself untrue to Nietzsche's own work in some ways.[8] The translations of Kaufmann and Hollingdale render the text in a far more familiar. Martin criticizes Kaufmann for changing punctuation. less archaic. Frederick Delius based his major choral-orchestral work A Mass of Life (1904-5) on texts from Thus Spoke Zarathustra. Common reasoned that because the original German was written in a pseudo-Luther-Biblical style. Kaufmann's introduction to his own translation included a blistering critique of Common's version.[9] Kaufmann's version." [11] Zarathustra's Roundelay is set as part of Gustav Mahler's Third Symphony (1895-6). 48 Translations The English translations of Zarathustra differ according to the sentiments of the translators. or alternatively What the Night tells me (of Man)."[10] Musical adaptation The book inspired Richard Strauss to compose the tone poem Also sprach Zarathustra. in the style of Shakespeare or the King James Version of the Bible. altering literal and philosophical meanings. features a translator's note suggesting that Nietzsche's text would have benefited from an editor.[8] remained widely accepted until the more critical translations. Hollingdale. which he designated "freely based on Friedrich Nietzsche. that overcomes that most "abysmal" realization of the eternal return. The work ends with a setting of Zarathustra's Roundelay which Delius had composed earlier. as a separate work. than that of Common. thereby becoming the transfigurer of his consciousness and life. a particularly unfortunate error not merely for his having coined the term "baddest". authors of the best English translations so far). which are considered to convey more accurately the German text than the Common version. which has become the most widely available. The Thomas Common translation favors a classic English approach. but also because Nietzsche dedicated a third of The Genealogy of Morals to the difference between "bad" and "evil".[8] This and other errors led Kaufmann to wondering if Common "had little German and less English". He is initially a destructive force.J. he notes that in one instance. . It is this creative force exemplified by the Übermensch that justifies suffering without displacing it in some "afterworld".

2004. translated by Adrian del Caro and edited by Robert Pippin. Munich: Deutscher Taschenbuch Verlag (study edition of the standard German Nietzsche edition) Thus Spoke Zarathustra.(limited to 2. • Lampert. Harmondsworth: Penguin Books.(limited to 2.1916 . 1954 and Harmondsworth: Penguin Books. • Seung. ISBN 1847062210 External links • • • • Also Sprach Zarathustra [12] at Nietzsche Source Project Gutenberg's etext of Also Sprach Zarathustra (the German original) [13] Project Gutenberg's etext of Thus Spake Zarathustra. Hollingdale. Oxford: Oxford World's Classics. 1989.000) of Friedrich Nietzsche's Thus Spake Zarathustra: A Book for All and None translated by Thomas Common. 1976 Thus Spoke Zarathustra. Nietzsche's Teaching: An Interpretation of Thus Spoke Zarathustra. MD: Lexington Books.Thus Spoke Zarathustra 49 Editions of Thus Spoke Zarathustra • • • • 1st . T.000) 4th . Lanham. edited by James Luchte. printed in Great Britain by The Darwien Press of Edinburgh.000) 2nd . 2005 Thus Spoke Zarathustra. K. Philadelphia: Temple University Press. New York: The Viking Press. Leipzig : Haessel • Higgins. 2006 • • • • • Commentaries on Thus Spoke Zarathustra • Gustav Naumann 1899-1901 Zarathustra-Commentar.1914 . Laurence. translated by Graham Parkes.(limited to 1.500) 3rd . • Rosen. New Haven: Yale University Press. The Mask of Enlightenment: Nietzsche's Zarathustra.1911 . J. published by the MacMillan Company in 1916. translated by Thomas Common [14] Free audio download of the Common translation [15] from LibriVox . 2005. Also sprach Zarathustra. 1990. London: Continuum International Publishing Group. 2008. translated by Walter Kaufmann. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. 1961 Thus Spoke Zarathustra. Nietzsche's Zarathustra. Introduction to Thus Spoke Zarathustra • Rüdiger Schmidt Nietzsche für Anfänger: Also sprach Zarathustra . edited by Giorgio Colli and Mazzino Montinari.(limited to 2. reprinted in The Portable Nietzsche.1909 . New Haven: Yale University Press. translated by R.Eine Lese-Einführung (introduction in German to the work) Essay collections on Thus Spoke Zarathustra • Essays on Thus Spoke Zarathustra: Before Sunrise. Kathleen. Nietzsche's Epic of the Soul: Thus Spoke Zarathustra. Stanley. New York: Random House. 4 volumes.

Cambridge Texts in the History of Philosophy. Kaufmann [6] Bloom. org/ dialogues_extensions/ 99_2000season/ 2000_03_08/ strauss. American Philosophical Association Eastern Division: Papers to be presented at the Fifty-First Annual Meeting. 2001. No. ISBN 0-5216-0261-0. Pereboom. 617. [3] Pippin. page 108-9. University of Chicago. p. Martin. Kaufmann. 1954. Harold. Friedrich Wilhelm. org/ texts/ eKGWB/ Za-I [13] http:/ / www. (Edition) Random House. "Richard Strauss. Op. gutenberg. 281-319 [8] Nietzsche. Friedrich. page xxxv [11] Bernard Jacobson. [10] Friedrich Wilhelm Nietzsche. gutenberg. Robert. Thus spoke Zarathustra. Walter. 30 (1896)" (http:/ / www. Guignon. "The "Tremendous Moment" of Nietzsche's Vision". Retrieved 2007-12-11. 2nd ed. Hackett. "The Gay Science: With a Prelude in German Rhymes and an Appendix of Songs". 261. D. The Journal of Philosophy. The Portable Nietzsche. Cambridge University Press. Existentialism: Basic Writings. Trans. Graham Parkes. page xxxiii. James. p. org/ etext/ 7205 [14] http:/ / www. 422 [7] Behler. Magnus and Higgins (ed). American Symphony Orchestra: Dialogues and Extensions. trans.. Goucher College.Thus Spoke Zarathustra 50 References [1] C. 1974. 2006. 2005. nietzschesource. Also Sprach Zarathustra. Ernst. xii. Thus Spoke Zarathustra. 1994. sect. [5] The Will to Power. Nietzsche in the Twentieth Century in The Cambridge Companion to Nietzsche. . 837-842. pp. [12] http:/ / www. The Western Canon: The Books and School of the Ages. "Nietzsche: Thus Spoke Zarathustra". 2005. Trans. 1996. org/ thus-spake-zarathustra-by-friedrich-nietzsche/ . cfm). 101-113 [2] Gutmann. americansymphony. Riverhead Books. Vol. December 28-30. [9] Nietzsche. p. [4] Nietzsche. pp. 51. pp. Clancy. Friedrich. 1976. ix. org/ etext/ 1998 [15] http:/ / librivox. 25.

Beyond Good and Evil


Beyond Good and Evil
Beyond Good and Evil

Title page of the first edition. Author Original title Country Language Subject(s) Genre(s) Friedrich Nietzsche 'Jenseits von Gut und Böse. Vorspiel einer Philosophie der Zukunft' Germany German ethics, metaphysics philosophy

Publication date 1886 Preceded by Followed by Thus Spoke Zarathustra (1883–1885) On the Genealogy of Morality (1887)

Beyond Good and Evil (German: Jenseits von Gut und Böse), subtitled "Prelude to a Philosophy of the Future" (Vorspiel einer Philosophie der Zukunft), is a book by the German philosopher Friedrich Nietzsche, first published in 1886. It takes up and expands on the ideas of his previous work, Thus Spoke Zarathustra, but approached from a more critical, polemical direction. In Beyond Good and Evil, Nietzsche attacks past philosophers for their alleged lack of critical sense and their blind acceptance of Christian premises in their consideration of morality. The work moves into the realm "beyond good and evil" in the sense of leaving behind the traditional morality which Nietzsche subjects to a destructive critique in favour of what he regards as an affirmative approach that fearlessly confronts the perspectival nature of knowledge and the perilous condition of the modern individual.

Background and themes
Of the four "late-period" writings of Nietzsche, Beyond Good and Evil most closely resembles the aphoristic style of his middle period. In it he exposes the deficiencies of those usually called "philosophers" and identifies the qualities of the "new philosophers": imagination, self-assertion, danger, originality, and the "creation of values". He then contests some of the key presuppositions of the old philosophic tradition like "self-consciousness," "knowledge," "truth," and "free will", explaining them as inventions of the moral consciousness. In their place he offers the will to power as an explanation of all behavior; this ties into his "perspective of life", which he regards as "beyond good and evil", denying a universal morality for all human beings. Religion and the master and slave moralities feature prominently as Nietzsche re-evaluates deeply-held humanistic beliefs, portraying even domination, appropriation and injury to the weak as not universally objectionable.

Beyond Good and Evil


Structure of the work
The work consists of 296 numbered sections and an "epode" (or "aftersong") entitled "From High Mountains". The sections are organized into nine parts: • • • • • • • • • Part One: On the Prejudices of Philosophers Part Two: The Free Spirit Part Three: The Religious Essence Part Four: Maxims and Interludes Part Five: On the Natural History of Morals Part Six: We Scholars Part Seven: Our Virtues Part Eight: Peoples and Fatherlands Part Nine: What is Noble?

On philosophers, free spirits, and scholars
In the opening two parts of the book, Nietzsche discusses in turn the philosophers of the past, whom he accuses of a blind dogmatism plagued by moral prejudice masquerading as a search for objective truth; and the "free spirits", like himself, who are to replace them. He casts doubt on the project of past philosophy by asking why we should want the "truth" rather than recognizing untruth "as a condition of life." He offers an entirely psychological explanation of every past philosophy: each has been an "involuntary and unconscious memoir" on the part of its author (§6) and exists to justify his moral prejudices, which he solemnly baptizes as "truths". In a startling passage (§34), Nietzsche tells us that "from every point of view the erroneousness of the world in which we believe we live is the surest and firmest thing we can get our eyes on". Philosophers are wrong to rail violently against the risk of being deceived. "It is no more than a moral prejudice that truth is worth more than appearance". Life is nothing without appearances; it appears to Nietzsche that it follows from this that the abolition of appearances would imply the abolition of "truth" as well. In an even more extreme leap of logic, Nietzsche is led to ask the question, "what compels us to assume there exists any essential antithesis between 'true' and 'false'?" Nietzsche singles out the Stoic precept of "living according to nature" (§9) as showing how philosophy "creates the world in its own image" by trying to regiment nature "according to the Stoa". But nature, as something uncontrollable and "prodigal beyond measure", cannot be tyrannized over in the way Stoics tyrannize over themselves. Further, there are forceful attacks on several individual philosophers. Descartes' cogito presupposes that there is an I, that there is such an activity as thinking, and that I know what thinking is (§16). Spinoza masks his "personal timidity and vulnerability" by hiding behind his geometrical method (§5), and inconsistently makes self-preservation a fundamental drive while rejecting teleology (§13). Kant, "the great Chinaman of Königsberg" (§210), reverts to the prejudice of an old moralist with his categorical imperative, the dialectical grounding of which is a mere smokescreen (§5). His "faculty" to explain the possibility of synthetic a priori judgements is likened to the explanation of the narcotic quality of opium in terms of a "sleepy faculty" in Molière's comedy Le Malade imaginaire. Schopenhauer is mistaken in thinking that the nature of the will is self-evident (§19), which is in fact a highly complex instrument of control over those who must obey, not transparent to those who command. "Free spirits", by contrast to the philosophers of the past, are "investigators to the point of cruelty, with rash fingers for the ungraspable, with teeth and stomach for the most indigestible" (§44). Nietzsche warns against those who would suffer for the sake of truth, and exhorts his readers to shun these indignant sufferers for truth and lend their ears instead to "cynics" – those who "speak 'badly' of man - but do not speak ill of him" (§26). There is a kind of fearless scholars who are truly independent of prejudice (§6), but these "philosophical labourers and men of science in general" should not be confused with philosophers, who are "commanders and law-givers"

Beyond Good and Evil (§211). Nietzsche also subjects physics to critique. "Nature's conformity to law" is merely one interpretation of the phenomena which natural science observes; Nietzsche suggests that the same phenomena could equally be interpreted as demonstrating "the tyrannically ruthless and inexorable enforcement of power-demands" (§22). Nietzsche appears to espouse a strong brand of scientific anti-realism when he asserts that "It is we alone who have fabricated causes, succession, reciprocity, relativity, compulsion, number, law, freedom, motive, purpose" (§21).


On morality and religion
In the "pre-moral period of mankind", actions were judged by their consequences. Over the past 10,000 years, however, a morality has developed where actions are judged by their origins (their motivations) not their consequences. This morality of intentions is, according to Nietzsche, a "prejudice" and "something provisional [...] that must be overcome" (§32). Nietzsche criticizes "unegoistic morality" and demands that "Moralities must first of all be forced to bow before order of rank" (§221). Every "high culture" begins by recognizing "the pathos of distance"[1] (§257). Nietzsche contrasts southern (Catholic) and northern (Protestant) Christianity; northern Europeans have much less "talent for religion" (§48) and lack "southern delicatezza" (§50). As elsewhere, Nietzsche praises the Old Testament while disparaging the New Testament (§52). Religion has always been connected to "three dangerous dietary prescriptions: solitude, fasting and sexual abstinence" (§47), and has exerted cruelty through demanding sacrifice according to a "ladder" with different rungs of cruelty, which has ultimately caused God Himself to be sacrificed (§55). Christianity, "the most fatal kind of self-presumption ever", has beaten everything joyful, assertive and autocratic out of man and turned him into a "sublime abortion" (§62). If, unlike past philosophers such as Schopenhauer, we really want to tackle the problems of morality, we must "compare many moralities" and "prepare a typology of morals" (§186). In a discussion that anticipates On the Genealogy of Morality, Nietzsche claims that "Morality is in Europe today herd-animal morality" (§202)—i.e., it emanates from the ressentiment of the slave for the master (see also §260, which leads into the discussion in Genealogy, I).

On nations, peoples and cultures
Nietzsche discusses the complexities of the German soul (§244), praises the Jews and heavily criticizes the trend of German anti-Semitism (§251). He praises France as "the seat of Europe's most spiritual and refined culture and the leading school of taste" (§254). He finds the English coarse, gloomy, more brutal than the Germans, and declares that "they are no philosophical race", singling out Bacon, Hobbes, David Hume and John Locke as representing a "debasement and devaluation of the concept 'philosopher' for more than a century" (§252). Nietzsche also touches on problems of translation and the leaden quality of the German language (§28). In a prophetic statement, Nietzsche proclaims that "The time for petty politics is past: the very next century will bring with it the struggle for mastery over the whole earth" (§208).

Aphorisms and poetry
Between §62 and §186 Nietzsche inserts a collection of mostly single-sentence aphorisms, modelled on French aphorists such as La Rochefoucauld. Twelve of these (§§ 84, 85, 86, 114, 115, 127, 131, 139, 144, 145, 147, 148) concern women or the distinction between men and women. Other subjects touched on include his doctrine of the eternal recurrence (§70), music (§106) and utilitarianism (§174), among more general attempts at trenchant observations about human nature.

2000 • Beyond Good and Evil. 1906. self-referential edition with concordance [5] An outline for Friedrich Nietzsche selections [6]. Dr. available freely as an English-language audiobook. University of Rhode Island "On the Significance of Genealogy in Nietzsche's Critique of Morality" [7]. htm http:/ / www. revised reprint 1990 with introduction by Michael Tanner • Beyond Good and Evil. reprinted in Courier Dover Publications. org/ etext/ 7204 http:/ / librivox. New York: Modern Library. at LibriVox. edu/ ~megw/ Nietzsche. translated by Judith Norman and edited by Rolf-Peter Horstmann. translated by Walter Kaufmann.Beyond Good and Evil The work concludes with a short ode to friendship in verse form (continuing Nietzsche's use of poetry in The Gay Science and Thus Spoke Zarathustra). Hollingdale. summary by Meg Wallace http:/ / www. and as part of Basic Writings of Nietzsche. 1997. carsten-korfmacher. 2002 External links • • • • • • Beyond Good and Evil [2] at Project Gutenberg — English-language edition. com/ PHILOSOPHY/ Papers/ fngenealogy. Bob Zunjic. gutenberg. edu/ personal/ szunjic/ philos/ beyond. Beyond Good and Evil [4]. Zur Genealogie der Moral. A searchable. 54 Editions • Jenseits von Gut und Böse. New York. Beyond Good and Evil [3] at Project Gutenberg — German-language edition. translated by Marion Faber. 1973. doc. ISBN 0-486-29868-X • Beyond Good and Evil. 2002 (study edition of the standard German Nietzsche edition) • Beyond Good and Evil. unc. 1966. by Carsten Korfmacher References [1] [2] [3] [4] [5] [6] [7] Nietzsche: On the Genealogy of Morals (http:/ / www. html . org/ beyond-good-and-evil-by-friedrich-nietzsche http:/ / www. edited by Giorgio Colli and Mazzino Montinari. ic. html). Munich: Deutscher Taschenbuch Verlag. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. uk/ ~rac101/ concord/ texts/ bge/ http:/ / www. J. reprinted in Vintage Books. translated by R. translated by Helen Zimmern. ac. 1998 • Beyond Good and Evil. Oxford: Oxford World's Classics. uri. New York: Random House. gutenberg. org/ etext/ 4363 http:/ / www. Harmondsworth: Penguin Books.

. is a work by German philosopher Friedrich Nietzsche. The most straightforward of Nietzsche's books and the least aphoristic in form and style. it is considered by Nietzsche scholars to be a work of sustained brilliance and power. composed and first published in 1887 with the intention of expanding and following through on certain new doctrines sketched out in his previous work Beyond Good and Evil. or On the Genealogy of Morals (German: Zur Genealogie der Moral).[1] It consists of a preface and three interrelated Abhandlungen ("treatises" or "essays"). which trace episodes in the evolution of moral concepts with a view to undermining "moral prejudices". and specifically the morality of Christianity.On the Genealogy of Morality 55 On the Genealogy of Morality On the Genealogy of Morality Title page of the first edition. and Nietzsche's masterpiece. subtitled "A Polemic" (Eine Streitschrift). Author Original title Country Language Subject(s) Genre(s) Friedrich Nietzsche 'Zur Genealogie der Moral' Germany German Ethics Philosophy Publication date 1887 Preceded by Followed by Beyond Good and Evil (1886) The Case of Wagner (1888) On the Genealogy of Morality.

Only the weak need the illusion of the subject (or soul) to . as the noble would. The weak deceive themselves into thinking that the meek are blessed and will win everlasting life. who are powerless in a situation of combat. They seek to do moral genealogy by explaining altruism in terms of the utility of altruistic actions. radically opposed in meaning. an image that is central to his philosophy and which makes its first appearance in Thus Spoke Zarathustra. according to Nietzsche. Nietzsche contends that it is psychologically absurd to suggest that altruism derives from a utility which is forgotten: if it is useful." To this end it is necessary to provide an actual history of morality. originates not with the beneficiaries of altruistic actions. what is called "evil" equates to what aristocratic morality calls "good".On the Genealogy of Morality 56 Summary Preface The subject of Nietzsche's treatises are his thoughts "on the origin of our moral prejudices". First Treatise: "'Good and Evil'. Nietzsche indicts the "English psychologists" for lacking historical sense. but by setting up an imaginary revenge. Nietzsche had previously employed this metaphor of the "blond beast" to represent the lion. They invent the term "evil" to apply to the strong. i. develop a deep and poisonous hatred of the powerful. But the judgment "good". Nietzsche attributes the desire to publish his "hypotheses" on the origins of morality to reading his friend Paul Rée's book The Origin of the Moral Sensations (1877) and finding the "genealogical hypotheses" offered there unsatisfactory. Slave morality in feeling ressentiment does not seek redress for its grievances by taking revenge through action. From the aristocratic mode of valuation another mode of valuation branches off which develops into its opposite: the priestly mode of valuation. for its being the source of Christianity. in their origins. 'Good and Bad'" In the "First Treatise" Nietzsche is concerned to show that the valuations "good/evil" and "good/bad" have distinct origins and that the two senses of "good" are. These latter call their inferiors "bad"—in the sense of "worthless" and "ill-born" (as in the Greek words κακος and δειλος)—not "evil. it is also a mistake to resent the strong for their actions because. Nietzsche suggests this process is encouraged through a confrontation between the priestly caste and the warrior caste where they are unable to settle. This valuation develops out of the ressentiment of the powerful experienced by the weak. whom Nietzsche refers to as an "English psychologist" (evidently using the word "English" to designate a certain intellectual temperament rather than a nationality). This is the origin of what Nietzsche calls the "slave revolt in morality". that "the value of these values themselves must be called into question. the good themselves (the powerful) coined the term "good". that is. which is subsequently forgotten as such actions become the norm. which stem from their inherent strength rather than any malicious intent. Rather. In the "good/evil" distinction. Further. there is no metaphysical subject. which hardly takes enemies seriously and forgets about them instantly having dealt with them. the "blond beast". One should not blame them for their "thirst for enemies and resistances and triumphs" (§13). which according to him begins with Judaism (§7). everything which is powerful and life-asserting. thoughts a long time in the making and already given brief and imperfect expression in his Human. Nietzsche has come to believe that "a critique of moral values" is in order. The noble mode of valuation calls what it itself stands for "good". It therefore needs enemies in order to sustain itself. Similarly. unlike noble morality. precisely to the "good" according to the noble valuation. according to Nietzsche." It is in the First Treatise that Nietzsche introduces one of his most controversial images. rather than a hypothetical account in the style of Rée. Nietzsche expressly insists that it is a mistake to hold beasts of prey to be "evil" for their actions. All Too Human. which is the product of what he calls "slave morality".e. what is the incentive to forget it? Rather such a value-judgment gains currency by being increasingly burned into the consciousness. thereby ultimately vanquishing the strong. The priests.

57 Second Treatise: "'Guilt'. Nietzsche lists eleven different uses (or "meanings") of punishment.. Such a race is able to do so even if those they subject to their power are vastly superior in numbers because these subjects are "still formless. restored the church) and refreshed again by the French Revolution (in which the "ressentiment instincts of the rabble" triumphed). (Such a morality is to be sharply differentiated from Christian or other "ascetic" moralities. man now turns himself into "an adventure. is that of awakening remorse. In a tribe. they are therefore turned inward." Nietzsche concludes the First Treatise by considering that the two opposing valuations "good/bad" and "good/evil" have been locked in a tremendous struggle for thousands of years. it concentrates. its hold was broken for a moment by the Renaissance. What began with Judea was the triumph of ressentiment. Man needs to develop an active faculty to work in opposition to this in order that promises can be made that are necessary for exercising control over the future: this is memory. find themselves constricted and thwarted. difficult to analyze and [. Nietzsche accounts for the genesis of the concept "god" by considering what happens when a tribe becomes ever more powerful. it sharpens the feeling of alienation" (§14). an active "faculty of repression". Such punishment is meted out without regard for moral considerations about the free will of the culprit.) The product of this morality. but reasserted by the Reformation (which. Nietzsche develops the "major point of historical methodology" that one must not equate the origin of a thing and its utility. impressing of forms" (§17).] completely and utterly undefinable" (§13). Punishment. comes to see that he may inflict harm on those who break their promises to him. i. is a transaction in which the injury to the autonomous individual is compensated for by the pain inflicted on the culprit. while the conquerors are characterized by an "instinctive creating of forms. Instead of roaming in the wilderness. 'Bad Conscience'. Bad conscience is thus man's instinct for freedom (his "will to power") "driven back. As the power of the tribe grows the need to offer thanks to the ancestors does not decline. still roaming about". offering sacrifices to them as a demonstration of gratitude to them. a "state. his accountability for his actions. Hence the concept of guilt (Schuld) derives from the concept of debt (Schulden). This control over the future allows a "morality of custom" to get off the ground. the current generation always pays homage to its ancestors. a place of torture". but rather increases as it has ever more reason to pay homage to the ancestors and to fear them. But they have no right "to make the bird of prey accountable for being a bird of prey. The psychology of prisoners shows that punishment "makes hard and cold. imprisoned within" (§17). according to Nietzsche.. The origin of punishment. not a mere inertia or absentmindedness. At the maximum of fear. and suggests that there are many more. The process by which the succession of different meanings is imposed is driven by the "will to power"—the basic instinct for domination underlying all human action. Punishment has not just one purpose. and the Like" In the "Second Treatise" Nietzsche advances his thesis that the origin of the institution of punishment is in a straightforward (pre-moral) creditor/debtor relationship. This forgetfulness is. in Nietzsche's view. Man relies on the apparatus of forgetfulness which has been bred into him in order not to become bogged down in the past. but a whole range of "meanings" which "finally crystallizes into a kind of unity that is difficult to dissolve. and the like: it is simply an expression of anger." is imposed by a conqueror race. is in a procedure that predates punishment. the autonomous individual. suppressed. A form of social organization. Under such conditions the destructive. One utility it does not possess. The creditor is compensated for the injury done by the pleasure he derives from the infliction of cruelty on the debtor.On the Genealogy of Morality hold their actions together as a unity. a struggle that originated with the war between Rome (good/bad) and Judea (good/evil). the ancestor is "necessarily transfigured into a god" (§19). then. for example. however. Nietzsche ends the Treatise with a positive suggestion for a counter-movement to the "conscience-vivisection and cruelty to the animal-self" imposed by the bad conscience: this is to "wed to bad conscience the unnatural . who is by nature a nomadic hunter.e. sadistic instincts of man. The real explanation of bad conscience is quite different.

somnambulism (of which there were eight epidemics between 1564 and 1605)." He sets himself up as the "saviour" of (d) the physiologically deformed. we may thus surmise. (iv) bad diet (e. the Indians to India). relied on Schopenhauer to provide this underpinning. (2) mechanical activity. (c) "comedians of the ideal" (§27). overlaid with question marks and misunderstandings" (§23). self-doubting present" (§24). The ascetic ideal.g. (e) priests. telling the weak to look for the causes of their unhappiness in themselves (in "sin"). Artists. It is much too early for the kind of free spirit—a Zarathustra-figure—who could bring this about to emerge. Wagner. what it indicates." which he needs to satisfy his desire for independence. Such training in repentance is responsible. offering them a cure for their exhaustion and listlessness (which is in reality only a therapy which does not tackle the roots of their suffering). and (f) saints. it is the "'supreme' license for power. (c) women. (a) For the artist. every "true" philosopher has retained the trappings of the ascetic priest. As yet.g. other than as a compensation for humanity's need to have some goal or other. 58 Third Treatise: "What do ascetic ideals mean?" Nietzsche's purpose in the "Third Treatise" is "to bring to light. German depression after the Thirty Years' War) (§17). he concludes. This opening aphorism confronts us with the multiplicity of meanings that the ascetic ideal has for different groups: (a) artists. The ascetic priest has a range of strategies for anesthetizing the continuous. (3) "small joys". not in the "decaying. He does this by "altering the direction of ressentiment. his slogans have been "poverty. indistinct expression. (b) modern historians. Nietzsche suggests a number of causes for widespread physiological inhibition: (i) the crossing of races. therefore we should look to philosophers if we are to get closer to finding out what the ascetic ideal means. they work by inducing an "orgy of feeling" (Gefühls-Ausschweifung). it means a "sense and instinct for the most favorable conditions of higher spirituality. the Third Treatise is a commentary on the aphorism prefixed to it. vegetarianism). including malaria and syphilis (e. beneath it. humility. for phenomena such as the St Vitus' and St John's dancers of the Middle Ages. always require some ideology to prop themselves up. Parisian pessimism from 1850). not what [the ascetic] ideal has done. goal. i. Given the extraordinary success of the ascetic ideal in imposing itself on our entire culture. which is a quotation from Nietzsche's Thus Spoke Zarathustra). and interpretation?" (§23) Nietzsche considers as possible opponents of the ideal: (a) modern science. witch-hunt hysteria. but simply what it means.On the Genealogy of Morality inclinations". low-level pain of the weak. .e.e." i. we are told. (v) diseases of various kinds. in it. (4) the awakening of the communal feeling of power. according to Nietzsche. As Nietzsche tells us in the Preface. He further has a number of strategies which are guilty in the sense that they have the effect of making the sick sicker (although the priest applies them with a good conscience). (b) philosophers. As Nietzsche puts it. (d) physiological casualties. Textual studies have shown that this aphorism consists of §1 of the Treatise (not the epigraph to the Treatise. not in others. what lies hidden behind it.g. chastity. although he will come one day: he will emerge only in a time of emboldening conflict.g. means very little in itself. the ascetic ideal means "nothing or too many things". and the delirium characterized by the widespread cry of evviva la morte! ("long live death!"). It was only in the guise of the ascetic priest that the philosopher was first able to make his appearance without attracting suspicion of his overweening will to power. to use the self-destructive tendency encapsulated in bad conscience to attack the symptoms of sickness themselves. especially love of one's neighbour. man "will rather will nothingness than not will". of what it is the provisional. Four of these are innocent in the sense that they do the patient no further harm: (1) a general deadening of the feeling of life. what can we look to to oppose it? "Where is the counterpart to this closed system of will. Nietzsche confines his attention to the composer Richard Wagner. (ii) emigration of a race to an unsuitable environment (e. (b) For the philosopher. (iii) the exhaustion of a race (e." (e) For the priest.

• On The Genealogy of Morals and Ecce Homo. 2003. Hollingdale). As deniers of teleology. if anyone is inimical to the ideal it is they. and. New York: Vintage.. dogmatization" (§25). Munich: Deutscher Taschenbuch Verlag. lignification. What is thus now required. play of masks. despite its polemical style. Oxford: Oxford World's Classics. edited by Giorgio Colli and Mazzino Montinari. Swensen. New York: Courier Dover Publications. translated by Francis Golffing. New York: Modern Library.[3] It is a matter of contention whether there is any such thing as a "genealogical method" as practised by Nietzsche. this version also included in Basic Writings of Nietzsche. Europe is full of such "comedians of the Christian-moral ideal. to apply "genealogy" as a novel method of research in sociology (evinced principally in "histories" of sexuality and punishment). 1994. but there have been attempts." In a sense. Anchor Books. are not only ascetic but highly nihilistic. Nietzsche concludes. 59 Influence On the Genealogy of Morality is considered by many[2] academics to be Nietzsche's most important work. Zur Genealogie der Moral. Editions • Jenseits von Gut und Böse. out of all of his works it perhaps comes closest to a systematic and sustained exposition of his ideas. sheathing. translated and edited by Maudemarie Clark and Alan J.. 1996. • On the Genealogy of Morality. 2000. • On the Genealogy of Morality. it has merely come to substitute the self-contempt of man as the ideal of science. is a critique of the value of truth itself (§24). 1998. • The Genealogy of Morals. ISBN 0872202836. Indianapolis: Hackett. In its apparent opposition to the ascetic ideal. translated and edited by Douglas Smith. it has succeeded merely in demolishing the ideal's "outworks. in trying to hold up a mirror to ultimate reality. translated and edited by Walter Kaufmann (translation of On the Genealogy in collaboration with R. 1967. It has no faith in itself. ISBN 019283617X. By succeeding in dismantling the claims to the theological importance of man. • On the Genealogy of Morals." "In vain!. 2002. • The Birth of Tragedy & the Genealogy of Morals. [. because they at least "arouse mistrust" (§27). An example is the attempt by the British philosopher Bernard Williams to vindicate the value of truthfulness using lines of argument derived from genealogy in his book Truth and Truthfulness (2002). ISBN 0486426912. J. Others have adapted "genealogy" in a looser sense to inform their work. The will to truth that is bred by the ascetic ideal has in its turn led to the spread of a truthfulness the pursuit of which has brought the will to truth itself in peril. and acts only as a means of self-anesthetization for sufferers (scientists) who do not want to admit that they are such. their "last crowings" are "To what end?. ISBN 0679724621. translated by Horace Barnett Samuel. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0521871239.On the Genealogy of Morality (a) Science is in fact the "most recent and noblest form" of the ascetic ideal." "Nada!" (§26) (c) An even worse kind of historian is what Nietzsche calls the "contemplatives": self-satisfied armchair hedonists who have arrogated to themselves the praise of contemplation (Nietzsche gives the example of Ernest Renan).] its temporary solidification. ISBN 0-385-09210-5 . 1956. (b) Modern historians. translated by Carol Diethe and edited by Keith Ansell-Pearson. notably by Michel Foucault.

