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Friedrich Nietzsche The Birth of Tragedy Philosophy in the Tragic Age of the Greeks On Truth and Lies in a Nonmoral Sense Untimely Meditations (Nietzsche) Hymnus an das Leben Human, All Too Human The Dawn (book) The Gay Science Thus Spoke Zarathustra Beyond Good and Evil On the Genealogy of Morality The Case of Wagner Twilight of the Idols The Antichrist (book) Ecce Homo (book) Nietzsche contra Wagner The Will to Power (manuscript) Amor fati Apollonian and Dionysian Eternal return Nietzsche and free will God is dead Herd behavior Last man Master-slave morality Nietzschean affirmation Perspectivism Ressentiment Transvaluation of values Tschandala Übermensch World riddle Will to power 1 19 25 29 30 33 35 40 41 44 51 55 60 61 63 76 78 79 81 82 85 91 96 100 104 105 107 108 110 113 114 116 120 122

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Friedrich Nietzsche


Friedrich Nietzsche

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Friedrich Wilhelm Nietzsche October 15, 1844 Röcken bei Lützen, Prussia August 25, 1900 (aged 55) Weimar, Saxony, German Empire 19th century philosophy Western Philosophy Weimar Classicism; precursor to Continental philosophy, existentialism, Individualism, postmodernism, poststructuralism aesthetics, ethics, ontology, philosophy of history, psychology, value-theory, poetry Apollonian and Dionysian, death of God, eternal recurrence, herd-instinct, master-slave morality, Übermensch, perspectivism, will to power, ressentiment, der letzte Mensch

Friedrich Wilhelm Nietzsche (October 15, 1844 – August 25, 1900) (German pronunciation: [ˈfʁiːdʁɪç ˈvɪlhɛlm ˈniːtsʃə]; in English UK: /ˈniːtʃə/, US: /ˈniːtʃi/[1] ) was a 19th-century German philosopher and classical philologist. He wrote critical texts on religion, morality, contemporary culture, philosophy and science, displaying a fondness for metaphor, irony and aphorism. Nietzsche's influence remains substantial within and beyond philosophy, notably in existentialism and postmodernism. His style and radical questioning of the value and objectivity of truth have resulted in much commentary and interpretation, mostly in the continental tradition. His key ideas include the death of God, perspectivism, the Übermensch, the eternal recurrence, and the will to power. Nietzsche began his career as a classical philologist before turning to philosophy. At the age of 24 he was appointed to the Chair of Classical Philology at the University of Basel (the youngest individual to have held this position), but resigned in 1879 due to health problems that plagued him most of his life. In 1889 he went insane, living out his remaining years in the care of his mother and sister until his death in 1900.

1861 . and a second son. where they lived with Nietzsche's paternal grandmother and his father's two unmarried sisters. He also found time to work on poems and musical compositions. He was named after King Frederick William IV of Prussia. his younger brother died in 1850. Nietzsche's father died from a brain ailment in 1849. and had two other children: a daughter. but after he showed particular talents in music and language. Elisabeth Förster-Nietzsche. both of whom came from very respected families. the year before their son's birth. Nietzsche attended a boys' school and then later a private school. Nietzsche. Carl Ludwig Nietzsche (1813–1849). and for the first time experienced a distance from his family life in a small-town Christian environment. near Leipzig. 1844. After the death of Nietzsche's grandmother in 1856. where he became friends with Gustav Krug and Wilhelm Pinder. and there he continued his studies from 1858 to 1864. born in 1848. who turned 49 on the day of Nietzsche's birth. In 1854.)[2] Nietzsche's parents. "Wilhelm". in the Prussian Province of Saxony. Nietzsche received an important introduction to literature. The family then moved to Naumburg. (Nietzsche later dropped his given middle name. Nietzsche grew up in the small town of Röcken. he began to attend Pforta in Naumburg. At Schulpforta. Ludwig Joseph. Here he became friends with Paul Deussen and Carl von Gersdorff. particularly that of the ancient Greeks and Romans. a Lutheran pastor and former teacher. the internationally recognised Schulpforta admitted him as a pupil. the family moved into their own house. and Franziska Oehler (1826–1897). married in 1843.Friedrich Nietzsche 2 Life Youth (1844–1869) Born on October 15. born in 1846.

[3] This may have happened in part because of his reading around this time of David Strauss's Life of Jesus. After one semester (and to the anger of his mother) he stopped his theological studies and lost his faith. For a short time he and Deussen became members of the Burschenschaft Frankonia. Schopenhauer and Lange influenced him. Europe's increased concern with science. whom he followed to the University of Leipzig the next year. Nietzsche had already argued that historical research had discredited the central teachings of Christianity. The cultural environment encouraged him to expand his horizons beyond philology and to continue his study of philosophy. completing them and first meeting with Richard Wagner later that year. In 1867 Nietzsche signed up for one year of voluntary service with the Prussian artillery division in Naumburg. Nietzsche's first philological publications appeared soon after. one of his Untimely Meditations. dedicating to him his essay Schopenhauer als Erzieher (Schopenhauer as Educator). There he became close friends with fellow-student Erwin Rohde. 1864 In 1865 Nietzsche thoroughly studied the works of Arthur Schopenhauer. Nietzsche. In 1866 he read Friedrich Albert Lange's History of Materialism. Lange's descriptions of Kant's anti-materialistic philosophy.[5] Consequently Nietzsche turned his attention to his studies again. the rise of European Materialism. However. a riding accident in March 1868 left him unfit for service. Schopenhauer was especially significant in the development of Nietzsche's later thought. and the general rebellion against tradition and authority greatly intrigued Nietzsche.[3] though in an essay entitled Fate and History written in 1862.[4] Nietzsche then concentrated on studying philology under Professor Friedrich Wilhelm Ritschl. Darwin's theory.Friedrich Nietzsche 3 After graduation in 1864 Nietzsche commenced studies in theology and classical philology at the University of Bonn. He owed the awakening of his philosophical interest to reading his Die Welt als Wille und Vorstellung and later admitted that he was one of the few thinkers that he respected. which had a profound effect on the young Nietzsche.[6] .

his colleagues in the field of classical philology.Friedrich Nietzsche Professor at Basel (1869–1879) In part because of Ritschl's support.[10] [11] On returning to Basel in 1870 Nietzsche observed the establishment of the German Empire and the following era of Otto von Bismarck as an outsider and with a degree of Mid-October 1871. In 1870 he gave Cosima Wagner the manuscript of 'The Genesis of the Tragic Idea' as a birthday gift. From left: Erwin Rohde. Nietzsche received a remarkable offer to become professor of classical philology at the University of Basel. and some biographers speculate that syphilis caused his eventual madness. Despite the fact that the offer came at a time when he was considering giving up philology for science. and witnessed the traumatic effects of battle. he accepted. began to exercise significant influence on Nietzsche during this time.[8] Before moving to Basel. In a polemic. whose lectures Nietzsche frequently attended. though there is some disagreement on this matter. who remained his friend throughout his life. expressed little enthusiasm for the work. However. In response. Nietzsche also met Franz Overbeck.[9] Nevertheless. and enjoyed the attention he gave to the beginning of the Bayreuth Festival Theatre. "Homer and Classical Philology". Nietzsche renounced his Prussian citizenship: for the rest of his life he remained officially stateless. and (some time later) Wagner's wife Cosima. Nietzsche is still among the youngest of the tenured Classics professors on record. a professor of theology. Rohde (by now a professor in Kiel) and Wagner came to Nietzsche's defense.[7] To this day. including Ritschl. The Birth of Tragedy.[12] a little-known Russian philosopher and author of Denken und Wirklichkeit (1873). Nietzsche remarked freely about the isolation he felt within the philological community and attempted to attain a position in philosophy at Basel. Walter Kaufmann speculates that he might also have contracted syphilis along with his other infections at this time. though unsuccessfully. He was only 24 years old and had neither completed his doctorate nor received his teaching certificate. In his short time in the military he experienced much. Nietzsche had already met Richard Wagner in Leipzig in 1868. Ulrich von Wilamowitz-Moellendorff dampened the book's reception and increased its notoriety. At the University. and his colleague the historian Jacob Burckhardt. Nietzsche served in the Prussian forces during the Franco-Prussian War of 1870 to 1871 as a medical orderly. 4 . Carl skepticism regarding its genuineness. In 1872 Nietzsche published his first book. The Wagners brought Nietzsche into their most intimate circle. in which Nietzsche eschewed the classical philologic method in favor of a more speculative approach. and during his time at Basel frequently visited Wagner's house in Tribschen in the Canton of Lucerne. Nietzsche admired both greatly. Philology of the Future. He also contracted diphtheria and dysentery. Nietzsche his inaugural lecture. he delivered von Gersdorff. Afrikan Spir.

as well as the influence of Afrikan Spir's Denken und Wirklichkeit. which continued to affect him through his years at Basel. but also received aid from friends. and violent indigestion. and. various disruptive illnesses had plagued him. Nietzsche would publish one book (or major section of a book) each year until 1888. he and his sister had repeated periods of conflict and reconciliation. migraine headaches. but later abandoned that idea (probably for health reasons).) Independent philosopher (1879–1888) Because his illness drove him to find climates more conducive to his health. Nietzsche published separately four long essays: David Strauss: the Confessor and the Writer. Beginning with Human. especially during this time. Rapallo and Turin and in the French city of Nice. All Too Human in 1878. after a significant decline in health. During this time. became a sort of private secretary to Nietzsche. challenging the developing German culture along lines suggested by Schopenhauer and Wagner. Nietzsche traveled frequently. Nietzsche occasionally returned to Naumburg to visit his family.) The four essays shared the orientation of a cultural critique. On the Use and Abuse of History for Life. in the circle of the Wagners. In 1881. as well as by Wagner's celebration of his fame among the German public. he planned to travel to Tunis to view Europe from the outside. He was also alienated by Wagner's championing of 'German culture'. and lived until 1889 as an independent author in different cities. (Since his childhood. The 1868 riding accident and diseases in 1870 may have aggravated these persistent conditions. To the end of his life. Peter Gast (born Heinrich Köselitz). a contemporary typewriter device. Nietzsche also began to accumulate notes that would be posthumously published as Philosophy in the Tragic Age of the Greeks. including moments of shortsightedness that left him nearly blind. 1875 Bayreuth Festival of 1876. A past student of his. Malwida von Meysenbug remained like a motherly patron even outside the Wagner circle. He lived on his pension from Basel. Soon Nietzsche made contact with the music-critic Carl Fuchs. which Nietzsche thought a contradiction in terms. With the publication of Human. during which he completed five. Gast and Overbeck remained consistently faithful friends. In 1873. Nietzsche's failing eyesight prompted him to explore the use of typewriters as a means of continuing to write. he was deeply disappointed by the Nietzsche in Basel. He spent many summers in Sils Maria. Untimely Meditations. Nietzsche had to resign his position at Basel. Moritz in Switzerland. Nietzsche met Malwida von Meysenbug and Hans von Bülow. where the banality of the shows and the baseness of the public repelled him. his last year of writing. However. forcing him to take longer and longer holidays until regular work became impractical. and also began a friendship with Paul Rée. He is known to have tried using the Hansen Writing Ball. when France occupied Tunisia. All Too Human in 1878 (a book of aphorisms on subjects ranging from metaphysics to morality and from religion to the sexes) Nietzsche's reaction against the pessimistic philosophy of Wagner and Schopenhauer became evident. (These four later appeared in a collected edition under the title. Schopenhauer as Educator.Friedrich Nietzsche 5 Between 1873 and 1876. near St. . and Richard Wagner in Bayreuth. who in 1876 influenced him in dismissing the pessimism in his early writings. Nietzsche stood at the beginning of his most productive period. ca.[14] While in Genoa. and many winters in the Italian cities of Genoa. In 1879. All this contributed to Nietzsche's subsequent decision to distance himself from Wagner.[13] Nietzsche's friendship with Deussen and Rohde cooled as well.

accompanied by new prefaces in which he reconsidered his earlier works. however.[19] He also exchanged letters with Hippolyte Taine."[16] In 1886 Nietzsche broke with his editor. pupils. but they would meet again only after his collapse. Dawn. if rather slowly and in a way hardly perceived by him. Salomé reports that he asked her to marry him and that she refused. Lou Salomé. 1882 Nietzsche recognized this and maintained his solitude. Nietzsche saw his own writings as "completely buried and unexhumeable in this anti-Semitic dump" of Schmeitzner—associating the editor with a movement that should be "utterly rejected with cold contempt by every sensible mind". in view of the attitude towards Christianity and the concept of God expressed in Zarathustra. which made prolonged work impossible. living in near isolation after a falling-out with his mother and sister regarding Salomé. Nietzsche fled to Rapallo. Brandes delivered one of the first lectures on Nietzsche's philosophy. before fulfilling this undertaking. in Copenhagen. though he often complained about it. and then also with Georg Brandes. Nietzsche. and therewith the possibility of obtaining. In 1887 Nietzsche wrote the polemic On the Genealogy of Morals. with the new style of Zarathustra. often with Nietzsche's sister Elisabeth as a chaperone. through Malwida von Meysenbug and Paul Rée. In fact. After severing his philosophical ties with Schopenhauer and his social ties with Wagner. his work became even more alienating and the market received it only to the degree required by politeness. Carl Spitteler. disgusted by his anti-Semitic opinions. and distributed only a fraction of these among close friends. During these years Nietzsche met Meta von Salis. and The Gay Science). The subsequent "feelings of revenge and resentment" embittered him. Nietzsche had few remaining friends. and also Gottfried Keller. he slipped too far into sickness. He continued to have frequent and painful attacks of illness. my character and my aims) suffice to take from me the trust of. Amidst renewed bouts of illness. His books remained largely unsold. Nietzsche and Salomé spent the summer together in Tautenburg in Thuringia. In the beginning of 1888. he saw his work as completed for a time and hoped that soon a readership would develop.[17] He then printed Beyond Good and Evil at his own expense. to which Nietzsche replied that he would come to Copenhagen and read Kierkegaard with him. and issued in 1886–1887 second editions of his earlier works (The Birth of Tragedy. interest in Nietzsche's thought did increase at this time. wrote to Nietzsche asking him to read Kierkegaard. .[18] Through correspondence. It was made clear to him that. Thereafter. partially because of intrigues conducted by Nietzsche's sister Elisabeth. Brandes. "And hence my rage since I have grasped in the broadest possible sense what wretched means (the depreciation of my good name. Nietzsche's relationship with Elisabeth continued on the path of conflict and reconciliation. That year he also met Lou Andreas Salomé.Friedrich Nietzsche 6 In 1882 Nietzsche published the first part of The Gay Science.[15] Nietzsche's relationship with Rée and Salomé broke up in the winter of 1882/1883. he had become in effect unemployable at any German University. Ernst Schmeitzner. In 1885 he printed only 40 copies of the fourth part of Zarathustra. with whom he felt an immediate kinship. Paul Rée and Nietzsche. All Too Human. In 1883 he tried and failed to obtain a lecturing post at the University of Leipzig. In 1886 his sister Elisabeth married the anti-Semite Bernhard Förster and traveled to Paraguay to found Nueva Germania. who had started to teach the philosophy of Søren Kierkegaard in the 1870s. including Helene von Druskowitz. regarded Salomé less as an equal partner than as a gifted student. Now. Here he wrote the first part of Thus Spoke Zarathustra in only ten days. However. Human. though the reliability of her reports of events has come into question. a "Germanic" colony—a plan to which Nietzsche responded with mocking laughter. During the same year Nietzsche encountered the work of Fyodor Dostoevsky.

[24] On January 6. Overbeck traveled to Turin and brought Nietzsche to a psychiatric clinic in Basel. From November 1889 to February 1890 the art historian Julius Langbehn attempted to cure Nietzsche. Also. 1889. and his mother Franziska decided to transfer him to a clinic in Jena under the direction of Otto Binswanger. 1889 Burckhardt showed the letter he had received from Nietzsche to Overbeck. On his 44th birthday. In the preface to this work—which suggests Nietzsche was well aware of the interpretive difficulties his work would generate—he declares. and then collapsed to the ground. short of an international breakthrough. and thought that. Nietzsche suffered a mental collapse. The Case of Wagner. By that time Nietzsche appeared fully in the grip of a serious mental illness.[20] His health seemed to improve." He overestimated the increasing response to his writings. Nietzsche wrote: "I have had Caiaphas put in fetters. but an often-repeated tale states that Nietzsche witnessed the whipping of a horse at the other end of the Piazza Carlo Alberto. To his former colleague Burckhardt. Nietzsche's reception and Photo by Hans Olde from the photographic series. do not mistake me for someone else. by that time already printed and bound. he would attempt to buy back his older writings from the publisher and have them translated into other European languages. Two policemen approached him after he caused a public disturbance in the streets of Turin. Naumann secretly printed one hundred. he decided to write the autobiography Ecce Homo. after completing Twilight of the Idols and The Antichrist. In February they ordered a fifty copy private edition of Nietzsche contra Wagner. Bismarck. Langbehn assumed progressively greater control of Nietzsche until his secretiveness discredited him. he commanded the German emperor to go to Rome to be shot. claiming that the methods of the medical doctors were ineffective in treating Nietzsche's condition. and decided that Nietzsche's friends had to bring him back to Basel."[23] Additionally. In the fall of 1888 his writings and letters began to reveal a higher estimation of his own status and "fate. During this process Overbeck and Gast contemplated what to do with Nietzsche's unpublished works. threw his arms up around its neck to protect the horse. Wilhelm. In January 1889 they proceeded with the planned release of Twilight of the Idols. "Hear me! For I am such and such a person. ran to the horse. but the publisher C. he eventually seems to have abandoned this particular approach and instead used some of the draft passages to compose Twilight of the Idols and The Antichrist (both written in 1888). What actually happened remains unknown. G. Above all. The Ill Nietzsche. Moreover.Friedrich Nietzsche Although Nietzsche had in 1886 announced (at the end of On The Genealogy of Morality) a new work with the title The Will to Power: Attempt at a Revaluation of All Values. especially to the recent polemic. Mental breakdown and death (1889–1900) On January 3. Nietzsche began a correspondence with August Strindberg. In March 1890 Franziska removed Nietzsche from the clinic. summer 1899 7 . last year I was crucified by the German doctors in a very drawn-out manner. he planned the publication of the compilation Nietzsche Contra Wagner and of the poems that composed his collection Dionysian-Dithyrambs. Overbeck and Gast decided to withhold publishing The Antichrist and Ecce Homo because of their more radical content. and in May 1890 brought him to her home in Naumburg. The following day Overbeck received a similarly revealing letter. Nietzsche sent short writings—known as the Wahnbriefe ("Madness Letters")—to a number of friends (including Cosima Wagner and Jacob Burckhardt).[22] In the following few days."[21] In December. and he spent the summer in high spirits. and summoned the European powers to take military action against Germany. and all anti-Semites abolished.

Elisabeth removed aphorism 35 of The Antichrist. and published it posthumously.[34] Elisabeth had him buried beside his father at the church in Röcken bei Lützen. “I am a pure-blooded Polish nobleman. where Nietzsche rewrote a passage of the Bible (see The Will to Power and Nietzsche's criticisms of anti-Semitism and nationalism). but the German Confederation of states did. After contracting pneumonia in mid-August 1900 he had another stroke during the night of August 24 / August 25. ethnicity Nietzsche is commonly classified as a German philosopher. After the death of Franziska in 1897 Nietzsche lived in Weimar. in one letter claiming. ardent fighter against any mysticism–as a tutor to help her to understand her brother's philosophy. Mazzino Montinari. His friend. 1869. According to a common myth.. In 1893 Nietzsche's sister Elisabeth returned from Nueva Germania (in Paraguay) following the suicide of her husband. Nietzsche's ancestors were Polish. including Peter Gast would "correct" Nietzsche's writings Rudolf Steiner (who in 1895 had written one of the first books praising even after the philosopher's breakdown and did so Nietzsche)[25] to visit her uncommunicative brother.[30] and Sax's studies. certainly not German blood. the type seems to have been well preserved despite three generations of German mothers. without a single drop of bad blood. gave his funeral oration.. Citizenship. Orth and Trimble postulate frontotemporal dementia[32] . declaring that it was impossible to teach her anything about philosophy. For example. and piece by piece took control of them and of their publication. and took great liberties with the material. called it a forgery in The 'Will to Power' does not exist. Nietzsche himself subscribed to this story toward the end of his life. nationality. where Elisabeth cared for him and allowed people. and died about noon on August 25."[39] .[31] . Steiner abandoned the attempt after only a few months. followed by vascular dementia was put forward by Cybulska[29] prior Schain's. Although most commentators regard his breakdown as unrelated to his philosophy Georges Bataille drops dark hints (""man incarnate" must also go mad")[27] and René Girard's postmortem psychoanalysis posits a worshipful rivalry with Richard Wagner. in accordance with a prevailing medical paradigm of the time. Elisabeth Förster-Nietzsche compiled The Will to Power from Nietzsche's unpublished notebooks.[36] The modern unified nation-state called Germany did not yet exist at the time of his birth. He wrote in 1888. Gast. In 1898 and 1899 Nietzsche suffered at least two strokes.[28] The diagnosis of syphilis was challenged. Overbeck eventually suffered dismissal. Indeed.[38] and for the rest of his life he remained officially stateless. the consensus holds that it does not reflect Nietzsche's intent.”[40] On yet another occasion Nietzsche stated “Germany is a great nation only because its people have so much Polish blood in their veins [. At one point Nietzsche becomes even more adamant about his Polish Identity. proclaiming: "Holy be your name to all future generations!"[35] Nietzsche had written in Ecce Homo (at the time of the funeral still unpublished) of his fear that one day his name would be regarded as "holy". while other researchers[33] propose a syndrome called CADASIL. and Gast finally cooperated. Prussia—for a time.Friedrich Nietzsche recognition enjoyed their first surge. and Nietzsche was a citizen of one of these. She read and studied Nietzsche's works. "I was taught to ascribe the origin of my blood and name 8 .”[41] Nietzsche believed his name might have been Germanized. the editor of Nietzsche's Nachlass. Elisabeth at one without his approval—an action severely point went so far as to employ Steiner–at a time when he was still an criticized by contemporary Nietzsche scholars. and manic-depressive illness with periodic psychosis. which partially paralysed him and left him unable to speak or walk. Nietzsche applied for the annulment of his Prussian citizenship.[37] The official response confirming the revocation of his citizenship came in a document dated April 17. "My ancestors were Polish noblemen (Nietzky).[26] Nietzsche's mental illness was originally diagnosed as tertiary syphilis. Because his sister arranged the book based on her own conflation of several of Nietzsche's early outlines. When he accepted his post at Basel.] I am proud of my Polish descent.

Here. finally yielding to unbearable suppression: they were Protestants. today. Nietzsche's genealogical account of the development of master-slave morality occupies a central place.[39] . According to biographer Reginald John Hollingdale. assimilated with the Slavic Nitz. Hans von Müller debunked the genealogy put forward by Nietzsche's sister in favor of a Polish noble heritage. and wished to initiate a re-evaluation of the values of the Judeo-Christian world. gloss Nietzsche's claims as a "mistaken belief" and "without foundation. and his suggestion of eternal return. or between 'life-affirming' and 'life-denying': wealth. and power. his notions of the will to power and Übermensch.[39] Oehler claims that Nietzsche came from a long line of German Lutheran clergymen on both sides of his family. In both these works. and there is widespread disagreement about their interpretation and significance.Friedrich Nietzsche to Polish noblemen who were called Niëtzky and left their home and nobleness about a hundred years ago. and pathetic. ."[42] Most scholars dispute Nietzsche's account of his family's origins. Part of the difficulty in interpreting Nietzsche arises from the uniquely provocative style of his philosophical writing.[46] He calls himself an "immoralist" and harshly criticizes the prominent moral schemes of his day: Christianity. in this and cognate forms (such as Nitsche and Nitzke). but an exceptionally common one throughout central Germany. to a lesser extent. the editors of Nietzsche's assembled letters. even the wives' families. Morality Friedrich Nietzsche. A few of the themes that Nietzsche scholars have devoted the most attention to include Nietzsche's views on morality. the curator of Nietzsche Archive at Weimar. the sort of traits found in a Homeric hero. These aspects of Nietzsche's style run counter to traditional values in philosophical writing. and modern scholars regard the claim of Nietzsche's Polish ancestry as "pure invention. strength. weak. abbreviated to Nick."[44] Colli and Montinari. health."[45] The name Nietzsche itself is not a Polish name. In Ecce Homo Nietzsche called the establishment of moral systems based on a dichotomy of good and evil a "calamitous error"[47] . Nietzsche presents master-morality as the original system of morality—perhaps best associated with Homeric Greece.[39] 9 Philosophy Nietzsche’s works remain controversial. producing something other than "real" philosophy. argued that all of Nietzsche's ancestors bore German names. and they alienated him from the academic establishment both in his time and.[48] He indicates his desire to bring about a new. count as good. Kantianism. 1882 In Daybreak Nietzsche begins his "Campaign against Morality". his view that "God is dead" (and along with it any sort of God's-eye view on the world thus leading to perspectivism). The name derives from the forename Nikolaus. Nietzsche frequently delivered trenchant critiques of Christianity in the most offensive and blasphemous terms possible given the context of 19th century Europe. It is not known why Nietzsche wanted to be thought of as Polish. Some analytic philosophers dismiss Nietzsche as inconsistent and speculative. Nietzsche's propagation of the Polish ancestry myth may have been part of the latter's "campaign against Germany". while bad is associated with the poor. the sort of traits conventionally associated with slaves in ancient times.[43] Max Oehler. more naturalistic source of value in the vital impulses of life itself. value arises as a contrast between good and bad. sick. and utilitarianism. it first became Nitsche and then Nietzsche.

then nothing more remains to which man can cling and by which he can orient himself. III. It does so by making out slave weakness to be a matter of choice. comes about as a reaction to master-morality. and submission. others (such as Kaufmann) suggest that this statement reflects a more subtle understanding of divinity.[55] One study of Nietzsche defines his fully developed concept of the will to power as "the element from which derive both the quantitative difference of related forces and . reads: "Become what you are." 10 Death of God. per se. This concept may have wide application. and aggressive. value emerges from the contrast between good and evil: good being associated with other-worldliness. is not bad. nihilism. the values of most Europeans (who are "motley"). who had served as the basis for meaning and value in the West for more than a thousand years. modern Europe. Nietzsche sees slave-morality born out of the ressentiment of slaves. the belief that nothing has any inherent importance and that life lacks purpose. in contrast. is one of profusion. charity. As Heidegger put the problem. However. which provides a basis for understanding motivation in human behavior. […] Zarathustra's gift of the superman is given to a mankind not aware of the problem to which the superman is the solution. According to Lampert. perspectivism The statement "God is dead". less important than the desire to expand one’s power. and fluid perspectives. therein introducing the concept of a value-creating Übermensch. as Nietzsche. "If God as the suprasensory ground and goal of all reality is dead. which Nietzsche deems to be harmful to the flourishing of exceptional people. to varying degrees. relabeling it as "meekness. and its Christianity." A favorite motto of Nietzsche. Alternatively. Nietzsche associates slave-morality with the Jewish and Christian traditions. On the basis of it. cruel."[52] Will to power An important element of Nietzsche's philosophical outlook is the "will to power" (der Wille zur Macht). suggesting that adaptation and the struggle to survive is a secondary drive in the evolution of animals. He transformed the idea of matter as centers of force into matter as centers of will to power. "the death of God must be followed by a long twilight of piety and nihilism (II. when life is reduced to a condition of poverty and limitation. only in limited situations the drive for conservation is precedent over the will to power: namely. Nietzsche cautions that morality. In Nietzsche's view. evil seen as worldly. Nietzsche wanted to dispense with the atomistic theory of matter. restraint. Here. e. it is good for the masses. and should be left to them. taken from Pindar.[53] According to Nietzsche. and speculated that it may apply to inorganic nature as well. exists in a hypocritical state due to a tension between master and slave morality.[54] In its later forms Nietzsche's concept of the will to power applies to all living things. according to him. in a number of places. most commentators[49] regard Nietzsche as an atheist. Exceptional people. Nietzsche claimed the death of God would eventually lead to the loss of any universal perspective on things. also suggests that the will to power is a more important element than pressure for adaptation or survival. a theory which he viewed as a relic of the metaphysics of substance. In Nietzsche's eyes. Nietzsche eventually took this concept further still. and along with it any coherent sense of objective truth. Nietzsche wrote Thus Spoke Zarathustra. occurring in several of Nietzsche's works (notably in The Gay Science). the death of God may lead beyond bare perspectivism to outright nihilism. 8).." Nietzsche sees the slave-morality as a source of the nihilism that has overtaken Europe. by. if the suprasensory world of the Ideas has suffered the loss of its obligatory and above it its vitalizing and upbuilding power.Friedrich Nietzsche Slave-morality. wealthy. selfish.g. Nietzsche calls for exceptional people to no longer be ashamed of their uniqueness in the face of a supposed morality-for-all. meekness. has become one of his best-known remarks."[51] Developing this idea. diverse. both values contradictorily determining. 19. It works to overcome the slave's own sense of inferiority before the (better-off) masters. on the other hand. This view has acquired the name "perspectivism". The natural condition of life.[50] Instead we would retain only our own multiple. recent developments in modern science and the increasing secularization of European society had effectively 'killed' the Christian God. piety. should follow their own "inner law.

And man shall be that to overman: a laughingstock or painful embarrassment. here are a few of his quotes from Thus Spoke Zarathustra (Prologue. too. Nietzsche.. "love of fate":[59] . You have made your way from worm to man." Writing a generation before Nietzsche. and much in you is still worm. The overman is the meaning of the earth. To comprehend eternal recurrence in his thought. and says that its burden is the "heaviest weight" imaginable.. and even go back to the beasts rather than overcome man? What is ape to man? A laughing stock or painful embarrassment. But this conception of happiness found in utilitarianism Nietzsche rejected as something limited to. Once you were apes. such as that of utilitarianism. in Nietzsche's days and before. glory. Nietzsche contrasts his notion of the will to power with many of the other most popular psychological views of his day.[57] Also Platonism and Christian neo-Platonism–which claim that people ultimately want to achieve unity with The Good or with God–are philosophies he criticizes. In each case." Eternal return The idea of eternal return occurs in a parable in Section 341 of The Gay Science. and to not merely come to peace with it but to embrace it. English society only. thus resulting in all creatures' desire to avoid death and to procreate. Nietzsche describes instances where people and animals willingly risk their lives to gain power—most notably in instances like competitive fighting and warfare. Once again. 11 Übermensch Another concept important to an understanding of Nietzsche's thought is the Übermensch. man is more ape than any ape."[56] Nietzsche's notion of the will to power can also be viewed as a response to Schopenhauer's "will to live. Man is something that shall be overcome. and even now. and do you want to be the ebb of this great flood. by British thinkers such as Bentham and Stuart Mill—claims that all people fundamentally want to be happy. challenges Schopenhauer's account and suggests that people and animals really want power. living in itself appears only as a subsidiary aim—something necessary to promote one's power. Nietzsche seems to take part of his inspiration from the ancient Homeric Greek texts he knew well: Greek heroes and aristocrats or "masters" did not desire mere living (they often died quite young and risked their lives in battle) but wanted power.. tied between beast and overman—a rope over an abyss … what is great in man is that he is a bridge and not an end. Utilitarianism—a philosophy mainly promoted. and also in the chapter "Of the Vision and the Riddle" in Thus Spoke Zarathustra. Defending his view. While interpretations of Nietzsche's overman vary wildly. and characteristic of.. In this regard he often mentions the common Greek theme of agon or contest.("das schwerste Gewicht")[58] The wish for the eternal return of all events would mark the ultimate affirmation of life. Schopenhauer had regarded the entire universe and everything in it as driven by a primordial will to live. and greatness. §§3–4): "I teach you the overman. a reaction to Schopenhauer's praise of denying the will–to–live. Nietzsche argues that the "will to power" provides a more useful and general explanation of human behavior. What have you done to overcome him? … All beings so far have created something beyond themselves. among other places.. however.Friedrich Nietzsche the quality that devolves into each force in this relation" revealing the will to power as "the principle of the synthesis of forces. Let your will say: the overman shall be the meaning of the earth. Nietzsche calls the idea "horrifying and paralyzing". requires amor fati. Man is a rope.. In addition to Schopenhauer's psychological views.

While Nietzsche never mentions Max Stirner. Ernest Renan's Life of Jesus and Fyodor Dostoyevsky's The Possessed. Friedrich Nietzsche in seinen Werken (Friedrich Nietzsche in His Works). He had some following among left-wing Germans in the 1890s. in 1888 Georg Brandes (an influential Danish critic) aroused considerable excitement about Nietzsche through a series of lectures he gave at the University of Copenhagen. which covered her intellectual relationships with Nietzsche. who opposed Heraclitus and believed all world is a single Being with no change at all. Germany. His symbolism of the world as "child play" marked by amoral spontaneity and lack of definite rules was appreciated by Nietzsche. However. and of Spinoza he said: "How much of personal timidity and vulnerability does this masquerade of a sickly recluse betray?"[64] Nietzsche expressed admiration for 17th century French moralists such as La Rochefoucauld. and readers have responded to them in complex and sometimes controversial ways. years later. Many Germans eventually discovered his appeals for greater individualism and personality development in Thus Spoke Zarathustra. in her work Lebensrückblick – Grundriß einiger Lebenserinnerungen (Looking Back: Memoirs) (written in 1932).[69] Notably. Nietzsche had a thorough knowledge of Greek philosophy. and Freud.[70] [71] Nietzsche called Dostoevsky "the only psychologist from whom I have anything to learn.[62] who became his main opponents in his philosophy. He read Immanuel Kant. and she returned to the subject of Nietzsche. Arthur Schopenhauer and Afrikan Spir."[72] Comments in several passages suggest that he responded strongly and favorably to the work of Ralph Waldo Emerson.[66] The residence of Nietzsche's last three years. he also read some of the posthumous works of Charles Baudelaire. which holds many of Nietzsche's papers The organicism of Paul Bourget influenced Nietzsche. whom he saw as his "precursor" in some respects[63] but as a personification of the "ascetic ideal" in others. However. Jean de La Bruyère and Vauvenargues. John Stuart Mill. in 1894–1895 German conservatives wanted to ban his work as subversive.[73] Reception Nietzsche’s works did not reach a wide readership during his active writing career.[60] From his Heraclitean sympathy Nietzsche was also a vociferous detractor of Parmenides.Friedrich Nietzsche 12 Influence from Heraclitus The philosophy of Nietzsche. the similarities in their ideas have prompted a minority of interpreters to suggest he both read and was influenced by him. and his embrace of "flux" and incessant change. Then in 1894 Lou Andreas-Salomé published her book. and later Spinoza.[61] Reading As a philologist. Heraclitus was known for the rejection of the concept of Being as a constant and eternal principle of universe. Mill as a "blockhead". During the late 19th century Nietzsche's ideas were commonly associated with anarchist .[68] Nietzsche early learned of Darwinism through Friedrich Lange. In the years after his death in 1900. along with archive in Weimar. Nietzsche's works became better known. Rilke. Nietzsche referred to Kant as a "moral fanatic". Andreas-Salomé had known Nietzsche well in the early 1880s.[65] as well as for Stendhal.[67] as did that of Rudolf Virchow and Alfred Espinas. Nietzsche himself had acquired the publication-rights for his earlier works in 1886 and began a process of editing and re-formulation that placed the body of his work in a more coherent perspective.[70] Tolstoy's My Religion. but responded to those appeals divergently. was indebted to the pre-Socratic Greek thinker Heraclitus. while highly innovative and revolutionary.

Alexander Nehamas. calling his work the "mere power-phantasies of an invalid". probably never read Nietzsche. this association with National Socialism caused Nietzsche's reputation to suffer following World War II.[74] The poet W. it is not always possible to determine whether or not they actually read his work.[80] Bertrand Russell.[75] H.[76] [77] The Dreyfus Affair provides another example of his reception: the French anti-semitic Right labelled the Jewish and Leftist intellectuals who defended Alfred Dreyfus as "Nietzscheans". including Martin Heidegger. William E. Connolly and Brian Leiter continue to study him today.J. and if he did. Richard Nixon read Nietzsche with "curious interest". and American philosophers such as Allan Bloom. 13 Works • • • • • • • • • • The Birth of Tragedy (1872) On Truth and Lies in a Nonmoral Sense (1873) Untimely Meditations (1876) Human. Jean-Paul Sartre.[83] The Nazis made selective use of Nietzsche's philosophy. for example. Jacques Derrida. Hitler.Friedrich Nietzsche movements and appear to have had influence within them. By World War I.L.[81] Nietzsche's growing prominence suffered a severe setback when he became closely associated with Adolf Hitler and the German Reich. Hollingdale. which rehabilitated Nietzsche as a philosopher.[78] Nietzsche had a distinct appeal for many Zionist thinkers at the turn of the century.[86] and in more recent years. 1880) The Dawn (1881) The Gay Science (1882) Thus Spoke Zarathustra (1883–1885) Beyond Good and Evil (1886) On the Genealogy of Morality (1887) The Case of Wagner (1888) • Twilight of the Idols (1888) • The Antichrist (1888) . including Martin Heidegger. Many 20th century thinkers (particularly in the tradition of continental philosophy) cite him as a profound influence. Many political leaders of the twentieth century were at least superficially familiar with Nietzsche's ideas. All Too Human (1878.[87] A decade after World War II. Mussolini and Charles de Gaulle read Nietzsche. his reading was not extensive. wrote commentaries on Nietzsche’s philosophy. additions in 1879. Michel Foucault. Albert Camus. and writing that he was a philosophical progenitor of the Nazis and fascists. Fredrick Appel. Others. Nietzsche had acquired a reputation as an inspiration for right-wing German militarism. Domenico Losurdo.[84] [85] It has been suggested that Theodore Roosevelt read Nietzsche and was profoundly influenced by him. particularly in France and the United States. who produced a four-volume study. Mencken produced translations of Nietzsche's works that helped to increase knowledge of his philosophy in the United States. such as "lords of the earth" in Mein Kampf. In the Anglo-American tradition he has had a profound influence on Bernard Williams due to the scholarship of Walter Kaufmann and R. J. Abir Taha) have contested what they consider the popular but erroneous egalitarian misrepresentation of Nietzsche's "aristocratic radicalism". Yeats helped to raise awareness of Nietzsche in Ireland. German soldiers received copies of Thus Spoke Zarathustra as gifts during World War I. in his History of Western Philosophy was scathing about Nietzsche. It has been argued that his work influenced Theodore Herzl. However. Hollingdale. A vocal minority of recent Nietzschean interpreters (Bruce Detwiler. and Gilles Deleuze.B. referring to him as a "megalomaniac". well known philosophers in their own right.[79] and Martin Buber went so far as to extoll Nietzsche as a "creator" and "emissary of life". whose philosophy of immanence has significant similarities to Nietzsche's will to power. there was a revival of Nietzsche's philosophical writings thanks to exhaustive translations and analyses by Walter Kaufmann and R.[82] although he was a frequent visitor to the Nietzsche museum in Weimar and did use expressions of Nietzsche's.

cultural intentions.sup. Nietzsche.cgi?x=series& y=The%20Complete%20Works%20of%20Friedrich%20Nietzsche) 14 References Bibliography • Baird. The Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy (Fall 2004 Edition ed. ISBN 0192876805. 2000). "Nietzsche and the Philology of the Future" (Stanford University Press. only recently in Dutch . pp. anti-Semitism. pp. "The Invention of Dionysus: An Essay on The Birth of Tragedy" (Stanford University Press.).htm) The Will to Power (unpublished manuscripts edited together by his sister) Unpublished Writings (1869-1889) (the whole of Nietzsche's notebooks . James C. ISBN 0-8047-3700-2 • Seung. From Plato to Derrida. ISBN 0-8047-3698-7 • Helm. Gilles (1983).... • Deleuze.. 21–58. Robert M. • Wicks. http://www.). New Haven: Yale University Press. ISBN 0-13-158591-6. • Kaufmann. Nietzsche: Philosopher. Pious Nietzsche: Decadence and Dionysian Faith. • Young. 296. ISBN 0-7391-1130-2 • Tanner. ISBN 0300044305. pp. "Friedrich Nietzsche" [88].com/Nietzsche_various/the_greek_state. Lanham. Laurence (1986). Oxford: Oxford University Press. Nietzsche and Philosophy..from which The Will to Power is only a small selection -. Friedrich Nietzsche: A Philosophical Biography (Cambridge University Press.Friedrich Nietzsche • • • • • Ecce Homo (1888) Nietzsche contra Wagner (1888) The Greek State (1871) (http://nietzsche. 1996. Forrest E. James I. ISBN 0485112337. Darwinian science. Julian. Michael (1994). • Lampert. Princeton University Press. ISBN 0691019835.and an English translation is in progress by Stanford University Press in a 20-volume series called "The Complete Works of Friedrich Nietzsche".. Helm. New Jersey: Pearson Prentice Hall. . Timothy F. Psychologist. Antichrist. 2005. ISBN 0-521-36767-0 • O'Flaherty. 2010) 649 pages. His thought in the context of Prussian militarism. Nietzsche's Teaching: An Interpretation of "Thus Spoke Zarathustra".called Nachlass or Legacy -. Indiana University Press. "Studies in Nietzsche and the Classical Tradition" (University of North Carolina Press)1979 ISBN 0-08078-8085-X • O'Flaherty. and other phenomena of his era. in The Cambridge Companion to Nietzsche. T. James C. social. Walter Kaufmann (2008). "Nietzsche's works and their themes". trans. Only 3 volumes have been published as of yet. • Benson. Hugh Tomlinson.holtof. Nietzsche's Epic of the Soul: Thus Spoke Zarathustra. • Magnus and Higgins. Timothy F. Robert M. Robert. James I. Magnus and Higgins (ed. 2000). Sellner. Bruce Ellis (2007). These Unpublished Writings are vital to a good understanding of Nietzsche's philosophy and provide a clue to Nietzsche's political. but the project won't be finished before 2013. Athlone Press. 1011–1038. Walter (1974). Zalta. University of Cambridge Press. Sellner.called Nagelaten Fragmenten . MD: Lexington Books. published in Germany for the first time in 1967 .K. Upper Saddle River. in Edward N. ""Studies in Nietzsche and the Judaeo-Christian Tradition" (University of North Carolina Press)1985 ISBN 0-8078-8104-X • Porter.

All Too Human cited Spir. lclark. p117 [9] Hecker. 23. 32 Jörg Salaquarda. 1868 [6] A letter containing Nietzsche's description of the first meeting with Wagner. University Park (Penn State). hypernietzsche. W. Nietzsche and Antiquity. Human. not by name. March 1887. [13] Rüdiger Safranski. 1388-1391. Walter." in The Cambridge Companion to Nietzsche (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. 2009 Nietzsche [94] from the radio program Philosophy Talk Friedrich Nietzsche [95] at the Open Directory Project Free scores by Friedrich Nietzsche in the International Music Score Library Project Nietzsche Quotes [96] Searchable database of Nietzsche quotations. Correspondences [18] Encyclopædia Britannica Online. Longman pronunciation dictionary. All Too Human. Nietzsche: A Philosophical Biography (trans. htm). [5] For Nietzsche's account of the accident and injury see his letter to Karl Von Gersdorff: Letter of Friedrich Nietzsche to Karl Von Gersdorff – June. Nietzsche Forum [98]: Nietzsche Forum for discussing Friedrich Nietzsche's life and work. [23] The Portable Neue Juristische Wochenschrift. 2003-10-15. W. 478. Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy. p. "Förster-Nietzsche. edu/ eb/ article-9034925). [19] Letter to Peter Gast. 2001 [12] "A biography of Spir. ISBN 0582053838." (http:/ / radicalacademy. [11] Richard Schain. translated into German in 1991. William. 2008. 1987. but it had a lasting impact on Nietzsche. p.EB. Antichrist. and discussion about Nietzsche and current events in Nietzsche scholarship from Brian Leiter (University of Chicago).utm. with daily quotes Brian Leiter's Nietzsche Blog [97]: News. entry "Nietzsche" Kaufmann.Friedrich Nietzsche 15 External links • Nietzsche Source: Digital version of the German critical edition of the complete works / Digital facsimile edition of the entire Nietzsche estate [89] • Works by Friedrich Nietzsche [90] at Project Gutenberg • Works by Nietzsche in audio format [91] from LibriVox • "Friedrich Nietzsche [92]" article by Robert Wicks in the Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy. p. Jg. p. John C.49 [16] Letter to Peter Gast – August 1883 [17] The Nietzsche Channel (http:/ / thenietzschechannel. . Berlin-New York. librarypx. Walter Kaufmann. 22. England: Longman. 1941. 40. Eine Einführung. fws1. . 161: "This work [Denken und Wirklichkeit] had long been consigned to oblivion. p. re-published on HyperNietzsche's website (English)/(German) [15] Kaufmann. Friedrich Nietzsche. 2001) [21] From the Preface.38. 67." Search. .com (http:/ / www. Basler Zeitschrift für Geschichte und Altertumskunde. com. Section 18 of Human. p. search. PUF. Shelley Frisch). Schaberg. 40. "Nietzsche and the Judaeo-Christian tradition. 99. and in French. 2007-11-14 • "Nietzsche's Moral and Political Philosophy [93]" article by Brian Leiter in the Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy. Norton & Company. article by Dale Wilkerson. 2007-07-27 http://www. Eduard: "Friedrich Nietzsches Heimatlosigkeit". References [1] [2] [3] [4] Wells. p. De Gruyter. [8] Paul Bishop. trans. (1990). Friedrich Nietzsche (1974. nr. and His. section 1 (English translation by Walter Kaufmann) [22] Kaufmann.. 25. ncbi. [10] "What was the cause of Nietzsche's dementia?" (http:/ / www. "Nietzsche's Geophilosophy" (http:/ / www. htm#Spir). but by presenting a "proposition by an outstanding logician" (2.85 in: Journal of Nietzsche Studies 25 (Spring 2003). The Pennsylvania State University Press. University of Chicago Press. HH I §18) [14] Stephan Güntzel. p. Hellmuth: "Nietzsches Staatsangehörigkeit als Rechtsfrage". The Legend of Nietzsche's Syphilis (Westwood: Greenwood Press. "Beyond Good and Evil [99]". 159-186. Friedrich Nietzsche. Psychologist. [7] Kaufmann. vol. com/ adiphilunclassified3. nlm.iep. eb. Note that some authors (among them Deussen and Montinari) mistakenly claim that Nietzsche became a Swiss citizen. p. p. Nietzsche: Philosopher. Harlow. • • • • • • • • BBC (1999). org/ navigate. polls. nih. com/ corresp. Elisabeth. Accessed October 10. [20] Mazzino Montinari. The Nietzsche Canon. 1996). gov/ pubmed/ 12522502). 1996. php?sigle=sgunzel-4). 2004. 2003.

KGB III 7. "The Word of Nietzsche. The Struggle with the Daimon. Curt Paul Janz: Friedrich Nietzsche: Biographie volume 1. . "The neurological illness of Friedrich Nietzsche" (http:/ / www. 2006. KGB III 1.59. 1976).1 p. [35] Schain. Milan. Nietzsche. Jonathan Rée and J. see G. doi:10. 2004: 4. [28] René Girard. page 263. David. Sacrifice. p.187. Simon Blackburn: The Oxford Dictionary of Philosophy.00827. Twilight of the Idols. [38] German text available as Entlassungsurkunde für den Professor Friedrich Wilhelm Nietzsche aus Naumburg in Giorgio Colli and Mazzino Montinari: Nietzsche Briefwechsel: Kritische Gesamtausgabe. britannica. and Other Writings: And Other Writings. [33] Hemelsoet D. [44] H. [25] Rudolf Steiner: Friedrich Nietzsche.x. [31] ""Nietzsche 'died of brain cancer'"" (http:/ / www. Fisher Unwin. Nr. p. 1978. [53] Beyond Good & Evil 13. pp. For example: The Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy (http:/ / plato. 10. T. p46 [57] Brian Leiter. 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London: Routledge. Nietzsche. Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica 114 (6): 439–444. Cf. KSA 9 p. 681 [43] von Müller. USA. 342. com/ eb/ article-9108765/ Friedrich-Nietzsche#387226. quoted in Janz (1981) p. [39] Hollingdale. html)." Nietzsche-Studien 25. page 5. Part I. and Dostoevsky. 2002." [51] Heidegger. Un-Knowing. [52] Lampert. 1885–1889. Volz (1990). Grand Rapids: Kessinger. pp. [59] Dudley. December 1882. Wagner. Weimar 1895 [26] Andrew Bailey. and Philosophy: Thinking Freedom. PMID 17087793. google.3/1 p. Cambridge. translated by Hugh Tomlinson. (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press." reprinted Nietzsche-Studien 31 (2002): 253–275. Urmson. pg. Nietzsche's Teaching. For example: Edward Craid (editor): The Shorter Routledge Encyclopedia of philosophy. pp. Introduction and comments by Charles Q. Others do not assign him a nationalist category. (Spring. Volume 4. Acta Neurologica Belgica 108 (1): 9–16. 17–18. (Ecce Homo-M I) [47] Nietzsche. 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. pp 693–697 [65] Brendan Donnellan. 1. 97–117 [75] Everdell. Nietzsche: Philosopher. 2000. 2007. Alexandre Herzen (fils) und Charles Féré 1888" in Nietzsche Studien. p70.2-6& size=LARGE) in The German Quarterly. 2006. 62. Philip Morgan. May. History of Western Philosophy. Neither Mein Kampf nor Hitler's Table Talk (Tischgesprache) mentions his name. and those of Nietzsche: Carnegie deploring the wasting of money on the support of incompetents. 2004. T. Goyens. Georges Sorel (trans. 1990. [79] Francis R. No. De la fin du XIXe siècle au temps présent. hypernietzsche. 1908. Cold War Statesmen Confront the Bomb. a race of predators. "Anti-Statism in German Literature. July 30. Roosevelt should have formulated his present confession of faith independently of Nietzsche". 400–426. Indiana University Press. History of Western Philosophy. Left Wing Nietzscheans. Antichrist. p. Cambridge University Press. Beer and Revolution: The German Anarchist Movement In New York City. Mencken (Ed. 1992. php?sigle=jgrzelczyk-4). 3 (May. "German Philosophy in 1907". S. PUF. Berlin: Walter de Gruyter. in PMLA. jstor. Grzelczyk quotes B." [87] Monica Crowley. 2004. through what was coffeehouse Quatsch in Vienna and Munich. Chicago: U Chicago Press.D. Gaddis. Éditions de l'Éclat. The Selected Writings of Friedrich Nietzsche. This at least is the impression he gives in his published conversations with Dietrich Eckart. and the Jews. Routledge. L. p217: "The son of a history teacher. 1999. p21: "We know that Mussolini had read Nietzsche" [85] J. 828–843. Berel Lang.S. T. William (1998). Henri Bergson. 1889. Routledge. 34. 1981. "Féré et Nietzsche : au sujet de la décadence" (http:/ / www. 3. Janos. p184: "By all indications. org/ navigate.Tauris. Routledge. Routledge. L. 306–340. p197. pp 25–27. Wilder Publications. Gordon. Oxford University Press. as Exemplified by the Work of John Henry Mackay". The Age of German Idealism. The First Moderns. Band 17. (1995). M. Vol. pp. p41: "Hitler probably never read a word of Nietzsche". 1993.439 [69] Note sur Nietzsche et Lange : « le retour éternel » (http:/ / fr. 1890–1990. php?sigle=jgrzelczyk-4). "Why I am So Clever". No. and. Friederich [sic] Nietzsche. Andrew C. p162: "Arguably. SUNY Press. "Féré et Nietzsche : au sujet de la décadence" (http:/ / www. pp.). Jacob Golomb. No. 67. §3 [67] Johan Grzelczyk. Routledge. CO. ISBN 0226224813. The Meta Phenomenon. Bourdeau has pointed out the strange similarity between the ideas of Andrew Carnegie and Roosevelt. p170 [80] Jacob Golomb (Ed. Ewald. a title that inspired the title of his final book. p9: "To be sure. Jacob Golomb. Routledge. 1997. Paris. "The Philosophy of Force. it is almost certain that Hitler either never read Nietzsche directly or read very little. Hitler himself never read a word of Nietzsche. 1979). University of California Press. 1993. P. Beyond Peace. Hitler never read Nietzsche. hypernietzsche. (translated by Hugh Tomlinson). The Rise and Fall of the Third Reich. 1997. S. T. Deleuze. lsr-projekt. p. Vol. html) In: Germanic Notes and Reviews. 1996. 0. 2004 [82] Weaver Santaniello. Fascism in Europe." [86] H. 1994. 1964. Grzelczyk quotes Jacques Le Rider. Fascist Spectacle: The Aesthetics of Power in Mussolini's Italy.B. wikisource. January. more simply. Misinterpretation. Touchstone. A. Nixon in Winter. "Nietzsche. Taylor. 2008.". Vol. see: Gabriel Sheffer. East Central Europe in the Modern World. Decadence. de Gaulle read voraciously as a boy and young man — Jacques Bainville. 1891–1895". Bertrand. C. Friedrich Nietzsche. Nietzsche and Jewish Culture. p153 (referring to Roosevelt's published speech The Strenuous Life): "It is inconceivable that Mr. Revue philosophique de la France et de l'étranger. Solomon & K. Stanley). Aschheim notes that "[a]bout 150. HyperNietzsche. certainly. pp153-154. pp. G. New York. September. pp. org/ wiki/ Note_sur_Nietzsche_et_Lange_:_«_le_retour_éternel_»). Paris 1909. C. §45). Nietzsche's French Legacy: A Genealogy of Poststructuralism. [76] Steven E. July. 1987. 33 (2): 109–133. §13 [71] Walter Kaufmann. Nietzsche. Illinois. jedenfalls physiologisch. 1999. 2005-11-01 (French). p100-101 [84] Simonetta Falasca-Zamponi. No. pp. 2002. p44: "In 1908 he presented his conception of the superman's role in modern society in a writing on Nietzsche entitled. E. [74] O. 2008.8 [78] Schrift. Samek. p300. Psychologist. pp 234–235 [81] Bertrand Russell. Berlin/New York. 519–525 (on French Wikisource) [70] Mazzino Montinari. p214 "J. A. Transaction Publishers. The Politics of German Expressionism 1910–1920. Routledge. 1881 [64] Russell. Albert Fouillée. Roosevelt appealing to Americans to become conquerors. Löwith. Laska: Nietzsche's initial crisis (http:/ / www. 4. R. org/ sici?sici=0016-8831(197905)52:3<303:NALR>2." 17 . p187.-Israeli Relations at the Crossroads. "Irgendwie.". Nietzsche and Jewish Culture. From Hegel To Nietzsche. 1959. Maurice Barres — and was steeped in conservative French historical and philosophical traditions. de/ poly/ ennietzsche. 1998. J. Riley.000 copies of a specially durable wartime Zarathustra were distributed to the troops" in The Nietzsche Legacy in Germany. pp. pp. 1997. org/ navigate. Nietzsche en France. Higgins.Friedrich Nietzsche [63] Letter to Franz Overbeck. New York. A. Post-Holocaust: Interpretation. R. Wahrig-Schmidt. 508. J. p144. a special treatise on that question is: Bernd A. Stanford University Press. 2003. R. and the Claims of History. Forth. Nietzsche and Zion. 2005-11-01 (French)." [83] William L. 1919–1945. Cornell University Press. I. 1988. a History of Nazi Germany. Rosenberg. 2005. ISBN 0-415-91147-8.). if he did read him. Routledge. 54. Shirer. Berkeley and Los Angeles. Vol. "Nietzsche and La Rochefoucauld" (http:/ / links. it was not extensively". Nietzsche and Philosophy. against the view of particular influence on Herzl. 303–318 (English) [66] See for example Ecce Homo. "La Volonté de puissance" n'existe pas. Zionism and Anti-Semitism in Nazi Germany. Friedrich Nietzsche. 52. An. p351: "He read with curious interest the writings of Friedrich Nietzsche […] Nixon asked to borrow my copy of Beyond Good and Evil. in The Philosophical Review. [73] K. Nicosia. and Regeneration in France. Essays in Socialism and Philosophy. HyperNietzsche. in Journal of the History of Ideas. 1947. 17. Walter de Gruyter. E. Nietzschean ideas reached him through the filter of Alfred Rosenberg's Myth of the Twentieth Century.8–9 [68] Johan Grzelczyk. [72] Twilight of the Idols. H. U. p36. p135 [77] Kaufmann. God.

brianleiternietzsche. com http:/ / video. nietzscheforum. google. org/ newcatalog/ search. com/ http:/ / www. nietzsche-quotes. stanford. htm http:/ / www. blogspot. edu/ entries/ nietzsche http:/ / plato.Friedrich Nietzsche [88] [89] [90] [91] [92] [93] [94] [95] [96] [97] [98] [99] http:/ / plato. stanford. php?title=& author=Friedrich+ Nietzsche& action=Search http:/ / plato. com/ http:/ / www. dmoz. org/ Society/ Philosophy/ Philosophers/ N/ Nietzsche. edu/ archives/ fall2004/ entries/ nietzsche/ http:/ / www. nietzschesource._Friedrich/ http:/ / www. stanford. philosophytalk. org/ http:/ / www. org/ author/ Friedrich_Nietzsche http:/ / librivox. edu/ entries/ nietzsche-moral-political http:/ / www. org/ pastShows/ Nietzsche. com/ videoplay?docid=-184240591461103528# 18 . gutenberg.