Deleuze. Nietzsche. • Zur Genealogie der Moral. On the Genealogy of Morals .A Polemical Tract. 1887.On the Genealogy of Morality 60 External links • Nietzsche. 1 [2] Schacht. Genealogy. htm [5] http:/ / www. that is nihilism. BC). 2002). One of the last works that Nietzsche wrote returned to the critical theme of The Case of Wagner. Morality: Essays on Nietzsche's Genealogy of Morals. [4] http:/ / records. Leiter. Eine Streitschrift [6] online German text at Projekt Gutenberg-DE References [1] C. de/ nietzsch/ genealog/ genealog. Friedrich. originally published in 1888. spiegel. Nietzsche on Morality (Routledge.. htm The Case of Wagner The Case of Wagner (Der Fall Wagner) is a German book by the philosopher Friedrich Nietzsche. This work is in sharp contrast with the second part of Nietzsche's The Birth of Tragedy. p. pp. 7. ed. ca/ ~johnstoi/ Nietzsche/ genealogytofc. Wagner is presented by Nietzsche as only a particular symptom of a broader "disease" which is affecting Europe. However. 1994). Janaway. Nanaimo. org/ texts/ eKGWB/ WA . viu. Nietzsches "Genealogie der Moral" (Wissenschaftliche Buchgesellschaft. Nietzsche et la philosophie (PUF. 2007). p. but his disillusion with Wagner the composer and the man was first seen in his 1878 work Human. Berkeley: University of California Press. Subtitled "A Musician's Problem". G. in Nietzsche's eyes. Eine Streitschrift [5] online German text at Nietzsche Source • Zur Genealogie der Moral. Stegmaier. The book shows Nietzsche as a capable music-critic. 1962). External links • "The Case of Wagner" [1] at Nietzsche Source References [1] http:/ / www. Nietzsche also praised Wagner fulsomely in his essay 'Wagner at Bayreuth' (part of the Untimely Meditations). [3] See B. Contents The book is a critique of Richard Wagner and the announcement of Nietzsche's rupture with the German artist. 73. His music is no longer represented as a possible "philosophical affect. who had involved himself too much. wherein he praised Wagner as fulfilling a need in music to go beyond the analytic and dispassionate understanding of music. it has also been known as "The Wagner Case" in English. nietzschesource. p. in the Völkisch movement and antisemitism." and Wagner is ironically compared to Georges Bizet. 1994. nietzschesource. and provides the setting for some of his further reflections on the nature of art and on its relationship to the future health of humanity. Beyond Selflessness: Reading Nietzsche's Genealogy (OUP. All Too Human. Richard. W. org/ texts/ eKGWB/ GM [6] http:/ / gutenberg. only that he had misapplied them to Wagner in the earliest works. In Nietzsche contra Wagner Nietzsche pulled together excerpts from his works to show that he consistently had the same thoughts about music. 99. [4] (Translated into English by Ian Johnston of Malaspina University-College.

oder. Wie man mit dem Hammer philosophiert) is a book by Friedrich Nietzsche.[2] As Nietzsche's fame and popularity was spreading both inside and outside Germany. Genesis Twilight of the Idols was written in just over a week." employing dialectics as a tool for self-preservation as the authority of tradition breaks down. or. Götterdämmerung. confuse the effect for the cause. and shoots some disapproving arrows at key French. and published in 1889. Thucydides and the Sophists as healthier and stronger types. Goethe. thus. In contrast to all these alleged representatives of cultural "decadence". The book states the transvaluation of all values as Nietzsche's final and most important project. In the chapter The Four Great Errors. he suggests that people. and Italian cultural figures.J. The latter title. and that they project their ego.[2] Originally titled A Psychologist's Idleness. and gives a view of antiquity wherein the Romans for once take precedence over the ancient Greeks. thereby . is a pun on the title of Richard Wagner's opera. especially Christians. How to Philosophize with a Hammer. He tries to show how philosophers from Socrates onwards were "decadents. How to Philosophize with a Hammer (original German title Götzen-Dämmerung. Hollingdale Germany German philosophy Publication date 1888 Media type Pages ISBN Paperback. Napoleon. written in 1888. or 'Twilight of the Gods'. British. or. Götzen-Dämmerung in German. hardcover 208 (1990 Penguin Classics ed. while Nietzsche was on holiday in Sils-Maria. Götzen is a diminutive of götter. How to Philosophize with a Hammer Author Original title Translator Country Language Genre(s) Friedrich Nietzsche Götzen-Dämmerung R. Twilight of the Idols is his attempt at this. their subjectivity to other things.) ISBN 978-0140445145 (1990 Penguin Classics ed. He establishes early on in the section The Problem of Socrates that the value of life cannot be estimated and any judgment concerning it only reveals the person's life-denying or life-affirming tendencies. he felt that he needed a text that was a short introduction to his work. between 26 August and 3 September 1888. Synopsis Nietzsche criticizes German culture of the day as unsophisticated. Nietzsche applauds Caesar.) OCLC Number 22578979 [1] Preceded by Followed by The Case of Wagner (1888) The Anti-christ (1888) Twilight of the Idols. götzen can be translated as either "idol" or "false god". it was renamed Twilight of the Idols. or.Twilight of the Idols 61 Twilight of the Idols Twilight of the Idols.

. • English translation by Walter Kaufmann and R. every action had to be thought of as willed..Twilight of the Idols creating the illusionary concept of being.. The Four Great Errors 62 Chapters • • • • • • • • • • • • "Foreword" "Maxims and Arrows" "The Problem of Socrates" "Reason in Philosophy" "How the Real World at Last Became a Myth" "Morality as Anti-Nature" "The Four Great Errors" "The Improvers of Mankind" "What the Germans Lack" "Expeditions of an Untimely Man" "What I Owe to the Ancients" "The Hammer Speaks" External links • Götzen-Dämmerung [3] at Project Gutenberg — German language edition. Nietzsche concludes that what people typically deem "vice" is in fact merely "the inability not to react to a stimulus". and therefore also of God. Duncan (trans)." Men were thought of as free so that they could become guilty: consequently. org/ etext/ 7203 http:/ / www.Today. there is in our eyes no more radical opposition than that of the theologians. org/ oclc/ 22578979 Large. the concept of morality becomes purely a means of control: "the doctrine of will has been invented essentially for the purpose of punishment. html http:/ / librivox. that is of finding guilty. com/ SC/ NIE/ GotDamer. gutenberg..J. Hollingdale [4] • Twilight of the Idols audio book at librivox. history. He critiques the concept of accountability and will and suggests everything is necessary in a unity that can be neither judged nor condemned. who continue to infect the innocence of becoming with 'punishment' and 'guilt' by means of the concept of the 'moral world-order'. the origin of every action as lying in the consciousness. Twilight of the Idols (Oxford: Oxford University Press) ix http:/ / www. handprint. when we immoralists especially are trying with all our might to remove the concept of guilt and the concept of punishment from the world and to purge psychology. nature. In this light. Christianity is a hangman's metaphysics. when we have started to move in the reverse direction. org/ the-twilight-of-the-idols-by-friedrich-nietzsche/ '' .. the social institutions and sanctions of [5] References [1] [2] [3] [4] [5] http:/ / worldcat. In suggesting that the concept of "free will" is an illusion.

) The Twilight of the Idols (1888) Ecce Homo (1888) The Anti-Christ (German: Der Antichrist) (also could be translated as The Anti-Christian) is a book by the philosopher Friedrich Nietzsche. its controversial content made Franz Overbeck and Heinrich Köselitz delay its publication.) ISBN 978-1-59605-681-7 (2005 Cosimo ed. along with Ecce Homo. it is translated as "der Christ. hardcover." The English word "Christian" is called a weak noun in German and. in the singular nominative case.[2] [3] . originally published in 1895. Although it was written in 1888. the title is likely to imply both connotations (the same way as the word "Antichristianity" would in English). audiobook 96 (2005 Cosimo ed. Mencken Germany German Christianity. Jesus philosophy Publication date 1888 Media type Pages ISBN Preceded by Followed by Paperback.[1] The German title can be translated into English as both "The Anti-Christ" and "The Anti-Christian." Given the content of the book.L. Author Original title Translator Country Language Subject(s) Genre(s) Friedrich Nietzsche Der Antichrist H.The Antichrist (book) 63 The Antichrist (book) The Anti-Christ Cover of the 2005 Cosimo edition.

.' 'blessedness.. Julius Evola). higher humans. and is thus a prime instrument of the advancement of decadence: pity persuades men to nothingness! Of course. for power : where the will to power is lacking there is decline.[8] This is an example of Nietzsche's reaction against Schopenhauer... "Let us look one another in the face. on the contrary.. Indo-European paganism as compared to the deficient "southerliness" of the modern Judeo-Christian. "What is good? — All that heightens the feeling of power. He defined the concepts of good. praised ".. out of fear. the usefulness or harmfulness of truth should not be a concern.". In order to understand the book.[5] When Nietzsche says in the preface. Nietzsche cleverly refers to the Hyperboreans to indirectly extol the heritage of pre-Christian.... on the other hand.. multiplies misery and conserves all that is miserable."[12] Depravity results because " . What is more harmful than any vice? — Active sympathy for the ill–constituted and weak — Christianity . For a noble morality. for durability. Aristotle. nihilistic values dominate under the holiest names. bad.. We are Hyperboreans. Schopenhauer was hostile to life: therefore pity became a virtue for him.' One says 'the Beyond' or 'God' or ' true life' or 'Nirvana. virtue free of moralic acid.' . And one shall help them to do so."[8] useful."[7] Nietzsche introduced his concept of will to power in § 2.. What is happiness? — The feeling that power increases — that a resistance is overcome.". which is the innermost spirit of Christianity ."[6] This related to Schopenhauer's claim that knowledge of the inner nature of the world and life results in ". Decadent values In § 1.[8] Nietzsche went on to say that mankind. as the religion of pity. Nietzsche expressed his dissatisfaction with modernity. my passion. but more power... pity " ." and "resignation. sick type of human. In Schopenhauer's philosophy.. pity is the highest virtue of all."[12] Christian pity Christianity. is despised by Nietzsche.The Antichrist (book) 64 Content Nietzsche's readers Nietzsche claimed in the Foreword to have written the book for a very limited readership."[13] The moderns Leo Tolstoy and Richard Wagner adopted Schopenhauer's viewpoint. occult subject in Greek mythology. who had based all morality on compassion. Nietzsche's words were provocative and shocking in passages such as: "The weak and ill–constituted shall perish: first principle of our philanthropy. He disdained all other readers.' 'salvation. He disliked the contemporary "lazy peace. pity is a weakness. .[10] [11] Mankind. must be honest in intellectual matters to the point of hardness to so much as endure my seriousness. the will to power. courage for the forbidden"[4] are also needed. and is harmful to life. not peace at all. "I consider life itself instinct for growth. power itself in man.. But. for Nietzsche.. which was the most nihilistic and opposed to life.' 'redemption." "tolerance. Pascal. egalitarian tradition.. but war . one does not say 'nothingness.. but for Christianity. he asserted that the reader ". it is a virtue.. which spoke of the Hyperboreans (or Thuleans) as the original civilized and gifted race of mankind (cf. What is bad? — All that proceeds from weakness."[8] German militarists found pronouncements such as "Not contentment..[9] Nietzsche. . loss of vitality and strength. Also. and happiness in relation to the will to power. all the values in which mankind at present summarizes its highest desiderata are decadence values."[12] Mankind is depraved because it has lost its instincts and prefers what is harmful to it. Pity also preserves that which should naturally be destroyed. is corrupt and its highest values are depraved.. he was alluding to a mysterious. perfect resignation. Pity leads to depression. Characteristics such as "Strength which prefers questions for which no one today is sufficiently daring. ". He asserted that " . He blamed Christianity for demonizing strong. he claimed. for accumulation of forces. has bred a weak. according to Nietzsche." "cowardly compromise. was an intellectually strong man who was depraved by Christianity's teaching of original sin."[4] The reader should be above politics and nationalism.

This reversal of values is considered.[22] Weak. and sick people.[14] Theologians were placed by Nietzsche in the same class as priests.. pure spirit.the will to the end.. pure. we know that man is not superior to other animals. as well as of friend.."[18] Kant's self–deceptive fraudulence is a result of the influence of priestly theology on his philosophy.."[21] Such hatred results from Christianity's decadence. it deteriorated into an insubstantial ideal. They are supposed to represent a high. modest manner was seen with contempt.. against the will to live!"[24] This God is a ". or thing in itself.. Also. degenerated into the contradiction of life. the method of searching for truth and knowledge was unscientific.. the nihilistic will wants power. ". when the sublime command 'thou shalt.. will give themselves a God who is purely good. " who is a " .. practiced by priests and idealists. this entire fictional world has its roots in hatred of the natural (—actuality!—)....[17] Kant's practical reason was an attempt to give scientific legitimacy to his lack of intellectual conscience.[16] Nietzsche was especially critical of Kant's Categorical Imperative because it was not the result of a personal necessity and choice. decadent. according to Nietzsche. and pleasure.. slanderer. A God who counsels love of enemy.' the 'senses. formula for every slander against 'this world. to be harmful to life. by Nietzsche.The Antichrist (book) recognized the unhealthiness of pity and prescribed tragedy as a purgative. and pride. Will is now known to be a necessary reaction to a stimulus.. Absolute. devoid of free will. However..[25] Nietzsche proclaimed that the Christian God is ". He defined the faith that they fostered as "... such as strength." Kant's skeptical procedure was to show that these concepts could not be refuted.. and poisoner of life . against nature. The Christian God reflects Christianity's decadence.. Scientific method Nietzsche considered himself to be a free spirit who was undertaking a revaluation of all values. when morality. is a God of a people who feel themselves as perishing and without hope. bravery. denier."[15] Seeing falsely is then valued as the highest morality. If Christians were naturally strong and confident. self–preservation. according to Nietzsche. "Pure spirit is pure lie"[14] and he called the priest a " . from the concept of God.' 'honors."[15] In his native Germany. Metaphysicians have eliminated the attributes of virile (männlichen) virtues. whose will to power has declined. priests. and philosophers Theology and philosophy.' makes itself heard. to Nietzsche.[20] Christian God Nietzsche claimed that the Christian religion and its morality are based on imaginary fictions. and superior spirit that is above and has " . he claimed. philosophy is corrupt because it is theological.' for every lie about the 'beyond'!"[24] Recalling Schopenhauer's description of the denial of the will to live and the subsequent empty nothingness. " . not divinities. Kant supported theological ideals by his discussions of the concepts of "true world" and "morality as the essence of the world.. They will then attribute evil and deviltry to their masters' God. conscious advocate of nothingness and negation . Consciousness and spirit derive from instinct.."[13] 65 Theologians.. "In our whole unhealthy modernity there is nothing more unhealthy than Christian pity. When the theologians seek political power..... A quiet. benevolent contempt for the 'understanding. As a result. growth. declaration of war against life. they would have a God who is destructive as well as good. he invented a special kind of reason for cases in which one need not bother about reason — that is.. ". instead of being life's transfiguration and eternal 'Yes'!"[24] The Christian God is a ".[23] Nietzsche opposed the Christian concept of God because it ". according to Nietzsche. cautious. Its origin from concepts and logic was decadent because it was not a product of life.' 'good living. are antithetical to reality and actuality.' and 'science' .closing one's eyes with respect to oneself once and for all. so as not to suffer from the sight of incurable falsity. the sanctification of the will to nothingness!"[24] . we have learned much about his physiology. " and who stands truth upside down on its head. By reducing man to a mere machine.[19] Our present modesty compels us to recognize man's derivation from animals. Prior to Nietzsche's time."[14] But. even though they could not be proved..

 invent another world from which that life–affirmation would appear evil . of their delight in themselves.. They turned against the natural world."[32] However....[30] Buddhism is too positivistic and truthful.. to him. he believed.. Nietzsche wrote. hope.. struggles against sin.. to have advocated the Christian virtues of faith.. interprets suffering as being related to sin. Nietzsche believed. their hopes of themselves. punishment. on the contrary. He also believed Christianity had conquered barbarians by making them sick... no longer at one with Israel or an expression of national self-confidence.. Nietzsche did consider Buddhism more realistic because it posed objective problems and didn't use the concept of God.[31] Five stages of denaturalizing values (1..was the expression of their consciousness of power. Priestly agitators " . The Exile is an ". Faith and belief are opposed to reason. interpret all good fortune as a reward. while suffering can have a redemptive quality.. Christian."[31] In order to survive.[30] Origin of Christianity Jewish priesthood Jewish. eternal punishment for the great epoch — an epoch in which the priest was as yet nothing.) Israel's Yahweh ". (2. it retained its worship of God as a king who is both soldier and judge..) History of Israel is falsified. piety.. Christianity. stillness."[33] (3. "Almost two thousand years — and not a single new god!"[26] Nietzsche maintained that the traditional Christian God of "monotono-theism" (Monotono–Theismus) supports ". and reward in relation to Yahweh. and had a good conscience. Yahweh became a demanding god of justice who is ".." Christianity. according to Nietzsche. realized their own power. Morality is no longer an expression of life and growth. and this goal is achieved. decadent religions. for 'sin. whereas Christianity was the religion of the lowest classes.) Concept of God is falsified. morality opposes life by presenting well–being as a dangerous temptation.."[27] Buddha created the religion in order to assist individuals in ridding themselves of the suffering of life."[34] The past is translated into religious terms. to a greater degree.. knowledge.. absence of desire..) Concept of morality is falsified. all cowardices and weariness of the soul . According to Nietzsche. The Jews affirmed themselves. they pretended to be decadents so they could " .. they considered him to be the God of justice.. . all the instincts of decadence.'. all misfortune as punishment for disobedience of God. they have ". the Jewish priests made use of the decadents and their large population. Their resentment against those who were well–constituted led them to "."[26] 66 Buddhism and Christianity Although he considered both Christianity and Buddhism to be nihilistic. priests survived and attained power by siding with decadents...e. and inquiry.. . i. Even after internal anarchy and Assyrian invasions weakened Israel. Nietzsche claimed that Buddhism is "beyond good and evil" because it has developed past the ". .. in the Beyond sustains the unhappy multitudes. It was a record of guilt. A moral world order is established which assigns value to actions that obey the will of God (and which claims that this general will. Buddhism was the only positivistic religion because it struggles against actual suffering.. The Jews were not decadents. Nietzsche called these virtues the three Christian shrewdnesses. and charity. the right way of . The great epoch becomes an epoch of decay.The Antichrist (book) Nietzsche criticized the "strong races of northern Europe" for accepting the Christian God and not creating a new god of their own."[28] Buddhism had its roots in higher and also learned classes of people."[33] Because he was their God.the toughest national will to life which has ever existed on earth. place themselves at the head of all decadence movements (— as the Christianity of Paul —) so as to make of them something stronger than any party that affirms life. which is experienced as fact or illusion (the concept of Maya) in various traditions of Buddhism. Nietzsche claimed. Instead. "The supreme goal is cheerfulness."[33] (4.. and subsequently.[29] Buddhism objectively claims "I suffer.self–deception of moral concepts. on the other hand. In all religious history. . themselves. Hope.

Also. where he died for his own guilt. forgiveness.' 'blessed.) God's will is revealed in the holy home in a world undisturbed by reality of any kind. Nietzsche asserted that the psychological reality of redemption was ". the redeemer type is determined by a morbid intolerance of pain. Dostoevsky could have revealed his sickliness and childishness. chosen people. [T]he little rebellious movement which is baptized with the name Jesus of Nazareth represents the Jewish instinct once more—in other words. Early Christians used Semitic concepts to express his teaching. history. marriage. Blessedness is not promised on conditions. a 'real' world. ". guilt. He offers no resistance to evil. "[E]vangelic practice alone leads to God.. an 'eternal' world'... at all the natural events of life. . ." and "the kingdom of heaven.. His spirituality is infantile." "the hour of death. "That holy anarchist who roused up the people at the bottom.. . or faith. Revolt against Jewish priesthood The Jewish church opposed and negated nature.."[32] The Jewish church and the Jewish nation received this rebellion as a threat to its existence."[37] Jesus was a distorted version of the redeemer type. according to Nietzsche. and metaphors.."[39] Everyone has an equal right to become a child of God. Extreme sensitivity results in avoidance of the world. Christianity then negated the Jewish church and its holy.' at all times a 'child of God. These symbols are expressed in terms of space..'"[40] There were two worlds for the teacher of the Gospel's glad tidings. Nietzsche thought that the word idiot best described Jesus. The priest sanctifies and bestows all value.. . but his anti–realism could just as easily have been a characteristic of Taoism or Hinduism. miracle–worker. .' 'evangelical. a merely 'inner' world..[35] he might have been referring to the naïve protagonist of Dostoevsky's book The Idiot. . the ruling power of the will of God. and perfected."[36] According to Nietzsche. is only a collection of psychological symbols. and nature.... repentance. He has no anger and wants no revenge. the invention of an even more abstract form of existence... in their Gospels.. The apparent world.the kingdom of heaven belongs to 'children'. of an individual."[40] The Christian is known by his acts. sickness.. a result of delayed puberty." "the son of man.. is demonstrated in the destiny of a nation. That is what brought him to the cross . the priestly instinct which can no longer stand the priest as a reality. it is God!" "[I]t is only in the practice of life that one feels 'divine. described him as having Old Testament characteristics such as prophet.[38] According to Jesus. "The fear of pain.. The first disciples. death.. time. as in Judaism. Priests use 'sin' to gain and hold power.. Not to speak of 'sacrifice' (meal–times). His life is its own kingdom of God at every moment. an even more unreal vision of the world ..The kingdom of God is within you'. His legacy was his 67 . [A]ll things of life are so ordered that the priest is everywhere indispensable. Disobedience of God (the priest) is 'sin. Priests become parasites.. even of the infinitely small in pain. There is no Judaic concern for sin. ". — cannot end otherwise than in a religion of love. The sacred book formulates the will of God and specifies what is to be given to the priests.."[41] Jesus did not want to redeem anyone.. . moral preacher. Priests teach that ".. expressed as punishment and reward according to the degree of obedience. With an antipathy toward the material world. Examples of these mere symbols are the concepts of "God as a person. reality.... Messiah. signs. in order to feel oneself 'in heaven'. rituals. Jesus does not resist or contend with the world because he doesn't recognize the importance of the world..' Subjection to God (the priest) is redemption."[32] The Redeemer type Nietzsche criticized Ernest Renan's attribution of the concepts genius and hero to Jesus. ". Even evil is therefore not resisted. was a political criminal . to opposition against the dominant order . however.The Antichrist (book) life for everyone.. is eternal and unchanging). He wanted to show how to live.. any feeling of resistance to the world is experienced as pain. and the world as being sinful and unholy."[40] It is ". at birth. punishment.. not a new faith."[34] (5. The Gospel's glad tidings are that there is no distinction between God and man.. true world is an inner experience of the heart in which all things are blessedly transfigured (Verklärung). According to Walter Kaufmann."[34] Natural values become utterly valueless. . eternalized. the outcasts and 'sinners. . etc. The real.[a] new way of life. prayers.' the Chandalas within Judaism. Jesus was ".[t]he deep instinct for how one must live.

. Nietzsche claimed that Paul's pretence of holiness and his use of priestly concepts were typically Jewish. the salt. Christianity's history is a "." "sinner. The disciples."[50] This influenced politics and led to revolutions against aristocracies..[47] This was in opposition to Jesus' doctrine that everyone could be a child of God and experience Heaven in their present lives by acting in a gentle. is Christian..[42] 68 History of Christianity Opposite development Nietzsche saw a world–historical irony in the way that the Christian Church developed in antithetical opposition to the Evangel and the Gospel of early Christianity..' 'light.."[48] Paul used the promise of life after death as a way to seize tyrannical power over the masses of lower class people. a life such as he lived who died on the cross. base." "Last Judgment."[46] Jesus' wanted his death on the cross to be an example of how a person can be free from resentment. to all open–hearted and benevolent humanity. One lives for life in the beyond."[48] In order to claim that there is life after death. He did not resist evildoers.." "Redeemer.. vulgar."[50] The meaning of life is that there is no meaning to present life." "beyond." "Paul himself even taught personal immortality as a reward.. morbid. Paul falsified the history of Christianity. and will to power in opposition to Christianity's denial of the world. low. under–privileged. above all a not–doing of many things. ". this morbid barbarism itself finally assumes power — the Church. the history of Israel. and he died on the cross." "moral world–order.[O]nly Christian practice. original. .. the measure and also the Last Judgment of all the rest. barbaric and crude."[44] Nietzsche expressed contempt for his contemporaries because they mendaciously called themselves Christians but did not act like true Christians." "free will. Christianity appealed to everyone's egoism.the concepts 'God.. wanted revenge against the Jewish ruling class and high priests who had delivered him to Pilate.' 'wisdom." Thereafter. to discipline of spirit.": the death on the cross. revenge.. — Christian values — noble values. "As the Church..' 'love. he lived this unity of God and man as his 'glad tidings'.' 'life' .progressively cruder misunderstanding of an original symbolism. and rebellion.. rebellious–minded. however. They elevated Jesus into being the Messiah and Son of God and promised future judgment and punishment in the kingdom of God.' 'truth.." and "immortal soul" are consciously employed in order to provide power to the church and its priests. "The great lie of personal immortality destroys all rationality.. Christianity separated itself from Judaism as though it was the chosen religion. Modern people act with worldly egoism.. Paul and the promise of eternal life The apostles claimed that Jesus' death was a sacrifice of an innocent man for the sins of the guilty. ."[46] ".as if only the 'Christian' were the meaning. the apostles ignored Jesus' example of blessed living.. primitive Christianity is not a faith. all natural in the instincts—all that is healthy..[44] Christianity became more diseased. that form of mortal hostility to all integrity. all that guarantees a future now arouses mistrust."[51] Christianity then divided itself from the world by appropriating ". Nietzsche has Jesus tell the thief on the cross that he is in Paradise now if he recognizes the divinity of Jesus' comportment.' 'spirit. Genuine.. the opposite kind of life was called Christian. Belief in redemption through Christ is not originally Christian. ". It is state of being that consists of ".[I]t is to this pitiable flattery of personal vanity that Christianity owes its victory — it is with this that it has persuaded over to its side everything ill–constituted. and the history of mankind by making them all seem to be a preparation for the crucifixion. But ". all the scum and refuse of mankind. all that is life—promoting.[49] This changed Christianity from a peace movement that achieves actual happiness into a religion whose final judgment offers possible resurrection and eternal life. pride. The laws of nature would be broken for the salvation of everyone. Unlike past ages. Paul made immortality the main point in 1 Corinthians 15:17 when he said "...[43] The fable of Christ as miracle–worker and redeemer is not the origin of Christianity.a doing..The Antichrist (book) bearing and behavior.[45] "[T]here was only one Christian. your faith is vain. his contemporaries knew that sham and unnatural concepts such as "God. .if Christ be not raised.. to all loftiness of soul..Jesus had done away with the concept 'guilt' itself — he had denied any chasm between God and man. loving manner. Nietzsche considered this falseness to be indecent. He loved evildoers. By offering immortal life after death to everyone.

Nietzsche quoted a passage from his earlier work: "And if someone goes through fire for his doctrine — what does that prove?"[60] "[T]he need for belief. intellectual a need born of weakness. Every straightforward.. ." and "punishment" to oppose knowledge. or not wanting to see as one sees.. blessedness.bad ends: the poisoning."[55] 69 Psychology of belief Belief is ".... 'chosen of God' ..' the 'will of God. They serve .' has to be a form of sickness.. If one wants to be. Genesis 3:5."[53] Nietzsche claimed that Paul willed to ruin the 'wisdom of this world' and. the typical Christian condition."[57] "Because sickness belongs to the essence of Christianity... is simply 'world' — evil as such. "The God that Paul created is a negation of God."[53] Christianity.. the denigration and self–violation of man through the concept of sin. and therefore the priests'.. Lying is utilized by all priests." But blessedness is something that the priest promises for the future. Such sinners are dependent on their priests for salvation.. . "In Christianity.. the democratism of the Christian instincts conquered. .' the 'sacred book. beauty and liberality of heart.. 'belief. God's. in one's own person." "The Christian is only a Jew of a 'more liberal' persuasion. such as martyrdom. in its opposition to reality. is an object of belief. is divine. .then every other principle of selection.....[T]he right to lie and the shrewdness of a 'revelation' (Offenbarung) pertains to the priestly type. for example on the basis of integrity.."[51] According to Nietzsche. science.. to try to prove its truth. for 'faith'. Jewish. hellish anxiety regarding science has been chronicled. itself.....there must be something to a cause for which someone is willing to die. by which he maintains his power. for some unconditional Yes and No.. the whole of Judaism.mortally hostile to the 'wisdom of this world. the aggregate of the sick accumulated in Christianity and outnumbered the healthy."[51] Gospel of resentment Nietzsche asserted that the Christian ".attains its ultimate perfection. "[W]hen on earth was it established that true judgments give more enjoyment than false ones.."[62] Christianity's lies are not holy.there is an end to priests and gods if man becomes scientific!"[54] Priests used the concepts of "sin. In the Old Testament.. ."[58] Knowledge requires caution. scientific road to knowledge has to be repudiated by the Church as a forbidden road. .. . and forgiveness. as the art of holy lying."[52] Against science The Christian God is harmful and a crime against life..The Antichrist (book) as if these were synonyms of themselves.. according to Nietzsche.. contempt for the is not 'converted ' to Christianity — one must be sufficiently sick for a rebel in his lowest instincts against everything privileged — he always lives and struggles for 'equal rights' .. ?"[56] It could be said. slandering. and the concepts of cause and effect... is a trait of those who are devoted to a party or faction... suffering humans believe in supernatural agents.. Man tasted knowledge and ". Sinful..' 'inspiration' — all merely words for the conditions under which the priest comes to power. of a broken will to live. discipline. whether pagan. manliness and pride."[59] In response."[61] The Holy Lie and belief Lying. cannot be a proof of truth. . It.[e]verything that suffers. ". . in Jewish fashion.a sign of decadence. "."[57] The decadent and sick types of people came to power through Christianity.. "The majority became master.."[63] Unlike the Jewish/Christian Bible. Even doubt is a sin.. or Christian. denying of life. Also. everything that hangs on the Cross. honest.. Paul gave the name of "God" and Torah to his own will. "Belief makes blessed: thus it is lies. and self–overcoming. redemption." Triumph of the ill Nietzsche alleged that "."[57] The meaning of the God on the Cross is that "..The 'Law. is "." "Paul understood the need for the lie... Christians think that ". But Christianity uses sick reasoning. or pleasure." "guilt. From everywhere.' which means science.."[56] The Christian "proof of strength" is "Belief makes blessed: thus it is true..[T]he priest rules through the invention of sin..