1872) is a 19th-century work of dramatic theory by the German philosopher Friedrich Nietzsche.G42 E55 1993 The Untimely Meditations (1876) The Birth of Tragedy from the Spirit of Music (Die Geburt der Tragödie aus dem Geiste der Musik. hardcover 160 (1993 Penguin ed. It was reissued in 1886 as The Birth of Tragedy. the Apollonian/Dionysian opposition Dramatic theory 1872 Paperback.85 20 B3313. Oder: Griechentum und Pessimismus).) 30702580 [1] 111/. An Attempt at Self-Criticism. wherein Nietzsche commented on this very early work. .The Birth of Tragedy 19 The Birth of Tragedy The Birth of Tragedy Out of the Spirit of Music Cover of the 1993 Penguin edition Author Original title Translator Country Language Subject(s) Genre(s) Publication date Media type Pages ISBN OCLC Number Dewey Decimal LC Classification Followed by Friedrich Nietzsche 'Die Geburt der Tragödie aus dem Geiste der Musik' Shaun Whiteside Germany German Athenian tragedy. The later edition contained a prefatory essay. Or: Hellenism and Pessimism (Die Geburt der Tragödie.) ISBN 978-0140433395 (1993 Penguin ed.

Nietzsche concludes that it may be possible to reattain the balance of Dionysian and Apollonian in modern art through the operas of Richard Wagner. most importantly. (This is speculative. Nietzsche argues that the tragedy of Ancient Greece was the highest form of art due to its mixture of both Apollonian and Dionysian elements into one seamless whole. passionately and joyously. but. In Nietzsche's words. making it more reflective of the realities of daily life. not in another life. the Apollonian was checked and destroyed. Euripides reduced the use of the chorus and was more naturalistic in his representation of human drama.. represented by Socrates. much of man's ability to live creatively in optimistic harmony with the sufferings of life. by looking into the abyss of human suffering and affirming it. or balance. Socrates emphasized reason to such a degree that he diffused the value of myth and suffering to human knowledge. For Nietzsche. . The participation mystique aspect of art and myth was lost. or the forms themselves). The Greek spectators. affirmed the meaning in their own existence. The combination of these elements in one art form gave birth to tragedy.) Thus. Nietzsche claims life always involves a struggle between these two elements. but in the terror and ecstasy alike celebrated in the performance of tragedies. each battling for control over the existence of humanity. Nietzsche ties this to the influence of writers like Euripides and the coming of rationality. there was an age where tragedy died. they have an Apollonian dream vision of themselves. The Dionysian element was to be found in the wild revelry of festivals and drunkenness. allowing the spectator to experience the full spectrum of the human condition. in music. Basically. idealized plastic art in the form of sculpture that represented the Apollonian view of the world. And the actors and the plot are the development of that dream vision. “the illusion of culture was wiped away by the primordial image of man” for the audience. It’s a vision of the god. these two intellectuals helped drain the ability of the individual to participate in forms of art. “so that they imagined themselves as restored natural geniuses.. the essence of which is the ecstatic dismembering of the god and of the Bacchantes' rituals. because they saw things too soberly and rationally.The Birth of Tragedy 20 The book Nietzsche found in classical Athenian tragedy an art form that transcended the pessimism and nihilism of a fundamentally meaningless world." Yet neither side ever prevails due to each containing the other in an eternal. goat-men. not in a world to come. of the energy they're embodying. the authority and majesty of the Delphic god Apollo exhibited itself as more rigid and menacing than ever. who appears before the chorus on the stage. Before the tragedy. wherever the first Dionysian onslaught was successfully withstood. They knew themselves to be infinitely more than the petty individuals of the apparent summer school trip to Greece. he argues. while the Apollonian element was found in the dialogue which gave a concrete symbolism that balanced the Dionysiac revelry. "Wherever the Dionysian prevailed.. natural check. finding self-affirmation. the Apollonian spirit was able to give form to the abstract Dionysian. although the word “tragedy” τραγωδία is contracted from trag(o)-aoidiā = "goat song" from tragos = "goat" and aeidein = "to sing". Nietzsche discusses the history of the tragic form and introduces an intellectual dichotomy between the Dionysian and the Apollonian (very loosely: reality undifferentiated by forms and like distinctions versus reality as differentiated by forms. there was an era of static. Noah Guiney was particularly moved. of the inseparable ecstasy and suffering of human existence… After the time of Aeschylus and Sophocles. they participated with and as the chorus empathetically. as satyrs. He theorizes that the chorus was originally always satyrs. of Dionysus. in a rebirth of tragedy. The Dionysiac element was to be found in the music of the chorus.” But in this state. Originally educated as a philologist. and along with it.

as Nietzsche observes. then. the Dionysian impulse involves a frenzied participation in life itself. 2. Nietzsche's theory of Athenian tragic drama suggests exactly how. (BT. as represented in the god Dionysus. in this world. an Apollonian aesthetics. rational representation of the Apollonian that invites similarly detached observation. and the Athenians in particular. and. absorption by the primal horde. had Dionysian festivals paved the way to direct (and destructive) experience of life's darkest sides—intoxication. It was precisely this human-dreamt world that the Greeks had developed into perfection from the Homeric legends onward. the Dionysian and Apollonian elements of life were artistically woven together. Nietzsche argues that the Apollonian has dominated Western thought since Socrates. actual dismemberment) and re-immersion into a common organic whole. The book shows the influence of Schopenhauer. The Greek spectator became healthy through direct experience of the Dionysian within the protective spirit-of-tragedy on the Apollonian stage.[3] The issue. 1. The soundest (healthiest) foothold is in both. Apollo being the god who most typifies the Olympian complex in this regard. . There is. dissolution of the individual (occasionally. But it is. This picture literally rendered humans as individuals. which tends not to have clear boundaries. while the Greeks. tidy livable world. formed a world picture in which individual people can live. Nietzsche claims sculpture as the art-form that captures this impulse most fully: sculpture has clear and definite boundaries and seeks to represent reality. before Euripides and Socrates. simple. for Nietzsche. in short. non-rationality. The Olympian complex of deities. The Dionysian impulse. which might offer the salvation of European culture. to live life in a human-dreamt world of illusions.The Birth of Tragedy 21 The Apollonian and the Dionysian In contrast to the typical Enlightenment view of ancient Greek culture as noble. never actually addresses the underlying realities. Nietzsche thought. they had rendered themselves largely ignorant of reality's dark side. by contrast. whereby man separates himself from the undifferentiated immediacy of nature. p. Athenians mature within the illusions of a world and life that is under control and that has clear models of personal significance and greatness. in its perfectly stable form. is how to experience and understand the Dionysian side of life without destroying the obvious values of the Apollonian side. and inhumanity. invites participation among its listeners through dance. Nietzsche sees the Dionysian impulse as best realized in music. objective clarity. or for a whole society. It is not healthy for an individual. What we put together as our conceptions of the world. The problem—and it is a problem for all times and all human life—is that the dark side of existence makes itself apparent and forces us to confront whatever we have tried to shut out of our nice. but we neither observe nor know these as such. 36) Apollo is the god of plastic arts and of illusion. sobriety and emphasis on superficial appearance. Thus. The universe in which we live is the product of great interacting forces. rather than the detached. is unstable and non-representational. intoxication. in Nietzsche's view. to become entirely absorbed in the rule of one or the other. and largely outside of Athens. capable of greatness. 39–40) The Apollonian in culture he sees as Arthur Schopenhauer's concept of the principium individuationis (principle of individuation) with its refinement. always of significance. sexual license. or so Nietzsche thought. but he sees German Romanticism (especially Richard Wagner) as a possible re-introduction of the Dionysian. had developed a rich world view based on Apollo and the other Olympian gods. The beings are almost sculpted. at the same time. combined with all the details of their heroic lives and their numerous interactions with men and women of earth. It is human destiny to be controlled by the darkest universal realities and. Hence. pp. Nietzsche believed the Greeks were grappling with pessimism. (BT. It is a beautiful creation. Only in the distant past. elegant and grandiose[2] . features immersion in the wholeness of nature.

Also of great importance are the works of Arthur Schopenhauer."[5] . scholarship and sanity.The Birth of Tragedy 22 Influences The Birth of Tragedy is a young man's work.a friend who had written a favorable review that sparked the first derogatory debate over the book -. The Apollonian experience bears great similarity to the experience of the world as "representation" in Schopenhauer's sense. its Dionysian antithesis.. and it is easy to prove that here also imaginary genius and impudence in the presentation of his claims stands in direct relation to his ignorance and lack of love of the truth. uneven in tempo. His lectures were sabotaged by German philosophy professors who advised their students not to show up for Nietzsche's courses. but his action only served to characterize Nietzsche as the composer's lackey. Nietzsche uses the term "naive" in exactly the sense used by Friedrich Schiller. It provoked pamphlets and counter-pamphlets attacking him on the grounds of common sense. For a time. published philosophical work. Prompted by Nietzsche. As a work in philology.. Richard Wagner also issued a response to Wilamowitz-Moellendorf's critique. was raised to an unprecedented height. It stands. The work is a web of professional philology. is also a professor of classical philology. had no students in his field. it was almost immediately rejected. virtually destroying Nietzsche's academic aspirations. and he published a preface in the 1886 edition where he re-evaluated some of his main concerns and ideas in the text. Erwin Rohde -. badly written. and to ascribe a "complete misunderstanding of the study of antiquity" to the age in which philology in Germany. as Nietzsche's first complete. In suggesting the Greeks might have had problems. and simple people. ponderous. who denounced Nietzsche's work as slipshod and misleading..[4] Reception The Birth of Tragedy was angrily criticized by many respected professional scholars of Greek literature. In his denunciation of The Birth of Tragedy. he treats a series of very important questions of Greek literary history. image-mad and image-confused. in her introduction to Nietzsche's Philosophy in the Tragic Age of the Greeks. He argued that life is worth living despite the enormous amount of cruelty and suffering that exists.. Nietzsche referred to The Birth of Tragedy as "an impossible book. By 1886.. . In addition. and the experience of the Dionysian bears similarities to the identification with the world as "will. sketchily identified. [and] without the will to logical cleanliness. . His interest in classical Greece as in some respects a rational society can be attributed in some measure to the influence of Johann Joachim Winckelmann. and their synthesis in Greek tragedy." Nietzsche opposed Schopenhauer's Buddhistic negation of the will. and shows the influence of many of the philosophers Nietzsche had been studying. Particularly vehement was philologist Ulrich von Wilamowitz-Moellendorff. saccharine to the point of effeminacy. then a professor of classical philology at the University of Basel. Nietzsche. Nietzsche was departing from the scholarly traditions of his age. . Nietzsche himself had reservations about the work.responded by exposing Wilamowitz-Moellendorf's inaccurate citations of Nietzsche's work. philosophical insight. then. Marianne Cowan. describes the situation in these words: The Birth of Tragedy presented a view of the Greeks so alien to the spirit of the time and to the ideals of its scholarship that it blighted Nietzsche's entire academic career. sentimental. to scold any aesthetic insight which deviates from his own. More important influences include Hegel. The music theme was so closely associated with Richard Wagner that it became an embarrassment to Nietzsche once he himself had achieved some distance and independence from Wagner. especially The World as Will and Representation. although Nietzsche departed from Winckelmann in many ways. one in which a battery of questions are asked.. In this post-script. especially through the work of Gottfried Hermann and Karl Lachmann. which viewed the Greeks as a happy. This is what I want to illuminate. and questionably answered. whose concept of the dialectic underlies the tripartite division of art into the Apollonian. perhaps even naive. and admiration of musical art. Wilamowitz says: Herr N.. embarrassing.. His solution is to belittle the historical-critical method.

Opera. history itself as the development of this 'idea'. as a typical décadent.The Birth of Tragedy Its reception was such a personal disappointment that he referred to it. first. in some one of its manifestations.. he defended the "arrogant and rhapsodic book" for inspiring "fellow-rhapsodizers" and for luring them on to "new secret paths and dancing places.. and the cadaverous perfume of Schopenhauer sticks only to a few formulas." In the title of his novel The Magic Mountain. 24] to Christian priests as a 'vicious kind of dwarfs' who are 'subterranean' ." with contempt or pity born of consciousness of their own "healthy-mindedness." as befits his origin. He.. whirled themselves from place to place under this same Dionysian impulse. There is one allusion [The Birth of Tragedy. If we add to this terror the blissful ecstasy that wells from the innermost depths of man.... its understanding of the Dionysian phenomenon among the Greeks: for the first time. seems to suffer an exception. [. is also ruler over the beautiful illusion of the inner world of fantasy.' to use the language of the present time—it smells offensively Hegelian. which is brought home to us most intimately by the analogy of intoxication. of which songs of all primitive men and peoples speak. Nietzsche was back on the attack. who (as the etymology of the name indicates) is the "shining one. a psychological analysis of this phenomenon is offered. these Dionysian emotions awake.—'un-German. too." Still." the deity of light.. for example. under this perspective things that had never before faced each other are suddenly juxtaposed. as "falling stillborn from the press. the god of all plastic energies.It is indifferent toward politics.. we steal a glimpse into the nature of the Dionysian.. Thomas Mann alludes to a passage from The Birth of Tragedy. 'Rationality' against instinct. while in the Dionysian symbol the ultimate limit of affirmation is attained. singing and dancing crowds.. once. An 'idea'—the antithesis of the Dionysian and the Apollinian—translated into the metaphysical. that calm of the sculptor god.] But we must also include in our image of Apollo that delicate boundary which the dream image must not overstep lest it have a pathological effect [. and comprehended. In the German Middle Ages." But of course such poor wretches have no idea how corpselike and ghostly their so-called "healthy-mindedness" looks when the glowing life of the Dionysian revelers roars past them. from obtuseness or lack of experience.] We must keep in mind the measured restraint... turn away from such phenomena as from "folk-diseases. is at the same time the soothsaying god. The other is the understanding of Socratism: Socrates is recognized for the first time as an instrument of Greek disintegration..] There are some who." In 1888. in Ecce Homo. and the revolution."[6] 23 Quotations • The joyous necessity of the dream experience has been embodied by the Greeks in their Apollo: Apollo. That is neither Apollinian nor Dionysian.— The two decisive innovations of the book are.] Schopenhauer has depicted for us the tremendous terror which seizes man when he is suddenly dumbfounded by the cognitive form of phenomena because the principle of sufficient reason. or with the potent coming of spring that penetrates all nature with joy. who embodies the "Dionysian principle.] (translated by Walter Kaufmann) • [. 'Rationality' at any price as a dangerous force that undermines life!— Profound. [. and as they grow in intensity everything subjective vanishes into complete self-forgetfulness.. the freedom from the wilder emotions.. and it is considered as one root of the whole of Greek art. ever increasing in number. indeed of nature. at this collapse of the principium individuationis. even when it is angry and distempered it is still hallowed by beautiful illusion [. and the influence of Nietzsche's work can be seen in the novel's character Mynheer Peepercorn.. in tragedy this antithesis is sublimated into a unity. used to illuminate each other. His eye must be "sunlike. it negates all aesthetic values—the only values that the 'Birth of Tragedy' recognizes: it is nihilistic in the most profound sense. He defends the The Birth of Tragedy by stating: ". hostile silence about Christianity throughout the book. (translated by Walter Kaufmann) • Even under the influence of the narcotic draught. (translated by Walter Kaufmann) .

D. 1962. 18. Nietzsche asserted that tragic drama was derived from music. The Invention of Dionysus: An Essay on The Birth of Tragedy. Translated with an introduction by Marianne Cowan. Trans. Wagner. See also • Pessimism • Optimism External links • The text. Oxford University Press. htm [8] http:/ / www. 2000. • Porter.. Johnston [7] • Die Geburt der Tragödie [8] at Project Gutenberg (German) • Original German text [9] References [1] http:/ / worldcat. impulsive will. org/ etext/ 7206 [9] http:/ / www. Basic Writings of Nietzsche. then is more fundamental than tragic drama and is its basis. viu. 109. ed. Philosophy in the Tragic Age of the Greeks. Der Streit um Nietzsches "Geburt der Tragödie"': Die Schriften von E. translated by Ian C. New York: Modern Library. Walter ed. 1764 [3] As the original title (The Birth of Tragedy Out of the Spirit of Music) claimed. History of Ancient Art. 11. org/ Philosophie/ M/ Nietzsche. und U. Friedrich. xxxii. 140. 2000. ca/ ~johnstoi/ Nietzsche/ tragedy_all. Friedrich.+ Friedrich/ Die+ Geburt+ der+ Trag%C3%B6die . gutenberg. Rohde. [6] Nietzsche. Music. Douglas Smith. • Gründer. Washington. • Nietzsche. ISBN 978-0199540143 [7] http:/ / records. Karlfried. James I.: Regnery Publishing. Hildesheim: Georg Olms. org/ oclc/ 30702580 [2] Johann Winckelmann. 2008: pgs. [4] Kaufmann. R. Inc. [5] Kaufmann. The Birth of Tragedy. Stanford: Stanford University Press. 28. zeno. This is Schopenhauerian in that Schopenhauer's aesthetics place music as the most basic. direct expression of the world's essence. which is blind. von Wilamowitz-Möllendorff.The Birth of Tragedy 24 References • Kaufmann.C. 1969.

He had a clean copy made from his notes with the intention of publication. He did not use reason. they had the strength and independence to question the general worth of existence. The book ends abruptly after the discussion of Anaxagoras's cosmogony." Nietzsche wanted future humans to be able to say. at least – and is therefore a possibility. instead of trying to gain knowledge of everything.C. Their concern was with the elaboration of their unique personal point of view. and Anaxagoras. Parmenides. They became sectarian and didn't contribute to a unified culture. . In such a time of wealthy and successful life. In it he discussed five Greek philosophers from the sixth and fifth centuries B. However.C. this way of life.. myth. Anaximander. It makes a statement about the primal origin of all things. It uses language that has nothing to do with fable or myth. he wanted to know the one important common property of all things. A justification of philosophy Nietzsche felt that it is important to know about these philosophers because they were dedicated to finding the truth about life and the world. unified style. logical proof.C. he expressed himself by applying the analogy of water. It reflects the vision that all things are really one. this way of looking at the human scene.. He had. and Socrates. "The task is to bring to light what we must ever love and honor. Thales' generalization was the result of creative imagination and analogy. "So this has existed – once." Later preface By selecting only a few doctrines for each philosopher. intended to include Democritus. With Plato.. This was a first attempt to think about nature without the use of myths about gods.Philosophy in the Tragic Age of the Greeks 25 Philosophy in the Tragic Age of the Greeks Philosophy in the Tragic Age of the Greeks (Philosophie im tragischen Zeitalter der Griechen) is a publication of an incomplete book by Friedrich Nietzsche.. Nietzsche hoped to exhibit each philosopher's personality.. The tragedians of that age addressed the same issue with their plays. They did not live their lives in accordance with their personal outlooks. philosophers then lost their own individual stylistic unities. 1. They are Thales. or allegory. to 400 B. 3. at one time. Their works and personalities were combinations of previous types. Plato and subsequent philosophers lacked a pure. Nietzsche claimed that this must be taken seriously for three reasons. The pre-Socratics existed at a time when Greece was at its height. In order to communicate his vision of oneness. 2. Empedocles. The notes were written around 1873. Thales This philosopher proposed that water is the origin af all things. Heraclitus. Early preface Nietzsche stated that he wanted to present the outlooks of very worthy individuals who originated in ancient Greece from 600 B.

he pronounced that he saw fixed law in the continual change of becoming. guilt. yet even the stream into which you step a second time is not the one you stepped into before. the one is the many. the things of the world show a desire to be consumed in the all-destroying cosmic fire." "Being and nonbeing is at the same time the same and not the same. Also. Due to the contradictions that occur in Heraclitus's brief sayings. In passing away. It has no justification or value in itself. and certainty that shows itself in all change and becoming. He dressed and spoke in a dignified. This source cannot also be definite. too. Nietzsche interpreted Heraclitus's words. He despised rational. His pronouncements were purposely self-contradictory. separate existence of each and every thing is unjust. persistently endured. By emerging from the primeval oneness. "We are and at the same time are not. ." This pessimistic expression presented existence as something that should not be. Also. Every thing is really fire. evil. Heraclitus did not think that there is a metaphysical. Heraclitus saw no injustice. Therefore it is indefinite and does not pass away.Philosophy in the Tragic Age of the Greeks 26 Anaximander Anaximander of Miletus was the first philosopher who wrote his words. the play of a game. but Nietzsche stated that they are unclear only for readers who do not take the time to think about what is being said. after a short time. "You use names for things as though they rigidly. The shortness and terseness of Heraclitus's statements may seem to result in their obscurity. However. There is a wonderful fixed order. their desire is briefly satisfied. His most famous passage is. the strife among all things follows a built-in law or standard. solemn manner. Without concern as to whether his thoughts appealed to anyone beside himself. he intuited that the particular changes that occur with strict necessity are. But things soon come into being again as a result of the fire's impulse to play a game with itself. This unity of style was typical of the pre-Platonic philosophers Heraclitus As the opposite of Anaximander. which seek to re-unite. This meant that the individual. on the whole. Heraclitus wanted future humanity to know his timeless truths. Nature and reality are seen as a continuous action in which there is no permanent existence. for they pay penalty and retribution to each other for their injustice according to the assessment of Time. regularity. Any definite thing must pay for its individuality by. To him. In accordance with the Greek culture of contest. His manner of living was in accordance with his thought. happens according to necessity. When they are part of the fire again. conceptual thought. "I sought for myself." as indicating that he possessed great self-esteem and conviction." This intuitive thinking is based on seeing the changing world of experience which is conditioned by never-ending variations in time and space. is a kind of lawful justice for Heraclitus. he has been accused of being obscure. Nietzsche paraphrased him as saying. he denied that there is any permanent being. Anaximander was the first Greek to provide an ethical or moral interpretation of existence. Nietzsche asserts that he was very clear. or penance in the emergence and disappearance of worldly objects. each definite individual thing must pay a price by returning. The unending strife between opposites. continuous becoming and passing away is the order of nature. According to Heraclitus. "The source of coming-to-be for existing things is that into which destruction. logical. undefinable indefinite (apeiron) out of which all definite things come into existence. passing back into its indefinite (apeiron) source." Heraclitus's way of thinking was the result of perception and intuition. Every object that is perceived through time and space has an existence that is relative to other objects.

Philosophy in the Tragic Age of the Greeks


Many of Parmenides's qualities were the direct opposite of Heraclitus. Heraclitus grasped his truths through intuition. He saw and knew the world of Becoming. Parmenides, however, arrived at his truths through pure logic. He calculated and deduced his doctrine of Being. Parmenides had an early doctrine and a later, different, teaching. Nietzsche claimed that Parmenides's two ways of thinking not only divided his own life into two periods but also separated all pre-Socratic thinking into two halves. The earlier way was the Anaximandrean period. This dealt with two worlds: the world of Becoming and the world of Being. The second was the Parmenidean. In this world, there is no becoming, change, or impermanence. There is only Being. The qualities of the world, Parmenides thought, were divided into opposites. There are positive qualities and there are their opposite negations. His division was based on abstract logic and not on the evidence of the senses. This dichotomy of positive and negative then became the separation into the existent and the nonexistent. For things to become, there must be an existent and a non-existent. Desire unites these opposites and creates the world of Becoming. When desire is satisfied, the existent and the nonexistent oppose each other and the things pass away. Nietzsche did not think that an external event led to Parmenides's denial of Becoming. The influence of Xenophanes is made negligible by Nietzsche. Even though both men gave great importance to the concept of unity, Xenophanes communicated in ways that were alien to Parmenides. Xenophanes was a philosophical poet whose view of mystic unity was related to religion. He was an ethicist who rejected the contemporary values of Greece. Nietzsche claimed that the common attribute between Parmenides and Xenophanes was their love of personal freedom and unconventionality, not their emphasis on oneness. The internal event that led to Parmenides's denial of Becoming began when he considered the nature of negative qualities. He asked himself whether something that has no being can have being. Logically, this was the same as asking whether A is not A. Parmenides then realized that what is, is. Also, what is not, is not. His previous thinking about negative qualities was then seen as being very illogical. Heraclitus's contradictory statements were considered to be totally irrational. If that which is, is, and that which is not, is not, then several conclusions follow. That which truly is must be forever present. The existent also is not divisible, because there is no other existent to divide it. It is also immobile and finite. In sum, there is only eternal oneness. The senses lead us to believe otherwise. Therefore, for Parmenides, the senses are illusive, mendacious, and deceitful. He accepted only his logical and rational conclusions. All sensual evidence was ignored. Parmenides only affirmed his extremely abstract, general truth which was totally unlike the reality of common experience. Although logically certain, Parmenides's concept of being was empty of content. No sense perception illustrated this truth. "What is, is" is a judgement of pure thought, not experience. Nietzsche claimed that Parmenides created his concept of being from his own personal experience of feeling himself as alive. He then illogically attributed this general concept of absolute being to everything in the world. Thus, Nietzsche saw being as a subjective concept that was mistakenly asserted to be objective. Nietzsche's paraphrase of Parmenides's truth was, "I breathe, therefore being exists." Along with his disciple Zeno of Elea, Parmenides stated that there is no such thing as infinity. If infinity exists, it would be the indivisible, immobile, eternal unity of being. In other words, it would be finite. Zeno's examples of flying arrows and Achilles chasing a tortoise show that motion over an infinite space would be impossible. But we do experience motion. The world does exhibit finite infinity. Parmenides rejects, then, the perceivable world of motion and asserts that reality agrees only with his logical concepts, which do not include finite infinity. For him, thinking and being are the same. What he thinks is what exists. Objections can be raised against Parmenides's principles that sensual perception does not show true reality and that thinking is unmoving being. If the senses are unreal, how can they deceive? If thinking is immobile being, how does

Philosophy in the Tragic Age of the Greeks it move from concept to concept? Instead, it can be stated that the many things that are experienced by the senses are not deceptive. Also, motion can have being. No objection, however, can be made to Parmenides's self-evident main teaching that there is being, or, what is, is.


Anaxagoras raised two objections against Parmenides: 1. the origin of semblance, and 2. the mobility of thought. He did not object, however, to Parmenides's main doctrine that there is only being, not becoming. Anaximander and Heraclitus had claimed that there is becoming and passing away. Thales and Heraclitus had said that the world of multiple qualities comes out of one prime substance. With Anaxagoras, all subsequent philosophers and scientists rejected all coming into existence out of nothing and disappearance into nothing. If the many things that we experience in the world are not mere semblance but do not come from nothing and do not come from one single thing, what is their origin? Since like produces like, the many different things come from many different things. In other words, there are infinitely many different prime substances. Their total is always constant but their arrangements change. Why do the forms and patterns of these real substances change? Because they are in motion. Change and motion are not semblance and are truly real. Does the movement come from within each thing? Is there another external thing that moves each object? Movement is not mere appearance. Movement occurs because each substance is similar to each other substance in that they are all made of the same matter. There is no total isolation or complete difference between substances. This common material substratum allows them to interact. When two substances try to occupy the same space, one of the substances must move away. This is actual motion and change. If it is certain that our ideas appear to us in succession, then they must move themselves because they are not moved by things that are not ideas. This proves that there is something in the world that moves itself. Ideas are also capable of moving things that are different from themselves. They move the body. Therefore, there is a thinking substance that moves itself and other substances. This nous (mind, intelligence) is made out of extremely fine and delicate matter. It is an ordering, knowing, purposeful mover. Nous was the first cause of every subsequent mechanical change in the universe. Originally, before nous moved the first particle of matter, there was a complete mixture which was composed of infinitely small components of things. Each of these was a homoeomery, the small parts being the same as the large whole. For example, a tooth is made of small teeth. This is the result of the thought that like must come from like. After the movement began, individual objects became separated from this mixture when like combined with like. When one substance finally predominated, the accumulation became a particular thing. This process is called "coming to be" or "becoming." Nous is not a part of the original mixture. It started the revolutionary motion which separated things from the primal mixture. The motion is a centrifugal, spiralling vortex in which likes attach to their likes. There is no god who moves things with a purpose in mind. There is only a mechanical whirlpool of movement. Unlike Parmenides's motionless sphere of being, Anaxagoras saw the world as a moving circle of becoming. Nous started the spinning. Thereafter the universe developed on its own, according to lawful necessity. To be able to start and sustain motion against the resistance of the infinite mixture, nous had to use a sudden, infinitely strong and infinitely rapid, force. It also had to move the first point in a circular path that was larger than its own size. In this way, it affected other points. Nous freely chose to start the vortex. It thereby created its own goal and purpose in a playful game. This was not a moral or ethical process. Rather, it was aesthetic, in that nous simply wanted to enjoy the spectacle of its own creation.

Philosophy in the Tragic Age of the Greeks Later philosophers, such as Plato, wanted to attribute ethical properties to nous's creation of the world. For them, it should be made in the most perfect, beautiful, useful manner. Anaxagoras, however, did not employ teleology. Nous, for him, was a mechanical, efficient cause, not a final cause. Any future purpose would have eliminated a freely chosen start. Nietzsche's book abruptly ends here with a description of a nous that created the world as a game. The freedom of nous's creative will is opposed to the necessary determinism of its creation, the universe. Nous is referred to as a mind (Geist) that has free, arbitrary choice. The created world, physis, is a determined, mechanical piece of machinery. Any order or efficiency of things is only an outcome of purposeless change.


• Nietzsche, Friedrich, Philosophy in the Tragic Age of the Greeks, Regnery Gateway ISBN 0-89526-944-9

On Truth and Lies in a Nonmoral Sense
Über Wahrheit und Lüge im außermoralischen Sinn (in English: "On Truth and Lies in a Nonmoral Sense", also called "On Truth and Lie in an Extra-Moral Sense"[1] ) is an (initially) unpublished work of Friedrich Nietzsche written in 1873, one year after The Birth of Tragedy.[2] It deals largely with epistemological questions of truth and language, including the formation of concepts. Every word immediately becomes a concept, inasmuch as it is not intended to serve as a reminder of the unique and wholly individualized original experience to which it owes its birth, but must at the same time fit innumerable, more or less similar cases—which means, strictly speaking, never equal—in other words, a lot of unequal cases. Every concept originates through our equating what is unequal.[3] According to Paul E. Glenn, Nietzsche is arguing that "concepts are metaphors which do not correspond to reality."[4] Although all concepts are human inventions (created by common agreement to facilitate ease of communication), human beings forget this fact after inventing them, and come to believe that they are "true" and do correspond to reality.[4] Thus Nietzsche argues that "truth" is actually: A mobile army of metaphors, metonyms, and anthropomorphisms—in short, a sum of human relations which have been enhanced, transposed, and embellished poetically and rhetorically, and which after long use seem firm, canonical, and obligatory to a people: truths are illusions about which one has forgotten that this is what they are; metaphors which are worn out and without sensuous power; coins which have lost their pictures and now matter only as metal, no longer as coins.[5] These ideas about truth and its relation to human language have been particular influential among postmodern theorists,[4] and "On Truth and Lies in a Nonmoral Sense" is one of the works most responsible for Nietzsche's reputation (albeit a contentious one) as "the godfather of postmodernism."[6]

Viking Press. Portable Nietzsche 42. Untimely Reflections (Hayman).[2] Nietzsche here began to discuss the limitations of empirical knowledge. References [1] [2] [3] [4] [5] [6] Walter Kaufmann's translation. Political Research Quarterly 57 (4): 576. Portable Nietzsche 46. Wiley-Blackwell. consists of four works by the philosopher Friedrich Nietzsche. 1976 edition. • On Truth and Lies in a Nonmoral Sense [8] at filepedia. (2003). [7] http:/ / de. especially" though this levity was not continued by Nietzsche much in later works. org/ wiki/ %C3%9Cber_Wahrheit_und_L%C3%BCge_im_aussermoralischen_Sinn [8] http:/ / filepedia. 109. . and gave as a "Task for philology: disappearance". Publication Unzeitgemässe Betrachtungen has been one of the more difficult of Nietzsche's titles to be translated into English. It was Nietzsche's most humorous work. wikisource. most of them showing a total of thirteen essays. the project conceived to last six years (one essay every six months.) A typical outline dated "Autumn 1873" reads as follows: . appearing in The Portable Nietzsche. com/ books?id=S5CaF_otgZcC& pg=PT107& lpg=PT107& dq=On+ Truth+ and+ Lies+ in+ a+ Nonmoral+ Sense+ postmodern& source=bl& ots=2PAF9zAVtj& sig=V-fEDCvIMy4ykdhap6vVSP3cARc& hl=en& ei=eTBfS5TWGYnOlAe24t3XCw& sa=X& oi=book_result& ct=result& resnum=8& ved=0CCEQ6AEwBw#v=onepage& q=& f=false). especially for "David Strauss: the confessor and the writer. Thoughts Out of Season (Ludovici). Paul E. pp. started in 1873 and completed in 1876. Portable Nietzsche 46-47. culture. had the title "We Philologists". Thus: Untimely Meditations (Kaufmann). Cahoone. published posthumously. Unmodern Observations (Arrowsmith) and Inopportune Speculations Unfashionable Observations or Essays in Sham Smashing (Menken). Many different plans for the series are found in Nietzsche's notebooks. "The Politics of Truth: Power in Nietzsche's Epistemology". Lawrence E. From modernism to postmodernism: an anthology (http:/ / books. and also translated as Unfashionable Observations[1] and in many other ways (see below). org/ on-truth-and-lies-in-a-nonmoral-sense Untimely Meditations (Nietzsche) Untimely Meditations (in the original German Unzeitgemässe Betrachtungen. A fifth essay. It combines the naivete of The Birth of Tragedy with the beginnings of his more mature polemical style. (2004-12). The work comprises a collection of four (out of a projected 13) essays concerning the contemporary condition of European. google. Glenn. with each subsequent translation offering a new variation. and presented what would appear compressed in later aphorisms.On Truth and Lies in a Nonmoral Sense 30 External links • Über Wahrheit und Lüge im außermoralischen Sinn [7] at the German Wikisource. The titles and subjects vary with each entry.

It also introduced an attack against the basic precepts of classic humanism. polemically attacking not only the book but also Strauss as a Philistine of pseudo-culture. Glenn Most argues that the untimeliness of Nietzsche here resides in calling to a return. The Cultural Philistine 2. History 3. to Humboldt's humanism. in the following essay. Glenn Most argues for the possible translation of Betrachtung the essay as "The Use and Abuse of History Departments for Life". as Nietzsche used the term Historie and not Geschichte. Furthermore.Untimely Meditations (Nietzsche) 31 1. Natural Science 11.scientifically-determined universal mechanism based on the progression of history . The Scholar 5. he alleges that this title may have its origins via Jacob Burckhardt. The Teacher 7. Art 6. The Philosopher 4.[2] . to the first humanism of the Renaissance.[3] David Strauss: the Confessor and the Writer David Strauss: the Confessor and the Writer. In this essay. De commodis litterarum atque incommodis (1428 — "On the Advantages and Disadvantages of Literary Studies"). He paints Strauss's "New Faith" . Folk Society 12. along with a description of how this might improve the health of a society. The Press 10. Religion 8. beyond historicism. but rather above him. 1873 (David Strauss: der Bekenner und der Schriftsteller) attacks David Strauss's The Old and the New Faith: A Confession (1871). one where living life becomes the primary concern. maybe even beyond. State War Nation 9. who would have referred to Leon Battista Alberti's treatise. "Schopenhauer Unzeitgemässe als Erzieher" ("Schopenhauer as Educator"). seeming to lose interest after the publication of the third. Nietzsche attacks both the historicism of man (the idea that man is created through history) and the idea that one can possibly have an objective concept of man. Commerce 13. Nietzsche expands the idea that the essence of Draft for the first chapter of the second man dwells not inside of him. 1874 (Vom Nutzen und Nachteil der Historie für das Leben) offers — instead of the prevailing view of "knowledge as an end in itself" — an alternative way of reading a vulgar reading of history in the service of a degenerate culture. On the Use and Abuse of History for Life On the Use and Abuse of History for Life. since a major aspect of man resides in his subjectivity. and. Language Nietzsche abandoned the project after completing only four essays. which Nietzsche holds up as an example of the German thought of the time.

hypernietzsche. (1995). The original draft was in fact more critical than the final version. The essay thus foreshadows the philosopher's imminent split with Wagner and his ideas. The essay was well-received by Wagner and his circle. Chicago: University of Chicago Press. org/ navigate. Nietzsche visited Bayreuth for the opening of the Bayreuth Festival. zeno. after a gap of two years from the previous essay) investigates the music. 1874 (Schopenhauer als Erzieher) describes how the philosophic genius of Schopenhauer might bring on a resurgence of German culture. tr. the enthusiastic Wagnerian Peter Gast who helped him prepare a less contentious version.[4] Shortly after its publication. Grey.31-2 [4] Nietzsche (1995). org/ Philosophie/ M/ Nietzsche. 281. He was persuaded to reraft the article by his friend. Unfashionable Observations. HyperNietzsche. dama and personality of Richard Wagner — less flatteringly than Nietzsche's friendship with his subject might suggest. William H. original German text [5] References [1] Nietzsche (1995) [2] Glenn W. Most. pp. The Nietzsche Canon: A Publication History and Bibliography. Nietzsche gives special attention to Schopenhauer's individualism. despite Schopenhauer's noted pessimism. Richard T. 1995 ISBN 0804734038 External links • Unzeitgemäße Betrachtungen. • Friedrich Nietzsche.+ Friedrich/ Unzeitgem%C3%A4%C3%9Fe+ Betrachtungen . Nietzsche considered not publishing it because of his changing attiudes to Wagner and his art. ISBN 0226735753.Untimely Meditations (Nietzsche) 32 Schopenhauer as Educator Schopenhauer as Educator. 2003-11-09 (English) [3] Schaberg. References • Schaberg.that is. "On the use and abuse of ancient Greece for life" (http:/ / www. 406 [5] http:/ / www. php?sigle=gmost-1). honesty and steadfastness as well as his cheerfulness. Stanford. pp. Richard Wagner in Bayreuth Richard Wagner in Bayreuth (1876 . However in the event the Festival confirmed Nietzsche's growing misgivings.

Fritzsch in Leipzig as the first edition amid the summer of 1887.. which was once conducted by Nietzsche at Bayreuth for the Wagners and had. Lauretta Altman. in 1874.) Thereafter it was published under Nietzsche by E. in the manner of words. It is the one composition of mine that is meant to survive and to be sung one day 'in my memory'. which I call the tragic pathos. Oft-regarded to be idiosyncratic for a philosopher.that Hymn to Life. who modestly denied any reference in publication to his alterations of what Nietzsche had done previously. supported by the second stanza of the poem Lebensgebet by Lou Andreas-Salome. conclude that these changes are significant enough to demerit Life as an unfeigned work by Nietzsche and classify it as a work by Köselitz. was alive in me to the highest degree. Nietzsche accorded to his music that it played a role in the understanding of his philosophical thought. The time will come when it will be sung in my memory" (trans. entitled Hymnus an das Leben.. after communicating the main idea of Zarathustra along with an aspect of his "gaya scienza".. his music has largely been regarded as a biographical curiosity. etc.. according to Cosima Wagner. Nietzsche wrote to Gast: "This time.—a scarcely trivial symptom of my condition during that year when the Yes-saying pathos par excellence. During 1884. he wrote to Georg Brandes a letter in which he commented: "A choral and orchestral work of mine is just being published. In spite of Nietzsche's intonations about his music. including Benjamin Moritz. I want to have a song made that could also be performed in public in order to seduce people to my philosophy. Nietzsche wrote a letter to the German conductor Felix Mottl. In October of the same year. a Hymn to Life. displays of his work on Nietzsche's music are included. Origin Nietzsche stated. which is Friendship simply put to Andreas-Salome's Lied and with orchestral alterations.. The composition Hymn to Life was partly done by Nietzsche in August and September 1882. to whom he expressed about his composition Life that which pertains to its high aesthetical import for his philosophical oeuvre: "I wish that this piece of music may stand as a complement to the word of the philosopher which. The affect of my philosophy finds its expression in this hymn. In particular. 'music' will reach you. (Some. on the other hand. in Ecce Homo: ". W.Hymnus an das Leben 33 Hymnus an das Leben The Hymn to Life is a musical composition for mixed chorus and orchestra by German philosopher Friedrich Nietzsche.. irrelevant to his philosophical work. Walter Kaufmann)." The following December. [4] . this was laden upon Hymn to Life. [3] • Customer review by John Bell Young on Nietzsche's music with criticism of the reviewed CD. This song's melody was also used earlier in Hymn to Friendship for piano." See also • List of works by Friedrich Nietzsche • Nietzsche Music Project External links • Nietzsche Music Project [2] • John Bell Young's discography." With this request Lebensgebet was further emended to Friendship and orchestrated by "maestro Pietro Gasti"[1] . led to the first sign of a break with his friend Richard.. must remain by necessity unclear.

worthy of inclusion in the piano repertoire. trans. com/ frame-discography. umich. nietzsche. com/ gp/ product/ B0000049P9 http:/ / sitemaker. html http:/ / www. Walter Kaufmann http:/ / nietzschemusicproject. edu/ bmoritz/ nietzsche_project http:/ / www. virtusens. [6] • Nietzsche as Composer [7] 34 References [1] [2] [3] [4] [5] [6] [7] Ecce Homo. johnbellyoung. ru/ english/ music. de/ walther/ n_komp_e. htm . amazon." • Nietzsche's music in four volumes.Hymnus an das Leben • "The Music and Thought of Friedrich Nietzsche"—a dissertation by Ben Moritz (PDF) [5]: "the original Hymnus an die Freundschaft is a generally well-written and delightful work. php3 http:/ / www. org http:/ / www.

a style which he would use in many of his subsequent works. 1778. All Too Human Author Original title Translator Country Language Genre(s) Publication date Published in English Media type Pages ISBN OCLC Number Dewey Decimal LC Classification Preceded by Followed by Friedrich Nietzsche Menschliches. subtitled A Book for Free Spirits (Ein Buch für freie Geister). The Birth of Tragedy. All Too Human is a collection of aphorisms. when he was already frequently suffering from vision problems as well as painful migraine headaches that would have made reading and writing very difficult. the first part originally included a quotation from Descartes’ Discourse on the Method. Allzumenschliches). The Wanderer and his Shadow (Der Wanderer und sein Schatten). In 1879. and a third part. Style and structure Unlike his first book. The aphoristic style was suited to many of the ideas and thoughts in the book. Human. Assorted Opinions and Maxims (Vermischte Meinungen und Sprüche). and removing the Descartes quote as well as the dedication to Voltaire. The first installment’s 638 aphorisms are divided into nine sections by subject. was published in 1879. psychology 1878 1984 Paperback 275 0-8032-8368-7 33165928 128 20 B3313. All Too Human Human. but also a break in his friendship with composer Richard Wagner two years earlier. is a book by 19th century philosopher Friedrich Nietzsche. a year after publishing the first installment.Human. May 30. which are as short as a sentence. Hollingdale Germany German philosophy. All Too Human 35 Human.” Instead of a preface. . Nietzsche later republished all three parts as a two-volume edition in 1886. Reflecting an admiration of Voltaire as a free thinker.J. he was forced to leave his professorship at Basel University because of his deteriorating health. with Stephen Lehmann/ or R.M52 E5 1996 Untimely Meditations (1873-1876) The Dawn (1881) [1] Human. which was written in essay style. The second and third installments are an additional 408 and 350 aphorisms respectively. A second part. adding a preface to each volume. It was also likely due to Nietzsche’s decline in health at the time. All Too Human (Menschliches. originally published in 1878. and a short poem as an epilogue. Nietzsche dedicated the original 1878 edition “to the memory of Voltaire on the celebration of the anniversary of his death. Allzumenschliches Marion Faber. followed in 1880. to as long as a few pages.

Thus it is with human actions. There is rarely a degeneration. with a break from German Romanticism and from Wagner and with a definite positivist slant. When we see a waterfall. but everything is necessary. is trading in a new version of the Providential): Wherever progress is to ensue. if the wheel of the world were to stand still for a moment and an omniscient. asserting that "Christianity wants to destroy. the famous theory of the survival of the fittest does not seem to be the only viewpoint from which to explain the progress of strengthening of a . In a warlike and restless clan. though it offers some elements of Nietzsche's thought in his arguments: he uses his perspectivism and the idea of the will to power as explanatory devices. All Too Human This book represents the beginning of Nietzsche's "middle period". we think we see freedom of will and choice in the innumerable turnings. is also part of the calculable mechanism. his assumption that free will exists. 36 Of First and Last Things In this first section Nietzsche deals with metaphysics. or even a vice or any physical or "moral" loss without an advantage somewhere else. The acting man's delusion about himself. not a higher power or “genius. each step in the progress of knowledge. stun. if one were omniscient. Nietzsche challenges the Christian idea of good and evil [2] . intoxicate.” [6] Signs of Higher and Lower Culture Here Nietzsche criticizes Darwin. The strongest natures retain the type. as naive and derivative of Hobbes and early English economists and without an account of life from the "inside" (and consider in this light Darwin's own introduction to the first edition of Origin) (consider also Nietzsche's critique to the effect that Darwinism. breakings of the waves. Excerpt: "At the waterfall. and as it was philosophized by Arthur Schopenhauer. Note the style: reluctant to construct a systemic philosophy. claiming great art is the result of hard work. he would be able to tell into the farthest future of each being and describe every rut that wheel will roll upon. On the History of Moral Feelings This section. and certainly hear better. Nietzsche composed these works as a series of several hundred aphorisms. To be sure the acting man is caught in his illusion of volition. windings. though the latter remains less developed than in his later thought. the weaker ones help to advance it. specifically its origins as relating to dreams. deviating natures are of greatest importance. each error. for example. and language as well. as he frequently does. the blind man may see deeper inwardly (if there is a "inward" in Nietzsche?) (isn't surface all?). shatter. the dissatisfaction with oneself. Something similar also happens in the individual. [3] Religious Life Here Nietzsche attacks religious worship.” [4] From the Soul of Artists and Writers Nietzsche uses this section to denounce the idea of divine inspiration in art. To this extent. each movement can be calculated mathematically. as typically understood. ranging in length from a single line to a few pages. named in honor of his friend Paul Rée’s On the Origin of Moral Sensations. the sicklier man may have occasion to be alone.” [5] This can be interpreted as a subliminal attack on his former friend Wagner (a strong believer in genius) though Nietzsche never mentions him by name. This book comprises more a collection of debunkings of unwarranted assumptions than an interpretation. and may therefore become quieter and wiser.Human. a truncation. Every progress of the whole must be preceded by a partial weakening. the one-eyed man will have one eye the stronger. one would be able to calculate each individual action in advance. instead simply using the term “the artist. each act of malice. calculating mind were there to take advantage of this interruption.

All Too Human man or of a race. and his role in society. the purest philosopher (Spinoza). and darken our idea of existence. and the most effective code in the world. Consider thoughtfully. Wagner actually received a signed copy. would expect. Nietzsche considers that the world must be "redeemed.” [10] A Look at the State Here Nietzsche studies power in a state. or doctrinaire demands as to what may or may not be said. but also poetic and at times could be interpreted as semi-autobiographical. as scapegoats for every possible public and private misfortune. One is compelled to wonder why. this would eventually be one of his works taken out of context and reinterpreted by the Nazis to paint Nietzsche as an early philosopher of Nazism.Human. and sold only 120 of these. claiming that obscurantism is that which obscures existence rather than obscures ideas alone: "The essential element in the black art of obscurantism is not that it wants to darken individual understanding but that it wants to blacken our picture of the world." in Nietzsche's subtle and anti-Darwinian sense. on account of shallow interpretations. saying that they have “had the most sorrowful history of all peoples.000 copies in 1878. and without kneejerk reaction. and “onwards along the path of wisdom” in order to better society. which is highly paradoxical. and to whom we owe the noblest human being (Christ). [9] "Better. He also speaks on Europe’s Jews. Nietzsche’s aphorisms here are mostly short. is that Nietzsche presents Zarathustra as failing. and still less than half of these by 1886 when it was resold as the complete two-volume set. He believes or at least says in one aphorism that free spirits will not marry and “prefer to fly alone. for example. [16] It was first translated into English in 1909 by writer Helen Zimmern as part of a complete edition of Nietzsche’s books in English. All Too Human is no exception.” [11] He continues. few of Nietzsche’s books sold particularly well. The entire section bears comparison to Republic V. appears to mean ordered toward the production of rare genius and is hardly to be confused with what "a newspaper reader.” [12] Though not anti-Semitic. [8] A sort of proto-Übermensch. and Human. While section six is relatively mild. The essential thing to keep in mind in considering Zarathustra." for Nietzsche.” [13] Nietzsche also distinguishes the obscurantism of the metaphysicians and theologians from the more subtle obscurantism of Kant's critical philosophy and modern philosophical skepticism. worrying that “in the literature of nearly all present-day nations…there is an increase in the literary misconduct that leads the Jews to the slaughterhouse. #412 together with #411. [7] (See Twilight of the Idols for more of Nietzsche's critique of Darwin. and speaks strongly against war and nationalism. Man Alone with Himself Like sections six and seven. The first installment was originally printed in 1. but was never translated by . section seven." and if there is not something Christian (residual in the modern and especially in the "post-modern" or Nietzschean) in the concern for saving the world? 37 Man in Society and Women and Child These two sections are made up of mostly very short aphorisms on man’s and women and child’s natures or "evolution. in general. of course. the mightiest book. [15] Though his friendship with Richard Wagner was nearly over.” [14] Reception and translation Within his lifetime. has resulted in Nietzsche’s "popular" reputation for misogyny." as Nietzsche might put it. A free spirit is one who goes against the herd. prior to his mental breakdown in 1889.) Nietzsche writes of the “free spirit” or “free thinker” (Freigeist). in anticipation of the next volumes: “He who has come only in part to a freedom of reason cannot feel on earth otherwise than as a wanderer. though he never read it. saying Nietzsche would thank him for this one day. forming the basis of a concept he extensively explores in his later work Thus Spoke Zarathustra.

in the 1980s the first part was translated by Marion Faber and completely translated by R. Edward N. 1994. • Tanner. Basic Writings of Nietzsche. [17] Nietzsche would speak against anti-Semitism in other works including Thus Spoke Zarathustra and. Walter A.Human. German Philosophers: Kant. Ed. Trans. Walter A. Human. Hebrew Translation from Magnes Press Friedrich Nietzsche [23] by Robert Wicks. 1996. Trans. Oxford: Oxford University Press. • Kaufmann. Hollingdale. New York: Viking Press. 1954. Kaufmann. A History of Philosophy. 1997. External links • Human. Oxford: Oxford University Press. All Too Human: A Book for Free Spirits. both of which he writes against. New York: Doubleday.J. a Hitler supporter herself. until her death. and Nietzsche.” [19] In Zarathustra. • Nietzsche. Hollingdale the same decade. Most notoriously. New York: Modern Library. 1974. Zalta (The Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy) Nietzsche Chronicle [24] by Malcolm Brown. Psychologist. R. Gordon A. dealing with Nietzsche and his connection to nationalism (specifically National Socialism) and anti-Semitism. Human. Oehler wrote an entire book. Elisabeth Förster-Nietzsche. Human. 4th ed. • Nietzsche. though out of context. Schopenhauer. when he took it over. • Nietzsche. 1984. Friedrich W. Allzumenschliches [21] at Project Gutenberg (German) [22] book • • • • Menschliches. Friedrich W. as supposed evidence of Nietzsche’s support for nationalism and anti-Semitism. 2000. It wasn’t until much of Walter Kaufmann’s work in the 1950s through the 1970s that Nietzsche was able to shed this connection with nationalism and anti-Semitism. lampooning his anti-semitism in the process. Friedrich W. et al. Nietzsche set up Wagner as a straw man. All Too Human. All Too Human: A Book for Free Spirits. Hegel. Friedrich Nietzsche und die Deutsche Zukunft. Oehler also had control of Nietzsche’s archive during the Nazi’s rule. Marion Faber. Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press. in The Antichrist [18] : “An anti-Semite is certainly not any more decent because he lies as a matter of principle. Kaufmann. Trans. Friedrich W. Kierkegaard. • Craig. Antichrist. All Too Human: A Book for Free Spirits. 38 Bibliography • Copleston. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. All Too Human Walter Kaufmann when he translated most of Nietzsche’s works into English in the 1950s and ‘60s. Finally. Germany: 1866-1945. J. Volume VII: Modern Philosophy: From the Post-Kantian Idealists to Marx. All Too Human was used by archivist Max Oehler. Princeton: Princeton University Press. • Nietzsche. with Stephen Lehmann. using quotes from Human. a strong supporter of Hitler. Trans. Nietzsche. The Portable Nietzsche. All Too Human [20] . Walter A. Nietzsche: Philosopher. Michael. most strongly. Frederick C. which he shared with Nietzsche’s sister. (Dartmouth College) . 1978.