.. Nihilist and Christian (Nihilist und Christ): they rhyme. to bring about the victory of opposing values.Christianity no longer sat on the Papal throne! Life sat there instead! The triumph of life! The great Yes to all lofty.. daring things! ... courage.. invisible. the Greeks and the Romans had discovered the scientific method.."[66] Islam Why did Christianity trample down the culture of Islam? "... on September 30.against health. Paul realized that ". no one is free to choose here.the methodical research. The purpose of the Christian Holy Lie is bad because it "... the will to. anemic vampires.. and happiness."[69] Nietzsche believed that Christianity is a conspiracy ". . Condemnation Christianity ".. the faith in. that the concept 'Hell' will master even Rome — that with the 'Beyond' one kills life .. In accordance with his revaluation of all values."[65] 70 Lost Labor Greece and Rome Christianity deprived us of the benefits of Greek and Roman cultures.. intellect. the genius of organization and administration. petty envy became master.. the philosophers and warriors. the papacy was rid of corrupt Christianity.."[68] But Martin Luther thought that the Pope was corrupt.. man's future. Actually. ". and immortality in order to destroy Imperial Rome. keep the mob under control. the great Yes to all things. .... because it owed its origin to manly instincts. . Over two thousand years ago.... instead of from the date of Christ's birth.. punishment. the attempt. every truth into a lie. with every instinct.."[67] Renaissance The European Renaissance of Greek and Roman values was "[t]he revaluation of Christian values. goodness of the soul.turned every value into an disvalue.[B]ecause Islam was noble."[69] It has ".. as little as there should when faced with an Arab and a Jew. ". the entire heritage of anarchist agitation in the Roman empire. Nietzsche suggested that time be calculated from the date of this book. . then. into a tremendous power.[I]t is the means by which the noble orders. everything in secret revolt. Year One would begin.with the symbol 'God on the Cross' one could sum up everything down– born of weakness. of revenge."[65] His vision on the road to Damascus was ".. .. and its Beyond is its will to negate every reality."[68] Luther's Reformation spoiled this by restoring the church. because it said Yes to life even in the rare and exquisite treasures of Moorish life!"[67] The Crusades were "higher piracy.contempt for every good and honest instinct."[69] He considered Christianity to be a curse and a corruption.."[67] "For in itself there should be no choice in the matter when faced with Islam and Christianity. an organization that was designed to promote life. .The Antichrist (book) the Hindu Law–Book of Manu lies for a good purpose.."[64] Christianity lied about guilt. stealthy. War to the knife with Rome! Peace and friendship with Islam!". undertaken with every means. whatever has turned out well."[66] But it was "."[63] It affirms life. of noble values. and do not merely rhyme .. it created distress in order to eternalize itself.. against life itself.... ". beauty. One either is Chandala or one is not..... beautiful.. Hidden vengefulness. with all genius. well–being... They possessed "..I can't grasp how a German could ever have felt Christian. The decision is given in advance. 1888.. of envy..ruined by cunning. that to deprive 'the world' of value he needed the belief in immortality.

His argument is entirely with those who would attempt to make a Christ. In this light. every kind of distancing relationship between God and man.. even to acknowledge the existence of an Antichrist. and thus the question becomes: does that title reflect Nietzsche's use of the German word in the text? In fact Nietzsche employs the word Antichrist only one time in the work so-titled. logical and detailed attack upon the interpretations of Christ's words by St. He presented a Christ whose own inner life consisted of "blessedness in peace..' In fact at no point in the text does Nietzsche use any form of the German word Christ other than to mean 'Christian." which more accurately states the foe against whom Nietzsche sets out to do battle. is abolished ."[36] " 'Sin'. with "Christians. the provocative title is mainly expressing Nietzsche's animus toward Christianity. the beginning day of this disaster.' He uses its plural Antichristen once also. of a Messiah. whom he posits with his concept of a Dionysian hero. presupposes the existence of a Christ. Nietzsche's basic claim is that Christianity (as he saw it in the West) is a poisoner of western culture and perversion of the words of and practice of Jesus." Consider too that the title itself is part of the polemic Nietzsche makes here against Ernest Renan. After all. Paul and those who followed him. saying he was the "only one true Christian". Nietzsche is very critical of institutionalized religion and its priest class. from which he himself was descended. it is here. let alone to prop oneself up as one..precisely this is the 'glad tidings'.. the institution or eponym. again the meaning is 'anti-Christians. Nietzsche recognized no such entity. Christian For Nietzsche.. "What are the 'glad tidings'? True life. and there its sense is clearly 'Anti-Christian.' One would therefore be better readied for the content of the book were its title rendered "The Anti-Christian. Renan's 1873 L'antéchrist saw an "authorized German-language edition" published the same year under the title. "And time has been reckoned from that dies nefastus. which is to say.[40] "The 'glad tidings' are precisely that there are no more opposites. in gentleness. eternal life is found—it is not promised.. from Christianity's first day! Why not rather from its last day—from today?—Revaluation of all values!" Title The reference to the Antichrist is not intended to refer to the biblical Antichrist but is rather an attack on the "slave morality" and apathy of Western Christianity. it was not the Romans this time. and furthermore as ultimately misguided."[39] Nietzsche does however explicitly consider Jesus as a mortal.The Antichrist (book) 71 Jesus Nietzsche did not demur of Jesus. it was the Christians who had killed him and his idea. the antithesis of a true hero. . Der Antichrist. was both ironic and hypocritical. However. The majority of the book is a systematic. Christ's evangelism consisted of the good news that the kingdom of God is within you. a Messiah. in the inability for enmity. Christian. it is within you: as life lived in love. It can therefore be argued that it does a disservice to the English-speaking reader to translate the title as The Antichrist at all. As has been said the German title Der Antichrist is open to two interpretations ('Antichrist'/'Anti-Christian') but the English The Antichrist is not. out of Jesus of Nazareth. as such. In this book."[36] There is much criticism by Nietzsche of the organized institution of Christianity and its class of priests.

. a child of God!" Nietzsche had Christ reply. "the Antichrist is unrelievedly vituperative.from the first day of Christianity!" This passage was judged by Franz Overbeck and Heinrich Köselitz to be unworthy of publication. However." H. decided to suppress so that there would be no doubt as to the strict correctness of Nietzsche's use of the Bible[72] According to Nietzsche. as one scholar noted. Christ replied. and would indeed sound insane were it not informed in its polemic by a structure of analysis and a theory of morality and religion worked out elsewhere . The words are: "the word idiot (das Wort Idiot). Nietzsche was referring to Dostoevsky's book The Idiot and its naïve protagonist. Matthew 27: 54. the words were reinstated by Josef Hofmiller. who was also being crucified. which the Nietzsche-Archiv.L. . The English translations of Walter Kaufmann and R. Christ's words to the thief on the cross In §35. in § 62. Christ was called the Son of God by the soldier. you are a child of God. Heaven is a subjective state of mind. ".."[74] In the Bible. In these passages.. you are in calculates time from the unlucky day on which this fatality arose -. "If you feel this. only Luke related a dialogue between Christ and the thief in which the thief said. Nietzsche. However. Nietzsche wanted to convey the idea that. in 1931. . The Nietzsche Archives' suppression was lifted in later editions and now appears exactly as Nietzsche wrote. Nietzsche parodied a passage from the New Testament. there is a reference to a young prince who professes to be a Christian but acts in a very worldly manner.The Antichrist (book) 72 Sanity This book was written shortly before Nietzsche's nervous breakdown." (Luke 23: 39-43) Nietzsche had the thief speaking the words that the centurion later spoke in Luke 23: 47. you will be with me in Paradise.[73] one of the thieves.J. an der Spitze seiner Regimenter" [young prince at the head of his regiments] was suppressed in order to avoid comparison to Wilhelm II."[70] Suppressed passages The word idiot § 29 contains three words that were suppressed by Nietzsche's sister in 1895. headed by Elisabeth Förster-Nietzsche.[75] [76] A young prince In § 38.D.. The passage about this "junger Fürst. Mencken's English translation does not contain these words. "This was truly a divine man. Hollingdale contain them. criticized the reckoning of time from Christ's birth (anno Domini). and Mark 15: 39. "Today I tell you. said. A. "This man has done nothing wrong" to which.[71] In order to accomplish this goal. to Christ. According to Kaufmann.

The Portable Nietzsche.L."(§ 70) [12] The Antichrist.. edu/ ~fnchron/ 1889. Volume I.. § 11 . § 9 [16] The Antichrist. html) (English) [2] ". 1965 Nietzsche.' and this interpretation is much more in keeping with the contents of the book. in German Der Antichrist can mean either The Anti–Christ or The Anti–Christian.J. 1991. § 2 [9] "It is this Compassion alone which is the real basis of all voluntary justice and all genuine loving–kindness. Part III. [10] The Antichrist. § 66. ISBN 3-7965-1098-1 (the comprehensive standard commentary on "The Antichrist" . Ein philosophisch-historischer Kommentar". Twilight of the Idols and The Antichrist. § 10 [17] The Antichrist. 1990. § 1 [7] Schopenhauer. Friedrich. ISBN 0-486-44653-0 Schopenhauer. [5] ". Bibliography • • • • • Danto. It can be read here [77]. § 6 [13] The Antichrist." The Antichrist. Arthur. § 3. Only insofar as an action springs therefrom. Schopenhauer wrote: "The doctrine of original sin (affirmation of the will) and of salvation (denial of the will) is really the great truth which constitutes the kernel of Christianity. while the rest is in the main only clothing and covering. Preface [6] The Antichrist. has it moral value. or something accessory. § 7 [14] The Antichrist. Andreas Urs.. The World as Will and Representation. Translated by Walter Kaufmann. § 8 [15] The Antichrist. Foreword. 5 [11] Nietzsche's opinion of Pascal is again the opposite of Schopenhauer's. Chapter V. The Basis of Morality. Hollingdale. my right readers. Arthur.. Macmillan. It first calls to mind the apocalyptic Antichrist. full text and audio. Editor's Preface. One must be above mankind in strength. Nietzsche as Philosopher. The World as Will and Representation. Penguin Books. Dover.1969. "Friedrich Nietzsche: Der Antichrist. Schopenhauer considered Pascal's asceticism and quietism as examples of justice and goodness. my predestined readers: what matter the rest? The rest—that is merely mankind. I. ISBN 0-14-044514-5 Schopenhauer. Penguin Books. dartmouth. 4. Arthur.only available in German) See also • Chandala • The Idiot (novel) External links • • • • The Antichrist. Dover. The Anti–Christ. The Basis of Morality."." Arthur Schopenhauer. ISBN 0-486-21761-2 Sommer. But the title could also mean 'The Anti–Christian. Friedrich. 1982. ISBN 0-14-044514-5 [3] "The title is ambiguous. Penguin Books.The Antichrist (book) 73 Decree Nietzsche's "Decree against Christianity" was also suppressed. Mencken translation) "The Antichrist" complete text from WikiSource References [1] Nietzsche Chronicle: 1889 (http:/ / www.Such men alone are my readers. With regard to original sin. and this more sensational meaning is in keeping with the author's intention to be as provocative as possible. 2005. The Antichrist. and in sections 38 and 47 the word is used in a context in which this is the only possible meaning. In Volume I of his main work. § 48 [8] The Antichrist. Basel. in loftiness of soul—in contempt. Introduction by Michael Tanner. [78] The Antichrist complete text [79] Free audiobook [80] from LibriVox (H. Translated by R. 2000." Nietzsche. and all conduct that proceeds from any other motive whatever has none. Vol. ISBN 0-14-015062-5 [4] The Antichrist.

§ 55 The Antichrist.. Nietzsche as Philosopher." 74 . § 32 The Antichrist. § 26 The Portable Nietzsche. Part II. § 31 The Antichrist. § 34 "The 'kingdom of Heaven' is a condition of the heart . Nietzsche. § 61 The Antichrist. . § 16 The Antichrist. § 21 The Antichrist. § 42 The Antichrist. Chapter 6. 601 The Antichrist. § 41 The Antichrist. § 39 The Antichrist... § 40 The Antichrist. p. § 34 The Antichrist. § 50 The Antichrist. § 48 The Antichrist. § 29 The Antichrist. § 47 The Antichrist.. § 60 The Antichrist. § 44 The Antichrist. it is here. § 24 The Antichrist. § 29 "True life. § 22 The Antichrist. § 35 The Antichrist. § 13 Ibid. The World as Will and Representation. § 38 The Antichrist. § 58 The Antichrist... § 5 Cf. § 27 The Antichrist. § 37 The Antichrist. § 71 The Antichrist. § 18 Schopenhauer. § 53 Thus Spoke Zarathustra. § 33 The Antichrist. § 25 The Antichrist. § 46 The Antichrist. § 62 Arthur Danto. § 43 The Antichrist. I. . § 59 The Antichrist. § 12 Ibid.. § 52 The Antichrist. The Antichrist. § 23 The Antichrist. § 14 The Antichrist. § 30 The Antichrist. § 54 The Antichrist. § 57 The Antichrist." § 29 "'The kingdom of God is within you ' . § 36 The Antichrist. § 49 The Antichrist. § 20 The Antichrist.. eternal life is found — it is not promised.The Antichrist (book) [18] [19] [20] [21] [22] [23] [24] [25] [26] [27] [28] [29] [30] [31] [32] [33] [34] [35] [36] [37] [38] [39] [40] [41] [42] [43] [44] [45] [46] [47] [48] [49] [50] [51] [52] [53] [54] [55] [56] [57] [58] [59] [60] [61] [62] [63] [64] [65] [66] [67] [68] [69] [70] [71] • • • The Antichrist." This is a reference to Luke 17:21. note. it is within you . Vol. § 17 The Antichrist. § 56 The Antichrist. § 15 The Antichrist. § 19 The Antichrist. "Of the Priests" The Antichrist. § 51 The Antichrist.

Psychologist. Indeed. "a child of God. "Truly this was the Son of God!" is said not by the malefactor but by the centurion. the deleted words were published by Josef Hofmiller in 1931. 'That was verily a divine man..' " [77] http:/ / books. are a child of God. org/ the-antichrist-by-nietzsche/ . a child of God' — says the thief. ie/ stephen/ vol10/ Jesus.' he has affirmed the gospel: and with that he is in Paradise—" [Will to Power. Vintage. geocities. in those. ul. a few lines were omitted after ". First. graciously. com/ books?id=hd1zz4ETREEC& pg=PA146& lpg=PA146& dq=Decree+ against+ Christianity+ Nietzsche& source=bl& ots=-wagQeUM88& sig=MRB1sq9VTiwHXfpnTJ9HIcokE1E& hl=en& ei=4u8FS8K5HJDWlQf5wIT_DA& sa=X& oi=book_result& ct=result& resnum=2& ved=0CAwQ6AEwAQ#v=onepage& q=Decree%20against%20Christianity%20Nietzsche& f=false [78] http:/ / publicliterature." They read: "The words to the malefactor on the cross contain the whole evangel. . 'That was truly a godlike man. 1968. Nietzsche should have checked it. mic.. Hence it is misleading to speak of 'suppression.. 27: 54." [76] Kaufmann.' " This was presumably omitted because it is not found in the Gospels this way. II. Princeton University Press.. Matthew. 1974. resignedly.. 'If you feel that' — replies the Redeemer — ' then you are in Paradise. but he was trying feverishly to finish several books — and this was the sort of thing that his young friend Gast. Appendix. Nietzsche: Philosopher. not to be angry ." 75 § 35 "His words to the thief on the cross contain the whole Evangel. html [80] http:/ / librivox. who do him evil" and before "Not to resist. which is only reported in the tale of suffering by Luke (23: 39-43. . ... vol. org/ books/ antichrist/ xaa." ' says the malefactor.. 27:54). com/ thenietzschechannel/ ): "Nietzsche refers to the conversion of one of the two thieves crucified with Jesus. Perhaps the Nietzsche-Archive didn't want to see the 'cohesiveness of the Bible' disputed by Nietzsche.doc (http:/ / www. But the reaction to this deletion was surely as misguided as the deletion itself." [73] Microsoft Word . However. who got one set of the proofs. In section 35. php [79] http:/ / www. compare Josef Hofmiller: Nietzsche. Mark 15: 39. "Translator's Note. Antichrist. then you. the words which Nietzsche puts into the mouth of the thief are those of the captain after Christ's death: compare Luke 23: 47. compare it with Matthew 27: 44. ". and only after the Savior has died (Matt. 1955). com/ SC/ NIE/ antich. Walter." Penguin Books.. The words of the malefactor (Luke 23:40) are importantly different. it has no yesterday or tomorrow. p. handprint. pdf) [74] In his notebook. Nietzsche wrote: "When even the criminal undergoing a painful death declares: 'the way this Jesus suffers and dies. 'If thou feelest this' — answers the redeemer — ' thou art in Paradise . Mark 15.The Antichrist (book) • • § 34 "The 'kingdom of God' is not something one waits for. google. what a common failing it is to recall a Gospel passage inaccurately! Of course... hence the suppression of this part. 31-32). it does not come 'in a thousand years' — it is an experience within a heart. he restores words that had been omitted in three places when the book was first published in 1895. Edited by Walter Kaufmann. without rebelling. omissions from the [1895] text were subsequently published and are restored in Karl Schlechta's edition (Werke in drei Bänden. 'Süddeutsche Monatshefte' November 1931.. These words are also found in Schlechta's edition . is the only right way. 94ff.Jesus. too. . he loves with those. 1990.. "[Erich] Podach's (1961) version of The Antichrist differs from most previous editions in two respects.. had full authority to delete.. §162] [75] The Antichrist..' " [72] Quoted from the English translation of The Antichrist as shown at The Nietzsche Channel website (http:/ / www. What is characteristic of this kind of criticism of religion is its naïve dilettantism.' . Hofmiller crowed that the words 'are still today [1931] suppressed by the editors because they are not right. without enmity.

his works. was man ist R. J. Hollingdale Germany German Philosophy. was man ist) is the title of the last original book written by philosopher Friedrich Nietzsche before his final years of insanity that spanned until his death in 1900.) ISBN 978-0140445152 (2005 Penguin Classics ed. Walter Kaufmann. .N54 A3413 1992 The Antichrist Nietzsche Contra Wagner For other uses of Ecce Homo. It was written in 1888 and was not published until 1908. the book offers "Nietzsche's own interpretation of his development. hardcover 144 (2005 Penguin Classics ed. writer and thinker. Ecce Homo is a quintessential reflection of Nietzsche's humility as a philosopher.) 27449286 [1] B3316. and his significance" (Kaufmann 1967: 201). The book contains several chapters with self-laudatory titles. see Ecce Homo (disambiguation) Ecce Homo: How One Becomes What One Is (German: Ecce homo: Wie man wird. In many ways.Ecce Homo (book) 76 Ecce Homo (book) Ecce Homo: How One Becomes What One Is Cover of the 1908 Insel edition designed by Henry van de Velde. Author Original title Translator Country Language Genre(s) Publication date Media type Pages ISBN OCLC Number LC Classification Preceded by Followed by Friedrich Nietzsche Ecce Homo: Wie man wird. According to one of Nietzsche's most prominent English translators. "Why I Write Such Good Books" and "Why I Am a Destiny". such as "Why I Am So Wise". "Why I Am So Clever". autobiography 1888 Paperback.

Above all. On these grounds. Just as Socrates was presented in Peter Gast would "correct" Nietzsche's writings Plato's Apology as the wisest of men precisely because he freely even after the philosopher's breakdown and so admitted to his own ignorance.Ecce Homo (book) 77 Within this work. org/ etext/ 7202 [3] http:/ / www. Beyond Good and Evil. corroborating Christianity's decadence and his ideas as to uncovering Christian morality. He gives reviews and insights about his various works. All Too Human. Nietzsche insists that his suffering is not noble but tragic and proclaims the goodness of everything that has happened to him (including his father's early death and his near-blindness — an example of amor fati). Human. Wie man wird. do not mistake me for someone else!" Throughout the course of the book. he expounds – in the characteristically hyperbolic style found in his later period (1886–1888) –upon his life as a child. The Dawn. even more the pride of my instincts. Kaufmann considers Ecce Homo a literary work comparable in its artistry to Van Gogh's paintings. the wording of his title was not meant to draw parallels with the Christ. 201-209. The Untimely Meditations. The Gay Science. criticized by today's Nietzsche scholarship. to say: Hear me! For I am such and such a person. was man ist [2] at Project Gutenberg (In original German) • "Eize homo. revolt at bottom—namely. Walter 1967 "Editor's Introduction" in On the Genealogy of Morals (translated by Walter Kaufmann and R. and his vision for humanity. He signs the book "Dionysus versus the Crucified.J. New York: Vintage. Twilight of the Idols and The Case of Wagner. The last chapter of Ecce Homo. External links • Ecce homo. for example. that Nietzsche truly is "a man. One of the main purposes of Ecce Homo was to offer Nietzsche's own perspective on his work as a philosopher and human being. He wrote: "Under these circumstances I have a duty against which my habits. entitled "Why I Am a Destiny"." References Kaufmann. edited by Walter Kaufmann. org/ oclc/ 27449286 [2] http:/ / www. On the Genealogy of Morality. org/ etext/ 3004 . gutenberg. including: The Birth of Tragedy. is primarily concerned with reiterating Nietzsche's thoughts on Christianity. Nietzsche argues that he is a great without his approval . Ani Aliz" by A. Hollingdale) and Ecce Homo (translated by Walter Kaufmann). a philosopher "who is not an Alexandrian academic nor an Apollonian sage. but Dionysian" (Kaufmann 1967: 202). Nietzsche is self-consciously striving to present a new image of the philosopher and of himself. Thus Spoke Zarathustra. his tastes as an individual. Telzner [3] at Project Gutenberg (In original Russian) References [1] http:/ / worldcat. In this regard." Nietzsche's point is that to be "a man" alone is to be more than Christ.something heavily philosopher because of the scorn he has suffered during his life. but suggest a contrast. gutenberg.

It was not published until 1895. perceived as a sign of weakness). music and art. hardcover ISBN 978-9871139156 (2004 Quadrata ed. he admires Wagner's power to emote and express himself. expressing disappointment and frustration in Wagner's life choices (such as his conversion to Christianity. six years after Nietzsche's mental collapse." . It also gives the lie to those that would label Nietzsche as anti-Semitic. but largely disdains what Nietzsche calls his religious biases. written in his last year of lucidity (1888–1889).Nietzsche contra Wagner 78 Nietzsche contra Wagner Nietzsche contra Wagner Cover of the 2004 Quadrata edition. Nietzsche attacks Wagner's views in this short work.) Ecce Homo (1888) The Will to Power (1901) "Nietzsche contra Wagner" is a critical essay by Friedrich Nietzsche. Nietzsche evaluates Wagner's philosophy on tonality. Richard Wagner. philosophy of art philosophy Publication date 1895 Media type ISBN Preceded by Followed by Paperback. It illustrates Nietzsche's evolution from a younger philosopher. In it Nietzsche describes why he parted ways with his one-time idol and friend. The work is significant for a number of reasons. and instead makes clear Nietzche's opposition to such ideas: "[Wagner] had condescended step by step to everything I despise — even to anti-Semitism. Author Translator Country Language Subject(s) Genre(s) Friedrich Nietzsche Thomas Common Germany German Richard Wagner. as is often alleged. anti-semitism.

which she gathered together and entitled The Will To Power. Until Colli & Montinari's edition. which he allegedly wanted to name "The Will to Power. which she would later transfer to Weimar. Naumann. Elisabeth Förster-Nietzsche founded the Nietzsche-Archiv in Naumburg in 1894 (after Nietzsche's mental breakdown). In these 20 volumes. considered it to form. Encyclopædia Britannica. and "Discipline and Breeding". often commonly used even today. under the influence of Nietzsche's anti-Semitic sister. But the concept of "will to power" is certainly in itself a major motif of Nietzsche's philosophy. This compilation of Nietzsche's posthumous fragments. The Will to Power (manuscript) The Will to Power (German: "Der Wille zur Macht") is the title given to a book of selectively reordered notes (with a few revisionist additions and changes) from the notebooks (or Nachlass) of Friedrich Nietzsche by his sister Elisabeth Förster-Nietzsche and Heinrich Köselitz ("Peter Gast"). . So The Will to Power was not written by Nietzsche. including the 1922 Musarion edition. Nevertheless. 2006. This version has been judged more than dubious. have called The Will to Power a "historic forgery" artificially assembled by Nietzsche's sister and Peter Gast.[1] and later editions are considered more subtle in their presentation of Nietzsche's intent. but later abandoned in favor of Revaluation of All Values. which Nietzsche was unable to complete. The culmination of this organization was the publishing. with the thought of the eternal recurrence. The Will to Power: Essay of a Transvaluation of all Values. was in fact abandoned as a book by Nietzsche himself. Initial publication The first rendition of this collection was released with other unpublished writings in 1901. and has. selected and ordered under his sister's authority. since the reading of Karl Löwith. edited by Heinrich Köselitz. then by Kröner.Nietzsche contra Wagner 79 References "Nietzsche". "Critique of the Highest Values Hitherto". this project was finally abandoned and its draft materials used to compose The Twilight of the Idols and The Antichrist (both written in 1888). 24. Walter Kaufmann's English edition is divided into four major parts: "European Nihilism". Elisabeth Förster-Nietzsche included part of Nietzsche's posthumous fragments. G. led to the book commonly known as The Will to Power. in Leipzig between 1894 and 1926. Britannica. Elisabeth Förster-Nietzsche.[2] The Will to Power. who edited the complete edition of Nietzsche's posthumous fragments from the manuscripts themselves. under Löwith's influence. Mazzino Montinari and Giorgio Colli. in Attempt at a Revaluation of All Values". this would form the basis for all successive editions. Ernst Horneffer. It was first edited by C. Although Nietzsche had in 1886 announced (at the end of On the Genealogy of Morals) a new work with the title. With Peter Gast. the basis of his thought. Background After returning from Paraguay. the concept remains. so much so that Heidegger. "Principles of a New Evaluation". and August Horneffer. she claimed that Nietzsche had died before completing his magnum opus. The Will to Power is also the title of a work that Nietzsche had considered writing. of the Großoktavausgabe edition. which Elisabeth Förster called Nietzsche's unedited magnum opus. been identified as a key component of Nietzsche's philosophy.

J. in Oscar Levy. The complete works comprise 5. Levy was probably quite right when in a prefatory note he called Ludovici 'the most gifted and conscientious of my collaborators. ISBN 0394704371.The Will to Power (manuscript) 80 Colli and Montinari research While researching materials for the Italian translation of Nietzsche's complete works in the 1960s. The complete works of Friedrich Nietzsche. given his style of writing and thinking.000 pages. whose meaning was distorted according to Elisabeth Förster-Nietzsche's anti-semitic and Germanist biases. prove case-by-case the distortions accomplished by Nietzsche's sister on his posthumous fragments. and ordered the multiple fragments in a completely different way than the one chosen by Elisabeth Förster-Nietzsche.500 pages of the Großoktavausgabe. In fact..Let us say that Ludovici was not a philosopher. The introduction of the most recent edition by Walter Kaufmann and R. Before Colli and Montinari's philological work. the previous editions led readers to believe that Nietzsche had organized all his work toward a final structured opus called The Will to Power. philologists Giorgio Colli and Mazzino Montinari decided to go to the Archives in Leipzig to work with the original documents. editor for Walter de Gruyter's publishing house. An attempted transvaluation of all values.N. Foulis. From their work emerged the first complete and chronological edition of Nietzsche's posthumous fragments. which appears for the first time at the end of the summer of 1885. mixed and pasted together. Foulis. . Random House. as it was left to his sister to artificially combine Nietzsche's fragments into a unified opus magnum (which very concept is alien to Nietzsche's philosophy and style of writing). The title of The Will to Power. Gilles Deleuze himself saluted Montinari's work declaring: "As long as it was not possible for the most serious researcher to accede to the whole of Nietzsche's manuscripts. it also called into question the very conception of a Nietzschean magnum opus. Heinz Wenzel would buy the rights of the complete works of Colli and Montinari (33 volumes in German) after the French Gallimard edition and the Italian Adelphi editions. In fact. An attempted transvaluation of all values. Books three and four" [7] . Edinburgh and London: T. compared to the 3. Hollingdale offers both praise and criticism for Ludovici's edition. (Revised third edition 1925. Society and Art. 15. was replaced by another plan at the end of August 1888. and are a case of revisionism. according to her own antisemitic views (which were a source of contention between her and Nietzsche himself). Nature.' but unfortunately this does not mean that Ludovici's translations are roughly reliable. Books one and two" [6] . we knew only in a loose way that the Will to Power did not exist as such (." • Friedrich Nietzsche (1910). Colli and Montinari met Karl Löwith. the earlier editions. he had abandoned such plans before his collapse. Edinburgh and London: T. "The will to power.) We wish only now that the new dawn brought on by this previously unpublished work will be the sign of a return to Nietzsche" [4] Not only did this critical philological work. Ludovici in 1910. which Förster-Nietzsche had cut up. This new plan was titled "Attempt at a revaluation of all values" [Versuch einer Umwerthung aller Werthe][3] . saying that. The Will to Power: In Science. which all depended on the Großoktavausgabe. [5] Versions "Der Wille zur Macht" was first translated into English by Anthony M. according to Montinari... In 1964. published by The Macmillan Company) • Friedrich Nietzsche (1910).. "The will to power. 14. in Oscar Levy.. The complete works of Friedrich Nietzsche. are technically nonsense. and let it go at that. and was published in Oscar Levy's edition of Nietzsche's papers. (First edition) Another translation was published by Kaufmann with Hollingdale in 1968: • Friedrich Nietzsche (1968).N. if Nietzsche did consider producing such a book. a milestone in Nietzsche studies. as Nietzsche's fragments were cut up in various places and ordered according to his sister's will. during the International Colloquium on Nietzsche in Paris. who would put them in contact with Heinz Wenzel. "Dr.

and Nietzsche II (1939-1946).) Nous souhaitons que le jour nouveau. ed. Schillbach. as good. VIII. "'The Will to Power' does not exist" (http:/ / www. XIV. not in all eternity. archive. 454p. I do not want to accuse. beginning of Nietzsche II) (parts of which have been published under the name Nietzsche I (1936-1939). "'The Will to Power' does not exist" (http:/ / www. 1968. Quote from "Why I Am So Clever" in Ecce Homo. 1997. A transcription is displayed in Walter Kaufmann's English translation of The Will to Power. Looking away shall be my only negation. « La volonté de puissance » n’existe pas. I do not even want to accuse those who accuse. for ex. not forward. html) Mazzino Montinari.The Will to Power (manuscript) 81 References [1] Martin Heidegger already criticized this unauthorized publishing in his 1930s courses on Nietzsche (see. Éditions de l’éclat. one feels that everything that happens is destiny's way of reaching its ultimate purpose. net/ lyber/ montinari/ postface. then I shall be one of those who make things beautiful. [6] http:/ / www. on savait seulement de façon vague que La Volonté de puissance n'existait pas comme telle (. soit celui du retour à Nietzsche in Mazzino Montinari and Paolo D'Iorio. page xxvii. ed. That is. net/ lyber/ montinari/ ndt. 1974. It is used to describe an attitude in which one sees everything that happens in one's life. section 10[1] : My formula for greatness in a human being is amor fati: that one wants nothing to be different. Vintage. Amor fati: let that be my love henceforth! I do not want to wage war against what is ugly. but were done post-war) [2] See Mazzino Montinari. org/ details/ completeworksthe15nietuoft Amor fati Amor fati is a Latin phrase coined by Nietzsche loosely translating to "love of fate" or "love of one's fate". Schillbach. traduit de l’italien par Patricia Farazzi et Michel Valensi. I want to learn more and more to see as beautiful what is necessary in things. Moreover. still less conceal it—all idealism is mendaciousness in the face of what is necessary—but love it. B. — note that these publications are not the exact transcription of the 1930s courses. B. and so should be considered good. called the Großoktav. texte établi et postfacé par Paolo D’Iorio. not backward. 596p. Paris. [3] This sub–title appeared on the title page of the first edition. lyber-eclat. including suffering and loss. org/ details/ completeworksrie033168mbp [7] http:/ / www. apporté par les inédits. See also • • • • • Thus Spoke Zarathustra Destiny Eternal Return Stoicism Fatalism . it is characterized by an acceptance of the events or situations that occur in one's life.. Not merely bear what is necessary.. It appeared in 1901 in volume XV of Nietzsche's Werke. html) [5] Mazzino Montinari and Paolo d'Iorio. [4] Deleuze: "Tant qu'il ne fut pas possible aux chercheurs les plus sérieux d'accéder à l'ensemble des manuscrits de Nietzsche. 1996. lyber-eclat. 1996. which reads. And all in all and on the whole: some day I wish to be only a Yes-sayer. The phrase is used repeatedly in Nietzsche's writings and is representative of the general outlook on life he articulates in section 276 of The Gay Science. 192 p.. archive.

including Plutarch. the mythical home of poetry and all art. that tragedy begins its "Untergang" (literally "going under". Stephen King. he states. German philosophy Although the use of the concepts of Apollonian and Dionysian is famously related to Nietzsche's The Birth of Tragedy. Apollonian and Dionysian The Apollonian and Dionysian is a philosophical and literary concept. and ed. trans. Diane Wakoski. light versus darkness. Hermann Hesse. which was later developed philosophically. In Greek mythology. represent the summit of artistic creation.Amor fati 82 References [1] Basic Writings of Nietzsche. while Winckelmann talked of Bacchus. the contrast between Apollo and Dionysus symbolizes principles of individualism versus collectivism. Friedrich Nietzsche. Robert A. and poetry. the true realization of tragedy. Apollo and Dionysus are both sons of Zeus. Apollo is the god of the Sun. Wilson Knight. the rock band Rush. claiming that the infusion of ethics and reason robs tragedy of its foundation. Carl Jung. ecstasy. His major premise here was that the fusion of Dionysian and Apollonian "Kunsttrieben" ("artistic impulses") forms dramatic arts. singer Jim Morrison. and also Sophocles. downfall. instinctual chaotic state of intoxication wholeness of existence celebration of nature . 1967. Ayn Rand. the god of wine. However. the terms were used before him in Prussia [1] . The poet Hölderlin used it. Chart of Character Traits Apollonian thinking self-controlled rational. meaning decline. it is with Euripides. literary critic G. was first developed in his book The Birth of Tragedy. deterioration. while Dionysus is the god of wine. which he published in 1872. was strongly associated with each of the two gods in separate legends. Several Western philosophical and literary figures have invoked this dichotomy in critical and creative works. In the modern literary usage of the concept. He goes on to argue that that has not been achieved since the ancient Greek tragedians. Heinlein. death. The ancient Greeks did not consider the two gods as opposites or rivals. Parnassus. music. or tragedies. etc. or civilization versus primitivism. logical ordered the dream state principle of individuation value for human order and culture Dionysian feeling passionate irrational. Nietzsche's usage Nietzsche's aesthetic usage of the concepts. Ruth Benedict. by Walter Kaufmann. Nietzsche objects to Euripides' use of Socratic rationalism in his tragedies.). Nietzsche is adamant that the works of above all Aeschylus. Umberto Eco and cultural critic Camille Paglia. Thomas Mann. or dichotomy. namely the fragile balance of the Dionysian and Apollonian. and intoxication. p. 714. based on certain features of ancient Greek mythology.

Paglia's Use Camille Paglia writes about the Apollonian and Dionysian in her book Sexual Personae [2] .[5] .[7] . the Dionysian is dark and chthonic while the Apollonian is light and structured. and unconstrained sex/procreation. especially with unfamiliar information or new experience. For her. the etymythology that this arises from the prevalence of animals in Dr Seuss’s stories. in the interplay of Greek Tragedy: the tragic hero of the drama. Extending the use of the Apollonian and Dionysian onto an argument on interaction between the mind and physical environment. along with the goal of oriented progress. According to Peter Sloterdijk. the main protagonist.. that ‘every speaker attempts to reproduce previously learned linguistic patterns in an effort to cope with new linguistic situations’ (1950: 212). which revives our Dionysian nature . struggles to make order (in the Apollonian sense) of his unjust and chaotic (Dionysian) Fate. For the audience of such a drama.which is almost indescribably pleasurable. the Dionysian and the Apollonian form a dialectic. §2). Many Israelis are certain that he is ‘Dr Horse’ since in Hebrew ‫ סוס‬sus means ‘horse’ . while the Apollonian is associated with males. Consider the perception of naïve young Israeli readers of the name ‫ סוס רוטקוד‬dóktor sus (cf. This ‘misunderstanding’ might correspond to Einar Haugen’s general claim with regard to borrowing. wild/chaotic nature. Nietzsche claimed in The Birth of Tragedy. Dr Seuss). clarity. An updated. this tragedy allows us to sense an underlying essence. The Dionysian is associated with females. and turning instead to the Apollonian trait of ordered creation."[3] "Specifically in linguistics. Apollonianism in linguistics Similar to Nietzsche's usage. he saw the name Apollo. The two concepts split a set of dichotomies that create the basis of Paglia's theory. so to speak. example of this general tendency is the story about the South Dakotan who went to Athens and was happily surprised to find out that the Greeks are fans of NASA’s projects: wherever he went. what he called the "Primordial Unity". The Dionysian is a force of chaos and destruction which is the overpowering and alluring chaotic state of wild nature. but Nietzsche does not mean one to be valued more than the other[6] . Apollonianism is manifested in justifications for the use of a word and in the craving for meaningfulness. especially Martin Heidegger in Nietzsche and the Post-modernists. Though he later dropped this concept saying it was “. Paglia attributes all the progress of human civilization to males revolting against the Dionysian forces of females. some linguists use Apollonianism to denote "the wish to describe and create order. As this anecdote shows. the overarching theme was a sort of metaphysical solace or connection to the heart of creation.burdened with all the errors of youth” (Attempt at Self Criticism. Abraham Akkerman has pointed to masculine and feminine features of city form. albeit frivolous. though he dies unfulfilled in the"[4] Post-modern reading Nietzsche's idea has been interpreted as an expression of fragmented consciousness or existential instability by a variety of modern and post-modern writers. Truth being primordial pain. Nietzsche claimed. rationality/reason.Apollonian and Dionysian 83 celebration of appearance/illusion plastic & visual arts human being(s) as artists brute realism & absurdity music human being(s) as the work and glorification of art The relationship between the Apollonian and Dionysian juxtapositions is apparent. and the turn away from it towards socially constructed Apollonian virtues accounts for the prevalence of asexuality and homosexuality in geniuses and in the most culturally prosperous places such as ancient Athens. and solidity. the ‘Apollonian tendency’ would also seem to include a significant dimension of ethnocentricity. our existential being is determined by the Dionysian/Apollonian dialectic. they are contrasting..

com/ content/ 9337128m117q48k2/ ). 1989. which is the ultimate attempt at order among chaos. Farmers who embrace the chaos are usually far more successful and less beholding to corporations. "'Etymythological Othering' and the Power of 'Lexical Engineering' in Judaism. Fishman. Ghil‘ad (2006). Minneapolis. Islam and Christianity. Islam and Christianity. 237–258.1007/s10746-006-9019-4. jstor. 237–258. . translation by Jamie Owen Daniel. Amsterdam: John Benjamins. 84 See also • • • • Weimar Classicism Folk etymology Phono-semantic matching Caledonian Antisyzygy References [1] Adrian Del Caro. Manchester University Press. [4] See p. University of Minnesota Press.Apollonian and Dionysian The dichotomy is a major theme in Michael Pollan's book. foreword by Jochen Schulte-Sasse. Ghil‘ad (2006).Dec. A Socio-Philo(sopho)logical Perspective". 1989). Explorations in the Sociology of Language and Religion. 589–605 (English) [2] Paglia. ISBN 0816617651 [7] Akkerman. Amsterdam: John Benjamins. or Nietzsche's Appropriation of an Aesthetic Norm (http:/ / links.1992. but can't match the production or homogeny necessary to supply restaurant chains. springerlink. Other farmers try to sustain monocultures. edited by Tope Omoniyi and Joshua A. org/ sici?sici=0022-5037(198910/ 12)50:4<589:DCONAO>2. 245 of Zuckermann. pp. Vol. in Journal of the History of Ideas. Thus. ISBN 978-0719037450 p. 4 (Oct. 258 [6] Thinker on Stage: Nietzsche's Materialism. Explorations in the Sociology of Language and Religion. " Dionysian Classicism. Some farmers accept this and use strategies like crop rotation. pp. 244–245 of Zuckermann. 50. Sexual Personae. Abraham (2006). He argues any attempt to bring control to a single variable in a natural system only results in more variables to which disorder and entropy will reign. pp. doi:10. and must depend on chemicals or genetic tampering to defend encroaching disorder. edited by Tope Omoniyi and Joshua A.. . temporary and largely illusory. Fishman. "The Botany of Desire" in which he details man's attempt at controlling nature through large-scale production of food crops. "Femininity and Masculinity in City-Form: Philosophical Urbanism as a History of Consciousness" (http:/ / www. Human Studies 29 (2): 229–256. variety and secondary crops which complement their main crops with beneficial insects and such. No.2-T& size=LARGE)". A Socio-Philo(sopho)logical Perspective". [5] Postmodernism and the re-reading of modernity By Francis Barker. Peter Hulme. 0. Margaret Iversen. CO. . "Etymythological Othering' and the Power of 'Lexical Engineering' in Judaism. 1990 [3] See pp. all control is partial.

such as Hawking's "arrow of time".[1] However it is to be noted that the cycle of life in Buddhism does not involve a soul passing from one body to another. is thought to bring about a chaotic state due to entropy). but the karma of the deceased being carrying on to another being born. The concept initially inherent in Indian philosophy was later found in ancient Egypt.Eternal return 85 Eternal return Eternal return (also known as "eternal recurrence") is a concept which posits that the universe has been recurring. In Tantric Buddhism. for example. and so sooner or later the same state will recur. Premise The basic premise is that the universe is limited in extent and contains a finite amount of matter. In addition. while time is viewed as being infinite. as a consequence of T-symmetry. though Friedrich Nietzsche resurrected it. and death from which one seeks liberation. whereafter it undergoes a time reversal (which. With the decline of antiquity and the spread of Christianity. life. involving no supernatural reincarnation. but the return of beings in the same bodies. The number of possible changes is finite. The oscillatory universe model in physics could be provided as an example of how the universe cycles through the same events infinitely. . the philosophical concept of eternal recurrence was addressed by Arthur Schopenhauer. (see: Rebirth (Buddhism)). the concept fell into disuse. To get rid of this cycle the person should get rid of its karma through the attainment of enlightenment. The Wheel of life represents an endless cycle of birth. Time is viewed as being not linear but cyclical. discuss cosmology as proceeding up to a certain point. a wheel of time concept known as the Kalachakra expresses the idea of an endless cycle of existence and knowledge. More philosophical concepts from physics. and was subsequently taken up by the Pythagoreans and Stoics. while the matter comprising it is constantly changing its state. It is a purely physical concept. Richard Gott have proposed models by which a/the universe could undergo time travel. Indian religions The concept of cyclical patterns is very prominent in Indian religions. predominantly in Jainism and inclusive of Hinduism and Buddhism among others. Physicists such as Stephen Hawking and J. provided the balance between mass and energy created the appropriate cosmological geometry. and will continue to recur in a self-similar form an infinite number of times. The universe has no starting or ending state.

and Eve miscarried of me before she conceived of Cain. Scarab on a fresco. and Stoicism.M.[3] The origin of this thought is dated by Nietzsche himself. my dying place was Paradise.[4] Several authors have pointed out other occurrences of this hypothesis in contemporary thought. in particular §285 and §341 of The Gay Science and then in Thus Spoke Zarathustra. who revised the first catalogue of Nietzsche's personal library in January 1896. and not a fact.Part 1:57) Ouroboros Friedrich Nietzsche The concept of "eternal recurrence" is central to the writings of Friedrich Nietzsche. a reminder of the life to come. Zeno of Citium. it is the burden imposed by the question of eternal recurrence—whether or not such a thing could possibly be true—that is so significant in modern thought: "The way Nietzsche here patterns the first communication of the thought of the "greatest burden" [of eternal recurrence] makes it clear that this "thought of thoughts" is at the same time "the most burdensome thought. the world was before the Creation.Eternal return 86 Classical antiquity In ancient Egypt. possibly borrowed from the Norse concept of Jörmungandr or the Midgard Serpent. to August 1881. the scarab (or dung beetle) was viewed as a sign of eternal renewal and reemergence of life. According to Heidegger. In Ecce Homo (1888). In ancient Greece. (R. the snake or dragon devouring its own tail. It is also noted in a posthumous fragment. pointed out that Nietzsche would have . and thus was I dead before I was alive. The alchemist-physicians of the Renaissance and Reformation were aware of the idea of eternal recurrence. though my grave be England. the concept of eternal return was connected with Empedocles. Renaissance The symbol of the Ouroboros."[2] The thought of eternal recurrence appears in a few of his works. I say. (See also "Atum" and "Ma'at. Rudolf Steiner. an attempt to describe eternal recurrence was made by the physician-philosopher Sir Thomas Browne in his Religio Medici of 1643: And in this sense. and at an end before it had a beginning.") The ancient Mayans and Aztecs also took a cyclical view of time. As Heidegger points out in his lectures on Nietzsche. is the alchemical symbol par excellence of eternal recurrence. at Sils-Maria. he wrote that he thought of the eternal return as the "fundamental conception" of Thus Spoke Zarathustra. Nietzsche's first mention of eternal recurrence in aphorism 341 of The Gay Science (cited below). presents this concept as a hypothetical question. via posthumous fragments.

are formed out of them is also determinate.[11] In Carl Jung's seminar on Thus Spoke Zarathustra. are finite. Would you not throw yourself down and gnash your teeth and curse the demon who spoke thus? Or have you once experienced a tremendous moment when you would have answered him: 'You are a god and never have I heard anything more divine. on the other hand. Gustave Le Bon is not quoted anywhere in Nietzsche's manuscripts.G. but these particles. and corrupt each other again.... kiss. was read by Nietzsche during this summer of 1881 in Sils-Maria. which Nietzsche readily criticized. the concrete bodies.[8] The eternal recurrence is also mentioned in passing by the Devil in Part Four.'" However. 'All truth is crooked. and says that its burden is the "heaviest weight" ("das schwerste Gewicht")[10] imaginable. time itself is a circle. "'Everything straight lies. but the things in time. according to the eternal laws governing the combinations of this eternal play of repetition. not forward. have their determinate numbers. 87 . Vogt. not in all eternity. Walter Kaufmann suggests that Nietzsche may have encountered this idea in the works of Heinrich Heine. in the Untimely Meditations. the atoms.[7] Blanqui is mentioned by Albert Lange in his Geschichte des Materialismus (History of Materialism). monumental work The Arcades Project. Now. a book closely read by Nietzsche. if some day or night a demon were to steal after you into your loneliest loneliness and say to you: 'This life as you now live it and have lived it. Book XI. however long a time may pass. who once wrote: [T]ime is infinite. repulse. They may indeed disperse into the smallest particles. Die Kraft. and Auguste Blanqui was named only in 1883. all of themselves.[6] However. all configurations which have previously existed on this earth must yet meet. Lou Andreas-Salomé pointed out that Nietzsche referred to ancient cyclical conceptions of time. The wish for the eternal return of all events would mark the ultimate affirmation of life: What.[9] Nietzsche calls the idea "horrifying and paralyzing". you will have to live once more and innumerable times more' . L'éternité par les astres [5] (1872) and Gustave Le Bon. which is another possible source that Nietzsche may have been drawing upon. Walter Benjamin juxtaposes Blanqui and Nietzsche's discussion of eternal recurrence in his unfinished. "love of fate":[11] My formula for human greatness is amor fati: that one wants to have nothing different. Not merely to bear the necessary. Auguste Blanqui.Eternal return read something similar in Eugen Dühring's Courses on philosophy (1875). attract. Jung claims that the dwarf states the idea of the Eternal Return before Zarathustra finishes his argument of the Eternal Return when the dwarf says. not backward. Henri Lichtenberger and Charles Andler have pinpointed three works contemporary to Nietzsche which carried on the same hypothesis: J.' murmured the dwarf disdainfully. Eine real-monistische Weltanschauung (1878). still less to conceal it--all idealism is mendaciousness before the necessary--but to love it. Vogt's work. Chapter 9 of Dostoevsky's The Brothers Karamazov. and to not merely come to peace with it but to embrace it. warning him against over-simplifications. requires amor fati.' [The Gay Science. L'homme et les sociétés (1881).. in particular by the Pythagoreans. and the numbers of the configurations which. Zarathustra rebuffs the dwarf in the following paragraph. §341] To comprehend eternal recurrence in his thought.

after a sufficiently long time. Eliade's theory of "eternal return" describes a distinctly nonspontaneous process that depends on human behavior. is rooted in the concept of eternal return. • The religious scholar Mircea Eliade has applied the term "eternal return" to what he sees as a universal religious belief in the ability to return to the mythical age through myth and ritual (see Eternal Return (Eliade)). Dante Gabriel Rosetti and Charles Howard Hinton. rotating on the same axis. with the continuation of the book's unfinished final sentence. with the narration explicitly referring to and building on Nietzsche's interpretation. Suppose there were three wheels of equal size. one point marked on the circumference of each wheel. If the second wheel rotated twice as fast as the first. which rebuts the claim that a finite number of states must repeat within an infinite amount of time: Even if there were exceedingly few things in a finite space in an infinite time. the initial line-up would never recur. It states that a system whose dynamics are volume-preserving and which is confined to a finite spatial volume will. New Science. The greater part of the 11th chapter of his "A New Model of the Universe" (1914) is devoted to the idea and he there identifies allusions to eternal recurrence in the writings of Aleksey Konstantinovich Tolstoy. Robert Louis Stevenson. including the "first" sentence: "by a commodius vicus of recirculation". an Italian philosopher who proposed a theory of cyclical history in his major work. they would not have to repeat in the same configurations. There are an infinite number of states that each wheel can occupy. Vico's theory involves the recurrence of three stages of history: the age of gods. but they will return to a configuration arbitrarily close to the initial one an infinite number of times. "A sufficiently long time" could be much longer than the predicted lifetime of the universe (see 1 E19 s and more).[14] However. Ouspensky whose novel Strange Life of Ivan Osokin (first published St. and the age of humans — after which the cycle repeats itself.[15] See also Ages of Man and Greek mythology.[13] Arguments against eternal return Nietzsche scholar Walter Kaufmann has described an argument originally put forward by Georg Simmel. • Milan Kundera's seminal work. The Unbearable Lightness of Being. the age of heroes. creating a circular reference whereby the novel has no true beginning or end. . Simmel's argument may not contradict eternal recurrence. Petersburg 1915) explores the idea that even given the free-will to alter events in one's life. Others have approached the question of eternal recurrence from a physics perspective in different ways. References in other literature • In modern times eternal recurrence was a major theme in the teachings of the Russian mystic P. including a hypothesis based on the Transactional interpretation of quantum mechanics. D. Modern cosmology Controversial theoretical physicist Peter Lynds suggested a model of eternal recurrence in a 2006 paper. the arrow of time may reverse. Joyce puns on his name many times in Finnegans Wake. the same events will occur regardless.[12] Lynds hypothesizes that if the universe undergoes a big crunch. and these three points lined up in one straight line. it should be distinguished from the philosophical theory of eternal return (the subject of this article). as posited by Poincaré. and if the speed of the third wheel was 1/π of the speed of the first. thus.Eternal return 88 Poincaré recurrence theorem Related to the concept of eternal return is the Poincaré recurrence theorem in mathematics. return to an arbitrarily small neighborhood of its initial state. Finnegans Wake begins in mid-sentence. which describes a mathematically inevitable process. • James Joyce was influenced by Giambattista Vico (1668–1744).

says Woody. who was familiar with Nietzsche's works. • Jim Morrison. "Well. spoke about the idea of eternal recurrence. and then time begins once again It is happening now. a day that broke up your mind." from a Peter Pan record. in his short story "The Doctrine of Cycles" explains and refutes the concept of the Eternal Return. and the line. with the protagonist being entraped on a circular hell. the polytheistic religion of the humans of the Twelve Colonies is centered on the belief of eternal recurrence.. to access these alternate realities where his dead father is still alive. considers the theory of eternal recurrence. we’re all in the cosmic movie. primarily near the end of the third game. "that means I'll have to sit through the Ice Capades again. and it is a relatively important plot point throughout most of the early and mid-series. Stills. • Flann O'Brien's novel The Third Policeman embodies an instance of eternal recurrence.. "Seek200". "Great"." The monotheistic Cylons also adhere to this doctrine and repeat the phrase as often as the humans. references the eternal return by asking "did you ever wake up to find.. "Time begins and then time ends. • Woody Allen.The End of "Light my Fire" (18:52) on Disc 2 of The Doors: Live in Detroit. • The Information Society song. 2009. • The Rolling Stones' 1971 song.[16] [17] • The first line of Disney's Peter Pan is "All of this has happened before. . 3-D. and a fitting climax" . in Hannah and Her Sisters.." This line has been cited as the inspiration behind the same theme in Battlestar Galactica. (p. repeatedly. in CinemaScope. and it will happen again. So you better have some good incidents happenin’ in there. destroyed your notion of circular time?" and then even alludes to Nietzsche's "demon.. it will surely happen again. muses on themes of eternal return. • The sci-fi television series. you gotta watch your whole life recurring eternally forever. Implying the big crunch will restart the big bang and every person and life will be lived out in exactly the same way each time this occurs. citing it as being ".. • The 2007 Pulitzer Prize Winner for drama. ultimate truth embodied at the absolute center of existence (the final door at the apex of the tower) be a trip back through time to start seeking ultimate truth (The Tower) again. by David Lindsay-Abaire. and it will all happen again. 195) • The idea of eternal recurrence is continually mentioned in the 2007 American horror film Wind Chill.. the extraterrestrial named "prot" explains eternal return by scientific laws in the universe. the Old Man of Wandering Mountain and Childlike Empress to opposing and unified figures caught in The Circle of Eternal Return. A short story written by one of the play's characters describes a child who jumps through black holes. Nash and Young references the concept in the song "Deja Vu" with the lyrics: "If I had ever been here before on another time around the wheel I would probably know just how to deal" and "I feel Like I've been here before" and "We have all been here before" • The plot premise of the Bill Murray movie Groundhog Day is essentially modeled on the idea of eternal return. "Sway". Xenosaga Episode III: Also sprach Zarathustra.usually attributed to Nietzsche. including the concept of "cycles of time".Eternal return • Jorge Luis Borges." • The American metal band Darkest Hour released the album The Eternal Return on June 23. • This idea plays an integral part in the story of the Xenosaga RPG trilogy. touches on the concept of eternal recurrence. or rabbit holes. The Never Ending Story." • At the end of the 2001 film K-PAX. utilizes a sample of "all of this has happened." 89 References in popular culture • In the re-imagined Battlestar Galactica. makes frequent references to this concept. • Michael Ende's 1979 novel. • Crosby. it has happened before. you know that! That means the day you die. Lexx.."[18] • The ending of Stephen King's Dark Tower series suggests the concept of eternal return by having the final. and the religious elements of the show frequently incorporate this idea with the scriptural phrase "All of this has happened before. Rabbit Hole.

1939 (2 Volume Set). (1988).Eternal return • The The Matrix (series) trilogy plays with the theme through the planned creation and destruction of Zion and the Matrix itself. • In the sixth part of the manga JoJo's Bizarre Adventure. no. Durham. so they will have subconscious awareness about the totality of the future. Bernd. New York : Routledge. (2006). The humans themselves are not actually replications of their previous selves. • The 2009 horror film Triangle effectively portrays the eternal recurrence in its Nietzschean incarnation. Time-Fetishes: The Secret History of Eternal Recurrence. . • The anime Zegapain is set in a virtual reality which must reset all history and memories to the initial state of the simulated time frame every 150 days. (1978). 90 See also • • • • • • • • • • • Cyclical pattern Endless knot Eternal Return (Eliade) Historic recurrence Infinite loop Mandala Möbius strip Ourobouros Poincaré recurrence theorem Universal Function Eternalism (philosophy of time) References • Hatab. (2005). ISBN 0-415-96758-9.mlaforum. [19] Princeton University Press. Nietzsche's Life Sentence: Coming to Terms with Eternal Recurrence. this is crucial to Enrico Pucci's plans to purge humanity of horror and sorrow. they are participating in a sequence of events that has happened on multiple previous occasions and is intended to repeat itself into the future. 8 episodes of the second season play off this concept. • In the anime The Melancholy of Haruhi Suzumiya.html. Bloomington : Indiana University Press. N. ISBN 0-253-34062-4.C. MLA Forum 5. ISBN 0-8223-2253-6. Nietzsche's Existential Imperative. • Lukacher. Michael. ISBN 978-0691099538. • Magnus. Ned. online at http://www. : Duke University Press. • Jung. • Lorenzen. Nietzsche's Zarathustra: Notes of the Seminar Given in 1934 . The Ideal Academic Library as Envisioned through Nietzsche's Vision of the Eternal Return. Lawrence J. by accelerating the next cycle of existence without human spirits actually dying. (1998). Carl.

De Gruyter. "Why I Write Such Good Books". org/ wiki/ Note_sur_Nietzsche_et_Lange_:_«_le_retour_éternel_»). "Note sur Nietzsche et Lange: le "retour éternel" (http:/ / fr. See also Mazzino Montinari. S. fr/ nietzsche/ bn/ catalogues. ens. [3] 1881. ie/ arupa/ ouspensky. Schopenhauer In The Gay Science. ca/ classiques/ blanqui_louis_auguste/ eternite_par_les_astres/ eternite_. 1974. Walter. [12] Lynds. The Arcades Project. The law of causality Schopenhauer argued that the law of causality is the basis of all our intellectual capability. Cambridge: Belknap-Harvard. 25. states that everything has a cause. fr/ nietzsche/ bn. wikisource. §1 [5] http:/ / classiques. (11 [143]) [4] Nietzsche. item. page 5. Antichrist." pp. which he considers false. French translation PUF. Psychologist. Ecce Homo. 101-119. ens. page 276. Nietzsche praises Arthur Schopenhauer's "immortal doctrines of (. Trans. html) [16] Battlestar Galactica: Razor . An. i. 1974 (German transl.. htm+ eternal+ recurrence& hl=en& start=5) from Google Cache [2] See Heidegger Nietzsche. 11 [312] 1881. com/ 2008/ 01/ 22/ battlestar-galactica-razor-the-hybrids-prophesy/ ) [17] scifi. or ex nihilo nihil.. Psychologist. org/ abs/ physics/ 0612053) [13] "Circular causality: A physical hypothesis of eternal recurrence" (http:/ / sites.18 @ Wake the Dead (http:/ / www. 34. google.. marxists. calculability of the world from our perspective. scifi. in general. (http:/ / erg. So. Nietzsche: Philosopher. as a rule of quantum chaos or whatever). which have not been understood enough. amazon. Y must happen. 2001) and also Nietzsche's personal library (see also (http:/ / www.. com/ dp/ 0691099537 Nietzsche and free will The 19th-century philosopher Friedrich Nietzsche is known as a critic of Judeo-Christian morality and religions in general. 2002. 1984. html) [19] http:/ / www. Hegel. or whatever).The Hybrid's Prophesy (http:/ / puntabulous. [7] See Posthumous fragment. Howard Eiland and Kevin (http:/ / www. The problem of freedom and fate is not the same as the problem of determinism and indeterminism. 1999. com/ sfw/ column/ sfw12188. "Thus Spoke Zarathustra". 2. Milan. html) [18] Transcript for Brigadoom. One of the arguments he raised against the truthfulness of these doctrines is that they base upon the concept of free will. 2002.Eternal return 91 References [1] August Thalheimer: Introduction to Dialectical Materialism (http:/ / 72. (Fourth Edition) Princeton University Press.. uqac. and Philosophy: Thinking Freedom. ucd. 104/ search?q=cache:8TukAqIPIuQJ:www. except for The Whole (the universe. in Revue philosophique de la France et de l'étranger. "Boredom Eternal Return. com/ site/ jdquirk/ articles/ circular-causality) [14] Kaufmann.ucd.). although this does not mean determinism. Friedrich Nietzsche. Walter. The Unbearable Lightness of Being. [11] Dudley. Antichrist. 67. [10] Kundera. geocities. 1991. Following is the short description of his views.. html) on the École Normale Supérieure's website) [8] Alfred Fouillée. html) and revision of previous catalogues (http:/ / www.) the a priori nature of the causal law (. although they . the universe plus God.) and the unfreedom of the will"[1] .g. Paris 1909. David Farrell Krell.e. Will. item. Philosopher. Nietzsche. if Y cannot happen without X. html [6] Walter Benjamin. the general organization of the world – because there is nothing beyond. p327 [15] erg. 207. Volume II: The Eternal Recurrence of the Same trans. Nietzsche. 14. 519-525 (French) [9] Kaufmann. This law (that everything has a basis from which it springs) cannot be negated. because the negation thereof would then be another law: "out of nothing something can arise" (e. We call X a necessary condition for Y. page 201. 1959. New York: Harper and Row.[2] The law of causality. "On a finite universe with no beginning or end" (http:/ / arxiv. everything has a cause (except the whole. org/ archive/ thalheimer/ works/ diamat/ 06. See chapter D. And all necessary conditions taken together make a sufficient basis (a cause): if there is no lacking condition for Y. com/ Paris/ Jardin/ 6009/ trans218.

in other words. unfortunately. Finally.e. whether it is already known for sure (because of the sufficient cause). whether something can be predicted. of the will for truthfulness. in the chapter "Backworldsmen". Next. the world. 14). 48). therefore. he did not want it. A godless man becomes pious as a "grace". such as still holds sway. on the other side. and society therefrom. and likewise a pious man becomes godless without any merit or guilt. however. lack of obstacles.. i. involves nothing less than to be precisely this causa sui. Men generally agree that will is power. with more than Munchausen daring. chance in all languages is defined "that what cannot be predicted"[4] . he suggests that the only real thing about will is whether it is strong (i. he shows that it represents an error of causa sui (X is a cause of X – whereas "cause" should mean something beyond): The desire for "freedom of will" in the superlative. and. Will has power over actions. and calls the idea a boorish simplicity. in real life it is only a question of strong and weak will. out of the slough of nothingness. it is because of the power of his values.[2] "Free" here means: one acting according only to one's will.[3] Chance vs necessity In his On the Freedom of Will. And. But is this power unlimited? Does a will rule without being ruled itself? Does a Christian want to sin? – Nietzsche disagrees. over many things. or not.. if we try to use it to the will itself. This question appears in Nietzsche's Zarathustra. The latter probably relates to ordinary-man's visions like there is a God which (after the ellapse of eternal waiting) creates the world and then waits and observes (being. to pull oneself up into existence by the hair. He therefore continues Schopenhauer's question of "whether you will. it would mean a lack of any sufficient cause. which does not mark moral freedom. Schopenhauer calls the fact that we can do whatever we will a physical freedom. Or. He calls it a folly resulting from extravagant pride of man. Compare Luther's argument.[2] He calls necessity an implication from a sufficient cause (i. what you wanted to will". Nietzsche suggests in many places that if a pious man becomes godless. hard to break) or weak: The "non-free will" is mythology. It is therefore the question of whether something depends on another thing (i. where everything is a necessity because the Creator knows it already. for that would mean it is unchangeable: whereas nothing in this world is or can be unchangeable[6] . in the minds of the half-educated.e. something that is known already – if we know that the sufficient cause is present). Schopenhauer draws a distinction between necessity and chance. absolute randomness (a chance). chance. we ask: "is will itself willed? do you want your will to become such-and-such?". 21[5] . Nothing is (nor can be) fully resistant to stimula. still "beyond time"): and then he is surprised and subdued by what I do (and well. 92 Physical freedom In his On the Freedom of Will. An event is called random (relatively to some sufficient basis) if it does not follow from this basis.e. (This vision is brought up by Nietzsche in The Antichrist. e. Nietzsche's analysis Power of will In Beyond Good and Evil. I am too!). As freedom means lack of necessity. sect. is in some way determined by it) or does not depend on anything (then we call it a chance). i.e. ancestors. the desire to bear the entire and ultimate responsibility for one's actions oneself.g. . Nietzsche criticizes the concept of free will both negatively and positively.Nietzsche and free will partially intersect.e. metaphysical sense. "Freedom" of will then in fact means: power of will (see argument from The Antichrist. and to absolve God. things are determined by will.