Trans.. Marion Faber. Kaufmann. 220.139. The Portable Nietzsche. Hollingdale.67-8. All Too Human: A Book for Free Spirits. 103-04. P. Friedrich W. xii. Trans.107-08. Oxford: Oxford University Press. [3] Ibid. [9] Ibid. J.. P. P. P.” Pp. P.. dartmouth.. 1954. co. All Too Human 39 References [1] http:/ / worldcat. pp. org/ etext/ 7207 http:/ / www. Pp. Pp. 74 §106. 1984. P. [4] Ibid. Hegel. Nietzsche: Philosopher..189. asp?id=2986 http:/ / plato. §475 [13] Ibid. Friedrich W.229. §292 [10] Ibid. Trans. edu/ ~fnchron/ index. htm http:/ / www. §475 [12] Ibid.. German Philosophers: Kant.. com/ Nietzsche_human_all_too_human/ index. P. 1997. Walter A. [14] Nietzsche. P. [16] Tanner. org/ oclc/ 33165928 [2] Nietzsche. Walter A. Princeton: Princeton University Press. P.229.. Human. §224 [8] Ibid.174. All Too Human: A Book for Free Spirits. magnespress.. §39. 298 Nietzsche. [5] Ibid.. [6] Ibid. il/ website/ index. §114. 4th ed. edu/ entries/ nietzsche/ http:/ / www. [7] Ibid. html . stanford. §27.Human.. 370 [17] Kaufmann. P. §225. R. P.. 266. 288-92. 138-39. Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press. Introduction. §146. et al.96. 1974. “The Master Race. holtof. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. §55 http:/ / nietzsche. [11] Ibid. [18] [19] [20] [21] [22] [23] [24] Ibid. Michael. Friedrich W. gutenberg. §155-57. Antichrist.43-4. Nietzsche. New York: Viking Press. Psychologist. §638. [15] Ibid. P. Pp.205. §426. Human. and Stephen Lehmann. 641. 1996. Schopenhauer..

All Too Human (1878) The Gay Science (1882) The Dawn (Morgenröte. Nietzsche de-emphasizes the role of hedonism as a motivator and accentuates the role of a "feeling of power". Early English translator JM Kennedy says of The Dawn. both moral and cultural. "This book was written for psychologists. rather than showing concern with persuading his readers to accept any point of view. calm and intimate style of this aphoristic book seems to invite a particular experience. The clear.The Dawn (book) 40 The Dawn (book) The Dawn Author Original title Country Language Genre(s) Friedrich Nietzsche Morgenröthe Germany German philosophy. psychology Publication date 1881 Preceded by Followed by Human. In Daybreak Nietzsche devoted a lengthy passage to his criticism of Christian biblical exegesis. and his critique of Christianity also reaches greater maturity. Gedanken über die moralischen Vorurteile) is a book written by the German philosopher Friedrich Nietzsche in 1881 (also translated as "The Dawn of Day" and Daybreak: Reflections on Moral Prejudices)." . His relativism. He would develop many of the ideas advanced here more fully in later books. including its arbitrary interpretation of objects and images in the Old Testament as prefigurements of Christ's crucifixion.

are quite emphatically reminiscent of the Provençal concept of gaya scienza—that unity of singer. whereupon. an exuberant dancing song in which. first published in 1882 and followed by a second edition. one dances right over morality. after the culture of the troubadours fell into almost complete desolation and destruction due to the Albigensian Crusade (1209–1229). is a book written by Friedrich Nietzsche. in inverted form. is a perfect Provençalism. written for the most part in Sicily. by Thomas Carlyle (see The dismal science). and free spirit which distinguishes the wonderful early culture of the Provençals from all equivocal cultures. S. Title The book's title uses a phrase that was well known at the time. "To the Mistral". and contains the greatest number of poems in any of his published works. which was published after the completion of Thus Spoke Zarathustra and Beyond Good and Evil.The Gay Science 41 The Gay Science The Gay Science Author Original title Country Language Subject(s) Genre(s) Friedrich Nietzsche Die fröhliche Wissenschaft Germany German the death of God philosophy." In Ecce Homo Nietzsche refers to the poems in the Appendix of The Gay Science. It was noted by Nietzsche to be "the most personal of all [his] books". This substantial expansion includes a fifth book and an appendix of songs. . but The Gay Science has become the common translation since Walter Kaufmann's version in the 1960s. if I may say so. The very last poem above all. poetry Publication date 1882 Preceded by Followed by Dawn (1881) Thus Spoke Zarathustra (1883–1885) The Gay Science [German: Die fröhliche Wissenschaft]. knight. This alludes to the birth of modern European poetry that occurred in Provence around the 12th century. It was derived from a Provençal expression for the technical skill required for poetry writing that had already been used by Ralph Waldo Emerson and E. in 1887. Kaufmann cites The Shorter Oxford English Dictionary (1955) that lists "The gay science (Provençal gai saber): the art of poetry. other poets in the 14th century ameliorated and thus cultivated the gai saber or gaia scienza. saying they were. Dallas and. The book's title was first translated into English as The Joyous Wisdom.

during which his work extolled the merits of science. trans. All of us are his murderers. you will have to live once more and innumerable times more' . Nietzsche: Philosopher.§108 Section 125 depicts the parable of the madman who is searching for God. (Section 260) Another indicator of the deficiency of the original translation as The Joyous Wisdom is that the German Wissenschaft never indicates "wisdom" (wisdom = Weisheit). by Walter Kaufmann (Vintage Books. God is dead: but as the human race is constituted. ISBN 0-394-71985-9) External links • Die fröhliche Wissenschaft [2] at Nietzsche Source • Oscar Levy's 1924 English edition. After Buddha was dead people showed his shadow for centuries afterwards in a cave. Walter. but a propensity toward any rigorous practice of a poised. and disciplined quest for knowledge. a concept which would become critical in his next work Thus Spoke Zarathustra and underpins much of the later works. Antichrist.[§341] "God is dead" Here also is the first occurrence of the famous formulation "God is dead. 42 Content In The Gay Science Nietzsche experiments with the notion of power but does not advance any systematic theory. if some day or night a demon were to steal after you into your loneliest loneliness and say to you: 'This life as you now live it and have lived it. skepticism. love as passion—which is our European speciality—[was invented by] the Provençal knight-poets. 'I will tell you. Thomas Common at the Internet Archive [3] • Free audio download of the Levy translation [4] from LibriVox . March 1974. Princeton University and I. The affirmation of the Provençal tradition is also one of a joyful "yea-saying" to life. "'Whither is God?' he cried..—an immense frightful shadow. • The Gay Science: With a Prelude in Rhymes and an Appendix of Songs by Friedrich Nietzsche. He accuses us all of being the murderers of God..—And we—we have still to overcome his shadow! . Psychologist." References • Kaufmann. The book contains the first consideration of the idea of the eternal recurrence. 1974.The Gay Science In a similar vein. We have killed him. in which people will show his shadow. Would you not throw yourself down and gnash your teeth and curse the demon who spoke thus? Or have you once experienced a tremendous moment when you would have answered him: 'You are a god and never have I heard anything more divine." first in section 108. translated. The book is usually placed within Nietzsche's middle period..[1] "What. and intellectual discipline as routes to mental freedom. those magnificent and inventive human beings of the "gai saber" to whom Europe owes so many things and almost owes itself. controlled. there will perhaps be caves for millenniums yet. in Beyond Good and Evil Nietzsche observed that..' " . with commentary. and is typically translated as "science".

org/ texts/ eKGWB/ FW http:/ / www. org/ the-joyful-wisdom-by-friedrich-nietzsche . http:/ / www. org/ details/ completenietasch10nietuoft http:/ / librivox. p. 188.The Gay Science 43 References [1] [2] [3] [4] Kaufmann. nietzschesource. archive.

the central idea of Zarathustra. He wrote that the ideas for Zarathustra first came to him while walking on two roads surrounding Rapallo. prose poetry Ernst Schmeitzner Publication date 1883–1885 Media type Preceded by Followed by Hardcover. ultimately. composed in four parts between 1883 and 1885. a high alpine region whose valley floor is at 6.[1] Described by Nietzsche himself as "the deepest ever written. Author Original title Country Language Genre(s) Publisher Friedrich Nietzsche Also sprach Zarathustra: Ein Buch für Alle und Keinen Germany German philosophical novel.[2] More specifically. reading "6. which were first introduced in The Gay Science. paperback The Gay Science Beyond Good and Evil Thus Spoke Zarathustra: A Book for All and None (German: Also sprach Zarathustra: Ein Buch für Alle und Keinen) is a philosophical novel by German philosopher Friedrich Nietzsche. Genesis Thus Spoke Zarathustra was conceived while Nietzsche was writing The Gay Science. by Nietzsche's admission. this idea occurred to him by a "pyramidal block of stone" on the shores of Lake Silvaplana in the Upper Engadine. Zarathustra. he made a small note. which is viewed to constitute an intermezzo. .000 feet beyond man and time. Much of the work deals with ideas such as the "eternal recurrence of the same". and the "prophecy" of the Overman. he composed only the fourth part. the parable on the "death of God". A central irony of the text is that Nietzsche mimics the style of the Bible in order to present ideas which fundamentally oppose Christian and Jewish morality and tradition." as evidence of this. this note related to the concept of the Eternal Recurrence. Nietzsche planned to write the book in three parts over several years. according to Elisabeth Förster-Nietzsche in the introduction of Thomas Common's early translation of the book. however.Thus Spoke Zarathustra 44 Thus Spoke Zarathustra Thus Spoke Zarathustra: A Book for All and None Title page of the first edition. While developing the general outlook of the book. featuring as protagonist a fictionalized prophet descending from his recluse to mankind.000 ft." the book is a dense and esoteric treatise on philosophy and morality. he subsequently decided to write an additional three parts. which is.

Likewise. this was the first public proclamation of the notion by him. At any rate. 341). he was inspired by the sight of a gigantic. Before Zarathustra. and consequently choosing to leave the higher men to their own devices in carrying his legacy forth. The original text contains a great deal of word-play. Walter Kaufmann Zarathustra has a simple characterisation and plot. this means the opposite of the cowardice of the "idealist” who flees from reality […]—Am I understood?—The self-overcoming of morality. "downgoing" and "self-overcoming".[3] narrated sporadically throughout the text. – Nietzsche. the book lacks a finale to match that description. the self-overcoming of the moralist. […] His doctrine. Some speculate that Nietzsche intended to write about final acts of creation and destruction brought about by Zarathustra. pyramidal rock. and his alone. consequently. the mouth of the first immoralist:" [F]or what constitutes the tremendous historical uniqueness of that Persian is just the opposite of this. the four parts were finally reprinted as a single volume. trans. evident in newly invented "dithyrambs" narrated or sung by Zarathustra. the separate Dithyrambs of Dionysus was written in autumn 1888. He goes on to characterize "what the name of Zarathustra means in my mouth. cause. Nietzsche had mentioned the concept in the fourth book of The Gay Science (e. it is also echoed throughout Nietzsche's work. out of truthfulness.[5] This inspiration finds its expression with Zarathustra's Roundelay. Apart from its salient presence in Zarathustra. into his opposite—into me—that is what the name of Zarathustra means in my mouth. However. Zarathustra was the first to consider the fight of good and evil the very wheel in the machinery of things: the transposition of morality into the metaphysical realm. the version most commonly produced has included all four parts. once near the story's close: . did I require more" (trans. is his work. An example of this exists in the use of the words "over" or "super" and the words "down" or "abyss/abysmal". he must also be the first to recognize it. "overgoing". The first three parts were first published separately. apart from seven others that were distributed to Nietzsche's close friends. This concept first occurred to Nietzsche while he was walking in Switzerland through the woods along the lake of Silvaplana (close to Surlei). It is the Eternal recurrence of the same events. that he at last ascertains "the supreme will to power". a scant forty copies were all that were printed. The fourth part remained private after Nietzsche wrote it in 1885. for instance. as a force. The name of this character is taken from the ancient prophet usually known in English as Zoroaster (Avestan: Zaraθuštra).. posits truthfulness as the highest virtue. neither for the first nor for the third and last. Since then. featured twice in the book. In March 1892.[4] In his autobiographical work Ecce Homo. Nietzsche states that the book's underlying concept is discussed within "the penultimate section of the fourth book" of The Gay Science (Ecce Homo. it is by Zarathustra's transfiguration that he embraces eternity. […] Zarathustra created this most calamitous error. Zarathustra also contains the famous dictum "God is dead". §3. Kaufmann).Thus Spoke Zarathustra Nietzsche commented in Ecce Homo that for the completion of each part: "Ten days sufficed. sect. and were subsequently published in a single volume in 1887. It possesses a unique experimental style. Ecce Homo. morality. towering. in no case. as the corollaries of Zarathustra's "abundance". Kaufmann). and printed with the full volume in 1892. one who turns traditional morality on its head. which had appeared earlier in The Gay Science. Nietzsche is clearly portraying a "new" or "different" Zarathustra. the Persian founder of Zoroastrianism.g. and end in itself. some examples include "superman" or "overman". one that is. its actual ending focuses more on Zarathustra recognizing that his legacy is beginning to perpetuate. "Why I Am a Destiny". 45 Synopsis The book chronicles the fictitious travels and pedagogy of Zarathustra.

Walter Kaufmann The book embodies a number of innovative poetical and rhetorical methods of expression. With the book. or the sun's rise and culmination at its midday zenith. Prologue. The Übermensch is one of the many interconnecting. moving away from his uncultivated animality and towards the Übermensch. Zarathustra is seen to have served as a precursor to his later philosophical thought. take care! What does the deep midnight declare? "I was asleep— From a deep dream I woke and swear:— The world is deep. while Kaufmann uses overman. and even now. Zarathustra declares: "I teach you the overman. Deeper than day had been aware. sec. however. And man shall be just that for the overman: a laughingstock or a painful embarrassment. "self-cultivation". either the "overman" or "superman". the book that is truly characterized by the air of the heights—the whole fact of man lies beneath it at a tremendous distance—it is also the deepest. superhuman or overhuman. remain faithful to the earth. interdependent themes of the story. What have you done to overcome him? "All beings so far have created something beyond themselves. Preface. Preface. Expostulating these concepts. trans. Nietzsche embraced a distinct aesthetic assiduity. and is represented through several different metaphors." ” Another singular feature of Zarathustra. and much in you is still worm. as stated. said that "among my writings my Zarathustra stands to my mind by itself" (Ecce Homo. it is stated by Nietzsche that: With [Thus Spoke Zarathustra] I have given mankind the greatest present that has ever been made to it so far. trans. and do not believe those who speak to you of otherworldly hopes! Poison-mixers are they. He has. I teach you the overman! The overman is the meaning of the earth. English translators Thomas Common and R. But do I bid you become ghosts or plants? "Behold. is not only the highest book there is. "self-direction". Kaufmann). 4. man is more ape than any ape. decaying and poisoned themselves. an inexhaustible well to which no pail descends without coming up again filled with gold and goodness. Emphasizing its centrality and its status as his magnum opus. §3.Thus Spoke Zarathustra 46 “ O man. Once you were apes. wants deep eternity. §4. or. Walter Kaufmann Since. Examples include: the lightning that is portended by the silence and raindrops of a travelling storm cloud. my brothers. and Parkes uses overhuman). Despisers of life are they. many of the book's ideas are also present in his other works. of whom the earth is weary: so let them go!" – Thus Spoke Zarathustra. and "self-overcoming". Deep is its woe— Joy—deeper yet than agony: Woe implores: Go! But all joy wants eternity— Wants deep. and do you want to be the ebb of this great flood and even go back to the beasts rather than overcome man? What is the ape to man? A laughingstock or a painful embarrassment. Let your will say: the overman shall be the meaning of the earth! I beseech you. born out of the innermost wealth of truth. It serves as a parallel and supplement to the various philosophical ideas present in Nietzsche's body of work. He . "Whoever is the wisest among you is also a mere conflict and cross between plant and ghost. – Ecce Homo. first presented in the prologue. J. Man is something that shall be overcome. or a man traversing a rope stationed above an abyss. with a voice bridging centuries. is the designation of human beings as a transition between apes and the "Übermensch" (in English. This book. You have made your way from worm to man. The symbol of the Übermensch also alludes to Nietzsche's notions of "self-mastery". Hollingdale use superman. whether they know it or not. too.

but more the journey toward self-mastery. 47 Themes Nietzsche injects myriad ideas into the book. is an almost omnipresent idea in Thus Spoke Zarathustra. It also features frequent references to the Western literary and philosophical traditions. Hollingdale may create an unfortunate association with the heroic comic-character "Superman". and Nietzsche for the first time speaks of the Übermensch: themes that would dominate his books from this point onwards. the book comprises a philosophical work of fiction whose style often lightheartedly imitates that of the New Testament and of the Platonic dialogues. Contrasted with living for procreation. Thus Spoke Zarathustra remained unpopular as a topic for scholars (especially those in the Anglo-American analytic tradition) until the second half of the twentieth century brought widespread interest in Nietzsche and his unconventional style that does not distinguish between philosophy and literature. Nietzsche sees the complacency of Christian values as fetters to the achievement of overman as well as on the human spirit. . The will to power is a psychological analysis of all human action and is accentuated by self-overcoming and self-enhancement. adding that its rhapsodic fiction is "now unreadable". Man as a race is merely a bridge between animals and the overman. but there are a few recurring themes. The will to power is the fundamental component of human nature. One can view this characteristic (following the genre of the bildungsroman) as an inline commentary on Zarathustra's (and Nietzsche's) philosophy. Other aspects of Thus Spoke Zarathustra relate to Nietzsche's proposed "Transvaluation of All Values".Thus Spoke Zarathustra later reformulated many of his ideas. while simultaneously detracting from Nietzsche's repeated play on "über" as well as losing the gender-neutrality of the German. or happiness. pleasure. an overman would be elated as he has no regrets and loves life. Nietzsche also makes a point that the overman is not an end result for a person. Such a reality can serve as the litmus test for an overman. Nietzsche achieves all of this through the character of Zarathustra (referring to the traditional prophet of Zoroastrianism). The overman (Übermensch). who makes speeches on philosophic topics as he moves along a loose plotline marking his development and the reception of his ideas. his intention was to show an alternative to repressive moral codes and to avert "nihilism" in all of its varied forms. in particular Christian values of good and evil and its belief in an afterlife. has helped its eventual enthusiastic reception by the reading public. He continued to emphasize his philosophical concerns. in his book Beyond Good and Evil and various other writings that he composed thereafter. generally. is also mentioned. This incomplete project began with The Antichrist.J. The eternal recurrence is the idea that all events that have happened will happen again. a self-mastered individual who has achieved his full power. the will to power is the summary of all man's struggle against his surrounding environment as well as his reason for living in it. Style Harold Bloom calls Thus Spoke Zarathustra a "gorgeous disaster". found elsewhere in Nietzsche's writing. at times resembling pre-Socratic works in tone and in its use of natural phenomena as rhetorical and explanatory devices. The eternal recurrence. Faced with the knowledge that he would repeat every action that he has taken. The Übermensch is particularly problematic: the equivalent "Superman" found in dictionaries and in the translations by Thomas Common and R.[6] Noteworthy for its format. implicitly offering an interpretation of these traditions and of their problems. along with the book's ambiguity and paradoxical nature. All this.[7] It offers formulations of eternal recurrence. Everything we do is an expression of the will to power. Copious criticisms of Christianity can be found in Thus Spoke Zarathustra. infinitely many times. but has frustrated academic attempts at analysis (as Nietzsche may have intended). A vulnerability of Nietzsche's style is that his nuances and shades of meaning are very easily lost — and all too easily gained — in translation.

J. aesthetically. Common reasoned that because the original German was written in a pseudo-Luther-Biblical style. Common has taken the German "most evil" and rendered it "baddest". Common. He notes that the German text available to Common was considerably flawed. than that of Common. 48 Translations The English translations of Zarathustra differ according to the sentiments of the translators. The Common translation. which he designated "freely based on Friedrich Nietzsche. features a translator's note suggesting that Nietzsche's text would have benefited from an editor. Hollingdale. separately by R. and that dances over gravity (the "spirit of gravity" is Zarathustra's devil and archenemy). Frederick Delius based his major choral-orchestral work A Mass of Life (1904-5) on texts from Thus Spoke Zarathustra. which are considered to convey more accurately the German text than the Common version. and that the German text from which Hollingdale and Kaufmann worked was itself untrue to Nietzsche's own work in some ways. and dampening some of Nietzsche's more controversial metaphors. He is a "harvester" and a "celebrant" who endlessly affirms his existence. Martin criticizes Kaufmann for changing punctuation. Clancy Martin's 2005 translation opens with criticism and praise for these three seminal translators. He is initially a destructive force. he notes that in one instance. Common's poetic interpretation of the text. It is this creative force exemplified by the Übermensch that justifies suffering without displacing it in some "afterworld". a pseudo-King-James-Biblical style would be fitting in the English translation. which improved on Alexander Tille's earlier attempt. received wide acclaim for its lambent portrayal. and consequently reclaiming the chaos from which pure creativity is born.J.[8] remained widely accepted until the more critical translations. He is the being that "sails over morality". as a separate work. that overcomes that most "abysmal" realization of the eternal return. which has become the most widely available. altering literal and philosophical meanings. a particularly unfortunate error not merely for his having coined the term "baddest". in the style of Shakespeare or the King James Version of the Bible. excising and annihilating the insidious "truths" of the herd. in 1898. The work ends with a setting of Zarathustra's Roundelay which Delius had composed earlier. and Kaufmann. Hollingdale and Walter Kaufmann. The Thomas Common translation favors a classic English approach. Hollingdale."[10] Musical adaptation The book inspired Richard Strauss to compose the tone poem Also sprach Zarathustra." [11] Zarathustra's Roundelay is set as part of Gustav Mahler's Third Symphony (1895-6). which renders the title Thus Spake Zarathustra.[8] The translations of Kaufmann and Hollingdale render the text in a far more familiar. or alternatively What the Night tells me (of Man).[9] Graham Parkes describes his own 2005 translation as trying "above all to convey the musicality of the text (which was not a priority for Walter Kaufmann or R. but also because Nietzsche dedicated a third of The Genealogy of Morals to the difference between "bad" and "evil". authors of the best English translations so far). titled Thus Spoke Zarathustra. . thereby becoming the transfigurer of his consciousness and life. less archaic. style of language.[8] This and other errors led Kaufmann to wondering if Common "had little German and less English".[9] Kaufmann's version.Thus Spoke Zarathustra The "Übermensch" is the being that overcomes the "great nausea" associated with nihilism. originally under the title What Man Tells Me. Kaufmann's introduction to his own translation included a blistering critique of Common's version. Martin suggests that Kaufmann "took it upon himself to become his editor". Carl Orff also composed a three-movement setting of part of Nietzsche's text as a teenager. but this work remains unpublished.

Eine Lese-Einführung (introduction in German to the work) Essay collections on Thus Spoke Zarathustra • Essays on Thus Spoke Zarathustra: Before Sunrise.000) 2nd . J. translated by Graham Parkes. 2005. New Haven: Yale University Press. 1961 Thus Spoke Zarathustra. Kathleen. published by the MacMillan Company in 1916. Nietzsche's Zarathustra. edited by James Luchte. 1954 and Harmondsworth: Penguin Books. 2008. London: Continuum International Publishing Group.000) of Friedrich Nietzsche's Thus Spake Zarathustra: A Book for All and None translated by Thomas Common. Nietzsche's Teaching: An Interpretation of Thus Spoke Zarathustra. Munich: Deutscher Taschenbuch Verlag (study edition of the standard German Nietzsche edition) Thus Spoke Zarathustra. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Introduction to Thus Spoke Zarathustra • Rüdiger Schmidt Nietzsche für Anfänger: Also sprach Zarathustra .000) 4th . New York: Random House. New Haven: Yale University Press. Lanham. 2004. New York: The Viking Press.(limited to 2. • Seung. Harmondsworth: Penguin Books.Thus Spoke Zarathustra 49 Editions of Thus Spoke Zarathustra • • • • 1st . 2006 • • • • • Commentaries on Thus Spoke Zarathustra • Gustav Naumann 1899-1901 Zarathustra-Commentar. translated by R. translated by Adrian del Caro and edited by Robert Pippin.(limited to 2. Philadelphia: Temple University Press. MD: Lexington Books. T. Stanley.(limited to 2. Laurence. Also sprach Zarathustra. K. Leipzig : Haessel • Higgins.1909 . translated by Walter Kaufmann.1911 . The Mask of Enlightenment: Nietzsche's Zarathustra. • Rosen. • Lampert. translated by Thomas Common [14] Free audio download of the Common translation [15] from LibriVox .1914 . 1989. 1976 Thus Spoke Zarathustra.(limited to 1. Nietzsche's Epic of the Soul: Thus Spoke Zarathustra. edited by Giorgio Colli and Mazzino Montinari. Oxford: Oxford World's Classics. printed in Great Britain by The Darwien Press of Edinburgh. 2005 Thus Spoke Zarathustra.1916 . 4 volumes. 1990. reprinted in The Portable Nietzsche.500) 3rd . Hollingdale. ISBN 1847062210 External links • • • • Also Sprach Zarathustra [12] at Nietzsche Source Project Gutenberg's etext of Also Sprach Zarathustra (the German original) [13] Project Gutenberg's etext of Thus Spake Zarathustra.

pp. No. 281-319 [8] Nietzsche. Riverhead Books. Existentialism: Basic Writings. Retrieved 2007-12-11. 261. . 101-113 [2] Gutmann. ix. The Portable Nietzsche. sect. 2005. 2006. 1996. org/ etext/ 1998 [15] http:/ / librivox. [5] The Will to Power. 2005. Op. Kaufmann [6] Bloom. pp. Also Sprach Zarathustra. americansymphony. 837-842. 2nd ed. The Western Canon: The Books and School of the Ages. p. [4] Nietzsche. gutenberg. 422 [7] Behler. Ernst. pp. "Richard Strauss. ISBN 0-5216-0261-0. Guignon. org/ texts/ eKGWB/ Za-I [13] http:/ / www. page 108-9. trans. "Nietzsche: Thus Spoke Zarathustra". org/ etext/ 7205 [14] http:/ / www. p. 2001. 51. nietzschesource. Trans. American Symphony Orchestra: Dialogues and Extensions. Nietzsche in the Twentieth Century in The Cambridge Companion to Nietzsche. xii. [12] http:/ / www. Cambridge University Press. 1954. Trans. page xxxv [11] Bernard Jacobson. Robert. Walter. [3] Pippin. Kaufmann. University of Chicago. D. Friedrich. org/ dialogues_extensions/ 99_2000season/ 2000_03_08/ strauss. James. Thus spoke Zarathustra.Thus Spoke Zarathustra 50 References [1] C. Friedrich Wilhelm. Magnus and Higgins (ed). Clancy. Pereboom. 617. "The "Tremendous Moment" of Nietzsche's Vision". Harold. 1994. Vol. org/ thus-spake-zarathustra-by-friedrich-nietzsche/ . (Edition) Random House. Graham Parkes. 1974. p. Thus Spoke Zarathustra. December 28-30. "The Gay Science: With a Prelude in German Rhymes and an Appendix of Songs". Friedrich.. The Journal of Philosophy. American Philosophical Association Eastern Division: Papers to be presented at the Fifty-First Annual Meeting. page xxxiii. [9] Nietzsche. Martin. Goucher College. Hackett. 30 (1896)" (http:/ / www. 25. gutenberg. 1976. [10] Friedrich Wilhelm Nietzsche. cfm). Cambridge Texts in the History of Philosophy.

Beyond Good and Evil


Beyond Good and Evil
Beyond Good and Evil

Title page of the first edition. Author Original title Country Language Subject(s) Genre(s) Friedrich Nietzsche 'Jenseits von Gut und Böse. Vorspiel einer Philosophie der Zukunft' Germany German ethics, metaphysics philosophy

Publication date 1886 Preceded by Followed by Thus Spoke Zarathustra (1883–1885) On the Genealogy of Morality (1887)

Beyond Good and Evil (German: Jenseits von Gut und Böse), subtitled "Prelude to a Philosophy of the Future" (Vorspiel einer Philosophie der Zukunft), is a book by the German philosopher Friedrich Nietzsche, first published in 1886. It takes up and expands on the ideas of his previous work, Thus Spoke Zarathustra, but approached from a more critical, polemical direction. In Beyond Good and Evil, Nietzsche attacks past philosophers for their alleged lack of critical sense and their blind acceptance of Christian premises in their consideration of morality. The work moves into the realm "beyond good and evil" in the sense of leaving behind the traditional morality which Nietzsche subjects to a destructive critique in favour of what he regards as an affirmative approach that fearlessly confronts the perspectival nature of knowledge and the perilous condition of the modern individual.

Background and themes
Of the four "late-period" writings of Nietzsche, Beyond Good and Evil most closely resembles the aphoristic style of his middle period. In it he exposes the deficiencies of those usually called "philosophers" and identifies the qualities of the "new philosophers": imagination, self-assertion, danger, originality, and the "creation of values". He then contests some of the key presuppositions of the old philosophic tradition like "self-consciousness," "knowledge," "truth," and "free will", explaining them as inventions of the moral consciousness. In their place he offers the will to power as an explanation of all behavior; this ties into his "perspective of life", which he regards as "beyond good and evil", denying a universal morality for all human beings. Religion and the master and slave moralities feature prominently as Nietzsche re-evaluates deeply-held humanistic beliefs, portraying even domination, appropriation and injury to the weak as not universally objectionable.

Beyond Good and Evil


Structure of the work
The work consists of 296 numbered sections and an "epode" (or "aftersong") entitled "From High Mountains". The sections are organized into nine parts: • • • • • • • • • Part One: On the Prejudices of Philosophers Part Two: The Free Spirit Part Three: The Religious Essence Part Four: Maxims and Interludes Part Five: On the Natural History of Morals Part Six: We Scholars Part Seven: Our Virtues Part Eight: Peoples and Fatherlands Part Nine: What is Noble?

On philosophers, free spirits, and scholars
In the opening two parts of the book, Nietzsche discusses in turn the philosophers of the past, whom he accuses of a blind dogmatism plagued by moral prejudice masquerading as a search for objective truth; and the "free spirits", like himself, who are to replace them. He casts doubt on the project of past philosophy by asking why we should want the "truth" rather than recognizing untruth "as a condition of life." He offers an entirely psychological explanation of every past philosophy: each has been an "involuntary and unconscious memoir" on the part of its author (§6) and exists to justify his moral prejudices, which he solemnly baptizes as "truths". In a startling passage (§34), Nietzsche tells us that "from every point of view the erroneousness of the world in which we believe we live is the surest and firmest thing we can get our eyes on". Philosophers are wrong to rail violently against the risk of being deceived. "It is no more than a moral prejudice that truth is worth more than appearance". Life is nothing without appearances; it appears to Nietzsche that it follows from this that the abolition of appearances would imply the abolition of "truth" as well. In an even more extreme leap of logic, Nietzsche is led to ask the question, "what compels us to assume there exists any essential antithesis between 'true' and 'false'?" Nietzsche singles out the Stoic precept of "living according to nature" (§9) as showing how philosophy "creates the world in its own image" by trying to regiment nature "according to the Stoa". But nature, as something uncontrollable and "prodigal beyond measure", cannot be tyrannized over in the way Stoics tyrannize over themselves. Further, there are forceful attacks on several individual philosophers. Descartes' cogito presupposes that there is an I, that there is such an activity as thinking, and that I know what thinking is (§16). Spinoza masks his "personal timidity and vulnerability" by hiding behind his geometrical method (§5), and inconsistently makes self-preservation a fundamental drive while rejecting teleology (§13). Kant, "the great Chinaman of Königsberg" (§210), reverts to the prejudice of an old moralist with his categorical imperative, the dialectical grounding of which is a mere smokescreen (§5). His "faculty" to explain the possibility of synthetic a priori judgements is likened to the explanation of the narcotic quality of opium in terms of a "sleepy faculty" in Molière's comedy Le Malade imaginaire. Schopenhauer is mistaken in thinking that the nature of the will is self-evident (§19), which is in fact a highly complex instrument of control over those who must obey, not transparent to those who command. "Free spirits", by contrast to the philosophers of the past, are "investigators to the point of cruelty, with rash fingers for the ungraspable, with teeth and stomach for the most indigestible" (§44). Nietzsche warns against those who would suffer for the sake of truth, and exhorts his readers to shun these indignant sufferers for truth and lend their ears instead to "cynics" – those who "speak 'badly' of man - but do not speak ill of him" (§26). There is a kind of fearless scholars who are truly independent of prejudice (§6), but these "philosophical labourers and men of science in general" should not be confused with philosophers, who are "commanders and law-givers"

Beyond Good and Evil (§211). Nietzsche also subjects physics to critique. "Nature's conformity to law" is merely one interpretation of the phenomena which natural science observes; Nietzsche suggests that the same phenomena could equally be interpreted as demonstrating "the tyrannically ruthless and inexorable enforcement of power-demands" (§22). Nietzsche appears to espouse a strong brand of scientific anti-realism when he asserts that "It is we alone who have fabricated causes, succession, reciprocity, relativity, compulsion, number, law, freedom, motive, purpose" (§21).


On morality and religion
In the "pre-moral period of mankind", actions were judged by their consequences. Over the past 10,000 years, however, a morality has developed where actions are judged by their origins (their motivations) not their consequences. This morality of intentions is, according to Nietzsche, a "prejudice" and "something provisional [...] that must be overcome" (§32). Nietzsche criticizes "unegoistic morality" and demands that "Moralities must first of all be forced to bow before order of rank" (§221). Every "high culture" begins by recognizing "the pathos of distance"[1] (§257). Nietzsche contrasts southern (Catholic) and northern (Protestant) Christianity; northern Europeans have much less "talent for religion" (§48) and lack "southern delicatezza" (§50). As elsewhere, Nietzsche praises the Old Testament while disparaging the New Testament (§52). Religion has always been connected to "three dangerous dietary prescriptions: solitude, fasting and sexual abstinence" (§47), and has exerted cruelty through demanding sacrifice according to a "ladder" with different rungs of cruelty, which has ultimately caused God Himself to be sacrificed (§55). Christianity, "the most fatal kind of self-presumption ever", has beaten everything joyful, assertive and autocratic out of man and turned him into a "sublime abortion" (§62). If, unlike past philosophers such as Schopenhauer, we really want to tackle the problems of morality, we must "compare many moralities" and "prepare a typology of morals" (§186). In a discussion that anticipates On the Genealogy of Morality, Nietzsche claims that "Morality is in Europe today herd-animal morality" (§202)—i.e., it emanates from the ressentiment of the slave for the master (see also §260, which leads into the discussion in Genealogy, I).

On nations, peoples and cultures
Nietzsche discusses the complexities of the German soul (§244), praises the Jews and heavily criticizes the trend of German anti-Semitism (§251). He praises France as "the seat of Europe's most spiritual and refined culture and the leading school of taste" (§254). He finds the English coarse, gloomy, more brutal than the Germans, and declares that "they are no philosophical race", singling out Bacon, Hobbes, David Hume and John Locke as representing a "debasement and devaluation of the concept 'philosopher' for more than a century" (§252). Nietzsche also touches on problems of translation and the leaden quality of the German language (§28). In a prophetic statement, Nietzsche proclaims that "The time for petty politics is past: the very next century will bring with it the struggle for mastery over the whole earth" (§208).

Aphorisms and poetry
Between §62 and §186 Nietzsche inserts a collection of mostly single-sentence aphorisms, modelled on French aphorists such as La Rochefoucauld. Twelve of these (§§ 84, 85, 86, 114, 115, 127, 131, 139, 144, 145, 147, 148) concern women or the distinction between men and women. Other subjects touched on include his doctrine of the eternal recurrence (§70), music (§106) and utilitarianism (§174), among more general attempts at trenchant observations about human nature.

edu/ ~megw/ Nietzsche. unc. htm http:/ / www. translated by Judith Norman and edited by Rolf-Peter Horstmann. org/ etext/ 4363 http:/ / www. edited by Giorgio Colli and Mazzino Montinari. Beyond Good and Evil [3] at Project Gutenberg — German-language edition. ac. uri. org/ etext/ 7204 http:/ / librivox. doc. ic.Beyond Good and Evil The work concludes with a short ode to friendship in verse form (continuing Nietzsche's use of poetry in The Gay Science and Thus Spoke Zarathustra). com/ PHILOSOPHY/ Papers/ fngenealogy. gutenberg. by Carsten Korfmacher References [1] [2] [3] [4] [5] [6] [7] Nietzsche: On the Genealogy of Morals (http:/ / www. reprinted in Courier Dover Publications. Beyond Good and Evil [4]. Hollingdale. University of Rhode Island "On the Significance of Genealogy in Nietzsche's Critique of Morality" [7]. Harmondsworth: Penguin Books. translated by Helen Zimmern. New York: Random House. Dr. html). J. available freely as an English-language audiobook. uk/ ~rac101/ concord/ texts/ bge/ http:/ / www. 2002 External links • • • • • • Beyond Good and Evil [2] at Project Gutenberg — English-language edition. and as part of Basic Writings of Nietzsche. reprinted in Vintage Books. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. self-referential edition with concordance [5] An outline for Friedrich Nietzsche selections [6]. edu/ personal/ szunjic/ philos/ beyond. revised reprint 1990 with introduction by Michael Tanner • Beyond Good and Evil. Zur Genealogie der Moral. 1906. Oxford: Oxford World's Classics. 1973. New York. 2002 (study edition of the standard German Nietzsche edition) • Beyond Good and Evil. org/ beyond-good-and-evil-by-friedrich-nietzsche http:/ / www. 1997. summary by Meg Wallace http:/ / www. A searchable. 1998 • Beyond Good and Evil. 2000 • Beyond Good and Evil. 54 Editions • Jenseits von Gut und Böse. gutenberg. 1966. at LibriVox. Munich: Deutscher Taschenbuch Verlag. translated by Marion Faber. Bob Zunjic. translated by Walter Kaufmann. New York: Modern Library. html . carsten-korfmacher. ISBN 0-486-29868-X • Beyond Good and Evil. translated by R.

and specifically the morality of Christianity. .On the Genealogy of Morality 55 On the Genealogy of Morality On the Genealogy of Morality Title page of the first edition. which trace episodes in the evolution of moral concepts with a view to undermining "moral prejudices". or On the Genealogy of Morals (German: Zur Genealogie der Moral). and Nietzsche's masterpiece.[1] It consists of a preface and three interrelated Abhandlungen ("treatises" or "essays"). it is considered by Nietzsche scholars to be a work of sustained brilliance and power. Author Original title Country Language Subject(s) Genre(s) Friedrich Nietzsche 'Zur Genealogie der Moral' Germany German Ethics Philosophy Publication date 1887 Preceded by Followed by Beyond Good and Evil (1886) The Case of Wagner (1888) On the Genealogy of Morality. The most straightforward of Nietzsche's books and the least aphoristic in form and style. is a work by German philosopher Friedrich Nietzsche. composed and first published in 1887 with the intention of expanding and following through on certain new doctrines sketched out in his previous work Beyond Good and Evil. subtitled "A Polemic" (Eine Streitschrift).

One should not blame them for their "thirst for enemies and resistances and triumphs" (§13). This is the origin of what Nietzsche calls the "slave revolt in morality". the "blond beast". First Treatise: "'Good and Evil'. But the judgment "good".On the Genealogy of Morality 56 Summary Preface The subject of Nietzsche's treatises are his thoughts "on the origin of our moral prejudices"." It is in the First Treatise that Nietzsche introduces one of his most controversial images. Nietzsche expressly insists that it is a mistake to hold beasts of prey to be "evil" for their actions. that "the value of these values themselves must be called into question. Nietzsche suggests this process is encouraged through a confrontation between the priestly caste and the warrior caste where they are unable to settle. Nietzsche has come to believe that "a critique of moral values" is in order. which according to him begins with Judaism (§7). the good themselves (the powerful) coined the term "good". but by setting up an imaginary revenge. which is the product of what he calls "slave morality". that is. Nietzsche indicts the "English psychologists" for lacking historical sense. Slave morality in feeling ressentiment does not seek redress for its grievances by taking revenge through action. These latter call their inferiors "bad"—in the sense of "worthless" and "ill-born" (as in the Greek words κακος and δειλος)—not "evil. The priests. for its being the source of Christianity. Nietzsche had previously employed this metaphor of the "blond beast" to represent the lion. in their origins. unlike noble morality. Nietzsche attributes the desire to publish his "hypotheses" on the origins of morality to reading his friend Paul Rée's book The Origin of the Moral Sensations (1877) and finding the "genealogical hypotheses" offered there unsatisfactory. In the "good/evil" distinction. develop a deep and poisonous hatred of the powerful. which stem from their inherent strength rather than any malicious intent.e. what is called "evil" equates to what aristocratic morality calls "good". They invent the term "evil" to apply to the strong. an image that is central to his philosophy and which makes its first appearance in Thus Spoke Zarathustra. who are powerless in a situation of combat. which is subsequently forgotten as such actions become the norm. according to Nietzsche. as the noble would. It therefore needs enemies in order to sustain itself. Further." To this end it is necessary to provide an actual history of morality. there is no metaphysical subject. precisely to the "good" according to the noble valuation. The noble mode of valuation calls what it itself stands for "good". The weak deceive themselves into thinking that the meek are blessed and will win everlasting life. what is the incentive to forget it? Rather such a value-judgment gains currency by being increasingly burned into the consciousness. Similarly. All Too Human. whom Nietzsche refers to as an "English psychologist" (evidently using the word "English" to designate a certain intellectual temperament rather than a nationality). thereby ultimately vanquishing the strong. Rather. Only the weak need the illusion of the subject (or soul) to . Nietzsche contends that it is psychologically absurd to suggest that altruism derives from a utility which is forgotten: if it is useful. according to Nietzsche. originates not with the beneficiaries of altruistic actions. thoughts a long time in the making and already given brief and imperfect expression in his Human. They seek to do moral genealogy by explaining altruism in terms of the utility of altruistic actions. it is also a mistake to resent the strong for their actions because. everything which is powerful and life-asserting. rather than a hypothetical account in the style of Rée. From the aristocratic mode of valuation another mode of valuation branches off which develops into its opposite: the priestly mode of valuation. 'Good and Bad'" In the "First Treatise" Nietzsche is concerned to show that the valuations "good/evil" and "good/bad" have distinct origins and that the two senses of "good" are. which hardly takes enemies seriously and forgets about them instantly having dealt with them. This valuation develops out of the ressentiment of the powerful experienced by the weak. radically opposed in meaning. i.

At the maximum of fear. The real explanation of bad conscience is quite different. while the conquerors are characterized by an "instinctive creating of forms. who is by nature a nomadic hunter.) The product of this morality.e. his accountability for his actions. Nietzsche accounts for the genesis of the concept "god" by considering what happens when a tribe becomes ever more powerful. but rather increases as it has ever more reason to pay homage to the ancestors and to fear them. i. Punishment. the ancestor is "necessarily transfigured into a god" (§19). restored the church) and refreshed again by the French Revolution (in which the "ressentiment instincts of the rabble" triumphed). The creditor is compensated for the injury done by the pleasure he derives from the infliction of cruelty on the debtor. still roaming about". for example. Nietzsche develops the "major point of historical methodology" that one must not equate the origin of a thing and its utility. in Nietzsche's view. is a transaction in which the injury to the autonomous individual is compensated for by the pain inflicted on the culprit. is in a procedure that predates punishment. is that of awakening remorse. Such punishment is meted out without regard for moral considerations about the free will of the culprit. 57 Second Treatise: "'Guilt'. impressing of forms" (§17). A form of social organization. then. but a whole range of "meanings" which "finally crystallizes into a kind of unity that is difficult to dissolve. What began with Judea was the triumph of ressentiment. not a mere inertia or absentmindedness. its hold was broken for a moment by the Renaissance. Man needs to develop an active faculty to work in opposition to this in order that promises can be made that are necessary for exercising control over the future: this is memory. Punishment has not just one purpose. (Such a morality is to be sharply differentiated from Christian or other "ascetic" moralities.. This forgetfulness is." is imposed by a conqueror race. according to Nietzsche." Nietzsche concludes the First Treatise by considering that the two opposing valuations "good/bad" and "good/evil" have been locked in a tremendous struggle for thousands of years. In a tribe.] completely and utterly undefinable" (§13). a struggle that originated with the war between Rome (good/bad) and Judea (good/evil). and the like: it is simply an expression of anger. it concentrates. The psychology of prisoners shows that punishment "makes hard and cold. Instead of roaming in the wilderness. it sharpens the feeling of alienation" (§14). a "state. man now turns himself into "an adventure. One utility it does not possess. The origin of punishment. But they have no right "to make the bird of prey accountable for being a bird of prey. imprisoned within" (§17). This control over the future allows a "morality of custom" to get off the ground.. sadistic instincts of man. suppressed. Under such conditions the destructive.On the Genealogy of Morality hold their actions together as a unity. Nietzsche ends the Treatise with a positive suggestion for a counter-movement to the "conscience-vivisection and cruelty to the animal-self" imposed by the bad conscience: this is to "wed to bad conscience the unnatural . the autonomous individual. a place of torture". 'Bad Conscience'. the current generation always pays homage to its ancestors. Nietzsche lists eleven different uses (or "meanings") of punishment. Such a race is able to do so even if those they subject to their power are vastly superior in numbers because these subjects are "still formless. As the power of the tribe grows the need to offer thanks to the ancestors does not decline. Bad conscience is thus man's instinct for freedom (his "will to power") "driven back. Hence the concept of guilt (Schuld) derives from the concept of debt (Schulden). find themselves constricted and thwarted. and the Like" In the "Second Treatise" Nietzsche advances his thesis that the origin of the institution of punishment is in a straightforward (pre-moral) creditor/debtor relationship. they are therefore turned inward. but reasserted by the Reformation (which. comes to see that he may inflict harm on those who break their promises to him. difficult to analyze and [. an active "faculty of repression". and suggests that there are many more. Man relies on the apparatus of forgetfulness which has been bred into him in order not to become bogged down in the past. offering sacrifices to them as a demonstration of gratitude to them. The process by which the succession of different meanings is imposed is driven by the "will to power"—the basic instinct for domination underlying all human action. however.

not what [the ascetic] ideal has done. always require some ideology to prop themselves up. but simply what it means. indistinct expression. his slogans have been "poverty. the Third Treatise is a commentary on the aphorism prefixed to it. we may thus surmise. Wagner. German depression after the Thirty Years' War) (§17). goal. it is the "'supreme' license for power." He sets himself up as the "saviour" of (d) the physiologically deformed. (b) modern historians. including malaria and syphilis (e. telling the weak to look for the causes of their unhappiness in themselves (in "sin").g. they work by inducing an "orgy of feeling" (Gefühls-Ausschweifung). This opening aphorism confronts us with the multiplicity of meanings that the ascetic ideal has for different groups: (a) artists. chastity.g. Artists. It was only in the guise of the ascetic priest that the philosopher was first able to make his appearance without attracting suspicion of his overweening will to power. somnambulism (of which there were eight epidemics between 1564 and 1605). what can we look to to oppose it? "Where is the counterpart to this closed system of will. not in others." which he needs to satisfy his desire for independence. the Indians to India). Nietzsche confines his attention to the composer Richard Wagner. self-doubting present" (§24). according to Nietzsche. (c) "comedians of the ideal" (§27). Such training in repentance is responsible. (c) women. and the delirium characterized by the widespread cry of evviva la morte! ("long live death!"). especially love of one's neighbour. (b) For the philosopher. beneath it. (2) mechanical activity. and interpretation?" (§23) Nietzsche considers as possible opponents of the ideal: (a) modern science. which is a quotation from Nietzsche's Thus Spoke Zarathustra). (4) the awakening of the communal feeling of power. (ii) emigration of a race to an unsuitable environment (e. (b) philosophers. he concludes." (e) For the priest. in it. As Nietzsche tells us in the Preface. it means a "sense and instinct for the most favorable conditions of higher spirituality. . what lies hidden behind it. (v) diseases of various kinds. i. we are told. not in the "decaying. (a) For the artist. He does this by "altering the direction of ressentiment. Four of these are innocent in the sense that they do the patient no further harm: (1) a general deadening of the feeling of life." i. Textual studies have shown that this aphorism consists of §1 of the Treatise (not the epigraph to the Treatise. of what it is the provisional.On the Genealogy of Morality inclinations".e. every "true" philosopher has retained the trappings of the ascetic priest. the ascetic ideal means "nothing or too many things". means very little in itself. The ascetic ideal.g. 58 Third Treatise: "What do ascetic ideals mean?" Nietzsche's purpose in the "Third Treatise" is "to bring to light. (iv) bad diet (e. The ascetic priest has a range of strategies for anesthetizing the continuous. As yet. (d) physiological casualties. for phenomena such as the St Vitus' and St John's dancers of the Middle Ages. humility. and (f) saints. (3) "small joys". man "will rather will nothingness than not will". (e) priests. Given the extraordinary success of the ascetic ideal in imposing itself on our entire culture.e. other than as a compensation for humanity's need to have some goal or other. Nietzsche suggests a number of causes for widespread physiological inhibition: (i) the crossing of races. offering them a cure for their exhaustion and listlessness (which is in reality only a therapy which does not tackle the roots of their suffering). He further has a number of strategies which are guilty in the sense that they have the effect of making the sick sicker (although the priest applies them with a good conscience). overlaid with question marks and misunderstandings" (§23). witch-hunt hysteria. vegetarianism). therefore we should look to philosophers if we are to get closer to finding out what the ascetic ideal means. to use the self-destructive tendency encapsulated in bad conscience to attack the symptoms of sickness themselves. As Nietzsche puts it. relied on Schopenhauer to provide this underpinning. low-level pain of the weak. It is much too early for the kind of free spirit—a Zarathustra-figure—who could bring this about to emerge. what it indicates.g. although he will come one day: he will emerge only in a time of emboldening conflict. Parisian pessimism from 1850). (iii) the exhaustion of a race (e.

It has no faith in itself.] its temporary solidification. translated by Francis Golffing. What is thus now required. ISBN 0-385-09210-5 . 2002." "In vain!. lignification. ISBN 0521871239.On the Genealogy of Morality (a) Science is in fact the "most recent and noblest form" of the ascetic ideal. ISBN 019283617X. [.[3] It is a matter of contention whether there is any such thing as a "genealogical method" as practised by Nietzsche.." In a sense. • On the Genealogy of Morals. • The Birth of Tragedy & the Genealogy of Morals. • On the Genealogy of Morality. ISBN 0872202836. 1998. translated by Horace Barnett Samuel. Oxford: Oxford World's Classics. Hollingdale). translated and edited by Maudemarie Clark and Alan J. New York: Vintage. J. their "last crowings" are "To what end?. notably by Michel Foucault. Europe is full of such "comedians of the Christian-moral ideal. As deniers of teleology. 1967. translated and edited by Douglas Smith. • The Genealogy of Morals. are not only ascetic but highly nihilistic. out of all of his works it perhaps comes closest to a systematic and sustained exposition of his ideas. because they at least "arouse mistrust" (§27)." "Nada!" (§26) (c) An even worse kind of historian is what Nietzsche calls the "contemplatives": self-satisfied armchair hedonists who have arrogated to themselves the praise of contemplation (Nietzsche gives the example of Ernest Renan). is a critique of the value of truth itself (§24). An example is the attempt by the British philosopher Bernard Williams to vindicate the value of truthfulness using lines of argument derived from genealogy in his book Truth and Truthfulness (2002). Munich: Deutscher Taschenbuch Verlag. this version also included in Basic Writings of Nietzsche. edited by Giorgio Colli and Mazzino Montinari. Zur Genealogie der Moral. Nietzsche concludes. The will to truth that is bred by the ascetic ideal has in its turn led to the spread of a truthfulness the pursuit of which has brought the will to truth itself in peril. New York: Modern Library. in trying to hold up a mirror to ultimate reality. By succeeding in dismantling the claims to the theological importance of man. translated and edited by Walter Kaufmann (translation of On the Genealogy in collaboration with R. play of masks. 2003. sheathing. Others have adapted "genealogy" in a looser sense to inform their work. 2000. • On the Genealogy of Morality. Indianapolis: Hackett. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. (b) Modern historians. if anyone is inimical to the ideal it is they. translated by Carol Diethe and edited by Keith Ansell-Pearson. 59 Influence On the Genealogy of Morality is considered by many[2] academics to be Nietzsche's most important work. ISBN 0679724621. it has merely come to substitute the self-contempt of man as the ideal of science. 1956. and. • On The Genealogy of Morals and Ecce Homo. despite its polemical style. In its apparent opposition to the ascetic ideal. Editions • Jenseits von Gut und Böse. it has succeeded merely in demolishing the ideal's "outworks. New York: Courier Dover Publications. and acts only as a means of self-anesthetization for sufferers (scientists) who do not want to admit that they are such. to apply "genealogy" as a novel method of research in sociology (evinced principally in "histories" of sexuality and punishment). dogmatization" (§25). Swensen. ISBN 0486426912. 1996. but there have been attempts. Anchor Books. 1994..