e.). in just the same way as people separate lightning from its flash and take the latter as an action. He calls it "the redemption (of chance)".. if it was always that "we choose a chance". wherever there is will. On the Genealogy of Morals[7] : For. whether it is itself ruled? And here there are two terms which complicate the picture: the term "me" and "chance" (i. and what could not fall to my lot which would not already be mine own!"[11] To cut it short. will. But there is no such substrate. patient virtue. chosen. uncontrollable). But the latter case means we have no will in a topic. i. about Christians: "in point of fact. . his entire single. an act. 44. but still sorely lacketh self-obedience!"[8] – Nietzsche criticizes the idea of "free choice". there is no "being" behind the doing. Nietzsche states more clearly that it is a tautology ("what will I do? what will my decision be?" – "it's up to you" – that actually means: your decision depends on your decision. "it is you who wants things") is already recognized as empty in the preface of Beyond Good and Evil (or as connected with the superstition about the soul). his actions. The term "me" (as in sayings "it's up to you". not against anything (and therefore even more there is no guilt). See e. The problem is.. (. and chance Will is something that determines man's acts. this shrewdness of the lowest ranks. Next problem is the role of chance. which even insects possess (when in great danger they stand as if they were dead in order not to do "too much").g. it is at that time morally indifferent to us. something willed. that is an action of an action: they set up the same event first as the cause and then yet again as its effect. they simply do what they cannot help doing"). something of merit. Unless the change brought to us is big enough. however. who would certainly prefer not to sin and would construct himself otherwise if he could. The same. And if it happens otherwise ("a chance chooses us"). It's good if we do nothing. adiaphora. a chance is generally responded by will. as if behind the strong person there were an indifferent substrate. just as if the weakness of the weak man himself – that means his essence. and it returns in many places of Zarathustra.. something independent from anything. as the effect of a subject which is called lightning. thanks to that counterfeiting and self-deception of powerlessness. we are not strong enough for that" – but this bitter state.) "We weak people are merely weak. many a chance came imperiously unto me: but still more imperiously did my Will speak unto it (. then there is indeterminism.. so popular morality separates strength from the manifestations of strength. which is free to express strength or not. "And many a one can command himself. Later. acting. and irredeemable reality – is a voluntary achievement. dressed itself in the splendour of a self-denying. And verily. It is will what makes man reluctant to toss a coin for something (see The Antichrist. then there would be determinism (for "we". something happens in your mind and not somewhere else. becoming.)[10] Earlier in this part: "The time is now past when accidents could befall me.e. can be applied to the moral weakness of a Christian (his lack of resistance).Nietzsche and free will 93 "Me". All Too Human[9] . has. thoughts etc.. inevitable. man wants to affirm himself ("will to power").. For example in part 3 it is discussed as follows: I am Zarathustra the godless! I cook every chance in my pot. People basically duplicate the action: when they see a lightning flash. "The doer" is merely made up and added into the action – the act is everything. and even of "choice" (see the end of above quotation): man does not want to "choose". This topic is to be found as early as in Human. still. And only when it hath been quite cooked do I welcome it as my food. "we ourselves" means: our will and its filtering and determining capabilities).

and it is "divine dice" (or "Divine Plan"): If ever I have played dice with the gods at the divine table of the earth.)[15] To Nietzsche everything in this world is an expression of will to power (see BGE. reaching even the surface of his consciousness). Therefore. What follows? That there must be events external to one's freedom: therefore.. and shaping. after all. they who know only too well that precisely when they no longer do anything "arbitrarily. nor for chances he encounters (which conquer him unwillingly – and which. into warmer souths than ever sculptor conceived. noone is absolutely and completely resistant. and from the bird's-eye perspective of supreme powers big enough. Although Nietzsche considers both terms entirely fictional. that he is not responsible for them — they come unwillingly: and thus we are not the doers — unfree will (i. 36). chance means: that what cannot be predicted.e." and everything of necessity. without former willing from our side) needs some foreign will. everything would have to be otherwise. where necessity was freedom itself. of subtlety. One can cause influence only on something that exists. a chance is unimportant. going back to the already-mentioned definition. of creatively fixing.[14] The world is semi-deterministic Yet in another part of Zarathustra Nietzsche claims that when we look long-term enough. besides "free will" there should also consequently be "unfree will". as things totally independent from anything. then it is "unfree will". no-one is responsible neither for the necessities (laws and powers) he represents.Nietzsche and free will 94 What is unfree will? If people talk about free will.. If randomness affects man (unsubjugated. everything would have to be otherwise (and generally also backwards). it is a necessity. Responsibility Because causa sui is nonsense. that necessity and "freedom of will" are then the same thing with them. reaches its climax — in short. even a chance has a cause (only the whole has no cause). he gives some clues about the psychological reality behind them: The states of power impute to a man a feeling that he is not the cause. and trembling with new active dictums and dice-casts of the gods: (. there can always happen .) [15] To Nietzsche.. Therefore (through induction). an act changes everything from that moment onwards.[12] In short. because it is ruled and step-by-step softened and arranged by natural laws and necessities. so that the earth quaked and ruptured. this general rule is not affected by chances: they of course change the world course too.. there would be no need for a separate word). but still: if one thing was set otherwise. an unexpected change. Now.) Where all time seemed to me a blessed mockery of moments. to cause influence (compare similar views of Protagoras' disciples in Plato's Teaitet). and of the heavenly necessity which compelleth even chances to dance star-dances: (. their feeling of freedom. disposing... then it is certainly some restricted reality (if "freedom" meant "everything". of power. — where gods in their dancing are ashamed of all clothes: (. we feel something free. wherever we call something free. in short: wherever we feel our power. awareness of a change done to us. To exist is to represent will to power. which played happily with the goad of freedom: — [13] The same in Beyond Good and Evil: Artists have here perhaps a finer intuition. which constitute the order of the world and evolution: If ever a breath hath come to me of the creative breath. it is deterministic. Contrary to Chesterton's views. and snorted forth fire-streams: – – For a divine table is the earth. If one thing was otherwise. only the "supreme being" could change). And indeed Nietzsche says it with the mouth of Zarathustra: Out into distant futures. which no dream hath yet seen.

. Good causes the evil. perhaps also by Plato). neither God. power) of will? And where is this good God? About good and evil These two are mixed and interdependent. .e. a will. The concept of "God" has hitherto been the greatest objection to existence . 4.Nietzsche and free will something which changes you deeply enough." – it is only thereby that the innocence of becoming is again restored . a moralist only rules. Nietzsche argues that man should be treated no otherwise than as a machine. The dichotomy between God and the devil is a "dualistic fiction"[17] . and yet evil happens. . for that would be to judge. He is not the result of a special purpose. nor society. compare. We are necessary. the Aftersong in BGE. because God rules everything anyway. and by no means does anything for men's "salvation". and at the same time were the "Son of God". near the end). No one is responsible for existing at all. compare. We deny God. (This argument is raised in The Antichrist." or an "ideal of morality. His own destiny cannot be disentangled from the destiny of all else in past and future.g. Even the term "freedom". measure. and condemn the whole . and evil causes the good. As God is primary and almighty. . – But he said: "I haven't come to be served". . From Twilight of the Idols: What alone can our teaching be? – That no one gives a man his qualities. Man wants the good. we deny responsibility by denying God: it is only thereby that we save the world. So where is this "freedom" (i. 14. About organized religion Religion is about controlling people: one human-machine wants to achieve power over another." an "ideal of happiness. . we are part of destiny. for being placed under those circumstances and in this environment. that the mode of being be not traced back to a causa prima. very often used by the priests. measure. either as sensorium or as "spirit. for being formed so and so. nor he himself (the latter absurd idea here put aside has been taught as "intelligible freedom" by Kant. or "The Seven Seals". we exist in the whole. A chance involves no obligation (A 25. in its positive sense actually means "power". We have invented the notion of a "goal:" in reality a goal is lacking . that doesn't change anything. we belong to the whole. the attempt is not here made to reach an "ideal of man. But there is nothing outside the whole! – This only is the grand emancipation: that no one be made responsible any longer. where he portrays Christianity as the corruption of original doctrine taught by Jesus of equal rights for all to be children of God. He points both to the weakness of man and of God. And if we add some general chaos (randomness) to the image. . – [16] 95 Nietzsche's conclusions About man and freedom In The Antichrist. .–there is nothing which could judge. nor his parents and ancestors. his will is by definition always fulfilled (it is impossible that he wills something and it is not fulfilled). it would be senseless. a prophet. For what could he do? Knock at a chance? If Jesus came to rule. "God" wants the good. from Zarathustra. A priest. Religion is by no means more "fulfilling the will of God" than anything else. See e. no gulf fixed between God and men). . or an aim." – it is absurd to try to shunt off man's nature towards some goal. that the world be not regarded as a unity. the doctrine of no guilt. or condemn our being.

tr. 173. 17. "The Wanderer". sect. a work which primarily addresses atheists. "Old and new tables". [9] See Human. 2. "The backworldsmen". The death of God will lead. one breaks the whole: nothing necessary remains in one's hands. 4. pl/ books?id=WuTGU6Z674IC& printsec=frontcover) [17] The Antichrist. "The Seven Seals". one pulls the right to Christian morality out from under one's feet. R. the faith in God. The Gay Science. Section 125. tr. [16] Twilight of the Idols (http:/ / books. It first appears in The Gay Science (Deutsch: Die fröhliche Wissenschaft). God is dead "God is dead" (German: "Gott ist tot". Hollingdale. reference. T. where he shows the notion of "unfree will" as crucial to religious explanations (such as actions of gods or spirits). [2] See Schopenhauer's On the Freedom of Will. [15] Thus spake Zarathustra. 2. Zimmern [6] Twilight of the Idols. [11] Thus spake Zarathustra. tr. [13] Thus spake Zarathustra. sect. By breaking one main concept out of Christianity. W. under the topic: Corriger la fortune (to correct a chance). "The Bedwarfing Virtue". because "When one gives up the Christian faith. they have first to denaturize it (A. Common. 96 References [1] The Gay Science. Critique of religion. And we have killed him. sect. All Too Human. [3] Thus spake Zarathustra. not only to the rejection of a belief of . tr."[1] This is why in "The Madman".Nietzsche and free will The whole "freedom" is invented by the priests in order to master the process that takes place in the machine called human brain – nothing more. W. trans. The death of God is a way of saying that humans are no longer able to believe in any such cosmic order since they themselves no longer recognize it. [7] On the Genealogy of Morals. where he quotes Thomas Hobbes. 3. "Old and new tables". tr. 99. sect. Kaufmann. com/ browse/ chance) [5] Beyond Good and Evil. How shall we comfort ourselves. H. 3. 213...J. W. Kaufmann. Book II ("Critique of highest values hitherto"). [12] The Will to Power. [10] Thus spake Zarathustra. what sacred games shall we have to invent? Is not the greatness of this deed too great for us? Must we ourselves not become gods simply to appear worthy of it? —Nietzsche. the problem is to retain any system of values in the absence of a divine order. which is most responsible for popularizing the phrase. also known as the death of God) is a widely-quoted statement by German philosopher Friedrich Nietzsche. Kaufmann. Walter Kaufmann Explanation "God is dead" never meant that Nietzsche believed in an actual God who first existed and then died in a literal sense. 26). . c. Common. Genesis of religions. in section 125 (The Madman). google. 21. Nietzsche says. And in order to master it. It is also found in Nietzsche's classic work Thus Spoke Zarathustra (Deutsch: Also sprach Zarathustra). T. the murderers of all murderers? What was holiest and mightiest of all that the world has yet owned has bled to death under our knives: who will wipe this blood off us? What water is there for us to clean ourselves? What festivals of atonement. 4. I. 3. 1. [4] Dictionary meanings of "chance" (http:/ / dictionary. This morality is by no means self-evident. God remains dead. and for a third time in section 343 (The Meaning of our Cheerfulness). Nietzsche recognizes the crisis which the death of God represents for existing moral considerations. section 108 (New Struggles). tr. [14] Beyond Good and Evil. [8] Thus spake Zarathustra. c. §135. sect. It may be more appropriate to consider the statement as Nietzsche's way of saying that the "God" of the times (religion and other such spirituality) is no longer a viable source of any received wisdom. tr. The idea is stated in "The Madman" as follows: God is dead.

it has not yet reached the ears of men. would no longer stand in the way. which can be both exhilarating and terrifying. the personal archetype who. there may still be caves for thousands of years in which his shadow will be shown. he also uses the phrase in his own voice in sections 108 and 343 of the same book. Philosophy has. This meant. binding upon all individuals. In this manner." . Nietzsche's words can only be understood as referring not to a particular theological or anthropological view but rather to the end of philosophy itself." Nietzsche believed that the majority of people did not recognize this death out of the deepest-seated fear or angst. no one takes him seriously. the light of the stars requires time. He would find a basis in the "will to power" that he described as "the essence of reality. the loss of an absolute basis for morality leads to nihilism. And we — we still have to vanquish his shadow. In the madman's passage. reached its maximum potential as metaphysics and Nietzsche's words warn of its demise and that of any metaphysical world view." he immediately realizes. 125 Earlier in the book (section 108). giving a new philosophical orientation to future generations to overcome the impending nihilism. themselves become a sort of mythical hero. he wrote. The Christian God. though done. The 'death of God' is the motivation for Nietzsche's last (uncompleted) philosophical project.much laughter. This deed is still more distant from them than the most distant stars—and yet they have done it themselves. too. This is partly why Nietzsche saw Christianity as nihilistic. "I seek God! I seek God!" He arouses some amusement. sect. to Nietzsche. He goes on to say: This prodigious event is still on its way. In his view. looking for foundations that went deeper than Christian values. as his detractors of a minute before stare in astonishment: people cannot yet see that they have killed God. the 'revaluation of all values'.e. Socrates or Jesus. but given the way of men. Therefore. deeds. people would despair and nihilism would become rampant. you and I!" "But I have come too soon. and we have killed him. the man is described as running through a marketplace shouting. Maybe he took an ocean voyage? Lost his way like a little child? Maybe he's afraid of us (non-believers) and is hiding?-. The people who eventually learn to create their lives anew will represent a new stage in human existence. 97 Nietzsche and Heidegger Martin Heidegger understood this part of Nietzsche's philosophy by looking at it as death of metaphysics. This nihilism is what Nietzsche worked to find a solution for by re-evaluating the foundations of human values.[2] New possibilities Nietzsche believed there could be positive possibilities for humans without God. when the death did begin to become widely acknowledged. If metaphysics is dead. —trans. still require time to be seen and heard. the Übermensch — i. so human beings might stop turning their eyes toward a supernatural realm and begin to acknowledge the value of this world. Heidegger warns. Walter Kaufmann. He may have seen himself as a historical figure like Zarathustra. Lightning and thunder require time. in Heidegger's words. Relinquishing the belief in God opens the way for human creative abilities to fully develop. still wandering. Nietzsche wrote "God is Dead. Nietzsche's voice Although Nietzsche puts the statement "God is Dead" into the mouth of a "madman" in The Gay Science.God is dead cosmic or physical order but also to a rejection of absolute values themselves — to the rejection of belief in an objective and universal moral law. the madman smashes his lantern on the ground. that is because from its inception that was its fate. crying out that "God is dead. Nietzsche uses the metaphor of an open sea. through the conquest of their own nihilism. Frustrated. The Gay Science.

every day. Thomas Common. but states: 'Dead are all the Gods'. and the rabbi Richard L. sect. Thus Spoke Zarathustra.3 98 Death of God theological movement The cover of the April 8. to be replaced by the life of the übermensch. J. commenting to himself after visiting a hermit who. Theos means God and Thanatos means death. and when I make songs. He is considered to be the leading exponent of the Death of God movement. In Rubenstein's work.God is dead The protagonist in Thus Spoke Zarathustra also speaks the words. lacking any sacramental meaning. laughing. Part I. that God is dead!' —trans. However. In Vahanian's vision a transformed post-Christian and post-modern culture was needed to create a renewed experience of deity. But what do you bring us as a gift?' When Zarathustra had heard these words he bade the saint farewell and said: 'What could I have to give you? But let me go quickly lest I take something from you!' And thus they separated. it was no longer possible to believe in an orthodox/traditional theistic God of the Abrahamic covenant. Although the literal death of God did not occur at this point. the new man: 'DEAD ARE ALL THE GODS: NOW DO WE DESIRE THE OVERMAN TO LIVE. Prologue. The death of God movement is sometimes technically referred to as "theothanatology" (In Greek.[3] . he no longer accepted the possibility of affirming belief in a transcendent God. Vahanian argued that modern secular culture had lost all sense of the sacred. Section XXII. According to the norms of contemporary modern thought. 2. Rubenstein. The encounter with the Christ of faith would be open in a church-community. Altizer concluded that God had incarnated in Christ and imparted his immanent spirit which remained in the world even though Jesus was dead. crying. It is not just one morality that has died. However. this was the moment in time in which humanity was awakened to the idea that a theistic God may not exist. and hum: thus do I praise God. for modern Jewish culture he argued that the death of God occurred in Auschwitz.) The main protagonists of this theology included the Christian theologians Gabriel Vahanian. William Hamilton and Thomas J. Altizer believed that God truly died. In 1961. no transcendental purpose or sense of providence. Rubenstein represented that radical edge of Jewish thought working through the impact of the Holocaust. laughing as two boys laugh. God is a historical process. In a technical sense he maintained. Altizer. Vahanian's book The Death of God was published. 1966 edition of Time and the accompanying article concerned a movement in American theology that arose in the 1960s known as the "death of God". but all of them. He conceived of theology as a form of poetry in which the immanence (presence) of God could be encountered in faith communities. Walter Kaufmann. With singing. rather. But when Zarathustra was alone he spoke thus to his heart: 'Could it be possible? This old saint in the forest has not yet heard anything of this. based on the Kabbalah. Unlike Nietzsche. In responding to this collapse in transcendence Van Buren and Hamilton offered secular people the option of Jesus as the model human who acted in love. Thus Spoke Zarathustra. that God had "died" in creating the world. The saint answered: 'I make songs and sing them. Paul Van Buren. God is dead. What is more.' —trans. He concluded that for the modern mind "God is dead". Hegelian thought and Nietzschean ideas. sings songs and lives to glorify his god: 'And what is the saint doing in the forest?' asked Zarathustra. I laugh. Altizer offered a radical theology of the death of God that drew upon William Blake. the old one and the man. cry. and humming do I praise the god who is my god. Both Van Buren and Hamilton agreed that the concept of transcendence had lost any meaningful place in modern thought. Zarathustra later refers not only to the death of God.

'" in Holzwege. Caputo. html . Robbins (New York: Columbia University Press. Theology. 1998. Gianni Vattimo. God is Dying Blog . • Kaufmann. 5 [2] Wolfgan Muller-Lauter. 1961). wordpress. J." (London. Walter. William. 1992). • John D. 1967). Cambridge University Press. Walter Kaufmann and R. ed (Baltimore: John Hopkins University Press. com/ [5] http:/ / www. The Gospel of Christian Atheism (Philadelphia: Westminster. • Hamilton. • J Vidovich-Munsie. Religion. 2nd. 293-306 [4] http:/ / godisdying. ed.J. Frame. sect.God is dead 99 See also • • • • • Christian atheism Postmodern Christianity Deconstruction-and-religion Post-theism Post-monotheism Further reading • Heidegger. Martin. New York: Continuum International Publishing Group. Expeditions of an Untimely Man. Rubenstein. Contesting Spirit: Nietzsche. 2002. • Bernard Murchland. God is Dying Blog [4] Death of God theology • Thomas J. Altizer. "A Quest for the Post-Historical Jesus. Princeton: Princeton University Press. Princeton: Princeton University Press. 1994). J. The Meaning of the Death of God (New York: Random House. • Thomas J. and Contemporary Judaism. Antichrist. edited by Jeffrey W. Nietzsches Wort 'Gott ist tot (1943) translated as "The Word of Nietzsche: 'God Is Dead. Psychologist. After the Death of God. edited and translated by Julian Young and Kenneth Haynes. Radical Theology and the Death of God (Indianapolis: Bobbs-Merrill. Heidegger und Nietzsche: Nietzsche-Interpretationen III. Hollingdale. • Roberts. "God After the Death of God" in After Auschwitz: History. Walter de Gruyter 2000 [3] Richard L. ISBN 978-0826406415 External links • John M. Twilight of the Idols. 2007). • Gabriel Vahanian. Nietzsche: Philosopher. frame-poythress. 1966). "Death of God Theology" [5] References [1] trans.. Affirmation. Altizer and William Hamilton. The Death of God (New York: George Braziller. 1966).The evolution of religion through modern times. org/ frame_articles/ 1988Death. Tyler T. 1974.

a majority will favor one exit while the minority will favor the other. and schools. mice. The British surgeon Wilfred Trotter popularized the "herd behavior" phrase in his book. Thorstein Veblen explained economic behavior in terms of social influences such as "emulation. In 1971. . In "The Metropolis and Mental Life" (1903). the mechanisms of transmission of thoughts or behaviour between individuals and the patterns of connections between them. but its function emerges from the uncoordinated behavior of self-serving individuals. Recently an integrated approach to herding has been proposed. Possible mechanisms • Hamilton’s Selfish Herd Theory • Byproduct of communication skill of social animal or runaway positive feedback • Neighbor copying Escape Panic Characteristics • • • • • • Individuals attempt to move faster than normal Interactions between individuals become physical Exits become arched and clogged Escape is slowed by fallen individuals serving as obstacles Individuals display a tendency towards mass or copied behavior Alternative or less used exits are overlooked[3] Herd behavior in human societies The German philosopher Friedrich Nietzsche was the first to critique what he referred to as "herd morality" and the "herd instinct" in human society. Modern psychological and economic research has identified herd behavior in humans to explain the phenomena of large numbers of people acting in the same way at the same time.Herd behavior 100 Herd behavior Herd behavior describes how individuals in a group can act together without planned direction. It has been suggested that bringing together diverse theoretical approaches of herding behaviour illuminates the applicability of the concept to many domains[1] . flocks. early sociologist George Simmel referred to the "impulse to sociability in man". and to human conduct during activities such as stock market bubbles and crashes. Instincts of the Herd in Peace and War (1914). episodes of mob violence and even everyday decision making." evolutionary biologist W. Herd behavior in animals A group of animals fleeing a predator shows the nature of herd behavior. judgment and opinion forming. street demonstrations. ranging from cognitive neuroscience [2] to economics. Thus the herd appears as a unit in moving together.[3] Symmetry breaking in herding behavior Asymmetric aggregation of animals under panic conditions has been observed in many species. in the oft cited article "Geometry For The Selfish Herd. including humans. religious gatherings. The term pertains to the behavior of animals in herds. describing two key issues. sporting events. and ants." where some members of a group mimic other members of higher status. In The Theory of the Leisure Class. D. Hamilton asserted that each individual group member reduces the danger to itself by moving as close as possible to the center of the fleeing group. Theoretical models have demonstrated symmetry breaking similar to observations in scientific studies. For example when panicked individuals are confined to a room with two equal and equidistant exits.

One such hurdish incident was the price volatilaty that surrounded the 2007 Uranium bubble. may end up choosing the socially undesirable option. More specifically. Many observers cite these episodes as clear examples of herding behavior that is irrational and driven by emotion—greed in the bubbles. . precipitated by partisan factions attending the chariot races. but those episodes are dwarfed by the scale of violence and death during the Partition of India.[5] The academic study of behavioral finance has identified herding in the collective irrationality of investors. The football hooliganism of the 1980s was a well-publicized. and Gustave Le Bon (the popular mind). Individual investors join the crowd of others in a rush to get in or out of the market.[4] Some followers of the technical analysis school of investing see the herding behavior of investors as an example of extreme market sentiment. Sporting events can also produce violent episodes of herd behavior. Hey and Morone (2004) showed that it is possible to observe herd-type behavior in a market context. The second of the strands of literature motivating this paper is that of information aggregation in market contexts. both of which showed that herd behavior may result from private information not publicly shared. during the year 2006[7] [8] [9] . particularly the work of Robert Shiller. The Los Angeles riots of 1992. such as Freud (crowd psychology). A summary of the progress of this strand of literature can be found in the paper by Plott (2000). which started with flooding of the Cigar Lake Mine in Saskatchewan. Carl Jung (collective unconscious). A very early reference is the classic paper by Grossman and Stiglitz (1976) that showed that uninformed traders in a market context can become informed through the price in such a way that private information is aggregated correctly and efficiently. Hey and Morone (2004) analysed a model of herd behavior in a market context. acting sequentially on the basis of private information and public knowledge about the behavior of others. Swarm theory observed in non-human societies is a related concept and is being explored as it occurs in human society. The idea of a "group mind" or "mob behavior" was put forward by the French social psychologists Gabriel Tarde and Gustave Le Bon. history. the ensuing violence produced an estimated death toll of between 200. The seminal references are Banerjee (1992) and Bikhchandani.S. particularly when confronted by an opposing ethnic or racial group. both of these papers showed that individuals. The first of these strands is that on herd behavior in a non-market context.Herd behavior and sought to describe "the forms of association by which a mere sum of separate individuals are made into a 'society' ". and Daniel Kahneman. Their work is related to at least two important strands of literature. latter-day example of sports violence. Population exchanges between India and Pakistan brought millions of migrating Hindus and Muslims into proximity. Even if herd behavior might only be observed rarely. Behavior in crowds Crowds that gather on behalf of a grievance can involve herding behavior that turns violent. Their result is even more interesting since it refers to a market with a well-defined fundamental value. Hirshleifer and Welch (1992). 101 Stock market bubbles Large stock market trends often begin and end with periods of frenzied buying (bubbles) or selling (crashes).000 and one million. this has important consequences for a whole range of real markets – most particularly foreign exchange markets. New York Draft Riots and Tulsa Race Riot are notorious in U. fear in the crashes. Amos Tversky. Other social scientists explored behaviors related to herding. The most violent single riot in history may be the sixth-century Nika riots in Constantinople.[6] and Nobel laureates Vernon Smith.

They see that restaurant A has customers while B is empty.[10] [11] See also • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • Anxiety Bandwagon effect Collective behavior Collective consciousness Collective effervescence Collective intelligence Crowd psychology Conformism Fear Flocking (behavior) Group behavior Groupthink Herd mentality Hive mind Informational cascade Mass hysteria Mean world syndrome Meme Mob Mentality Mob rule Moral panic Propaganda Self-organization Sheeple Socionomics Spontaneous order Swarm intelligence Symmetry Breaking in Herding Behavior Team player The 2009 Birmingham. with restaurant A doing more business that night than B.Herd behavior 102 Everyday decision-making Benign herding behaviors may be frequent in everyday decisions based on learning from the information of others. this person chooses restaurant A. This phenomenon is also referred as an information cascade. Suppose that both look appealing. Millennium Point stampede The Hillsborough disaster riot stampede . as when a person on the street decides which of two restaurants to dine in. but both are empty because it is early evening. so at random. And so on with other passersby into the evening. Soon a couple walks down the same street in search of a place to eat. and choose A on the assumption that having customers makes it the better choice.

M. php)] [9] [ (http:/ / news. [4] Markus K. com/ us/ catalog/ general/ subject/ Economics/ Business/ ?view=usa& ci=9780198296980). and Cultural Change as Informational Cascades. 90. Shiller. "A Theory of Fads." American Economic Review.. Jun. Hamilton (1971). Irrational Exuberance. 1914. Ivo. "Avoiding Predators: Expectations and Evidence in Primate Antipredator Behaviour. Brunnermeier. Volume 31. 2005. [6] Robert J. 149-153. Markus Konrad." Journal of Political Economy." Journal of Political Economy. 295-311. 107. • E. pp. The American Naturalist. oup. • Hamilton. 992-1026. Issue 2. Altshuler. [3] W. pp. pp. Ivo Welch. pp. Fashion. No. New Classics Library (1999). November 2004. pp. Crashes. 3389/ fnhum. UK ." Journal of Economic Issues 40. No. [11] Sushil Bikhchandani. • Ottaviani. Baddeley. Vol. and Welch. 2000. Keyword: herd Behavior. 71. pp. (2004). Oxford University Press (2001). [5] Robert Prechter." The Quarterly Journal of Economics. sciencedirect. info/ prices/ monthly. Laurens. Keyword: Herd Behaviour. Vol. and Cultural Change as Informational Cascades. php)] [10] Abhijit V. Diss. . 284. The Wave Principle of Human Social Behavior. October 1992. com/ news/ UraniumSeek/ 1219431716. References [1] Raafat RM. "Geometry for the Selfish Herd. pp. Fall. Frith C. com/ science?_ob=ArticleURL& _udi=B6VH9-4X6PPCY-1& _user=10& _coverDate=10/ 31/ 2009& _rdoc=1& _fmt=high& _orig=search& _sort=d& _docanchor=& view=c& _searchStrId=1345409312& _rerunOrigin=google& _acct=C000050221& _version=1& _urlVersion=0& _userid=10& md5=831b2c0d964de08777a5c58e6bb97199''Herding). "A Theory of Fads. 100. Technical Analysis. html)] [8] [ (http:/ / www. • Rook. Vol.or vice versa?". "An Economic Psychological Approach to Herd Behaviour. Crashes. No. Trends in Cognitive Sciences (2009). Custom." International Journal of Primatology 23 (2001): 741-757.. • Brunnermeier. Asset Pricing under Asymmetric Information : Bubbles.. Geometry for the Selfish Herd. 3. 100. "Do Markets Drive out Lemmings .1 (2006): 75-95. Schultz W. 797-817. "Herd Behavior and Investment: Comment. Marco. Tobler PN. Vol. org/ neuroscience/ humanneuroscience/ paper/ 10.5. BOLD response reflects the impact of herd information on financial decisions (http:/ / frontiersin. 637–659. Fashion. Princeton University Press (2000). Laurens. D. Custom. and Andrea Morone. [2] Burke CJ. Economica. in humans (http:/ / www. com/ TonyLocantro/ 1121781600. Asset Pricing under Asymmetric Information: Bubbles. Frontiers in Human Neuroscience (2010). [7] [ (http:/ / www. Ebsco. David. uraniumseek. "An Economic Psychological Approach to Herd Behavior. Sushil. goldseek. W D." Journal of Economic Issues XL (2006): 75-95. No. 1970. 992–1026.. New York: Oxford University Press. 695-704. Imperial College. Craig B. Hirshleifer. • Stanford. 1992. Banerjee. 00048/ ''Striatal). • Rook.Herd behavior 103 Further reading • Bikhchandani. 166:6. David Hirshleifer. John D. • Wilfred Trotter. 3. No. Chater N. Technical Analysis. The Instincts of the Herd in Peace and War.. Vol. and Peter Sorenson. "A Simple Model of Herd Behavior. uranium. and Herding (http:/ / www. • Hey. 2001. and Herding. Oxford." Journal of Theoretical Biology. 2010. Fall.5. et al. Ebsco. 152-153. Symmetry Breaking in Escaping Ants.

one who is tired of life. whose imminent appearance is heralded by Zarathustra. seeks only comfort and security: the last man. One of Nietzsche's greatest fears was the creeping mediocrity brought about by democratic sensibility and universal equality. But the full implications of the death of God had yet to unfold. who is unable to dream. Nietzsche predicted.Last man 104 Last man The last man (German: der letzte Mensch) is a term used by the philosopher Friedrich Nietzsche in Thus Spoke Zarathustra to describe the antithesis of the imagined superior being. takes no risks. As he said. strong enough to live without the consolation of an egalitarian ethics."[1] See also • Oblomov • Superfluous man • The End of History and the Last Man References [1] Gay Science. This 'Over Man' may be contrasted to a weak-willed individual. would be one response to nihilism. the "Übermensch". and strong enough to recognize and embrace the "eternal return" as the ultimate reality – then Nietzsche’s so called "last man" is the exact opposite. and it is Nietzsche's contention that Western civilization (Europe) is moving in the direction of the last man. who has no great passion or commitment. "the event itself is far too great. The last man. who merely earns his living and keeps warm. an apathetic creature. too remote from the multitude's capacity for comprehension even for the tidings of it to be thought of having arrived as yet. Nietzsche saw that nothing great is possible for the Last Man. §343 . If the "Übermensch" represented his ideal – the ideal of a being strong enough to create a new master morality. too distant.