Nanaimo.A Polemical Tract. de/ nietzsch/ genealog/ genealog. Genealogy. ed." and Wagner is ironically compared to Georges Bizet. Nietzsche et la philosophie (PUF. Friedrich. In Nietzsche contra Wagner Nietzsche pulled together excerpts from his works to show that he consistently had the same thoughts about music. However. [4] (Translated into English by Ian Johnston of Malaspina University-College. wherein he praised Wagner as fulfilling a need in music to go beyond the analytic and dispassionate understanding of music. Richard. 73. Stegmaier. ca/ ~johnstoi/ Nietzsche/ genealogytofc. [4] http:/ / records. [3] See B. Nietzsche on Morality (Routledge. 7. Nietzsches "Genealogie der Moral" (Wissenschaftliche Buchgesellschaft. org/ texts/ eKGWB/ GM [6] http:/ / gutenberg. spiegel. it has also been known as "The Wagner Case" in English.. Contents The book is a critique of Richard Wagner and the announcement of Nietzsche's rupture with the German artist. Wagner is presented by Nietzsche as only a particular symptom of a broader "disease" which is affecting Europe. nietzschesource. • Zur Genealogie der Moral. that is nihilism. Nietzsche also praised Wagner fulsomely in his essay 'Wagner at Bayreuth' (part of the Untimely Meditations). and provides the setting for some of his further reflections on the nature of art and on its relationship to the future health of humanity. p. Eine Streitschrift [5] online German text at Nietzsche Source • Zur Genealogie der Moral. 2002). Janaway. but his disillusion with Wagner the composer and the man was first seen in his 1878 work Human. On the Genealogy of Morals . BC). The book shows Nietzsche as a capable music-critic. G. 1994). pp. in the Völkisch movement and antisemitism. p. viu. This work is in sharp contrast with the second part of Nietzsche's The Birth of Tragedy. Beyond Selflessness: Reading Nietzsche's Genealogy (OUP. Leiter. External links • "The Case of Wagner" [1] at Nietzsche Source References [1] http:/ / www. 1962). 99. W. nietzschesource. 1994. His music is no longer represented as a possible "philosophical affect. htm The Case of Wagner The Case of Wagner (Der Fall Wagner) is a German book by the philosopher Friedrich Nietzsche. One of the last works that Nietzsche wrote returned to the critical theme of The Case of Wagner. Eine Streitschrift [6] online German text at Projekt Gutenberg-DE References [1] C.On the Genealogy of Morality 60 External links • Nietzsche. Morality: Essays on Nietzsche's Genealogy of Morals. originally published in 1888. 1 [2] Schacht. Nietzsche. org/ texts/ eKGWB/ WA . who had involved himself too much. Deleuze. Subtitled "A Musician's Problem". 1887. in Nietzsche's eyes. htm [5] http:/ / www. 2007). All Too Human. p. only that he had misapplied them to Wagner in the earliest works. Berkeley: University of California Press.

and shoots some disapproving arrows at key French. oder. written in 1888. Twilight of the Idols is his attempt at this. or. Genesis Twilight of the Idols was written in just over a week." employing dialectics as a tool for self-preservation as the authority of tradition breaks down. Napoleon. or. or 'Twilight of the Gods'. confuse the effect for the cause. Götterdämmerung. and that they project their ego.Twilight of the Idols 61 Twilight of the Idols Twilight of the Idols. or.) OCLC Number 22578979 [1] Preceded by Followed by The Case of Wagner (1888) The Anti-christ (1888) Twilight of the Idols. their subjectivity to other things. Thucydides and the Sophists as healthier and stronger types. How to Philosophize with a Hammer. he felt that he needed a text that was a short introduction to his work.[2] As Nietzsche's fame and popularity was spreading both inside and outside Germany. In the chapter The Four Great Errors. thereby .[2] Originally titled A Psychologist's Idleness. while Nietzsche was on holiday in Sils-Maria. The book states the transvaluation of all values as Nietzsche's final and most important project. götzen can be translated as either "idol" or "false god". between 26 August and 3 September 1888. Synopsis Nietzsche criticizes German culture of the day as unsophisticated. is a pun on the title of Richard Wagner's opera. he suggests that people. Götzen-Dämmerung in German. thus. and gives a view of antiquity wherein the Romans for once take precedence over the ancient Greeks. The latter title. Wie man mit dem Hammer philosophiert) is a book by Friedrich Nietzsche. hardcover 208 (1990 Penguin Classics ed. He tries to show how philosophers from Socrates onwards were "decadents. and published in 1889. In contrast to all these alleged representatives of cultural "decadence".) ISBN 978-0140445145 (1990 Penguin Classics ed. and Italian cultural figures. Nietzsche applauds Caesar. How to Philosophize with a Hammer Author Original title Translator Country Language Genre(s) Friedrich Nietzsche Götzen-Dämmerung R.J. Götzen is a diminutive of götter. Goethe. British. it was renamed Twilight of the Idols. He establishes early on in the section The Problem of Socrates that the value of life cannot be estimated and any judgment concerning it only reveals the person's life-denying or life-affirming tendencies. Hollingdale Germany German philosophy Publication date 1888 Media type Pages ISBN Paperback. especially Christians. How to Philosophize with a Hammer (original German title Götzen-Dämmerung.

. He critiques the concept of accountability and will and suggests everything is necessary in a unity that can be neither judged nor condemned. Nietzsche concludes that what people typically deem "vice" is in fact merely "the inability not to react to a stimulus". there is in our eyes no more radical opposition than that of the theologians. the origin of every action as lying in the consciousness. Duncan (trans). In suggesting that the concept of "free will" is an illusion. when we immoralists especially are trying with all our might to remove the concept of guilt and the concept of punishment from the world and to purge psychology. • English translation by Walter Kaufmann and R.Today.. Twilight of the Idols (Oxford: Oxford University Press) ix http:/ / www." Men were thought of as free so that they could become guilty: consequently. In this light. Hollingdale [4] • Twilight of the Idols audio book at librivox. every action had to be thought of as willed.. nature. org/ etext/ 7203 http:/ / www. history. html http:/ / librivox. when we have started to move in the reverse direction. the social institutions and sanctions of them. who continue to infect the innocence of becoming with 'punishment' and 'guilt' by means of the concept of the 'moral world-order'.. The Four Great Errors 62 Chapters • • • • • • • • • • • • "Foreword" "Maxims and Arrows" "The Problem of Socrates" "Reason in Philosophy" "How the Real World at Last Became a Myth" "Morality as Anti-Nature" "The Four Great Errors" "The Improvers of Mankind" "What the Germans Lack" "Expeditions of an Untimely Man" "What I Owe to the Ancients" "The Hammer Speaks" External links • Götzen-Dämmerung [3] at Project Gutenberg — German language edition.. and therefore also of God. gutenberg. org/ oclc/ 22578979 Large. handprint. org/ the-twilight-of-the-idols-by-friedrich-nietzsche/ '' .Twilight of the Idols creating the illusionary concept of being. com/ SC/ NIE/ GotDamer. the concept of morality becomes purely a means of control: "the doctrine of will has been invented essentially for the purpose of punishment.J. Christianity is a hangman's metaphysics. that is of finding [5] References [1] [2] [3] [4] [5] http:/ / worldcat.

Author Original title Translator Country Language Subject(s) Genre(s) Friedrich Nietzsche Der Antichrist H. originally published in 1895. Although it was written in 1888.) ISBN 978-1-59605-681-7 (2005 Cosimo ed.L.[2] [3] ." The English word "Christian" is called a weak noun in German and. audiobook 96 (2005 Cosimo ed.) The Twilight of the Idols (1888) Ecce Homo (1888) The Anti-Christ (German: Der Antichrist) (also could be translated as The Anti-Christian) is a book by the philosopher Friedrich Nietzsche. in the singular nominative case. the title is likely to imply both connotations (the same way as the word "Antichristianity" would in English).The Antichrist (book) 63 The Antichrist (book) The Anti-Christ Cover of the 2005 Cosimo edition. Mencken Germany German Christianity.[1] The German title can be translated into English as both "The Anti-Christ" and "The Anti-Christian. it is translated as "der Christ." Given the content of the book. hardcover. Jesus philosophy Publication date 1888 Media type Pages ISBN Preceded by Followed by Paperback. along with Ecce Homo. its controversial content made Franz Overbeck and Heinrich Köselitz delay its publication.

for power : where the will to power is lacking there is decline." and "resignation. Aristotle. and is thus a prime instrument of the advancement of decadence: pity persuades men to nothingness! Of course. must be honest in intellectual matters to the point of hardness to so much as endure my seriousness. In order to understand the book. not peace at all. according to Nietzsche. courage for the forbidden"[4] are also needed... but war . ". Nietzsche expressed his dissatisfaction with modernity. was an intellectually strong man who was depraved by Christianity's teaching of original sin... multiplies misery and conserves all that is miserable. who had based all morality on compassion.' 'redemption. and is harmful to life. it is a virtue."[8] German militarists found pronouncements such as "Not contentment. has bred a weak. He disdained all other readers. Nietzsche's words were provocative and shocking in passages such as: "The weak and ill–constituted shall perish: first principle of our philanthropy. What is happiness? — The feeling that power increases — that a resistance is overcome. Indo-European paganism as compared to the deficient "southerliness" of the modern Judeo-Christian. but more power.. my passion.. is despised by Nietzsche. And one shall help them to do so. for accumulation of forces.' 'salvation. but for Christianity." "cowardly compromise. for Nietzsche. He disliked the contemporary "lazy peace. For a noble morality. which spoke of the Hyperboreans (or Thuleans) as the original civilized and gifted race of mankind (cf. nihilistic values dominate under the holiest names. Decadent values In § 1. all the values in which mankind at present summarizes its highest desiderata are decadence values.The Antichrist (book) 64 Content Nietzsche's readers Nietzsche claimed in the Foreword to have written the book for a very limited readership. Pity also preserves that which should naturally be destroyed. bad. egalitarian tradition.. perfect resignation. he asserted that the reader ". loss of vitality and strength. He defined the concepts of good. the will to power. But... on the other hand.[5] When Nietzsche says in the preface. Pity leads to depression. occult subject in Greek mythology. power itself in man. on the contrary. for durability. He asserted that " . higher humans. praised ".. What is bad? — All that proceeds from weakness. Julius Evola). "I consider life itself instinct for growth. . he was alluding to a mysterious. In Schopenhauer's philosophy..' One says 'the Beyond' or 'God' or ' true life' or 'Nirvana. out of fear."[7] Nietzsche introduced his concept of will to power in § 2."."... as the religion of pity. which is the innermost spirit of Christianity . the usefulness or harmfulness of truth should not be a concern. What is more harmful than any vice? — Active sympathy for the ill–constituted and weak — Christianity .. Schopenhauer was hostile to life: therefore pity became a virtue for him..[8] Nietzsche went on to say that mankind.[9] Nietzsche. He blamed Christianity for demonizing strong. virtue free of moralic acid. one does not say 'nothingness."[12] Mankind is depraved because it has lost its instincts and prefers what is harmful to it. Also."[12] Christian pity Christianity. which was the most nihilistic and opposed to life. We are Hyperboreans. he claimed."[12] Depravity results because " . is corrupt and its highest values are depraved."[13] The moderns Leo Tolstoy and Richard Wagner adopted Schopenhauer's viewpoint. Characteristics such as "Strength which prefers questions for which no one today is sufficiently daring.."[4] The reader should be above politics and nationalism.[8] This is an example of Nietzsche's reaction against Schopenhauer.." "tolerance... "What is good? — All that heightens the feeling of power."[8] useful. pity is the highest virtue of all."[6] This related to Schopenhauer's claim that knowledge of the inner nature of the world and life results in ". and happiness in relation to the will to power.' 'blessedness.' . sick type of human. "Let us look one another in the face. Nietzsche cleverly refers to the Hyperboreans to indirectly extol the heritage of pre-Christian.[10] [11] Mankind. . pity is a weakness. Pascal. pity " ....

. and pride. pure. the nihilistic will wants power. not divinities.. practiced by priests and idealists. Metaphysicians have eliminated the attributes of virile (männlichen) virtues. They are supposed to represent a high.. As a result. conscious advocate of nothingness and negation .." Kant's skeptical procedure was to show that these concepts could not be refuted. when the sublime command 'thou shalt.. bravery.. are antithetical to reality and actuality. degenerated into the contradiction of life."[15] Seeing falsely is then valued as the highest morality.' makes itself heard...The Antichrist (book) recognized the unhealthiness of pity and prescribed tragedy as a purgative. devoid of free will.[25] Nietzsche proclaimed that the Christian God is ". ". decadent. A God who counsels love of enemy. such as strength. "Pure spirit is pure lie"[14] and he called the priest a " . When the theologians seek political power. and sick people.[20] Christian God Nietzsche claimed that the Christian religion and its morality are based on imaginary fictions. from the concept of God.[17] Kant's practical reason was an attempt to give scientific legitimacy to his lack of intellectual conscience.closing one's eyes with respect to oneself once and for all....[14] Theologians were placed by Nietzsche in the same class as priests. and philosophers Theology and philosophy. declaration of war against life. "In our whole unhealthy modernity there is nothing more unhealthy than Christian pity. Absolute. Kant supported theological ideals by his discussions of the concepts of "true world" and "morality as the essence of the world. He defined the faith that they fostered as ". we have learned much about his physiology. according to Nietzsche. according to Nietzsche. and pleasure. However. we know that man is not superior to other animals.the will to the end. If Christians were naturally strong and confident. Consciousness and spirit derive from instinct. it deteriorated into an insubstantial ideal.' and 'science' . instead of being life's transfiguration and eternal 'Yes'!"[24] The Christian God is a ".[19] Our present modesty compels us to recognize man's derivation from animals. ". to be harmful to life.' the 'senses.[16] Nietzsche was especially critical of Kant's Categorical Imperative because it was not the result of a personal necessity and choice.' 'good living. formula for every slander against 'this world. to Nietzsche.. the sanctification of the will to nothingness!"[24] . A quiet.. even though they could not be proved. growth. is a God of a people who feel themselves as perishing and without hope."[21] Such hatred results from Christianity's decadence. or thing in itself. and poisoner of life .."[13] 65 Theologians. he claimed..' for every lie about the 'beyond'!"[24] Recalling Schopenhauer's description of the denial of the will to live and the subsequent empty nothingness. this entire fictional world has its roots in hatred of the natural (—actuality!—). as well as of friend. This reversal of values is considered.. he invented a special kind of reason for cases in which one need not bother about reason — that is. when morality.. slanderer.. Will is now known to be a necessary reaction to a stimulus. Scientific method Nietzsche considered himself to be a free spirit who was undertaking a revaluation of all values... against nature. and superior spirit that is above and has " ..."[14] But. self–preservation. against the will to live!"[24] This God is a ".[23] Nietzsche opposed the Christian concept of God because it ".. By reducing man to a mere machine. " .[22] Weak. will give themselves a God who is purely good. whose will to power has declined. according to Nietzsche. " and who stands truth upside down on its head. by Nietzsche... Prior to Nietzsche's time."[18] Kant's self–deceptive fraudulence is a result of the influence of priestly theology on his philosophy. " who is a " . Also. the method of searching for truth and knowledge was unscientific. They will then attribute evil and deviltry to their masters' God. modest manner was seen with contempt. benevolent contempt for the 'understanding.. Its origin from concepts and logic was decadent because it was not a product of life. denier. The Christian God reflects Christianity's decadence. cautious..' 'honors."[15] In his native Germany.. so as not to suffer from the sight of incurable falsity. philosophy is corrupt because it is theological. pure spirit. they would have a God who is destructive as well as good. priests.

to a greater degree.. Morality is no longer an expression of life and growth... priests survived and attained power by siding with decadents. place themselves at the head of all decadence movements (— as the Christianity of Paul —) so as to make of them something stronger than any party that affirms life. while suffering can have a redemptive quality."[34] The past is translated into religious terms.. Nietzsche wrote.. "Almost two thousand years — and not a single new god!"[26] Nietzsche maintained that the traditional Christian God of "monotono-theism" (Monotono–Theismus) supports ". In all religious history. Faith and belief are opposed to reason.[30] Buddhism is too positivistic and truthful. on the other hand."[33] (4. he believed... . Nietzsche believed. interprets suffering as being related to sin. whereas Christianity was the religion of the lowest classes. The Jews affirmed themselves.. They turned against the natural world. all misfortune as punishment for disobedience of God. knowledge. He also believed Christianity had conquered barbarians by making them sick.) Concept of God is falsified. Yahweh became a demanding god of justice who is ".) Israel's Yahweh "."[26] 66 Buddhism and Christianity Although he considered both Christianity and Buddhism to be nihilistic. the right way of . invent another world from which that life–affirmation would appear evil . in the Beyond sustains the unhappy multitudes.. i."[28] Buddhism had its roots in higher and also learned classes of people. Even after internal anarchy and Assyrian invasions weakened Israel... interpret all good fortune as a reward. eternal punishment for the great epoch — an epoch in which the priest was as yet nothing. hope. Christianity. and charity. (2."[27] Buddha created the religion in order to assist individuals in ridding themselves of the suffering of life. for 'sin. "The supreme goal is cheerfulness. The Jews were not decadents. The Exile is an ". piety.[30] Origin of Christianity Jewish priesthood Jewish. realized their own power.. all the instincts of decadence. Christian. they pretended to be decadents so they could " . absence of desire.. punishment.'. and subsequently. morality opposes life by presenting well–being as a dangerous temptation..self–deception of moral concepts. and inquiry.. the Jewish priests made use of the decadents and their large population. on the contrary.the toughest national will to life which has ever existed on earth. they considered him to be the God of justice.. it retained its worship of God as a king who is both soldier and judge. According to Nietzsche.) History of Israel is falsified. to have advocated the Christian virtues of faith. all cowardices and weariness of the soul .. Hope.. they have ". decadent religions. which is experienced as fact or illusion (the concept of Maya) in various traditions of Buddhism.. Nietzsche claimed that Buddhism is "beyond good and evil" because it has developed past the ". Instead. Nietzsche claimed. themselves.. of their delight in themselves. and reward in relation to Yahweh. their hopes of themselves. The great epoch becomes an epoch of decay. Nietzsche called these virtues the three Christian shrewdnesses. and had a good conscience... Nietzsche did consider Buddhism more realistic because it posed objective problems and didn't use the concept of God."[31] In order to survive..The Antichrist (book) Nietzsche criticized the "strong races of northern Europe" for accepting the Christian God and not creating a new god of their own."[33] (3.."[32] However. Priestly agitators " .e... no longer at one with Israel or an expression of national self-confidence. and this goal is achieved.. struggles against sin.[29] Buddhism objectively claims "I suffer. It was a record of guilt... .) Concept of morality is falsified. Their resentment against those who were well–constituted led them to ".[31] Five stages of denaturalizing values (1. to him." Christianity.was the expression of their consciousness of power. . stillness."[33] Because he was their God. A moral world order is established which assigns value to actions that obey the will of God (and which claims that this general will. according to Nietzsche. . Buddhism was the only positivistic religion because it struggles against actual suffering.

) God's will is revealed in the holy scripture.. .. the ruling power of the will of God. Also. not a new faith. . According to Walter Kaufmann.. The sacred book formulates the will of God and specifies what is to be given to the priests. . expressed as punishment and reward according to the degree of obedience. The real. rituals. The first disciples. miracle–worker.."[41] Jesus did not want to redeem anyone."[39] Everyone has an equal right to become a child of God. He offers no resistance to evil."[40] It is ". the outcasts and 'sinners. in their Gospels. however... a result of delayed puberty.. punishment. "The fear of pain. Messiah. Nietzsche thought that the word idiot best described Jesus. . repentance.' Subjection to God (the priest) is redemption.."[34] Natural values become utterly valueless.the kingdom of heaven belongs to 'children'. ."[32] The Redeemer type Nietzsche criticized Ernest Renan's attribution of the concepts genius and hero to Jesus. sickness.. at all the natural events of life. Extreme sensitivity results in avoidance of the world. . was a political criminal . to opposition against the dominant order .. Jesus does not resist or contend with the world because he doesn't recognize the importance of the world. His legacy was his 67 .."[32] The Jewish church and the Jewish nation received this rebellion as a threat to its existence. Dostoevsky could have revealed his sickliness and childishness. reality. "That holy anarchist who roused up the people at the bottom. Priests become parasites. death..The Antichrist (book) life for everyone. and perfected.[35] he might have been referring to the naïve protagonist of Dostoevsky's book The Idiot. These symbols are expressed in terms of space. is eternal and unchanging). . marriage." and "the kingdom of heaven. .[a] new way of life."[37] Jesus was a distorted version of the redeemer type. at birth." "the hour of death. [A]ll things of life are so ordered that the priest is everywhere indispensable.' at all times a 'child of God. time. His spirituality is infantile. prayers. or faith.. and the world as being sinful and unholy.[t]he deep instinct for how one must live. an 'eternal' world'. eternalized. guilt.. Jesus was ". and metaphors.' 'evangelical.."[40] The Christian is known by his acts.. of an individual. where he died for his own guilt.' the Chandalas within Judaism.. is only a collection of psychological symbols... Examples of these mere symbols are the concepts of "God as a person. Disobedience of God (the priest) is 'sin. the priestly instinct which can no longer stand the priest as a reality..[38] According to Jesus. Revolt against Jewish priesthood The Jewish church opposed and negated nature. chosen people. ".The kingdom of God is within you'. moral preacher. Priests use 'sin' to gain and hold power.. ". He wanted to show how to live. Christianity then negated the Jewish church and its holy. His life is its own kingdom of God at every moment. the redeemer type is determined by a morbid intolerance of pain. Not to speak of 'sacrifice' (meal–times). history. Nietzsche asserted that the psychological reality of redemption was ". The priest sanctifies and bestows all value. Early Christians used Semitic concepts to express his teaching. signs.. There is no Judaic concern for sin. forgiveness.. [T]he little rebellious movement which is baptized with the name Jesus of Nazareth represents the Jewish instinct once more—in other words. as in Judaism.'"[40] There were two worlds for the teacher of the Gospel's glad tidings. Blessedness is not promised on home in a world undisturbed by reality of any kind...."[34] (5. That is what brought him to the cross . The Gospel's glad tidings are that there is no distinction between God and man.. even of the infinitely small in pain. a merely 'inner' world.." "the son of man. any feeling of resistance to the world is experienced as pain. The apparent world... but his anti–realism could just as easily have been a characteristic of Taoism or Hinduism..' 'blessed. a 'real' world. according to Nietzsche. Even evil is therefore not resisted. an even more unreal vision of the world .. and nature. With an antipathy toward the material world.. "[E]vangelic practice alone leads to God."[36] According to Nietzsche.. . — cannot end otherwise than in a religion of love. true world is an inner experience of the heart in which all things are blessedly transfigured (Verklärung). the invention of an even more abstract form of existence. is demonstrated in the destiny of a nation. He has no anger and wants no revenge. etc.. ". Priests teach that ". it is God!" "[I]t is only in the practice of life that one feels 'divine. in order to feel oneself 'in heaven'.. described him as having Old Testament characteristics such as prophet.

the opposite kind of life was called Christian. By offering immortal life after death to everyone. vulgar. to all open–hearted and benevolent humanity. however. Nietzsche has Jesus tell the thief on the cross that he is in Paradise now if he recognizes the divinity of Jesus' comportment..[47] This was in opposition to Jesus' doctrine that everyone could be a child of God and experience Heaven in their present lives by acting in a gentle.The Antichrist (book) bearing and behavior.if Christ be not raised.' 'spirit. Christianity appealed to everyone's egoism.progressively cruder misunderstanding of an original symbolism. "... "The great lie of personal immortality destroys all rationality. It is state of being that consists of "."[50] This influenced politics and led to revolutions against aristocracies. all the scum and refuse of mankind. to all loftiness of soul... Genuine.a doing. — Christian values — noble values.. One lives for life in the beyond.[O]nly Christian practice.' 'love. Nietzsche considered this falseness to be indecent. barbaric and crude."[48] Paul used the promise of life after death as a way to seize tyrannical power over the masses of lower class people. ." "Redeemer.. primitive Christianity is not a faith.[44] Christianity became more diseased. all natural in the instincts—all that is healthy. your faith is vain. his contemporaries knew that sham and unnatural concepts such as "God. pride." "beyond. revenge. to discipline of spirit.[42] 68 History of Christianity Opposite development Nietzsche saw a world–historical irony in the way that the Christian Church developed in antithetical opposition to the Evangel and the Gospel of early Christianity..[45] "[T]here was only one Christian.. loving manner. the measure and also the Last Judgment of all the rest.. ...": the death on the cross.. morbid."[48] In order to claim that there is life after death."[51] Christianity then divided itself from the world by appropriating "."[50] The meaning of life is that there is no meaning to present life. Modern people act with worldly egoism. Christianity's history is a "."[46] Jesus' wanted his death on the cross to be an example of how a person can be free from resentment. all that is life—promoting. all that guarantees a future now arouses if only the 'Christian' were the meaning.. the history of Israel. ." "sinner.. this morbid barbarism itself finally assumes power — the Church. Nietzsche claimed that Paul's pretence of holiness and his use of priestly concepts were typically Jewish.Jesus had done away with the concept 'guilt' itself — he had denied any chasm between God and man." "Paul himself even taught personal immortality as a reward..' 'light." and "immortal soul" are consciously employed in order to provide power to the church and its priests. They elevated Jesus into being the Messiah and Son of God and promised future judgment and punishment in the kingdom of God.[49] This changed Christianity from a peace movement that achieves actual happiness into a religion whose final judgment offers possible resurrection and eternal life." "moral world–order. and will to power in opposition to Christianity's denial of the world. Belief in redemption through Christ is not originally Christian.. Paul made immortality the main point in 1 Corinthians 15:17 when he said ". The disciples.. base.. rebellious–minded.' 'wisdom.. "As the Church."[46] ".' 'life' . low.the concepts 'God...' 'truth. Paul falsified the history of Christianity. and he died on the cross.. He did not resist evildoers. under–privileged. and the history of mankind by making them all seem to be a preparation for the crucifixion. Unlike past ages." "free will. is Christian. wanted revenge against the Jewish ruling class and high priests who had delivered him to Pilate.[43] The fable of Christ as miracle–worker and redeemer is not the origin of Christianity."[44] Nietzsche expressed contempt for his contemporaries because they mendaciously called themselves Christians but did not act like true Christians. the apostles ignored Jesus' example of blessed living." Thereafter. a life such as he lived who died on the cross. he lived this unity of God and man as his 'glad tidings'. above all a not–doing of many things. The laws of nature would be broken for the salvation of everyone. Paul and the promise of eternal life The apostles claimed that Jesus' death was a sacrifice of an innocent man for the sins of the guilty. "." "Last Judgment. and rebellion. the salt. original. He loved evildoers.[I]t is to this pitiable flattery of personal vanity that Christianity owes its victory — it is with this that it has persuaded over to its side everything ill–constituted. Christianity separated itself from Judaism as though it was the chosen religion. But ".. that form of mortal hostility to all integrity.

according to Nietzsche. But Christianity uses sick reasoning. ?"[56] It could be said. 'chosen of God' .. "In Christianity..[T]he priest rules through the invention of sin. the denigration and self–violation of man through the concept of sin. is a trait of those who are devoted to a party or faction. or not wanting to see as one sees. to try to prove its truth.. discipline.The Antichrist (book) as if these were synonyms of themselves.' has to be a form of sickness. itself.. science..attains its ultimate perfection. scientific road to knowledge has to be repudiated by the Church as a forbidden road..bad ends: the poisoning.' which means science. for example on the basis of integrity. honest. is "."[51] According to Nietzsche...... intellectual moderation."[51] Gospel of resentment Nietzsche asserted that the Christian ". in its opposition to reality.' the 'sacred book.. in Jewish fashion...." "guilt. .' 'inspiration' — all merely words for the conditions under which the priest comes to power.. and forgiveness."[52] Against science The Christian God is harmful and a crime against life... ."[57] The decadent and sick types of people came to power through Christianity. for 'faith'.. hellish anxiety regarding science has been chronicled. in one's own person. the typical Christian condition.there must be something to a cause for which someone is willing to die. the democratism of the Christian instincts conquered. by which he maintains his power. contempt for the body. redemption. Also. . Genesis 3:5."[55] 69 Psychology of belief Belief is ". Such sinners are dependent on their priests for salvation. ... "[W]hen on earth was it established that true judgments give more enjoyment than false ones."[61] The Holy Lie and belief Lying. blessedness. and self–overcoming. beauty and liberality of heart."[63] Unlike the Jewish/Christian Bible.[e]verything that suffers.. Nietzsche quoted a passage from his earlier work: "And if someone goes through fire for his doctrine — what does that prove?"[60] "[T]he need for belief. "Belief makes blessed: thus it is lies.mortally hostile to the 'wisdom of this world. such as martyrdom."[58] Knowledge requires caution. cannot be a proof of truth. God's.. and therefore the priests' a need born of weakness. .there is an end to priests and gods if man becomes scientific!"[54] Priests used the concepts of "sin. Sinful. "The God that Paul created is a negation of God.. denying of life. of a broken will to live. or Christian..The 'Law. Every straightforward. It.[T]he right to lie and the shrewdness of a 'revelation' (Offenbarung) pertains to the priestly type. Paul gave the name of "God" and Torah to his own will. From everywhere. In the Old Testament. . Jewish. "The majority became master. manliness and pride. as the art of holy lying.. "."[53] Christianity.. If one wants to be.' the 'will of God. is divine... is an object of is not 'converted ' to Christianity — one must be sufficiently sick for it."[53] Nietzsche claimed that Paul willed to ruin the 'wisdom of this world' and. whether pagan.. . .." Triumph of the ill Nietzsche alleged that ".. slandering. for some unconditional Yes and No. They serve . the whole of a rebel in his lowest instincts against everything privileged — he always lives and struggles for 'equal rights' ."[59] In response.. Christians think that ". ".then every other principle of selection. or pleasure.. suffering humans believe in supernatural agents.." "Paul understood the need for the lie. is simply 'world' — evil as such."[57] The meaning of the God on the Cross is that "."[62] Christianity's lies are not holy. and the concepts of cause and effect.. . 'belief."[57] "Because sickness belongs to the essence of Christianity......" "The Christian is only a Jew of a 'more liberal' persuasion. Even doubt is a sin.. Man tasted knowledge and "." and "punishment" to oppose knowledge."[56] The Christian "proof of strength" is "Belief makes blessed: thus it is true. Lying is utilized by all priests.a sign of decadence. the aggregate of the sick accumulated in Christianity and outnumbered the healthy. everything that hangs on the Cross." But blessedness is something that the priest promises for the future......