What Nietzsche meant by 'morality' deviates from common understanding of this term. Master morality weighs actions on a scale of good or bad consequences unlike slave morality which weighs actions on a scale of good or evil intentions. "the value or non-value of an action was derived from its consequences"[1] but ultimately. it judges. For Nietzsche. In the end it must be as it has always been: great things are for the great.Master-slave morality 105 Master-slave morality Master-slave morality is a central theme of Friedrich Nietzsche's works. slave morality is literally re-sentiment--revaluing that which the master values."[2] For these strong-willed men. it is value-creating. As such. shudders and delicacies. Slave morality is created in opposition to what master morality values as 'good'. it knows itself to be that which first accords honour to things. that in the prehistoric state. as are the qualities they originally could not choose because of their weakness. in sum. courage. "The noble type of man experiences itself as determining values. For Nietzsche. codes and practices. master-slave morality provides the basis of all exegesis of Western thought."[3] Other qualities that are often valued in master moralities are open-mindedness. but to make them slaves as well.. Master morality Nietzsche defined master morality as the morality of the strong-willed."[7] Since the powerful are few in number compared to the masses of the weak. The essence of slave morality is utility[6] : the good is what is most useful for the whole community. truthfulness. and. the 'good' is the noble. therefore. the strong-willed man values such things as 'good'. only moral interpretations of phenomena. 'what is harmful to me is harmful in itself'. and institutions are informed by the struggle between these two types of moral valuation. therefore usefulness is goodness as a value. "And how could there exist a 'common good'! The expression is a self-contradiction: what can be common has ever been but little value. in particular the first essay of On the Genealogy of Morality. In the Death of God. He argues that this view has forgotten the origins of the values. a particular morality is inseparable from the formation of a particular culture. for the refined. "There are no moral phenomena at all. Slave morality does not aim at exerting one's will by strength but by careful subversion. This strays from the valuation of actions based on consequences to the valuation of actions based on "intention". cowardly. slave morality originates in the weak. it villainizes its oppressors. Slave morality is the inverse of master morality.what is useful has always been defined as good. Morality is designed to protect that which the strong-willed man values. Insomuch as something is helpful to the strong-willed man it is like what he values in himself. morality is seen as something that was created by humankind. Nietzsche saw this as a contradiction. Nietzsche argued that there were two fundamental types of morality: 'Master morality' and 'slave morality'. the master morality is the full recognition that oneself is the measure of all things. Masters are creators of morality. not by a transcendent deity. It does not seek to transcend the masters. Nietzsche criticizes the view."[4] In this sense. Because slave morality is a reaction to oppression. slave morality avoids admitting that their humility was in the . Slave morality Unlike master morality which is sentiment. not the strong. abysses for the profound. the will to power) are 'evil'. and for slave and master. that good is everything that is helpful. it does not need approval. while the 'bad' is the weak. slaves respond to master-morality with their slave-morality. trust and an accurate sense of self-worth.[5] As master morality originates in the strong. which he identifies with contemporary British ideology. "Fear is the mother of morality. This means that its language. it is characterized by pessimism and skepticism. all rare things for the rare. He continues explaining. narratives. the weak gain power by corrupting the strong into believing that the causes of slavery (viz. then the idea of bad develops as what is not good. and thus it calls what is useful good on the grounds of habitualness . By saying humility is voluntary. strong and powerful. timid and petty. what is bad is what is harmful. Master morality begins in the 'noble man' with a spontaneous idea of the good. The essence of master morality is nobility.

On The Genealogy of Morals. Friedrich (1973). ISBN 978-0-140-44923-5. p. Biblical principles of turning the other cheek. Beyond Good and Evil. giving a substantive example of master morality. He certainly gives slave morality a much harder time. • Solomon. [3] Nietzsche. Friedrich (1973). ISBN 978-0-140-44923-5. 39. although this is debatable. p. slave conquered master. charity.he believed that the revaluation of morals would correct the inconsistencies in both master and slave morality . p. London: Penguin Books. ISBN 978-0-140-44923-5. and pity are the result of universalizing the plight of the slave onto all humankind. New York: Vintage Books. [2] Nietzsche. ISBN 978-0-140-44923-5.. Beyond Good and Evil. Beyond Good and Evil. London: Penguin Books."[8] --the political manifestation of slave morality because of its obsession with freedom and equality. ISBN 978-0-140-44923-5. 96. The Antichrist had been meant as the first book in a four-book series. London: Penguin Books. Beyond Good and Evil. 122. which is the jealousy of the weak seeking to enslave the strong with itself. London: Penguin Books. Friedrich (1973). Historically. 123. London: Penguin Books. Friedrich (1973). . p. 71. p. Friedrich (1967). ". Beyond Good and Evil. Since Socrates: A Concise Sourcebook of Classic Readings. Beyond Good and Evil. 125. London: Penguin Books. London: Thomson Wadsworth. 'sensual' into one and were the first to coin the word 'world' as a term of infamy. master morality was defeated as the slave morality of Christianity spread throughout the Roman Empire. saying that the democratic movement is the "collective degeneration of man"[11] . but this is partly because he believes that slave morality is modern society's more imminent danger. 2005. [4] Nietzsche. Robert C. London: Penguin Books. Friedrich (1973). [6] Nietzsche. and Clancy Martin. Beyond Good and Evil. the essential struggle between cultures has always been between the Roman (master. London: Penguin Books. ISBN 978-0-140-44923-5. 63. It is this inversion of values (with which is involved the employment of the word for 'poor' as a synonym for 'holy' and 'friend') that the significance of the Jewish people resides: with them there begins the slave revolt in morals. re-sentiment conquered sentiment. [10] Nietzsche. Friedrich (1973). ISBN 0-534-6332805. Nietzsche saw democracy and Christianity as the same emasculating impulse which sought to make all equal—to make all slaves. ISBN 978-0-140-44923-5. p. p.the Jews achieved that miracle of inversion of values thanks to which life on earth has for a couple millennia acquired a new and dangerous fascination--their prophets fused 'rich'. Friedrich (1973). humility.. and thus enslaving the masters as well. Nietzsche. which might have made his views more explicit. and the classical roots of the Iliad and Odyssey exemplified Nietzsche's master morality. 'violent'. London: Penguin Books. References [1] Nietzsche. "The democratic movement is the heir to Christianity. 127. ancient Greek and Roman societies were grounded in master morality. strong) and the Judean (slave. London: Penguin Books. 118. p. Nietzsche claimed that the nascent democratic movement of his time was essentially slavish and weak. Friedrich (1973). Beyond Good and Evil. [5] Nietzsche. but Nietzsche was afflicted by mental collapse that rendered him unable to write the latter three books. to Nietzsche. did not believe that humans should adopt master morality as the be-all-end-all code of behavior . inspired by "the most intelligent revenge" of the weak. He calls the heroes "men of a noble culture"[10] . Weakness conquered strength. ISBN 978-0-140-44923-5. 153. "Toward a Re-Evaluation of All Morals".but simply that master morality was preferable to slave morality. Walter Kaufmann disagrees that Nietzsche actually preferred master morality to slave morality. weak). He condemns the triumph of slave morality in the West. [9] Nietzsche. Friedrich (1973). The Homeric hero is the strong-willed man. ISBN 0-679-72462-1. 62. Such movements were. This resentment Nietzsche calls "priestly vindictiveness". [11] Nietzsche. Beyond Good and Evil. Beyond Good and Evil. 'evil'. p. 'godless'."[9] 106 Society This struggle between master and slave moralities recurs historically. [7] Nietzsche. Friedrich (1973). ISBN 978-0-140-44923-5. According to Nietzsche. According to Nietzsche. p. [8] Nietzsche. ISBN 978-0-140-44923-5. however.Master-slave morality beginning forced upon them by a master. p.

Derrida not only fosters Nietzsche’s work but evolves it within the sphere of language. (Walter Kaufmann and R. without truth. Derrida's response to Nietzsche. “Structure. pieces" (292). in doing so. the affirmation of a world of signs without fault.” Writing and Difference.[1] Much of this spirit resides in the abandonment of any sort of new humanism. and without origin which is offered to an active interpretation. Alan Bass.[1] References [1] Derrida. (pages 532-533) Derridean interpretation Jacques Derrida allocates this concept and applies it specifically to language. Chicago: U of Chicago P.” Derrida articulates Nietzsche’s perspective as …the joyous affirmation of the play of the world and of the innocence of becoming. and Play in the Discourse of the Humanities. Jacques. For nothing is self-sufficient. its structure and play. present. . Sign. This acceptance of the inevitable allows for considerable relief — evident in the designation of the loss of center as a noncenter — as well as the opportunity to affirm and cultivate play. —Nietzsche. neither in us ourselves nor in things. offers an active participation with these signs and arrives at. and affirmed. An exemplary formulation of this kind of affirmation can be sought in Nietzsche's Nachlass: If we affirm one moment. Derrida acquires and employs Nietzsche’s optimism in his concept of play: "the substitution of given and existing. no center or origin within language and its many parts. 1967. Hollingdale translators) New York: Random House.Master-slave morality 107 See also • The Marriage of Heaven and Hell • Orthodoxy • Master-slave dialectic Nietzschean affirmation Nietzschean affirmation is a concept in the philosophy of Friedrich Nietzsche. in Derridean philosophy. a more resolute response to language. and Play. we thus affirm not only ourselves but all existence. an often exhaustive occupation. however. In “Structure. justified. 1978. and if our soul has trembled with happiness and sounded like a harp string just once. Trans. which enables humanity and the humanities “to pass beyond man and humanism” (292). This shock allows for two reactions in Derrida’s philosophy: the more negative. all eternity was needed to produce this one event . Sign. melancholic response. or the more positive Nietzschean affirmation. no firm ground from which to base any Truth or truths.J. The Will to Power.[1] Essentially. Friedrich. Rousseau's perspective focuses on deciphering the truth and origin of language and its many signs. which he designates as Rousseauistic. in fact. redeemed. 278-293.and in this single moment of affirmation all eternity was called good. This application acknowledges that there is.

[1] This leads to constant reassessment of rules (i. rejects objective metaphysics as impossible.e.[4] . the scientific method.[2] “Truth” is thus formalized as a whole that is created by integrating different vantage points together. in his interpretation of Nietzsche's thought. whether we are aware of it or not. it has no meaning behind it. This means that there are many possible conceptual schemes. The Will to Power. Nevertheless. which takes root in Hume's Empiricism and Kant's Idealism and was further developed by Schopenhauer and Nietzsche. Truth is made by and for individuals and peoples. but does not necessarily entail that all perspectives are equally valid. but it is interpretable otherwise. argues that this can be expanded into a revised form of “objectivity” in relation to “subjectivity” as an aggregate of singular viewpoints that illuminate. – Friedrich Nietzsche.g. taking account of its individuated context. our drives and their For and Against. This means that there are no objective facts. Walter Kaufmann . and claims that there are no objective evaluations which transcend cultural formations or subjective designations.[emphasis added] Every drive is a kind of lust to rule.Perspectivism 108 Perspectivism Perspectivism is the philosophical view developed by Immanuel Kant that all ideations take place from particular perspectives. §481 (1883-1888) Interpretation Richard Schacht. for example.. but countless meanings. and means that there are no ethical or epistemological absolutes. This implies that no way of seeing the world can be taken as definitively "true". In so far as the word “knowledge” has any meaning.. and the individual concepts of existence are defined by the circumstances surrounding that individual.—“Perspectivism.) according to the circumstances of individual perspectives. it can be said each perspective is subsumed into and. We always adopt perspectives by default. Therefore.[3] This view differs from many types of relativism which consider the truth of a particular proposition as something that altogether cannot be evaluated with respect to an "absolute truth". View Perspectivism. etc. perspectivism does not implicate any method of inquiry nor a structural theory of knowledge in general. trans. that is fundamentally perspectival) can be validated. This view is outlined in an aphorism from Nietzsche's posthumously-assembled collection Will to Power. and that there can be no knowledge of a thing in itself. without taking into consideration culture and context. each one has its perspective that it would like to compel all the other drives to accept as a norm. those of philosophy. or perspectives in which judgment of truth or value can be made. the world is knowable. adds to the overall objective measure of a proposition under examination.” It is our needs that interpret the world. This separates truth from a particular (or single) vantage point. a particular idea in seemingly self-contradictory ways but upon closer inspection would reveal a difference of contextuality and of rule by which such an idea (e.

Nietzsche. Dion.Perspectivism 109 See also • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • Conceptual framework Contextualism Philosophy of Friedrich Nietzsche Fallibilism Anekantavada Immanuel Kant George Berkeley Rhizome (philosophy) Exclusive disjunction Degrees of truth False dilemma Fuzzy logic Logical equality Logical value Metaphilosophy Multi-valued logic Multiperspectivalism Phenomenology Psychologism Propositional logic Relativism Principle of Bivalence Michel Foucault Consilience External links • La Voluntad de ilusión en Nietzsche. page 418 Schacht. Thomas. p 61. History of Philosophy. Nietzsche. page 346 Schacht. The Penguin Dictionary of Philosophy. http:/ / www. net/ vasquezrocca129. konvergencias. htm . Richard. Scott-Kakures. bases del perspectivismo| in Konvergencias [5] References [1] [2] [3] [4] [5] Mautner. Richard.

Nietzsche's first use and chief development of Ressentiment came in his book On The Genealogy of Morals. and while a passionate age storms ahead setting up new things and tearing down old. Latin intensive prefix 're'. While the normal words both speak to a feeling of frustration directed at a perceived source.Ressentiment 110 Ressentiment In philosophy and psychology. the ice was perfectly safe. The ego creates an enemy in order to insulate itself from culpability.” of the good man. And in this way they would transform daring and enthusiasm into a feat of skill. and 'sentire' "to feel"). that is. ressentiment (pronounced /rəsɑ̃tiˈmɑ̃/) is a particular form of resentment or hostility.[4] The term came to form a key part of his ideas concerning the psychology of the 'master-slave' question (articulated in Beyond Good and Evil). Walter Kaufmann ascribes Nietzsche's use of the term in part to the absence of a proper equivalent term in the German language. contending that said absence alone "would be sufficient excuse for Nietzsche. It is not surprising that the lambs should bear a . Thus. the term 'Ressentiment' as used here always maintains a distinction.' Søren Kierkegaard.. which attacks or denies the perceived source of one's frustration. moral frameworks and value systems. Ressentiment is the French word for "resentment" (fr. and the resultant birth of morality. . Perspectives Kierkegaard and Nietzsche The ressentiment which is establishing itself is the process of levelling.. they would make a god of him if he secured the prize. Currently of great import as a term widely used in Psychology and Existentialism. an assignment of blame for one's frustration. If the jewel which every one desired to possess lay far out on a frozen lake where the ice was very thin. closer in. published in 1912. they would grieve over him if he were drowned. razing and demolishing as it goes. or morality. Ressentiment is a sense of hostility directed at that which one identifies as the cause of one's frustration.[5] [6]. demands some conclusion. But in an age without passion. while. Levelling is a silent. History Ressentiment was first introduced as a philosophical/psychological term by the 19th century philosopher Søren Kierkegaard[1] [2] [3] . or even the French "ressentiment". it levels. Friedrich Nietzsche later independently expanded the concept. The term was also put to good use by Max Scheler in his book Ressentiment. see esp §§ 10–11). and abstract occupation which shuns upheavals. watched over by the danger of death. as the person of ressentiment has thought it out for himself. People would think each other clever in agreeing that it was unreasonable and not even worth while to venture so far out. The sense of weakness or inferiority and perhaps jealousy in the face of the "cause" generates a rejecting/justifying value system. ressentiment is not to be considered interchangeable with the normal English word "resentment". mathematical." if not for a translator. neither speaks to the special relationship between a sense of inferiority and the creation of morality. so as 'to do something. a reflective and passionless age does exactly the contrary: it hinders and stifles all action. Two Ages: A Literary Review (T)he problem with the other origin of the “good. for something must be done. Ressentiment is viewed as an effective force for the creation of identities. and later suppressed by the Nazis. A term imported by many languages for its philosophical and psychological connotations. they would tremble for him and with him in the danger of his decisive action. in a reflective age. it would be otherwise. then in a passionate age the crowds would applaud the courage of the man who ventured out.

though the birds of prey may regard it a little mockingly. in which the populace stifles creativity and passion in passionate individuals." Friedrich Nietzsche. The motive for the world is not need or lack (à la Schopenhauer). but they simply provide the opportunity for a person to express their love. The motive for love is not charity nor the neediness of the lover. the healthy help the sick. these good lambs. the threats to well-being are inconsequential because at the core of his being there is the awareness that his existence is firmly rooted in and sustained by the ground of ultimate being. and broken life (Ressent 60). one was thwarted not by a failure in oneself. Christian love. in order to maintain status quo and to instill into the masses their own sense of superiority. who is rather its opposite. Scheler disagrees.e.—should he not be good?" then there is nothing to carp with in this ideal's establishment. but a creative urge to express the infinite fullness of being. "These birds of prey are evil. the lower values that are relative to life are renounced not because they are bad. and his reactions (like imagining he is actually better) become less compulsive. a cause that can be "blamed" for one's own inferiority/failure. This is clearly indicated by the Aristotelian concept of God as the "Unmoved Mover". Kierkegaard argues that individuals who do not conform to the masses are made scapegoats and objects of ridicule by the masses. is ideally a short action: it is not a prolonged filling of his intellect. and he who least resembles a bird of prey. This movement is a consequence of the Christian understanding of the nature of God as fullness of being. and maybe say to themselves. when it happens. but rather by an external "evil. the less place and time is left for contemplating all that is done to him. In Christian love. In genuine. ressentiment occurs in a "reflective. Greek love is rooted in need and want. we even love them: nothing is tastier than a tender lamb. The reaction of a strong-willed man (a "wild beast"). and dynamic. The ego creates the illusion of an enemy. the less his capability for adiaphoria. The unmoved mover is self-sufficient being completely immersed in its own existence. He begins with a comparison of Greek love and Christian love. The highest object of contemplation. Nietzsche saw Christian morality as a kind of slave morality.Ressentiment grudge against the great birds of prey. while Greek and Roman culture was characterized as a master morality. Francis. the more a man is active. The strong bend to the weak. "We bear no grudge against them. the less perfect love the more perfect. and who moves others through the force of attraction because efficient causality would degrade its nature. strong-willed." According to Kierkegaard. St. Poverty and sickness are not values to be celebrated in order to spite those who are rich and healthy. but that is no reason for blaming the great birds of prey for taking the little lambs. God's love is an expression of His superabundance. Scheler Max Scheler attempted to reconcile Nietzsche's ideas of master-slave morality and ressentiment with the Christian ideals of love and humility. but simply because they are obstacles to those absolute values which allow a person to enter into a relationship with God. The weaker love the stronger. Fear of death is a sign of a declining. a lamb. but for St. This is why Scheler sees the Christian saint as a manifestation of strength and nobility and not manifesting ressentiment. Francis' love and care for the lepers would have mortified the Greek mind. . The perfect do not love the imperfect because that would diminish their value or corrupt their existence. Ressentiment comes from reactiveness: the weaker a man is. Greek love is described as a movement from lower value to higher value. but it is rooted in a deeply felt confidence that through loving I become more personalized and most real to myself. It is through loving like God that we are deified. sick. On the Genealogy of Morality 111 Ressentiment is a reassignment of the pain that accompanies a sense of one's own inferiority/failure onto an external scapegoat. Rich people are harder to love because they are less in need of your generosity. to suppress reaction. the noble help the vulgar. Thus. passionless age". there is a reversal in the movement of love. And when the lambs say among themselves. i. According to Nietzsche.

Kaufmann. Roger. Walter. New York: The Modern Library. in the sense expounded by Nietzsche and in direct inversion of the ancient belief.14-16. The major difference between the two is that Sartre presupposed the existence of free will. Kierkegaard after MacIntyre. See also • Søren Kierkegaard • Friedrich Nietzsche • • • • • Max Scheler Existentialism Psychology Bad faith (existentialism) Master-slave morality References [1] [2] [3] [4] Poole. Nietzsche's "ressentiment" was an incapacity to acknowledge one's inferiority. Shades of loneliness. Kierkegaard. nietzschecircle. p. 2004. (Boston: Beacon Press.Ressentiment 112 Weber Max Weber in The Sociology of Religion relates Ressentiment to Judaism. 110." (Max Weber. Walter Kaufmann. bu. whereas Nietzsche denied it . et al. John. Rowman & Littlefield. 165. Stivers. 226-228. com/ essayArchive1. edu/ wcp/ Papers/ Anth/ AnthMore. [5] http:/ / www. tr. p. University of Virginia Press. 1993). Richard. Open Court . 2001. p. and that sooner or later God's wrath will overtake them. "Editor's Introduction." Weber defines Ressentiment as "a concomitant of that particular religious ethic of the disprivileged which. 1993.where Sartre's "bad faith" was the denial of one's full capabilities. teaches that the unequal distribution of mundane goods is caused by the sinfulness and the illegality of the privileged. Sartre Jean-Paul Sartre used the term bad faith to describe a highly similar phenomenon of blaming one's own failure on external factors and therefore denying responsibility for oneself. Section 3" On the Genealogy of Morals in Nietzsche: Basic Writings. an ethical salvation religion of a "pariah people. html . htm [6] http:/ / www. 1967. The Sociology of Religion. Davenport.

the one great instinct for revenge for which no expedient is sufficiently poisonous. The transvaluation of all values would mean the exaltation of life rather than the exaltation of suffering. for example. for its being the very process by which human life is created. for its being strictly "phenomenalistic". the one great intrinsic depravity. and because "Christianity makes a thousand promises but keeps none. Christianity elevates the weak over the strong. and therefore a contradiction of "natural values". Because sex is.from the first day of Christianity! Why not rather from its last? From today? Revaluation of all values! —Nietzsche. The Antichrist. However.g. I call Christianity the one great curse. What one desires would be the product of stimuli rather than the product of "will". as health-promoting. Buddhism promotes "benevolence. Conclusion. the Last Judgment). As "the religion of pity". subterranean. with Buddhism. The Revaluation of All Values was also the working title of a series of four books Nietzsche was planning to write. a very fundamental affirmation of life." Martyrdom. petty -. is indicative of an "obtuseness to the question of truth. Nietzsche's enthusiasm for what he called "the transvaluation of all values" stemmed from a contempt for Christianity and the entirety of the moral system that flowed from it: indeed.Transvaluation of values 113 Transvaluation of values The revaluation of all values or the transvaluation of all values (German: Umwertung aller Werte) is a concept from the philosophy of Friedrich Nietzsche. for example. Elaborating the concept in The Antichrist. Nietzsche asserts that Christianity. rather than either sinful or pious. and an acceptance of every instinct or lust as organic and therefore valid. not merely as a religion but also as the predominant moral system of the Western world. as Nietzsche states near the end of The Antichrist. Nietzsche perceived the moral framework of Christian civilization to be oppressive: reproduction derided as sinful.. secret. Nietzsche contrasts 19th century European morality to that of pre-Christian Greek civilization. Christianity limits and lowers humankind by assailing its natural and inevitable instincts as depraved ("sin"). in Nietzsche's thought. While Christianity is full of "revengefulness" and "antipathy" (e. only the first of which – The Antichrist – he completed. the story of Mary's virginal pregnancy) is counter to the natural instincts of humanity. rather than being a moral high ground or position of strength. Buddhism is "the struggle against suffering". therefore beyond the scope of moral condemnation. and life as a mere investment toward the hollow promise of an illustrious afterlife: death prevailing over life. and it was this scheme that his sister Elisabeth Förster-Nietzsche used to assemble his notes into the final book with that title." Similarly.I call it the one immortal blemish of mankind… And one calculates time from the dies nefastus on which this fatality arose -. . to Nietzsche. Christianity's elevation of chastity (including. whereas Buddhism advises one merely to eschew suffering. Christianity is contrasted unfavorably. "contempt of man". in fact inverts nature." Buddhism is also suggested to be the "honest" of the two religions. one of his schemes for The Will to Power used "The Revaluation of All Values" as a subtitle. Nietzsche posits that while Christianity is "the struggle against sin". exalting that which is "ill-constituted and weak" at the expense of that which is full of life and vitality. being kind. What one desires would merely be what one desires. and is "hostile to life".

as he is opposed to all 'morality'. and opposed to this is the envious and revengeful spirit of the Tschandalas themselves (cf. socialism. By this he means that Judaism and Christianity after it are the morality born of the hatred of the oppressed (like the Tschandala) to their oppressors: "Christianity. Christianity. As a metaphor. of "breeding". e. the revaluation of all Aryan values. he uses a trained beast in a menagerie which is said to be "improved". Nietzsche deplores this type of morality. the unbred man." In his view. slave morality). the victory of chandala values. The law of Manu. but which in reality has lost vitality and is only weakened. the wretched. Psychologist. the general revolt of all the downtrodden. for making him weak. the gospel preached to the poor and base. the untouchables. the less favored. while ostracizing and making life miserable for the Tschandala. And again it had no other means for keeping him from being dangerous. represents the counter-movement to any morality of breeding. Nietzsche also uses the term Tschandala for some of his opponents. privilege:—it is the anti-Aryan religion par excellence. Princeton: Princeton University Press. master morality vs. However. he much prefers it to the Christian "slave-morality."[3] According to Nietzsche. Here he uses the "law of Manu“ with its caste system as an example of one kind of morality. Walter (1974). ISBN 0691019835. but with their counter-concept. At first. and favors it in a relative sense to the morality of Judeo-Christianity. even the existence of the Tschandalas. Antichrist. Nietzsche: Philosopher. Nietzsche's use of the term Nietzsche uses the term "Tschandala" in the Götzen-Dämmerung (Twilight of the Idols)[1] and Der Antichrist (The Antichrist)[2] . tries to "improve" humanity by creating 4 castes of people. against "race": the undying chandala hatred as the religion of love…"[3] In The Antichrist.g. sprung from Jewish roots and comprehensible only as a growth on this soil. Nietzsche's interpretation and use of the term relied on a flawed source but was used by certain interpreters to connect him to Nazi ideology. Tschandala Tschandala (old German transcription of chandala) is a term Friedrich Nietzsche borrowed from the Indian caste system. as opposed to the Christian version of morality which attempts to "tame" man. Christianity is a product of Judaism. Nietzsche again cites the law of Manu. the "Tschandala-religion". "Chapter 3"." just as he does the (Christian) "animal tamer".Transvaluation of values 114 Further reading • Kaufmann. the mishmash man. Nietzsche says. that of the "breeder. Nietzsche describes methods of Christian attempts to "improve" humanity. of race. than to make him sick—it was the fight with the "great number. has Christianity "tamed" the Teutonic races. In just such a way. the chandala. where a Tschandala is a member of the lowest social class. on the other hand. Nietzsche describes the "most spiritual" and "strongest" men who can say "yes" to everything. the humiliating and oppressive edicts against the Tschandala are a defensive means of keeping the castes pure: "Yet this organization too found it necessary to be terrible—this time not in the struggle with beasts. the failures. .

gypsies and homosexuals. as Etter points out. is in fact not contained in any of the usual texts. eventually. Eng. Die "Verbesserer" der Menschheit Annemarie Etter: Nietzsche und das Gesetzbuch des Manu in: Nietzsche-Studien 16 (1987). "breeding". p. nowhere in his works he used the contrary Untermensch that in the 20th Century became a notorious concept in the racist Nazi ideology. even though. Mahomet (1876) by French writer Louis Jacolliot. explicitly despised the German culture and also called himself an "anti-antisemite".[4] For example. which gives an "unbelievable. 340–352 Rüdiger Safranski Nietzsche . Nietzsche's comparison between the Tschandalas and Judaism (see below) fitted in with antisemitism. ISBN 0-393-05008-4 . According to Jacolliot. translated by Shelley Frisch. destruction of the weak was favoured by national socialism. Descendant uses Nazi appropriation Terms like "race". 2002. gutenberg. Nietzsche was not a nationalist. References [1] [2] [3] [4] [5] "Die ‚Verbesserer‘ der Menschheit" (KSA 6. August Strindberg wrote a novel called "Tschandala" in 1889. [5] Literary influence Inspired by Nietzsche. Though Nietzsche did use the term Übermensch. the high respect it gives to women.W. According to Annemarie Etter. In so doing. 98–102) chapter 56 and 57 (KSA 6. p. Norton. that was used for races and individuals that it perceived "inferior". all Semitic peoples. Also. like Jews. especially the Hebrews.Biographie seines Denkens (2000) München : Hanser. this translation of the Manusmriti is not reliable and differs widely from other sources. org/ etext/ 7203). "Aryan" and others Nietzsche used in his later works were very useful for Nazi ideologues who tried to take him in for their political program. Nietzsche may have followed a long footnote by Jacolliot. p. Nietzsche would have easily been able to falsify several of Jacolliot's pseudo-scientific claims.Nietzsche: A Philosophical Biography. Manou. 239–244) Götzen-Dämmerung (http:/ / www. are descendants of emigrated Tschandalas. abstruse and scientifically completely untenable" (Etter) theory.Tschandala 115 Nietzsche's flawed source Nietzsche's source for the law of Manu was the book Les législateurs religieux. Moïse. The pitiless humiliation and. New York: W. he may have increased the impact of Jacolliot's "effusive admiration for ancient Eastern wisdom and civilization with a more or less open and pronounced antisemitism and antichristianism" (Etter). In his description and interpretation of the "Tschandala". it seems plausible that he believed in Jacolliot's theory at least to some extent. which Nietzsche quotes in opposition to "Christian misogyny". Although Nietzsche never directly says this.

The adjective übermenschlich[2] means superhuman. The Übermensch is not driven into other worlds away from this one. Part of other-worldliness.[3] [4] The turn away from the earth is prompted. And man shall be just that for the overman: a laughingstock or a painful embarrassment… There is no overall consensus regarding the precise meaning of the Übermensch. depending on the words to which it is prepended. or intensity. Common was anticipated in this by George Bernard Shaw. Superman) is a concept in the Philosophy of Friedrich Nietzsche. Nietzsche posited the Übermensch as a goal for humanity to set for itself in his 1883 book Thus Spoke Zarathustra (German: Also Sprach Zarathustra). Truth and nature are inventions by means of which men escape from this world. . or asceticism. as well. then. Zarathustra further links the Übermensch to the body and to interpreting the soul as simply an aspect of the body. As the drama of Thus Spoke Zarathustra progresses. Zarathustra. who did the same in his 1903 stage play Man and Superman. and do you want to be the ebb of this great flood and even go back to the beasts rather than overcome man? What is the ape to man? A laughingstock or a painful embarrassment. a dissatisfaction that causes one to create another world in which those who made one unhappy in this life are tormented. Friedrich Wilhelm Nietzsche Übermensch in English The first translation of Thus Spoke Zarathustra into English was by Alexander Tille published in 1896. Walter Kaufmann lambasted this translation in the 1950s for failing to capture the nuance of the German über and for promoting an eventual puerile identification with the comic-book character Superman. Tille translated Übermensch as Beyond-Man. This-worldliness Nietzsche introduces the concept of the Übermensch in contrast to the other-worldliness of Christianity: Zarathustra proclaims the Übermensch to be the meaning of the earth and admonishes his audience to ignore those who promise other-worldly hopes in order to draw them away from the earth.Übermensch 116 Übermensch The Übermensch (German. excessiveness. was the abnegation and mortification of the body. contends that "man is something which ought to be overcome:" All beings so far have created something beyond themselves.[1] Mensch refers to a member of the human species. English: Overman. The German prefix über can have connotations of superiority. nor one of the importance of the concept in Nietzsche's thought." Scholars continue to employ both terms. The book's protagonist. transcendence. the turn to metaphysics in philosophy and Platonism in general come to light as manifestations of other-worldliness. in the sense of beyond human strength or out of proportion to humanity. Thomas Common rendered Übermensch as "Superman". rather than to a man specifically. some simply opting to reproduce the German word. The Übermensch is also free from these failings. In his translation published in 1909. he says. His preference was to translate Übermensch as "overman. by a dissatisfaction with life. The Christian escape from this world also required the invention of an eternal soul which would be separate from the body and survive the body's death.

as opposed to 'modern' men. they must be motivated by a love of this world and of life... for example. Nietzsche intended the ultra-aristocratic figure of the Übermensch to serve as a Machiavellian bogeyman of the modern Western middle class and its pseudo-Christian egalitarian value system. Nietzsche vehemently denied any idealistic. there are no grounds upon which to criticize or justify any action. Because the Übermensch acts to create new values within the moral vacuum of nihilism. God is dead means that the idea of God can no longer provide values.[5] Zarathustra contrasts the Übermensch with the last man of egalitarian modernity. good and "evil". Instead. that human beings can be bred for cultural traits. Christians. to some. The last man appears only in Thus Spoke Zarathustra. the new values which the Übermensch will be responsible for will be life-affirming and creative. belief in that God nevertheless did give life meaning for a time. In Ecce Homo. In order to avoid a relapse into Platonic Idealism or asceticism. With the sole source of values no longer capable of providing those values. and other nihilists . they did not believe their ears. it appears as a solution to the problem of the death of God and nihilism. an alternative goal which humanity might set for itself."[7] Safranski argues that the combination of ruthless warrior pride and artistic brilliance that defined the Italian Renaissance embodied the sense of the Übermensch for Nietzsche. the Übermensch represents a higher biological type reached through artificial selection and at the same time is also an ideal for anyone who is creative and strong enough to master the whole spectrum of human potential. There is no consensus regarding how this aspect of the Übermensch relates to the creation of new values.Übermensch 117 The death of God and the creation of new values Zarathustra ties the Übermensch to the death of God. Übermensch as a goal Zarathustra first announces the Übermensch as a goal humanity can set for itself.[8] . there is a real chance of nihilism. 'good' men. including the particular values created and the means by which they are promulgated. and is presented as a condition that would render the creation of the Übermensch impossible. to become an "artist-tyrant".[6] This is most pronounced when considered in the aspect of a goal that humanity sets for itself. Zarathustra presents the Übermensch as the creator of new values. The aspiration of a woman would be to give birth to an Übermensch. Re-embodiment of amoral aristocratic values For Rüdiger Safranski. All human life would be given meaning by how it advanced a new generation of human beings. While this God was the ultimate expression of other-worldly values and the instincts that gave birth to those values. The reduction of all psychology to physiology implies. This interpretation of Nietzsche's doctrine focuses more on the future of humanity than on a single cataclysmic individual. According to Safranski. there is nothing that this creative act would not justify. and many would deny vehemently that Nietzsche would countenance a eugenics program at all. her relationships with men would be judged by this standard. Some commentators associate the Übermensch with a program of eugenics. When I whispered into the ears of some people that they were better off looking for a Cesare Borgia than a Parsifal. Alternatively. In this way. the creation of these new values cannot be motivated by the same instincts that gave birth to those tables of values. democratic or humanitarian interpretation of the Übermensch: "The word Übermensch [designates] a type of supreme achievement. in the absence of this creation. Whereas Nietzsche diagnosed the Christian value system as a reaction against life and hence destructive in a sense.

Nietzsche would be the prophet of something that has occurred an infinite number of times in the past.[10] Rather than positing an as-yet unexperienced perfection. and so are inseparable from approval and disapproval. however. though he still had dubious morals. which London considered to be selfish and egoistic. this term does not originate with Nietzsche. which borrowed selectively (and superficially) from Nietzsche's work and sought to adopt him as a philosophical mascot. This action nearly kills Zarathustra.[11] [12] The Nazi notion of the master race also spawned the idea of 'inferior races' (Untermenschen) which could be dominated and enslaved. on the other hand. However. and thus as overcoming the spirit of gravity or asceticism. Willing the eternal recurrence is presented as accepting the existence of the low while still recognizing it as the low. when Jerry Siegel first created him.[9] This is in part due to the fact that even the Übermensch can appear like an other-worldly hope. Superman does find an adversary in the mold of the Nietzschean Übermensch in the recurring archvillain Lex Luthor. suggests that the doctrine of eternal return is an esoteric ruse meant to save the concept of the Übermensch from the charge of Idealism. Their conception of the Übermensch. Still others suggest that one must have the strength of the Übermensch in order to will the eternal recurrence of the same. untainted by the spirit of gravity or asceticism. Leopold and Loeb committed an act of murder in 1924 partly out of a superficially Übermensch-like conception of themselves. Values involve a rank-ordering of things. Over the course of the drama. was racial in nature. and to truly will their eternal return. • In real life. its main character considers himself an untameable revolutionary. for example. • The comic-book hero Superman. Only as the series progressed did Superman become the wholesome. that is. morally upright figure of modern times. • George Bernard Shaw's 1903 play Man and Superman is a reference to the archetype. in being devoted to any values at all. The Übermensch and the Nazis The term Übermensch was a favourite of the Nazi regime. in which a . He was re-invented as a hero by Joe Shuster. Stanley Rosen. including his failures and misdeeds. whereas Nietzsche himself was vehemently critical of both antisemitism and German nationalism. after which he bore little resemblance to the previous character. Therefore. Laurence Lampert suggests that the eternal recurrence replaces the Übermensch as the object of serious aspiration. not because of any choice they made. would necessarily fail to create values that did not share some bit of asceticism. The Übermensch lies in the future — no historical figures have ever been Übermenschen — and so still represents a sort of eschatological redemption in some future time.Übermensch 118 Relation to the eternal recurrence The Übermensch shares a place of prominence in Thus Spoke Zarathustra with another of Nietzsche's key concepts: the eternal recurrence of the same. yet it was dissatisfaction that prompted men to seek refuge in other-worldliness and embrace other-worldly values.[13] Their story has been dramatized many times. was originally a villain modeled on Nietzsche's idea (see "The Reign of the Super-Man"). only the Übermensch will have the strength to fully accept all of his past life. it could seem that the Übermensch. Several interpretations for this fact have been offered. including in the Alfred Hitchcock movie Rope and the 2002 movie Murder by Numbers. and most human beings cannot avoid other-worldliness because they really are sick. A direct reference to the term occurs in the episode "Double Trouble" of the TV series Adventures of Superman. the latter waxes as the former wanes. above the normal concerns of humanity. Others maintain that willing the eternal recurrence of the same is a necessary step if the Übermensch is to create new values. In popular culture • Jack London dedicated his novels The Sea-Wolf and Martin Eden to criticizing Nietzsche's concept of the Übermensch and his radical individualism.

Tarcher. New Haven: Yale University Press. Nietzsche's Teaching.. 118. (1961). genetic engineering. Nietzsche. Nietzsche: A Philosophical Biography. Lampert. becomes a physical "overman" who transcends his fellow man. to refer to an amoral subset of humanity. Watchmen contains a character named Dr. Manhattan. Online Dictionary [3] Hollingdale. and especially in The Book of Dreams. 67.P. s. External links • Martin Heidegger and Nietzsche’s Overman: Aphorisms on the Attack [14] • Human Superhuman [15] Yahoo! Group dedicated to Nietzsche's Overman.V. Nietzsche's Teaching. • Alan Moore makes a reference to the Übermensch in his comic-book series Miracleman. Nietzsche's Teaching: An Interpretation of Thus Spoke Zarathustra. Ecce Homo. page 44 . Mask of Enlightenment. • Safranski. The Outsider. (1885) . to whom the rest are lower beings to be used in the furtherance of their aims. [6] Safranski. pons. Rudiger.English translation of Zarathustra's prologue. Stanley. "I love those who do not first seek beyond the stars for reasons to go down and to be sacrifices: but who sacrifice themselves to the earth. [2] Übermenschlich (http:/ / en. 262-64. unterzugehen und Opfer zu sein: sondern die sich der Erde opfern. through a scientific error. 119 See also • • • • Knight of faith Great man theory New Soviet man Notes From the Underground • Strange Life of Ivan Osokin References • Nietzsche. Norton & Co. Translated by Shelley Frisch. Los Angeles: J. J. I. that the earth may one day belong to the Superman" [4] Nietsche.) Penguin Classics: Penguin Publishing (Originally published 1885) • Lampert. • Rosen. The Mask of Enlightenment: Nietzsche's Zarathustra. über-.W. 1981. Nietzsche. [7] Nietzsche. Rieu. 2002.p4. E. F. and nano-technology to transform themselves into a race of Übermenschen. (1961). 1995. References [1] Duden Deutsches Universal Wörterbuch A–Z.. who. Why I Write Such Good Books. • Jack Vance utilises the term in his Demon Princes series. R. §1) [8] Safranski. F. Rosen. • The television series Andromeda has characters called Nietzscheans who have applied selective breeding. dass die Erde einst des Übermenschen werde." [5] Thus Spoke Zarathustra. (1885) Also Sprach Zarathustra • Hollingdale. which also delves into the discussion of what traits a hypothetical superman would have. Another of Moore's graphic novels.18. R. Colin. New York: W. New York: Cambridge University Press. 365 [9] Lampert. eu/ german-english/ übermenschlich) PONS. Thus Spoke Zarathustra (Nietzsche. F. Laurence. The Mask of Enlightenment. [10] Rosen. 1986. J. Those who distrust them refer to them derogatively as "Ubers". • Wilson."Ich liebe die.Übermensch German-speaking character refers to the title character as "Übermensch". welche nicht erst hinter den Sternen einen Grund suchen. Original publication in German . .v.

[11] "Nietzsche inspired Hitler and other killers - Page 7" (http:/ / www. trutv. com/ library/ crime/ notorious_murders/ famous/ nietzsche_crimes/ 7. html), Court TV Crime Library [12] http:/ / econ161. berkeley. edu/ tceh/ Nietzsche. html [13] "Nietzsche inspired Hitler and other killers" (http:/ / www. crimelibrary. com/ notorious_murders/ famous/ nietzsche_crimes/ index. html), Court TV Crime Library [14] http:/ / www. freewebs. com/ m3smg2/ HeideggerOverman. htm [15] http:/ / groups. yahoo. com/ group/ human_superhuman/


World riddle
For the musical term, see: World Riddle theme. The term "world riddle" or "world-riddle" has been associated, for over 100 years, with Friedrich Nietzsche (who mentioned "World Riddle" in his 1885 book Also sprach Zarathustra: Thus Spoke Zarathustra) and with the biologist-philosopher Ernst Haeckel, who as a professor of zoology at the University of Jena,[1] wrote the book Die Welträthsel in 1895–1899, in modern spelling Die Welträtsel, (German "The World-riddles"), with the English version published under the title The Riddle of the Universe, 1901.[1] The term "world riddle" concerns the nature of the universe and the meaning of life. The question and answer of the World Riddle has also been examined as an inspiration or allegorical meaning within some musical compositions, such as the unresolved harmonic progression at the end of "Also sprach Zarathustra" (1896) by composer Richard Strauss, made famous in the film 2001: A Space Odyssey. [2] [3]

Ernst Haeckel wrote about the World Riddle in 1895

View of Nietzsche
Friedrich Nietzsche referred to the "World Riddle" in his Also sprach Zarathustra (Thus Spoke Zarathustra) written during 1883–1885; however, his direct influence was limited to a few years, by his failing health. Although Nietzsche had become a professor at age twenty-five, he left due to illness at age thirty-four with a pension in 1879, became an independent philosopher for ten years, and then spent his final eleven years bedridden in the care of first his mother (until her death) and then his sister.

View of Haeckel

Friedrich Nietzsche.

Ernst Haeckel viewed the World Riddle as a dual-question of the form, "What is the nature of the physical universe and what is the nature of human thinking?" which he explained would have a single answer since humans and the universe were contained within one system, a mono-system, as Haeckel wrote in 1895:
[4] [5]

[From Monism as Connecting Religion and Science by Ernst Haeckel (translated):] "The following lecture on Monism is an informal address delivered extemporaneously on October 9, 1892, at Altenburg, on the seventy-fifth anniversary of the "Naturforschende Gesellschaft des

World riddle Osterlandes." ... The "exacting" Berlin physiologist shut this knowledge out from his mind, and, with a short-sightedness almost inconceivable, placed this special neurological question alongside of the one great "world-riddle," the fundamental question of substance, the general question of the connection between matter and energy. As I long ago pointed out, these two great questions are not two separate "world-riddles." The neurological problem of consciousness is only a special case of the all-comprehending cosmological problem, the question of substance. "If we understood the nature of matter and energy, we should also understand how the substance underlying them can under certain conditions feel, desire, and think." Consciousness, like feeling and willing, among the higher animals is a mechanical work of the ganglion-cells, and as such must be carried back to chemical and physical events in the plasma of these. -Ernst Haeckel, 1895 [5] Haeckel had written that human behavior and feeling could be explained, within the laws of the physical universe, as "mechanical work of the ganglion-cells" as stated.


View of William James
The philosopher William James in his book Pragmatism (1907) wrote about the world-riddle, as follows: [From Pragmatism (Lecture VII) by William James:] "All the great single-word answers to the world's riddle, such as God, the One, Reason, Law, Spirit, Matter, Nature, Polarity, the Dialectic Process, the Idea, the Self, the Oversoul, draw the admiration that men have lavished on them from this oracular role. By amateurs in philosophy and professionals alike, the universe is represented as a queer sort of petrified sphinx whose appeal to man consists in a monotonous challenge to his divining powers. THE Truth: what a perfect idol of the rationalistic mind!" --William James, Pragmatism, 1907.[6] William James has questioned the attitude of thinking that a single answer applies to everything or everyone. In the passage, the capitalized "THE" signifies the viewpoint meaning "the one and only" absolute truth.

See also
• Epistemology - study of the nature of knowledge. • Existentialism - philosophy of life.

• Ernst Haeckel, The Riddle of the Universe (Die Welträthsel or Die Weltraetsel, 1895–1899), Publisher: Prometheus Books, Buffalo, NY, 1992, reprint edition, paperback, 405 pages, illustrated, ISBN 0-87975-746-9. • Ernst Haeckel, Monism as Connecting Religion and Science ("translated from German by J. Gilchrist, M.A., B.Sc., PH.D."), Project Gutenberg Literary Archive Foundation, webpage: GutenbergOrg-7mono10 [7] (for free download).

World riddle


[1] "Biography of Ernst Heinrich Haeckel, 1834–1919" (article), Missouri Association for Creation, Inc., based on 1911 Britannica, webpage: Gennet-Haeckel (http:/ / www. gennet. org/ facts/ haeckel. html): life, career & beliefs. [2] "Colorado Symphony Orchestra - Richard Strauss (1864–1949): Also Sprach Zarathustra" (program notes), Charley Samson, Colorado Symphony Orchestra, 2004, webpage: CSO-AlsoSprach (http:/ / www. coloradosymphony. org/ default. asp). [3] "Classic Records Catalog / LSC-1806: Liner Notes" (description), Chicago Symphony Orchestra, R. D. Darrell, Radio Corporation of America (RCA), 1960, webpage: CSO-AlsoSprach (http:/ / www. coloradosymphony. org/ default. asp). [4] "KELVIN SMITH LIBRARY" (about Haeckel book on Monism), Case Western Reserve University, Cleveland, Ohio, 2004, webpage: CaseEdu-HaeMon00 (http:/ / library. case. edu/ ksl/ ecoll/ books/ haemon00/ haemon00. html): notes Monism book as dated 1895. [5] "7mono10 txt" (description of Ernst Haeckel's book Monism as Connecting Religion and Science), Project Gutenberg Literary Archive Foundation, webpage: GutenbergOrg-7mono10 (http:/ / www. gutenberg. org/ dirs/ etext05/ 7mono10. txt): book "translated from German by J. Gilchrist, M.A., B.Sc., PH.D."]. [6] "The Project Gutenberg EBook of Pragmatism, by William James" (text), Project Gutenberg, 2002, webpage: Gutenberg-Pragmatism (http:/ / www. gutenberg. org/ dirs/ etext04/ prgmt10. txt). [7] http:/ / www. gutenberg. org/ dirs/ etext05/ 7mono10. txt

Will to power
The will to power (German: "der Wille zur Macht") is a prominent concept in the philosophy of Friedrich Nietzsche. The will to power describes what Nietzsche believed to be the main driving force in man; achievement, ambition, the striving to reach the highest possible position in life, these are all manifestations of the will to power. Alfred Adler incorporated the will to power into his individual psychology. This can be contrasted to the other Viennese schools of psychotherapy: Sigmund Freud's pleasure principle (will to pleasure) and Victor Frankl's logotherapy (will to meaning). Each of these schools advocate and teach a very different main driving force in "man". The relevance of gender and cultural differences in the application of these theories to universal humanity and non-human life is a source for serious concern among many scholars. The "will to power" has been "identified" in nature in the dominance hierarchies studied in many living species.

Friedrich Nietzsche found early influence from Schopenhauer, whom he first discovered in 1865. Schopenhauer puts a central emphasis on will and in particular has a concept of the "will to live". Writing a generation before Nietzsche, Schopenhauer explained that the universe and everything in it is driven by a primordial will to live, which results in all living creatures' desire to avoid death and procreate. For Schopenhauer, this will is the most fundamental aspect of reality—more fundamental even than being. Another important influence is Roger Joseph Boscovich, whom Nietzsche discovered and learned about through his reading of Friedrich Albert Lange's 1865 Geschichte des Materialismus (History of Materialism), which Nietzsche read in 1866. As early as 1872, Nietzsche went on to study Boscovich’s book Theoria Philosophia Naturalis for himself.[1] Nietzsche makes his only reference in his published works to Boscovich in Beyond Good and Evil where he declares war on "soul-atomism"[2] Boscovich had rejected the idea of "materialistic atomism" which Nietzsche calls "one of the best refuted theories there are."[3] The idea of centers of force would become central to Nietzsche's later theories of will to power. Nietzsche began to speak of the "Desire for Power" (Machtgelüst), which appeared in The Wanderer and his Shadow (1880) and Daybreak (1881). Machtgelüst, in these works, is the pleasure of the feeling of power and the hunger to overpower. Wilhelm Roux published his The Struggle of Parts in the Organism (Der Kampf der Theile im Organismus) in 1881, which Nietzsche first read the same year.[4] The book was a response to Darwinian theory, proposing an alternative mode of evolution. Roux was a disciple of and influenced by Ernst Haeckel[5] who believed the struggle for

or the Platonist's notion that people want to be unified with the Good. Léon Dumont (1837-77). Nietzsche wrote a letter to Franz Overbeck about it.Will to power existence occurred at the cellular level. it will strive to grow. where in a section titled “On the doctrine of the feeling of power.”[11] There is will to power where there is life and even the strongest living things will risk their lives for more power. the theory had plausibility at the time. then in part 2. Nietzsche read William Rolph’s Biologische Probleme probably in mid 1884 and it clearly interested Nietzsche. with a military metaphor. “Self-Overcoming” describes it in most detail.[18] Nägeli believed in a “perfection principle.[10] In Wanderer and Daybreak.”[8] excluding the vast majority of organisms from the desire for power. at this point. Nietzsche writes. This suggests that the will to power is stronger than the will to survive. The concept. He called the seat of heritability the idioplasma. pain and pleasure require a coming to consciousness and not just a sensing. Schopenhauer's "Will to life" thus became a subsidiary to the will to power. noting that it has “been sheepishly put aside by Darwinists”. that a more complex.. He also finds the will to power to offer much richer explanations than utilitarianism's notion that all people really want to be happy.” also continues in book 5 of Gay Science (1887) where Nietzsche describes will to power as the instinct for “expansion of power. seize. Elsewhere in The Gay Science.[19] In other words. similar 123 .. Rolph argued that all life seeks primarily to expand itself. as well as both master and slave morality.[7] he notes that it is only “in intellectual beings that pleasure.”[6] he connects the desire for cruelty with the pleasure in the feeling of power. where the influence of Rolph seems apparent. spread.[17] had considerable influence on his theory of will to power. complicatedly ordered idioplasma would usually defeat a simpler rival.[9] seems to have exerted some influence on this concept. which Nietzsche acquired probably in 1886 and subsequently read closely. according to Dumont. Dumont believed that pleasure is related to increases in force. Rolph was another evolutionary anti-Darwinist like Roux. life-affirming impulses in the European tradition. In 1883 Nietzsche coined the phrase “Wille zur Macht” in Thus Spoke Zarathustra. is no longer limited to only those intellectual beings that can actually experience the feeling of power. who wished to argue for evolution by different mechanism than the struggle for existence. The various cells and tissue struggle for finite resources. le Plaisir et la Peine Nietzsche read in 1883. provided a physiological basis for Nietzsche’s speculation. Nietzsche uses the will to power to explain both ascetic. whose 1875 book Théorie Scientifique de La Sensibilité. which is the stronger will.” which led to greater complexity. But Dumont. especially human behavior—for example.” fundamental to all life. "1001 Goals" (1883). Nietzsche thinks his notion of the will to power is far more useful than Schopenhauer's will to live for explaining various events. it applies to all life. Nietzsche's next published work is Beyond Good and Evil (1886). will have to be an incarnate will to power. become predominant—not from any morality or immorality but because it is living and because life simply is will to power. Lacking modern genetic theory and assuming a lamarckian or pangenetic model of inheritance.[15] Beyond Good and Evil has the most references to “will to power” in his published works. Dumont’s theory also would have seemed to confirm Nietzsche’s theory that pleasure and pain are reserved for intellectual beings. saying it is an “unexhausted procreative will of life. Nietzsche earlier had speculated that pleasures such as cruelty. Karl Wilhelm von Nägeli's 1884 book Mechanisch-physiologische Theorie der Abstammungslehre. the body grows stronger and better adapted. in two sections. are pleasurable because of exercise of power. and argued."[14] The influence of Rolph and its connection to “will to power. and will are to be found. Through this mechanism. displeasure. since. for example by seeking to increase intake and nutriment. Nietzsche began to expand on the concept of Machtgelüst in The Gay Science (1882). The phrase Wille zur Macht first appears in part 1. appearing in eleven aphorisms[16] and this was the time of greatest development of the idea. life-denying impulses and strong.[12] his copy is heavily annotated[13] and he made many notes concerning Rolph. Organisms fulfill this need through assimilation. “Self-Overcoming” and “Redemption” (later in 1883). trying to make as much of what is found around them into part of themselves. so that only the strongest survive. Life forms are naturally insatiable in this way. "Even the body within which individuals treat each other as equals . in 1883. he is also arguing for internal evolution.

This reading was criticized by Martin Heidegger in his 1930s courses on Nietzsche—suggesting that raw physical or political power was not what Nietzsche had in mind. Even if. underlying all reality not just human behavior—thus making it more directly analogous to Schopenhauer's will to live. except emphasizing complexity as the main factor instead of strength. they bury themselves in a garden house![27] Opposed to a biological and voluntary conception of the Wille zur Macht. some interpreters have emphasized the will to power as a psychological principle. in his notebooks.” Nietzsche appeared to imagine a physical universe of perpetual struggle and force. and pleasant people. conversely. in his notebooks he continues to expand the theory of the will to power. Some interpreters also upheld a biological interpretation of the Wille zur Macht. many scholars have insisted that Nietzsche's principle of the will to power is less metaphysical and more pragmatic than Schopenhauer's will to live: while Schopenhauer thought the will to live was what was most real in the universe. which successively completes its cycle and returns to the beginning again and again. He expresses a number of times[21] the idea that adaptation and the struggle to survive is a secondary drive in the evolution of animals. it seems appropriate that he should use his “will to power” as an anti-Darwinian explanation of evolution.) The powerful natures dominate. Nietzsche sometimes seems to view the will to power as a more general force. it is a necessity. he began to develop a physics of the Will to Power.[26] Nevertheless. in relation to the entire body of Nietzsche's works.[20] Having derived the “will to power” from three anti-Darwin evolutionists.[24] Throughout the 1880s.[25] 124 Interpretations In contemporary Nietzschean scholarship. their fame. during their lifetime. However. making it equivalent with some kind of social Darwinism. which he viewed as a relic of the metaphysics of substance. which is developed in a number of places in his published writings. Heidegger also argued that the will to power must be considered in relation to the Übermensch and the thought of eternal recurrence—although this . mild. Thus.Will to power to Roux. they need not lift one finger. Nietzsche wanted to slough off the theory of matter. Nägeli’s drive towards complexity. Roux’s internal struggle. which becomes tied with his theory of will to power as a potential physics integrated with the “eternal recurrence of the same. Nietzsche claims the "world is the will to power—and nothing besides!". Nietzsche also developed an equally elusive theory of the “eternal recurrence of the same” and much speculation on the physical possibility of this idea and the mechanics of its actualization recur in his later notebooks. etc. because Nietzsche applies it most frequently to human behavior. the desire to rule has often appeared to me a sign of inward weakness: they fear their own slave soul and shroud it in a royal cloak (in the end. Nonetheless. where he references Boscovich (section 12). For example. Dumont’s pleasure in the expansion of power. they still become the slaves of their followers. behind the desire to expand one’s power—the will to power. For example the concept was appropriated by some Nazis such as Alfred Bäumler. as well as Dumont.[23] These ideas of an all inclusive physics or metaphysics built upon the will to power does not appear to arise anywhere in his published works or in any of the final books published posthumously. and Rolph’s principle of insatiability and assimilation are fused together into the biological side of Nietzsche’s theory of will to power. It does recur in his notebooks. but not all scholars want to consider these ideas as part of his thought. The idea of matter as centers of force is translated into matter as centers of will to power. without the least desire to rule—and. Nietzsche can be understood as claiming only that the will to power is a particularly useful principle for his purposes. who may have drawn influence from it or used it to justify their expansive quest for power and world domination. except in the above mentioned aphorism from Beyond Good & Evil. This is reflected in the following passage from Nietzsche's notebooks: I have found strength where one does not look for it: in simple.[22] Influenced by his earlier readings of Boscovich.

destruction can be 'unjust. Nietzsche considered consciousness itself to be a form of instinct. Moreover. Thus Nietzsche wrote: My idea is that every specific body strives to become master over all space and to extend its force (its will to power) and to thrust back all that resists its extension. and such apparently non-harmful acts as gift-giving. power means self-perfection as well as outward. explicitly and specifically defined the egalitarian state-idea as the embodiment of the will to power in decline: To speak of just or unjust in itself is quite senseless. and are subordinate to its total goal as a single means: namely. self-overcoming. "will to power" is more accurately positioned in relation to the subject (a mere synecdoche. They suggest that. a secret path to nothingness. exploitation. an agent of the dissolution and destruction of man. Opposed to this interpretation. in fact.g. destruction and simply cannot be thought of at all without this character. he claims that philosophers' "will to truth" (i. This includes both such apparently harmful acts as physical violence..). In fact. While a rock. that every will must consider every other will its equal—would be a principle hostile to life. political. And the process goes on. both fictitious and necessary. but it is the will to power all the same. their apparent desire to dispassionately seek objective.e. assault. of course. and praise on the other—though its manifestations can be altered significantly. One must indeed grant something even more unpalatable: that. Nietzsche. A legal order thought of as sovereign and universal. Other Nietzschean interpreters (e. absolute truth) is actually nothing more than a manifestation of their will to power. no injury. and self-perfection. such as through art and aesthetic experience. rather than 'dominating over others' (a misinterpretation by Deleuze et al. Abir Taha) dispute the suggestion that Nietzsche's concept of the will to power is merely and only a matter of narrow. elitist. a sign of weariness. love. the "will to power" is better understood as the tenuous equilibrium in a system of forces' relations to each other. for Nietzsche.[28] Gilles Deleuze also emphasized the connection between the will to power and eternal return." (see On the Genealogy of Morals) and is an idea behind the statement that words are "seductions" within the process of self-mastery and self-overcoming. this will can be life-affirming or a manifestation of nihilism. and assert that the power held over others as a result of this is coincidental. it nevertheless acts as a site of resistance within the "will to power" dynamic.' since life operates essentially. Not just instincts but also higher level behaviors (even in humans) were to be reduced to the will to power. on one hand. In Beyond Good and Evil. harmless. which is bent upon power. assault. as a means of creating greater units of power. for instance. aristocratic domination. through injury. and domination.[30] 125 .Will to power reading itself has been criticized by Mazzino Montinari as a "macroscopic Nietzsche". from the highest biological standpoint. humanistic self-perfection. in itself.[29] It would be possible to claim that rather than an attempt to 'dominate over others'. legal conditions can never be other than exceptional conditions. for there is "no doer behind the deed. exploitation. But it continually encounters similar efforts on the part of other bodies and ends by coming to an arrangement ("union") with those of them that are sufficiently related to it: thus they then conspire together for power. not as a means in the struggle between power complexes but as a means of preventing all struggle in general perhaps after the communistic cliché of Dühring. the "Will To Power" can be understood (or misunderstood) to mean a struggle against one's surroundings that culminates in personal growth. lying. since they constitute a partial restriction of the will of life. does not have a conscious (or unconscious) "will". an attempt to assassinate the future of man. The "will to power" is thus a "cosmic" inner force acting in and through both animate and inanimate objects. that is in its basic functions.

Frankl compared his third Viennese school of psychotherapy with Adler's psychoanalytic interpretation of the will to power: . Adler (1912) wrote in his important book Über den nervösen Charakter (The Neurotic Constitution): Nietzsche's "Will to power" and "Will to seem" embrace many of our views.[34] —Viktor E. pp 161-182 [6] Section 13 [7] Section 110 [8] Walter Kaufmann trans. treating matter in terms of fields of force was the dominant understanding of the fundamental notions of physics. which again resemble in some respects the views of Féré and the older writers. even References [1] Whitlock. Benedict de Spinoza and Friedrich Nietzsche: The Untold Story.D. Boscovich’s theory 'is echoed in Immanuel Kant’s Metaphysical Foundations of Natural Science. Kant’s view. That is why I speak of a will to meaning in contrast to the pleasure principle (or. Trans..” Nietzsche: His Philosophy of Contradictions and the Contradictions of His Philosophy. “The Organism as Inner Struggle: Wilhelm Roux’s Influence on Nietzsche." Nietzsche Studien. Gregory. Studies in History and Philosophy of Science 25 (5): 738. that of pain in a feeling of feebleness (Ohnmacht). . became very influential in German physics through the work of Hermann von Helmholtz and his followers.Will to power 126 Individual psychology Alfred Adler borrowed heavily from Nietzsche's work to develop his second Viennese school of psychotherapy called individual psychology. Greg.'". "Roger Boscovich. R. Metaphor (New York: Cambridge UP. and to Viktor Frankl's logotherapy or the "will to meaning". the will to pleasure) on which Freudian psychoanalysis is centered. which reduces matter to force altogether. See also • Schopenhauer's concept of will to live • The philosophy of Friedrich Nietzsche • Each of the following Viennese schools of psychotherapy advocate a very different main driving force in man: • Sigmund Freud's will to pleasure – pleasure principle • Alfred Adler's will to power – individual psychology • Victor Frankl's will to meaning – logotherapy • Heinz Ansbacher External links • http://de. others in psychology by arguing for the holistic integrity of psychological well-being with that of social equality. "Nietzsche’s Will to Power as a Doctrine of the Unity of Science". Wolfgang. 1999. 2002) [5] Müller-Lauter. Frankl.wikipedia. David J. M. Lanier (1994). according to whom the sensation of pleasure originates in a feeling of power. Ph. Chicago: U Illinois P. the striving to find a meaning in one's life is the primary motivational force in man... His interpretation of Nietzsche's will to power was concerned with the individual patient's overcoming of the superiority-inferiority dynamic.[31] Adler's adaptation of the will to power was and still is in contrast to Sigmund Freud's pleasure principle or the "will to pleasure". By the time Nietzsche wrote. Parent. "Boscovich's theory of centers of force was prominent in Germany at the time.[32] Adler's intent was to build a movement that would rival.D. as we could also term it. as well as in contrast to the will to power stressed by Adlerian psychology.[33] In Man's Search for Meaning. Nietzsche. [4] Moore. in turn. trans Kaufmann [3] Anderson. 25 (1996) pp 200-220 [2] section 12. Biology.

23 36. “Boscovich. 257 (“Willenskräfte und Macht-Begierden” translated “strength of will and lust for power”) & 259. “Between Mechanism and Teleology: Will to Power and Nietzsche’s Gay ‘Science’” Nietzsche & Science. Biology. PUF. ISBN 0671023373. De Gruyter.” Journal of the History of Ideas. p 47 [13] Brobjer. Roux & Rolph (Moore.. p 450). 1885-1889. Friedrich Nietzsche (1974. Mater Dei Institute [33] Ansbacher. see Whitlock. Anette.” 207) [24] cf.Will to power [9] Robin Small. (1956). [17] Brobjer says it is the most heavily annotated book of his 1886 reading. google. Benedict de Spinoza and Friedrich Nietzsche”. & “Ancients” 3.. pp 663-693 [14] section 259. an amalgam of a number of competing non-Darwinian theories. Massachusetts: Beacon Press. Nietzsche. Boston. 57:3 (1996). 24:4 (2005). pp. Stanley S. Thomas H. Metaphor p 55). and in French. and Small “The Physics of Eternal Recurrence” Nietzsche in Context pp. II:18. p 265-266 [20] “The will to power is essentially . Stack. Nietzsche. p. [25] For discussion. Nietzsche in Context (Burlington: Ashgate. ie/ media/ conferences/ a-secular-age-parallel-sessions-timetable. pp 447-463. “Birth of Tragedy” 4.” Journal of the History of Ideas. Micells and military troops.. As mentioned. materdei.” translated "power-will") 51. 2009) "A Trojan Horse: Logotherapeutic Transcendence and its Secular Implications for Theology" (http:/ / docs. [10] ibid..” South African Journal of Philosophy.”). Eine Einführung. “Roger Boscovich. Biology. transl. Walter Kaufmann. Friedrich Nietzsche. in German in 1991. 135-152. Berlin-New York. pp 260-272 [19] Horn. [21] Beyond Good & Evil 13. Linda L. Alfred (1912/1917). Metaphor. 154. . Harper Perennial (1964). The Will to Power. pdf+ "Stan+ Seidner"& hl=en& gl=us). archive. (“Nietzsche’s Reading and Private Library. “Will to Power in Nietzsche's Published Works and the Nachlass.” p 679 [18] quoted in Horn. Heinz. "On the Genealogy of Morality". 2001. 57:3 (1996). Second Essay. 38. 186. Kaufmann trans [15] section 349. 6. Fall 1880 6 [206] [28] Mazzino Montinari. New York: Moffat. Linda L. “Nietzsche’s Reading and Private Library. 227. III:14. Spinoza and Nietzsche. Rowena R. §636 [30] Nietzsche. Man's Search for Meaning. com/ gview?a=v& q=cache:FrKYAo88ckkJ:www. Friedrich Nietzsche. . 20. “Will to Power in Nietzsche's Published Works and the Nachlass. Ansbacher. III:18 and III:27 (this last reference is not to the concept but to the book Will to Power). 16. Williams.” namely. 1067 [27] Friedrich Nietzsche. Yard and Company. one-fifth of the occurrences of Wille zur Macht have to do with outlines of various lengths of the projected but ultimately abandoned book”(Williams. 24 (whether 24 is about “will to power” is debatable) & Ecce Homo.” Journal of the History of Ideas. [26] The Will To Power. The Neurotic Constitution (http:/ / www. §11 [31] Adler. the nihilistic will. 17. Antichrist sections 2. (June 10. ix. 211. [32] Seidner. ISBN 0061311545. Kaufmann trans [16] Wille zur Macht appears in Beyond Good and Evil sections 22. Kaufmann-Hollingdale trans. “Nietzsche’s interpretation of his sources on Darwinism: Idioplasma. Nägeli. “Nietzsche and Boscovich’s Natural Philosophy”. Moles. pp 171-188. The Individual Psychology of Alfred Adler. [34] Frankl. pp. Viktor (1959). 132–133. p 167 [11] Kaufmann tran [12] Moore. 127 . Gay Science 349 & Genealogy of Morality II:12 [22] The phrase will to power appears in “147 entries of the Colli and Montinari edition of the Nachlass. Nachlass.. 44 (“Macht-Willen. Christa Davis Acampora. 2001) p 166. “Will to Power” appears in his completed but posthumously published books: Twilight of the Idols “Skirmishes” 11. org/ details/ neuroticconstitu00adle). [23] Nietzsche comments in many notes about matter being a hypothesis drawn from the metaphysics of substance (Whitlock.121 chapter "Nietzsche and the consequences" [29] trans. “Nietzsche’s Eternal Recurrence as Riemannian Cosmology”. 58:4 (Oct 1997). 9 (the quote in 9 is “the will to the end. 198. wants power. the phrase appears in Zarathustra thrice and it appears in Genealogy of Morality five times: II:12.. p.

and if he did.[4] By World War I. among them Martin Heidegger. this should not obscure the fact that his work was also crucial to the right and to the neither right nor left fusions of developing French fascism.[2] Nietzsche even had a distinct appeal for many Zionist thinkers at the turn of the century. Hitler.[11] It has been suggested that Theodore Roosevelt read Nietzsche and was profoundly influenced by him.[9] However. this led Georges Bataille to argue against any 'instrumentalization' of Nietzsche's thought. However. By 1937. Bataille felt that any simple-minded interpretation or unified ideological characterization of Nietzsche's work granting predominance to any particular aspect failed to do justice to the body of his work as a whole.[13] Perhaps Nietzsche's greatest political legacy lies in his 20th century interpreters. as much recent work has stressed. He had some following among left-wing Germans in the 1890s. but responded to those appeals in diverging ways. in 1894–95. During the late 19th century Nietzsche's ideas were commonly associated with anarchist movements and appear to have had influence within them. probably never read Nietzsche. adopt Nietzsche's genealogical method to develop anti-foundationalist theories of power that divide and fragment rather than unite polities (as evinced in the liberal tradition of political theory). German conservatives wanted to ban his work as subversive. Deleuze. he had acquired a reputation as an inspiration for right-wing German militarism.[10] as did Charles de Gaulle. Michel Foucault.[12] and in more recent years. and Jacques Derrida. his reading was not extensive. particularly in France and the United States. It has been argued the his work influenced Theodore Herzl. this association with National Socialism caused Nietzsche's reputation to suffer following World War II. for example.[5] [6] The Dreyfus Affair provides another example of his reception: the French anti-semitic Right labelled the Jewish and Leftist intellectuals who defended Alfred Dreyfus as "Nietzscheans"[7] . . Mussolini certainly read Nietzsche. for example. In the context of the rise of French fascism one researcher notes.[3] and Martin Buber went so far as to extol Nietzsche as a "creator" and "emissary of life".Influence and reception of Friedrich Nietzsche 128 Influence and reception of Friedrich Nietzsche Friedrich Nietzsche's influence and reception varied widely and may be roughly divided into various chronological periods. though incapacitated by mental illness.[8] Many political leaders of the twentieth century were at least superficially familiar with Nietzsche's ideas. Foucault's later writings. Georges Bataille. "Although. Such seemingly paradoxical acceptance by diametrically opposed camps is typical of the history of the reception of Nietzsche's thought. Gilles Deleuze (and Félix Guattari). it is not always possible to determine whether or not they actually read his work. Reactions were anything but uniform. German soldiers even received copies of Thus Spoke Zarathustra as gifts during World War I. Richard Nixon read Nietzsche with "curious interest". used the much-maligned 'will to power' thesis in tandem with Marxian notions of commodity surplus and Freudian ideas of desire to articulate concepts such the rhizome and other 'outsides' to state power as traditionally conceived. Nietzsche had an important impact on "leftist" French ideology and theory. arguably the foremost of Nietzsche's interpreters. and proponents of various ideologies attempted to appropriate his work quite early. many Germans discovered his appeals for greater individualism and personality development in Thus Spoke Zarathustra.[1] Beginning while Nietzsche was still alive. Pierre Klossowski. however. the Nazis made very selective use of Nietzsche's philosophy.

and his forwarding of the "transvaluation of values" as source of change. Nicosia notes.. such as the writers Yosef Hayyim Brenner and Micah Yosef Berdichevski. his anti-Christianity.] as hysterical and imbecile.[14] This may be the result of a popular association during this period between his ideas and those of Max Stirner[15] . who cited Nietzsche's conception of the "transvaluation of values" in support of the Spanish anarchist project. Nietzsche was enlisted as an authority for articulating the movement's ruptured relationship with the past and a force in its drive to normalization and its activist ideal of self-creating Hebraic New Man. "Classical Zionism. and hence could not have been strongly influenced by Nietzsche. "Yes" to the self-creation of a new world on the basis of nothing.. Hakim Bey and Wolfi Landstreicher. the primary publication of the World Zionist Organization. who gave dozens of lectures about Nietzsche and baptized him as an honorary anarchist. "At the height of his fame between 1895 and 1902. Nietzsche and Zionism Jacob Golomb observed. insisted that Nietzsche had been insane since birth. that essentially secular and modernizing movement. Gabriel Sheffer suggests that Herzl was too bourgeois and too eager to be accepted into mainstream society to be much of a revolutionary. "Nietzsche's ideas were widely disseminated among and appropriated by the first Hebrew Zionist writers and leaders. and he strove to introduce "a Nietzschean perspective into Zionist affairs. an early Zionist orator. as opposed to a Marxist conception of class struggle and the dialectic of a linear history. and even the younger Murray Bookchin. Nietzsche was frequently associated with anarchist movements. in a memorial tribute. whom he praised as a heroic figure. anarcho-syndicalist militants like Rudolf Rocker. Spencer Sunshine writes "There were many things that drew anarchists to Nietzsche: his hatred of the state. at least for a time (including that fact that under his editorship the Neue Freie Presse dedicated seven consecutive issues to Nietzsche obituaries) Golomb points out that Herzl's cousin Raoul Auernheimer claimed. his desire for an "overman" — that is. praise for Nietzsche was not by any means universal among Zionists. and advocated "branding his disciples [. with the artist as his prototype. for a new human who was to be neither master nor slave.[24] However. his disgust for the mindless social behavior of "herds". some of Nietzsche's ideas seemed to have a particular resonance for some Zionists. his distrust of the effect of both the market and the State on cultural production. published a poem in Zarathustrastil ( a style reminiscent of Nietzsche's Thus Spoke Zarathustra) calling for the return of Jewish literature. in spite of the fact that in his writings he seems to hold a negative view of anarchists."[19] According to Steven Aschheim. that Herzl was familiar with Nietzsche and had "absorbed his style"." In 1901 Buber. Max Nordau."[21] Among many other facts that show Herzl had a serious interest in Nietzsche."[16] For Sunshine "The list is not limited to culturally-oriented anarchists such as Emma Goldman." Also in european individualist anarchist circles his influence is clear in thinker/activists such as Emile Armand[17] and Renzo Novatore[18] among others. followed after Herzl because they thought that Zionism offered the chance for a Nietzschean 'transvaluation of values' within Jewry". art and scholarship. was acutely aware of the crisis of Jewish tradition and its supporting institutions."[20] Francis R. who had just been appointed the editor of Die Welt. who could say. but remarks.Influence and reception of Friedrich Nietzsche 129 Nietzsche and anarchism During the 19th century.[22] On the other hand.[23] Martin Buber was fascinated by Nietzsche. "Some East European Jewish intellectuals. including Theodore Herzl."[25] . Also more recently in post-left anarchy Nietzsche is present in the thought of Albert Camus. his praise of the ecstatic and creative self. Pro-Nietzschean anarchists also include prominent Spanish CNT–FAI members in the 1930s such as Salvador Seguí and anarcha-feminist Federica Montseny.

and was presented by Elisabeth with Nietzsche's favorite walking stick.[26] There can be no doubt that Italian and German fascist regimes were eager to lay claim to Nietzsche's ideas. presenting her with a wreath for Nietzsche's grave with the words "To A Great Fighter". the Nazi movement found much affinity with Nietzsche's ideas. etc. Such one-dimensional readings were vehemently rejected by another French writer. the gesture of setting up "Nietzsche" as a battlefield on which to take one's stand against or to enter into competition with the ideas of one's intellectual predecessors or rivals has happened quite frequently in the twentieth century. racism. Schrift cites this passage and writes. added titles of her own invention." Alan D. in 1934 Hitler and Alfred Rosenberg visited her again. found that Förster-Nietzsche. changed their order. The Nazis also linked what they felt to be Nietzsche's clearly expressed views on women (e.[28] The German philosopher Heidegger. he resolved "to have nothing to do with anyone involved in the perfidious race-fraud"). while editing Nietzsche's posthumous works in the 1960s. himself noted that everyone in his day was either 'for' or 'against' Nietzsche while claiming that this thinker heard a "command to reflect on the essence of a planetary domination. while editing the posthumous fragments making up The Will to Power.g. Elisabeth Förster-Nietzsche. "The Führer before the bust of the German philosopher whose ideas have fertilized two great popular movements: the National Socialist of Germany and the Fascist of Italy. militarism and anti-Semitism of the Nazis. phrases like "the will to power" became common in Nazi circles. who was (with great harm to his subsequent reputation) an active member of the Nazi Party. notably Alfred Baeumler in his reading of The Will to Power. and to position themselves as inspired by them. the anarchist Georges Bataille.") to their own social program for women. "Man shall be trained for war and woman for the procreation of the warrior.g. Christianity."[27] Nietzsche was no less popular among French fascists. after 1938. it was the Nietzschean emphasis on the Will that inspired the voluntarism and political activism of his comrades. certain Nazis had employed a highly selective reading of Nietzsche's work to advance their ideology. included passages of others authors copied by Nietzsche as if they had been written by Nietzsche himself." He argued that nothing was more alien to Nietzsche than the pan-Germanism. "That Heidegger sees Nietzsche heeding a command to reflect and prepare for earthly domination is of less interest to me than his noting that everyone thinks in terms of a position for or against Nietzsche.Influence and reception of Friedrich Nietzsche 130 Nietzsche and fascism See also Nietzsche's criticisms of anti-Semitism and nationalism. the editor of Nietzsche's work after his 1889 breakdown. including: his attacks against democracy. Elisabeth Forster-Nietzsche received a rose bouquet from Hitler during a German premier of Mussolini's 100 Days. Wistrich has pointed out The "fascist" Nietzsche was above all considered to be a heroic irrationalist and vitalist who had glorified war and violence. Despite the fact that Nietzsche expressed his disgust with anti-Semitism and German nationalism in the most forthright terms possible (e. had cut extracts. any thing else is folly. "They belong in the kitchen and their chief role in life is to beget children for German warriors. and his (sometimes highly ambiguous) praise of war and warriors. It has been observed that In 1932. In particular. and parliamentary governments. Mazzino Montinari."[29] Despite the protests of Bataille and others[30] . According to the French fascist Pierre Drieu la Rochelle. As Robert S. into whose service the German philosopher had been pressed. In Heinrich Hoffmann's best-selling Hitler as Nobody Knows Him (which sold nearly a half-million copies by 1938) the caption of the photo of Hitler with the bust of Nietzsche read."[31] During the interbellum years. The wide popularity of Nietzsche among Nazis stemmed in part from the endeavors of his sister.[32] . who in the 1930s sought to establish the "radical incompatibility" between Nietzsche (as a thinker who abhorred mass politics) and "the Fascist reactionaries. The era of Nazi rule (1933–1945) saw Nietzsche's writings widely studied in German (and. and an eventual Nazi sympathizer. Austrian) schools and universities. his preaching in The Will to Power wherein he proclaimed the coming of a ruling race that would become the "lords of the earth". in the same year the Führer posed for a photo gazing into the eyes of a white marble bust of Nietzsche. inspiring the anti-Marxist revolutions of the interwar period.

Knut Hamsun. Curt von Westernhagen. André Gide. Robert E. sociologists Ferdinand Tönnies and Max Weber. forming his opinion about Nietzsche later in life. psychologists Sigmund Freud. Howard. H. Freud took no interest in philosophy while a medical student. Rudolf Rocker. Jean-Paul Sartre. journalist and Christian apologist G.[36] Yet Jones also reports that Freud emphatically denied that Nietzsche's writings influenced his own psychological discoveries. and he influenced other anarchists such as Guy Aldred. painters Salvador Dalí and Pablo Picasso.] has striking affinities with the philosophy of action expounded in our own time by Hannah Arendt. Miguel de Unamuno. Richard Wright. or worse. José Ortega y Gasset and Muhammad Iqbal. Hermann Hesse. or Nazi. Antijuden (1936) that the time had come to expose the 'defective personality of Nietzsche whose inordinate tributes for. composers Richard Strauss. P. Max Cafard and John Moore. and Eugene O'Neill. is that it ignores the fact that Nietzsche's aristocratism seeks to revive an older conception of politics. Freud frequently referred to Nietzsche as having "more penetrating knowledge of himself than any man who ever lived or was likely to live". Many of Nietzsche's ideas. the absurdity of describing Nietzsche's political thought as 'Fascist'. poet. Jung. C. particularly on artists and aesthetics. and Jack London. Lawrence and Vladimir Bartol. a Nazi.[33] The real problem with the labelling of Nietzsche as a Fascist. 1919. Thomas Mann. and Rollo May. Lovecraft. Lev Shestov. becomes readily apparent. Moreover. Juden. Friedrich Georg Jünger. August Strindberg. Abraham Maslow. looks at his favorite philosopher through the lens of Nazism and World War II and ends up placing Nietzsche at a more critical distance. novelists Marcel Proust. "Nietzsche's Philosophy in the Light of Recent History". Illustrated London News Thomas Mann's essays mention Nietzsche with respect and even adoration. Menno ter Braak. Joseph Conrad. Henri Bergson. The popular writer. Gustav Mahler. I think they are both heresies so horrible that their treatment must not be so much mental as moral. Mencken avidly read and translated Nietzsche's works and has gained the sobriquet "the American Nietzsche". American writer H. D. are incorporated and explored throughout Mann's works. Jews had caused him to depart from the Germanic principles enunciated by Meister Richard Wagner'" is a representative example. when it is not simply medical. and Fredrick Delius. Men are not always dead of a disease and men are not always damned by a delusion. One "rabidly Nazi writer. biographer and personal acquaintance of Sigmund Freud. Leo Strauss. Julius Evola. occultist Aleister Crowley. Rainer Maria Rilke. Antonin Artaud. any more than I think that a Nietzscheite contempt for compassion is merely a matter of opinion. Nietzsche was declared an anarchist by Emma Goldman. playwrights George Bernard Shaw. who announced in his book Nietzsche. and espousal of. K. – May 31. and authors H. Early 20th-century thinkers Early twentieth-century thinkers influenced by Nietzsche include: philosophers Martin Heidegger. Alfred Adler. Franz Kafka.. G. Ernst Jünger. and William Butler Yeats.[34] 131 Nietzsche and psychoanalysis The psychologist Carl Jung recognized Nietzsche's importance early on: he held a seminar on Nietzsche's Zarathustra in 1934. Georg Brandes. Carl Rogers. Albert Camus. One of the characters in Mann's . Theodor Adorno. Once an affinity like this is appreciated. theologians Paul Tillich and Thomas J. Fernand Braudel [37] and Paul Veyne. Michel Foucault. Chesterton expressed contempt for Nietzsche's ideas: I do not even think that a cosmopolitan contempt for patriotism is merely a matter of opinion. historians Oswald Spengler.L. Emil Cioran. Martin Buber. James Joyce. philosopher. although one of his final essays.. Ludwig Wittgenstein. but so far as they are touched by it they are destroyed by it. André Malraux. one which he locates in Greek agon which [. Nikos Kazantzakis.Influence and reception of Friedrich Nietzsche But Nietzsche's reception among fascists was not universally warm.[35] According to Ernest Jones.J. poets John Davidson. Altizer.

calling his work the "mere power-phantasies of an invalid" and referring to Nietzsche as a "megalomaniac". and they stand today unquestioned as the authentically great thinkers of their age. and he knew it. like every man's.Influence and reception of Friedrich Nietzsche 1947 novel Doktor Faustus represents Nietzsche fictionally. [. and a 1972 conference at Cérisy-la-Salle ranks as the most important event in France for a generation's reception of Nietzsche.. characterized him as a literary figure rather than as a philosopher. – Russell. Does any one suppose that Lincoln acted as he did from fear of hell? Yet to Nietzsche. is an objectification of his own emotion towards them. and soothed his wounded vanity with unkind remarks. History of Western Philosophy 132 Nietzsche after World War II The appropriation of Nietzsche's work by the Nazis... such as Bernard Williams in his last finished book. Nietzsche has also influenced members of the analytical philosophy tradition. His followers have had their innings. Nietzsche's present stature in the English-speaking world owes much to the exegetical writings and improved Nietzsche translations by the German-American philosopher Walter Kaufmann and the British scholar R. 1990). whose glory is cleverness in causing men to die. combined with the rise of analytic philosophy. I feel it the motive power to all that I desire as regards the world. so he kept away from women.] [H]e is so full of fear and hatred that spontaneous love of mankind seems to him impossible. Jacques Derrida.J.. have continually grown in significance. because the men whom he most admires are conquerors. Certain recent Nietzschean exegetes have emphasized the more untimely and politically controversial aspects of Nietzsche's philosophy. Reason and Existenz Bertrand Russell in his epic History of Western Philosophy was scathing in his chapter on Nietzsche. with all the fearlessness and stubborn pride of the superman. In one particularly harsh section. all of the men he admires were military. if they mentioned Nietzsche at all. Napoleon magnificent.. Nietzsche despises universal love. for a long time..] I dislike Nietzsche because he likes the contemplation of pain. especially among the French intellectual Left and post-structuralists. Jean-Luc Nancy. dismissed Nietzsche in his 1916 Egotism in German Philosophy as a "prophet of Romanticism". not a professor. Fredrick Appel's Nietzsche Contra Democracy (Cornell University Press.but nine women out of ten would get the whip away from him. Kierkegaard and Nietzsche. Philosophers after Hegel have increasingly returned to face them. In recent years. ensured that British and American academic philosophers would almost completely ignore him until at least 1950. but in an appeal to the emotions. [. lies not in an appeal to facts. But I think the ultimate argument against his philosophy. Gilles Deleuze and Pierre Klossowski wrote monographs drawing new attention to Nietzsche's work. who has devoted several essays to Nietzsche. Analytic philosophers. remained without influence in the history of philosophy. [. even greater in general thinking than in technical philosophy – Jaspers. and Michel Foucault all owe a heavy debt to Nietzsche. particularly by the German philosopher Peter Sloterdijk. In 1938 the German existentialist Karl Jaspers wrote the following about the influence of Nietzsche and Søren Kierkegaard: The contemporary philosophical situation is determined by the fact that two philosophers. He has never conceived of the man who. nevertheless does not inflict pain because he has no wish to do so.] The effect of both is immeasurably great. . which is obviously one of fear. Nietzsche's influence on continental philosophy increased dramatically after the Second World War. who did not count in their times and. Lincoln is abject. because he erects conceit into duty. His opinion of women. Even George Santayana. In Germany interest in Nietzsche was revived from the 1980s onwards. as against any unpleasant but internally self-conscious ethic. an American philosopher whose life and work betray some similarity to Nietzsche's. Works such as Bruce Detwiler's Nietzsche and the Politics of Aristocratic Radicalism (University of Chicago Press. Russell says: It is obvious that in his day-dreams he is a warrior. "Forget not thy whip"-. Hollingdale. Truth And Truthfulness: An Essay In Genealogy (2002). but we may hope that it is coming rapidly to an end.

L. God." Thomas H. pp. Routledge. Jul. html)]] [19] Jacob Golomb. 1994.B. J. and the Jews. L. Hitler never read Nietzsche.8 [7] Schrift. p137 [9] Weaver Santaniello.. org/ 2010/ 05/ 18/ nietzsche-and-the-anarchists/ ) [17] The Anarchism of Émile Armand by Emile Armand (http:/ / theanarchistlibrary. 2002.". p41: "Hitler probably never read a word of Nietzsche".D. 1908. and the Claims of History. 17. 1992. Roosevelt appealing to Americans to become conquerors. Bourdeau has pointed out the strange similarity which exists between the ideas of Andrew Carnegie and Roosevelt. "Philologica: A Possible Solution to the Stirner-Nietzsche Question". html) [18] Toward the Creative Nothing by [[Renzo Novatore (http:/ / theanarchistlibrary. pp. 2005. Philip Morgan. Cornell University Press. pp. Stanford University Press. certainly. Roosevelt should have formulated his present confession of faith independently of Nietzsche". J. 2004. Georges Sorel (trans. Misinterpretation. Brobjer. H. On Nietzsche. in Journal of the History of Ideas.. 1891-95". knowledge. a race of predators. p170 [4] Jacob Golomb (Ed. I. Fascist Spectacle: The Aesthetics of Power in Mussolini's Italy. pp 25-27. p. Zionism and Anti-Semitism in Nazi Germany. The Search for Modern Tragedy. in The Journal of Nietzsche Studies . Nietzsche and Jewish Culture. if he did read him. Nietzsche and Jewish Culture. Rosenberg. (1995). Indiana University Press. and Regeneration in France. 2004. Jacob Golomb. ISBN 0-415-91147-8. Aschheim notes that "[a]bout 150.Tauris. 1997. org/ HTML/ Emile_Armand__The_Anarchism_of_Emile_Armand. Jan. Forth. p153 (referring to Roosevelt's published speech The Strenuous Life): "It is inconceivable that Mr. 2001. A. 1987. 2000. Stanley). Transaction Publishers. Decadence. ed (Paperback). Vol. p9: "To be sure. through what was coffeehouse Quatsch in Vienna and Munich. Retrieved 2007-05-08. [8] Mary Ann Frese Witt. Routledge.Influence and reception of Friedrich Nietzsche 1998). Vol. Berel Lang. Cornell University Press. Maurice Barres — and was steeped in conservative French historical and philosophical traditions. The Selected Writings of Friedrich Nietzsche. Vol. 109-114 [16] Spencer Sunshine. 2002) challenge the prevalent liberal interpretive consensus on Nietzsche and assert that Nietzsche's elitism was not merely an aesthetic pose but an ideological attack on the widely held belief in equal rights of the modern West." [14] In Beyond Good and Evil (6. Fascism in Europe. and plagiarism of Max Stirner's The Ego and Its Own (1845) has been a contentious question and frequently discussed for more than a century now.. p214 "J. and those of Nietzsche: Carnegie deploring the wasting of money on the support of incompetents.000 copies of a specially durable wartime Zarathustra were distributed to the troops" in The Nietzsche Legacy in Germany. I Am Dynamite!: Friedrich Nietzsche and the Anarchist Tradition [38]. 1919-1945. Routledge. University of California Press. "German Philosophy in 1907". "The Philosophy of Force. No. pp. 54.S. E. Continuum International Publishing Group. in The Philosophical Review. Post-Holocaust: Interpretation. East Central Europe in the Modern World. Gaddis." [12] H. p44: "In 1908 he presented his conception of the superman's role in modern society in a writing on Nietzsche entitled. T. SUNY Press. Mencken (Ed. 2008. Berkeley and Los Angeles.". 133 Further reading • John Moore with Spencer Sunshine. 1890-1990. p162: "Arguably. as Exemplified by the Work of John Henry Mackay". Autonomedia. in PMLA. 1997.2:126) he refers to "anarchist dogs" [15] "Nietzsche's possible reading.. 2008. Nietzsche and Zion. Nietzsche and Zion. 828-843. Routledge.] Nixon asked to borrow my copy of Beyond Good and Evil. against the view of particular influence on Herzl. pp 234-235 [5] Steven E. This at least is the impression he gives in his published conversations with Dietrich Eckart. U. it was not extensively". p184: "By all indications. Friederich [sic] Nietzsche. "Nietzsche. 2003. No. org/ HTML/ Renzo_Novatore__Toward_the_Creative_Nothing. E. p36. R. p21: "We know that Mussolini had read Nietzsche" [11] J. a title that inspired the title of his final book. de Gaulle read voraciously as a boy and young man — Jacques Bainville. Jacob Golomb. P. 97-117 [3] Francis R. more simply. and Domenico Losurdo's Nietzsche.. Hitler himself never read a word of Nietzsche. Nietzsche. Henri Bergson. Janos. Bruce Boone)." [10] Simonetta Falasca-Zamponi. "Anti-Statism in German Literature. References [1] Georges Bataille (Trans. 1999. and. 2004 [2] O. Sep. Nixon in Winter. 1. 1993.. A. il ribelle aristocratico (Turin: Bollati Boringhieri. Cold War Statesmen Confront the Bomb. "Nietzsche and the Anarchists" (http:/ / radicalarchives. Spring 2003. Wilder Publications. p135 [6] Kaufmann. May. locating Nietzsche in the conservative-revolutionary tradition. 400-426.). Nietzschean ideas reached him through the filter of Alfred Rosenberg's Myth of the Twentieth Century." [13] Monica Crowley. 1997. pp. Andrew C.). 3. Nicosia. Routledge.Issue 25. p217: "The son of a history teacher. see: Gabriel Sheffer. ISBN ISBN 1-57027-121-6. No. 160. Essays in Socialism and Philosophy. C. Ewald. Nietzsche's French Legacy: A Genealogy of Poststructuralism. Gordon. it is almost certain that Hitler either never read Nietzsche directly or read very little. I Am Not A Man. Cornell University Press. p351: "He read with curious interest the writings of Friedrich Nietzsche [. p1 . 1998.-Israeli Relations at the Crossroads. Cambridge University Press. Neither Mein Kampf nor Hitler's Table Talk (Tischgesprache) mentions his name. Beyond Peace. 62. 4. Riley. 1947. Oxford University Press.

S. p102 [21] Francis R. 1996 [33] Jacob Golomb. 2007. Godfather of Fascism?: On The Uses and Abuses of a Philosophy. pp 184-185 [30] these included Thomas Mann and Albert Camus [31] William Lawrence Shirer. pp 33-34 [35] Jung Timeline (http:/ / jung. Repainting the Little Red Schoolhouse: A History of Eastern German Education. Princeton University Press. Heidegger's Crisis: Philosophy and Politics in Nazi Germany. Oxford University Press. pp 99-101. Simon and Schuster. Nietzsche. Harvard University Press. [32] Mazzino Montinari. 1993. Cambridge University Press. Robert S. 1960.Influence and reception of Friedrich Nietzsche [20] Steven E. p289 [27] Hans D. Nietzsche and Jewish Culture. Editions de l'Eclat. p149 [34] Keith Ansell-Pearson. The Nietzsche legacy in Germany. 1890-1990. 2002. 2008. Princeton University Press. Aschheim. 1994. University of California Press. 1945-1995. Wistrich. 2002. p36 [22] Jacob Golomb.). Nietzsche and Zion. Wistrich. Nietzsche. Godfather of Fascism?: On The Uses and Abuses of a Philosophy. Nicosia. freudfile. University of Nebraska Press.). 1997. Schrift (Ed. p162 [29] Alan D. U. org/ nietzsche 134 . The Life and Work of Sigmund Freud [37] See Fernand Braudel's preface to The Mediterranean and the Mediterranean World in the Age of Philip II.-Israeli Relations at the Crossroads. Cornell University Press. autonomedia. Cambridge University Press. org/ timeline. p179 [28] Jacob Golomb. 1994. 2000. 1997. Zionism and Anti-Semitism in Nazi Germany. pp 25-27 [23] Gabriel Sheffer. Routledge. html) [36] Jones. University of California Press. Wistrich. p158 [26] John Rodden. 2002. Sluga. Routledge. Laboratory for World Destruction: Germans and Jews in Central Europe. pp 235-236 [25] Robert S. The Rise and Fall of the Third Reich: A History of Nazi Germany. 2004. p170 [24] Jacob Golomb (Ed. An Introduction to Nietzsche as Political Thinker: The Perfect Nihilist. where he says he had been largely influenced by the Second Untimely Meditation [38] http:/ / www. Robert S. Why Nietzsche still?. "La Volonté de puissance" n'existe pas.

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WHEEEEEEEEEEEEEEEEEEEEEEEEEEEEEEEE!!!!!!!!!!!!!. Epoch3. ArbiterOne. Animum.Article Sources and Contributors On Truth and Lies in a Nonmoral Sense  Source: http://en. Rory77. Jahsonic.php?oldid=368579255  Contributors: Alcmaeonid. Enigmaman. Dreadstar. Deithrake. MyNameIsNotBob. Rufwork.php?oldid=371884123  Contributors: Androiche. 10 anonymous edits Untimely Meditations (Nietzsche)  Source: http://en. AJackl. BigDunc.t. Filippof. Malcolmxl5. Amohmand. Robinoke. Citicat. Bevo. Bansp. 26 anonymous edits The Dawn (book)  Source: http://en. Tcmcgonigal. Rl. Goethean. RJHall. Radimast. Xodarap00. Mlakner. Jugander. Jramsay1927.php?oldid=365985701  Contributors: 16@r. Kalki. Kvn8907. MegX. Suaven. Chris the speller. Phantomsteve. Strongwolf13. AxelBoldt. Jeff3000. Lfh. DanielCD. DowneyOcean. 7&6=thirteen. Snake666. Paul A. Abiyoyo. Duncharris. Sam Hocevar. Callmarcus. Doktor Waterhouse. Mwanner. RadicalHarmony. Buridan. Dbenbenn.The. Skomorokh. Cultural Freedom. Jonniefast. Jjdon. 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