"[66] Islam Why did Christianity trample down the culture of Islam? ". because it said Yes to life even in the rare and exquisite treasures of Moorish life!"[67] The Crusades were "higher piracy..Christianity no longer sat on the Papal throne! Life sat there instead! The triumph of life! The great Yes to all lofty.. everything in secret revolt..ruined by cunning. intellect.. Paul realized that ".turned every value into an disvalue.. the entire heritage of anarchist agitation in the Roman empire. then. man's future. .. The decision is given in advance. because it owed its origin to manly instincts..."[63] It affirms life. the faith in. instead of from the date of Christ's birth.against health.The Antichrist (book) the Hindu Law–Book of Manu lies for a good purpose. The purpose of the Christian Holy Lie is bad because it "... and its Beyond is its will to negate every reality. the papacy was rid of corrupt Christianity. courage. that the concept 'Hell' will master even Rome — that with the 'Beyond' one kills life ."[69] Nietzsche believed that Christianity is a conspiracy "."[68] Luther's Reformation spoiled this by restoring the church. of revenge. . They possessed ". beauty.... Over two thousand years ago."[67] Renaissance The European Renaissance of Greek and Roman values was "[t]he revaluation of Christian values. stealthy. the attempt."[67] "For in itself there should be no choice in the matter when faced with Islam and Christianity."[66] But it was ".. ..I can't grasp how a German could ever have felt Christian. ".. the Greeks and the Romans had discovered the scientific method. undertaken with every means.. anemic vampires. and immortality in order to destroy Imperial Rome. well–being. Hidden vengefulness. One either is Chandala or one is not. beautiful. 1888.."[64] Christianity lied about guilt. of envy. War to the knife with Rome! Peace and friendship with Islam!"... that to deprive 'the world' of value he needed the belief in immortality.contempt for every good and honest instinct.. and happiness. ". on September 30.. an organization that was designed to promote life.[B]ecause Islam was noble. . with every instinct."[68] But Martin Luther thought that the Pope was corrupt. . ". petty envy became master. whatever has turned out well. the philosophers and warriors..with the symbol 'God on the Cross' one could sum up everything down–trodden. punishment.. of noble values. Year One would begin..the methodical research.. Actually. In accordance with his revaluation of all values.."[65] His vision on the road to Damascus was ". daring things! . the great Yes to all things. ..[I]t is the means by which the noble orders. the genius of organization and administration... goodness of the soul. as little as there should when faced with an Arab and a Jew.. Condemnation Christianity "... born of weakness. into a tremendous power.. no one is free to choose here. with all genius. to bring about the victory of opposing values... the will to. it created distress in order to eternalize itself. keep the mob under control... ."[69] It has ". Nietzsche suggested that time be calculated from the date of this book...."[69] He considered Christianity to be a curse and a corruption.. against life itself..."[65] 70 Lost Labor Greece and Rome Christianity deprived us of the benefits of Greek and Roman cultures.. Nihilist and Christian (Nihilist und Christ): they rhyme.. and do not merely rhyme . every truth into a lie.

saying he was the "only one true Christian".precisely this is the 'glad tidings'. As has been said the German title Der Antichrist is open to two interpretations ('Antichrist'/'Anti-Christian') but the English The Antichrist is not. in the inability for enmity. . eternal life is found—it is not promised. The majority of the book is a systematic. Nietzsche is very critical of institutionalized religion and its priest class.[40] "The 'glad tidings' are precisely that there are no more opposites. from which he himself was descended. It can therefore be argued that it does a disservice to the English-speaking reader to translate the title as The Antichrist at all. Nietzsche recognized no such entity. the beginning day of this disaster. logical and detailed attack upon the interpretations of Christ's words by St. which is to say. and furthermore as ultimately misguided. even to acknowledge the existence of an Antichrist. the provocative title is mainly expressing Nietzsche's animus toward Christianity. After all." which more accurately states the foe against whom Nietzsche sets out to do battle. His argument is entirely with those who would attempt to make a Christ. and thus the question becomes: does that title reflect Nietzsche's use of the German word in the text? In fact Nietzsche employs the word Antichrist only one time in the work so-titled. and there its sense is clearly 'Anti-Christian. it is within you: as life lived in love. with "Christians...' One would therefore be better readied for the content of the book were its title rendered "The Anti-Christian. it was not the Romans this time. "And time has been reckoned from that dies nefastus. every kind of distancing relationship between God and man.. out of Jesus of Nazareth." Consider too that the title itself is part of the polemic Nietzsche makes here against Ernest Renan."[36] " 'Sin'. from Christianity's first day! Why not rather from its last day—from today?—Revaluation of all values!" Title The reference to the Antichrist is not intended to refer to the biblical Antichrist but is rather an attack on the "slave morality" and apathy of Western Christianity. again the meaning is 'anti-Christians. a Messiah. Christian.. "What are the 'glad tidings'? True life.' He uses its plural Antichristen once also. Christ's evangelism consisted of the good news that the kingdom of God is within you."[39] Nietzsche does however explicitly consider Jesus as a mortal. He presented a Christ whose own inner life consisted of "blessedness in peace. However. In this light.. as such. presupposes the existence of a Christ. was both ironic and hypocritical. Nietzsche's basic claim is that Christianity (as he saw it in the West) is a poisoner of western culture and perversion of the words of and practice of Jesus. Renan's 1873 L'antéchrist saw an "authorized German-language edition" published the same year under the title. of a Messiah. Paul and those who followed him. the antithesis of a true hero. Christian For Nietzsche. in gentleness. let alone to prop oneself up as one. Der Antichrist. it is here. the institution or eponym.' In fact at no point in the text does Nietzsche use any form of the German word Christ other than to mean 'Christian. whom he posits with his concept of a Dionysian hero.The Antichrist (book) 71 Jesus Nietzsche did not demur of Jesus. it was the Christians who had killed him and his idea.."[36] There is much criticism by Nietzsche of the organized institution of Christianity and its class of priests. is abolished . In this book.

. who was also being crucified. a child of God!" Nietzsche had Christ reply. "If you feel this."[70] Suppressed passages The word idiot § 29 contains three words that were suppressed by Nietzsche's sister in 1895. and Mark 15: 39.. Christ's words to the thief on the cross In §35. . you are in Paradise. to Christ. Christ replied.[71] In order to accomplish this goal. as one scholar noted. Christ was called the Son of God by the soldier. and would indeed sound insane were it not informed in its polemic by a structure of analysis and a theory of morality and religion worked out elsewhere . "This man has done nothing wrong" to which. in § 62. ". criticized the reckoning of time from Christ's birth (anno Domini)."[74] In the Bible. "the Antichrist is unrelievedly vituperative. However. said. Nietzsche parodied a passage from the New Testament. The English translations of Walter Kaufmann and R. Nietzsche wanted to convey the idea that. decided to suppress so that there would be no doubt as to the strict correctness of Nietzsche's use of the Bible[72] According to Nietzsche. Mencken's English translation does not contain these words. you are a child of God. only Luke related a dialogue between Christ and the thief in which the thief said. The Nietzsche Archives' suppression was lifted in later editions and now appears exactly as Nietzsche calculates time from the unlucky day on which this fatality arose -. Matthew 27: 54. According to Kaufmann. there is a reference to a young prince who professes to be a Christian but acts in a very worldly manner. The passage about this "junger Fürst.The Antichrist (book) 72 Sanity This book was written shortly before Nietzsche's nervous breakdown. Nietzsche.[73] one of the thieves. the words were reinstated by Josef Hofmiller.from the first day of Christianity!" This passage was judged by Franz Overbeck and Heinrich Köselitz to be unworthy of publication." H. However. . Nietzsche was referring to Dostoevsky's book The Idiot and its naïve protagonist." (Luke 23: 39-43) Nietzsche had the thief speaking the words that the centurion later spoke in Luke 23: 47. headed by Elisabeth Förster-Nietzsche. The words are: "the word idiot (das Wort Idiot). which the Nietzsche-Archiv.. in 1931.[75] [76] A young prince In § 38. an der Spitze seiner Regimenter" [young prince at the head of his regiments] was suppressed in order to avoid comparison to Wilhelm II.L. "This was truly a divine man. you will be with me in Paradise.. Heaven is a subjective state of mind.D. Hollingdale contain them. "Today I tell you. In these passages.J. A.

ISBN 0-486-21761-2 Sommer. Andreas Urs. § 3. Translated by R. and this more sensational meaning is in keeping with the author's intention to be as provocative as possible. I. § 10 [17] The Antichrist. But the title could also mean 'The Anti–Christian. ISBN 0-14-044514-5 Schopenhauer. Twilight of the Idols and The Antichrist. ISBN 0-14-044514-5 [3] "The title is ambiguous. Dover. § 7 [14] The Antichrist. and in sections 38 and 47 the word is used in a context in which this is the only possible meaning. The Basis of Morality. 1982. has it moral value. § 9 [16] The Antichrist. Translated by Walter Kaufmann. while the rest is in the main only clothing and covering.The Antichrist (book) 73 Decree Nietzsche's "Decree against Christianity" was also suppressed. § 48 [8] The Antichrist. The Antichrist. [78] The Antichrist complete text [79] Free audiobook [80] from LibriVox (H." Arthur Schopenhauer. § 11 . Penguin Books. § 2 [9] "It is this Compassion alone which is the real basis of all voluntary justice and all genuine loving–kindness. "Friedrich Nietzsche: Der Antichrist. It first calls to mind the apocalyptic Antichrist. Chapter V. ISBN 0-486-44653-0 Schopenhauer. Dover. The World as Will and Representation. Introduction by Michael Tanner. html) (English) [2] "." Nietzsche. Penguin Books. Arthur. ISBN 0-14-015062-5 [4] The Antichrist. ISBN 3-7965-1098-1 (the comprehensive standard commentary on "The Antichrist" . § 1 [7] Schopenhauer. in loftiness of soul—in contempt. [5] ". 1990. full text and audio.' and this interpretation is much more in keeping with the contents of the book. The Anti–Christ." The Antichrist. Preface [6] The Antichrist.. In Volume I of his main work. One must be above mankind in strength.. Editor's Preface. Arthur. Macmillan. Ein philosophisch-historischer Kommentar". Schopenhauer wrote: "The doctrine of original sin (affirmation of the will) and of salvation (denial of the will) is really the great truth which constitutes the kernel of Christianity. The Portable Nietzsche. in German Der Antichrist can mean either The Anti–Christ or The Anti–Christian. Schopenhauer considered Pascal's asceticism and quietism as examples of justice and goodness. 4. Part III. 2000.". Arthur. Penguin Books. It can be read here [77]. Only insofar as an action springs therefrom.. Foreword. and all conduct that proceeds from any other motive whatever has none. Friedrich. Friedrich. The Basis of Morality. 2005. Mencken translation) "The Antichrist" complete text from WikiSource References [1] Nietzsche Chronicle: 1889 (http:/ / www. Basel. 1991.only available in German) See also • Chandala • The Idiot (novel) External links • • • • The Antichrist. edu/ ~fnchron/ 1889. § 6 [13] The Antichrist.1969. § 66.Such men alone are my readers. Hollingdale.J. § 8 [15] The Antichrist. The World as Will and Representation.L. my right readers.. dartmouth. or something accessory. Vol. 1965 Nietzsche."(§ 70) [12] The Antichrist. With regard to original sin. 5 [11] Nietzsche's opinion of Pascal is again the opposite of Schopenhauer's. Bibliography • • • • • Danto. Nietzsche as Philosopher. Volume I. my predestined readers: what matter the rest? The rest—that is merely mankind. [10] The Antichrist.

Vol. Part II. § 25 The Antichrist. eternal life is found — it is not promised.. § 13 Ibid. § 53 Thus Spoke Zarathustra. § 34 "The 'kingdom of Heaven' is a condition of the heart ." This is a reference to Luke 17:21. § 27 The Antichrist. § 23 The Antichrist. § 61 The Antichrist. § 12 Ibid. § 56 The Antichrist.. § 14 The Antichrist. § 42 The Antichrist. § 16 The Antichrist. § 37 The Antichrist. § 46 The Antichrist. § 62 Arthur Danto. § 40 The Antichrist. § 59 The Antichrist. Nietzsche as Philosopher. I. 601 The Antichrist.. p. it is here.. § 34 The Antichrist." § 29 "'The kingdom of God is within you ' . § 32 The Antichrist. § 35 The Antichrist. The Antichrist. § 60 The Antichrist. § 47 The Antichrist. § 39 The Antichrist. § 36 The Antichrist.The Antichrist (book) [18] [19] [20] [21] [22] [23] [24] [25] [26] [27] [28] [29] [30] [31] [32] [33] [34] [35] [36] [37] [38] [39] [40] [41] [42] [43] [44] [45] [46] [47] [48] [49] [50] [51] [52] [53] [54] [55] [56] [57] [58] [59] [60] [61] [62] [63] [64] [65] [66] [67] [68] [69] [70] [71] • • • The Antichrist. § 21 The Antichrist.. § 29 "True life. § 44 The Antichrist. § 55 The Antichrist. § 33 The Antichrist.. § 15 The Antichrist. § 49 The Antichrist. note. § 5 Cf. Nietzsche. Chapter 6. § 51 The Antichrist. . § 19 The Antichrist. § 20 The Antichrist. The World as Will and Representation. § 26 The Portable Nietzsche. § 71 The Antichrist. § 17 The Antichrist. § 29 The Antichrist. § 58 The Antichrist." 74 . § 22 The Antichrist. § 48 The Antichrist. § 38 The Antichrist. § 24 The Antichrist. § 30 The Antichrist. § 43 The Antichrist. § 54 The Antichrist.. . § 50 The Antichrist. § 57 The Antichrist. § 31 The Antichrist. § 52 The Antichrist. § 18 Schopenhauer.. "Of the Priests" The Antichrist. § 41 The Antichrist. it is within you .

" ' says the malefactor.. not to be angry . are a child of God.' he has affirmed the gospel: and with that he is in Paradise—" [Will to Power.Jesus. 27:54). who got one set of the proofs. too.." They read: "The words to the malefactor on the cross contain the whole evangel.' " [77] http:/ / books.. geocities.. org/ the-antichrist-by-nietzsche/ . . is the only right way. org/ books/ antichrist/ xaa. pdf) [74] In his notebook.' " [72] Quoted from the English translation of The Antichrist as shown at The Nietzsche Channel website (http:/ / www. it does not come 'in a thousand years' — it is an experience within a heart. without rebelling. "Translator's Note. without enmity.' " This was presumably omitted because it is not found in the Gospels this way.. In section 35. Indeed. What is characteristic of this kind of criticism of religion is its naïve dilettantism..' ." 75 § 35 "His words to the thief on the cross contain the whole Evangel. google. 'If thou feelest this' — answers the redeemer — ' thou art in Paradise .." Penguin Books. 1974. then you. vol. ". Mark 15. but he was trying feverishly to finish several books — and this was the sort of thing that his young friend Gast. had full authority to delete. 'That was verily a divine man. he restores words that had been omitted in three places when the book was first published in 1895. handprint. 1968. the words which Nietzsche puts into the mouth of the thief are those of the captain after Christ's death: compare Luke 23: 47. html [80] http:/ / librivox. who do him evil" and before "Not to resist. compare Josef Hofmiller: Nietzsche. ie/ stephen/ vol10/ Jesus. The words of the malefactor (Luke 23:40) are importantly different. omissions from the [1895] text were subsequently published and are restored in Karl Schlechta's edition (Werke in drei Bänden. Mark 15: 39. .. Nietzsche should have checked it. Nietzsche wrote: "When even the criminal undergoing a painful death declares: 'the way this Jesus suffers and dies. Hence it is misleading to speak of 'suppression. php [79] http:/ / www. which is only reported in the tale of suffering by Luke (23: 39-43. But the reaction to this deletion was surely as misguided as the deletion itself. Princeton University Press. Nietzsche: Philosopher. Matthew. com/ thenietzschechannel/ ): "Nietzsche refers to the conversion of one of the two thieves crucified with Jesus. Walter. Perhaps the Nietzsche-Archive didn't want to see the 'cohesiveness of the Bible' disputed by Nietzsche. Hofmiller crowed that the words 'are still today [1931] suppressed by the editors because they are not right. First. "Truly this was the Son of God!" is said not by the malefactor but by the centurion. However. what a common failing it is to recall a Gospel passage inaccurately! Of course." [73] Microsoft Word . II. a few lines were omitted after ". 1990. graciously.. and only after the Savior has died (Matt. These words are also found in Schlechta's edition . resignedly. com/ books?id=hd1zz4ETREEC& pg=PA146& lpg=PA146& dq=Decree+ against+ Christianity+ Nietzsche& source=bl& ots=-wagQeUM88& sig=MRB1sq9VTiwHXfpnTJ9HIcokE1E& hl=en& ei=4u8FS8K5HJDWlQf5wIT_DA& sa=X& oi=book_result& ct=result& resnum=2& ved=0CAwQ6AEwAQ#v=onepage& q=Decree%20against%20Christianity%20Nietzsche& f=false [78] http:/ / publicliterature.The Antichrist (book) • • § 34 "The 'kingdom of God' is not something one waits for. mic. he loves with those. ... 'That was truly a godlike man." [76] Kaufmann. 'If you feel that' — replies the Redeemer — ' then you are in Paradise. 1955).. "a child of God. ul.. Edited by Walter Kaufmann... "[Erich] Podach's (1961) version of The Antichrist differs from most previous editions in two respects. compare it with Matthew 27: 44. §162] [75] The Antichrist. . Antichrist. hence the suppression of this part. Psychologist. 27: 54. the deleted words were published by Josef Hofmiller in 1931. 'Süddeutsche Monatshefte' November 1931. in those. it has no yesterday or tomorrow. Appendix. 31-32). a child of God' — says the thief. p. com/ SC/ NIE/ antich..doc (http:/ / www. 94ff. Vintage.

It was written in 1888 and was not published until 1908. writer and thinker.N54 A3413 1992 The Antichrist Nietzsche Contra Wagner For other uses of Ecce Homo. In many ways. "Why I Am So Clever". Author Original title Translator Country Language Genre(s) Publication date Media type Pages ISBN OCLC Number LC Classification Preceded by Followed by Friedrich Nietzsche Ecce Homo: Wie man wird. was man ist R. the book offers "Nietzsche's own interpretation of his development. his works. Hollingdale Germany German Philosophy. Ecce Homo is a quintessential reflection of Nietzsche's humility as a philosopher.) 27449286 [1] B3316. According to one of Nietzsche's most prominent English translators.) ISBN 978-0140445152 (2005 Penguin Classics ed.Ecce Homo (book) 76 Ecce Homo (book) Ecce Homo: How One Becomes What One Is Cover of the 1908 Insel edition designed by Henry van de Velde. such as "Why I Am So Wise". Walter Kaufmann. and his significance" (Kaufmann 1967: 201). autobiography 1888 Paperback. hardcover 144 (2005 Penguin Classics ed. . "Why I Write Such Good Books" and "Why I Am a Destiny". was man ist) is the title of the last original book written by philosopher Friedrich Nietzsche before his final years of insanity that spanned until his death in 1900. J. The book contains several chapters with self-laudatory titles. see Ecce Homo (disambiguation) Ecce Homo: How One Becomes What One Is (German: Ecce homo: Wie man wird.

for example. Human. Kaufmann considers Ecce Homo a literary work comparable in its artistry to Van Gogh's paintings. Beyond Good and Evil. Hollingdale) and Ecce Homo (translated by Walter Kaufmann). that Nietzsche truly is "a man. One of the main purposes of Ecce Homo was to offer Nietzsche's own perspective on his work as a philosopher and human being. including: The Birth of Tragedy. org/ etext/ 3004 . He gives reviews and insights about his various works. On these grounds." Nietzsche's point is that to be "a man" alone is to be more than Christ. do not mistake me for someone else!" Throughout the course of the book. he expounds – in the characteristically hyperbolic style found in his later period (1886–1888) –upon his life as a child.something heavily philosopher because of the scorn he has suffered during his life. a philosopher "who is not an Alexandrian academic nor an Apollonian sage.Ecce Homo (book) 77 Within this work. gutenberg. criticized by today's Nietzsche scholarship. gutenberg. revolt at bottom—namely. but suggest a contrast. The Dawn." References Kaufmann. Telzner [3] at Project Gutenberg (In original Russian) References [1] http:/ / worldcat. Just as Socrates was presented in Peter Gast would "correct" Nietzsche's writings Plato's Apology as the wisest of men precisely because he freely even after the philosopher's breakdown and so admitted to his own ignorance. edited by Walter Kaufmann. and his vision for humanity. In this regard. He wrote: "Under these circumstances I have a duty against which my habits. 201-209. entitled "Why I Am a Destiny". Above all. Nietzsche is self-consciously striving to present a new image of the philosopher and of himself. Walter 1967 "Editor's Introduction" in On the Genealogy of Morals (translated by Walter Kaufmann and R. The Untimely Meditations. is primarily concerned with reiterating Nietzsche's thoughts on Christianity. New York: Vintage. Nietzsche insists that his suffering is not noble but tragic and proclaims the goodness of everything that has happened to him (including his father's early death and his near-blindness — an example of amor fati). even more the pride of my instincts. but Dionysian" (Kaufmann 1967: 202). External links • Ecce homo. org/ etext/ 7202 [3] http:/ / www. On the Genealogy of Morality. to say: Hear me! For I am such and such a person. corroborating Christianity's decadence and his ideas as to uncovering Christian morality. Nietzsche argues that he is a great without his approval . All Too Human. the wording of his title was not meant to draw parallels with the Christ. was man ist [2] at Project Gutenberg (In original German) • "Eize homo. Ani Aliz" by A. Wie man wird. his tastes as an individual. org/ oclc/ 27449286 [2] http:/ / www. The Gay Science.J. Thus Spoke Zarathustra. Twilight of the Idols and The Case of Wagner. The last chapter of Ecce Homo. He signs the book "Dionysus versus the Crucified.

The work is significant for a number of reasons. It also gives the lie to those that would label Nietzsche as anti-Semitic. Richard Wagner. perceived as a sign of weakness). written in his last year of lucidity (1888–1889). Author Translator Country Language Subject(s) Genre(s) Friedrich Nietzsche Thomas Common Germany German Richard Wagner." .Nietzsche contra Wagner 78 Nietzsche contra Wagner Nietzsche contra Wagner Cover of the 2004 Quadrata edition. as is often alleged. It was not published until 1895. but largely disdains what Nietzsche calls his religious biases. anti-semitism. hardcover ISBN 978-9871139156 (2004 Quadrata ed. Nietzsche evaluates Wagner's philosophy on tonality. Nietzsche attacks Wagner's views in this short work. music and art. six years after Nietzsche's mental collapse. It illustrates Nietzsche's evolution from a younger philosopher. and instead makes clear Nietzche's opposition to such ideas: "[Wagner] had condescended step by step to everything I despise — even to anti-Semitism. he admires Wagner's power to emote and express himself. expressing disappointment and frustration in Wagner's life choices (such as his conversion to Christianity.) Ecce Homo (1888) The Will to Power (1901) "Nietzsche contra Wagner" is a critical essay by Friedrich Nietzsche. In it Nietzsche describes why he parted ways with his one-time idol and friend. philosophy of art philosophy Publication date 1895 Media type ISBN Preceded by Followed by Paperback.

24. The Will to Power is also the title of a work that Nietzsche had considered writing. selected and ordered under his sister's authority. this project was finally abandoned and its draft materials used to compose The Twilight of the Idols and The Antichrist (both written in 1888). which he allegedly wanted to name "The Will to Power. Nevertheless. which she would later transfer to Weimar. considered it to form. Mazzino Montinari and Giorgio Colli. But the concept of "will to power" is certainly in itself a major motif of Nietzsche's philosophy. With Peter Gast. Ernst Horneffer. Britannica. the concept remains. this would form the basis for all successive editions. with the thought of the eternal recurrence. Initial publication The first rendition of this collection was released with other unpublished writings in 1901. which Elisabeth Förster called Nietzsche's unedited magnum opus. Elisabeth Förster-Nietzsche founded the Nietzsche-Archiv in Naumburg in 1894 (after Nietzsche's mental breakdown). Naumann. "Principles of a New Evaluation". It was first edited by C. been identified as a key component of Nietzsche's philosophy. and "Discipline and Breeding". she claimed that Nietzsche had died before completing his magnum opus. edited by Heinrich Köselitz. but later abandoned in favor of Revaluation of All Values. Until Colli & Montinari's edition. often commonly used even today. and August Horneffer. The Will to Power (manuscript) The Will to Power (German: "Der Wille zur Macht") is the title given to a book of selectively reordered notes (with a few revisionist additions and changes) from the notebooks (or Nachlass) of Friedrich Nietzsche by his sister Elisabeth Förster-Nietzsche and Heinrich Köselitz ("Peter Gast"). Elisabeth Förster-Nietzsche included part of Nietzsche's posthumous fragments. in Attempt at a Revaluation of All Values".Nietzsche contra Wagner 79 References "Nietzsche". who edited the complete edition of Nietzsche's posthumous fragments from the manuscripts themselves. Although Nietzsche had in 1886 announced (at the end of On the Genealogy of Morals) a new work with the title. The Will to Power: Essay of a Transvaluation of all Values. then by Kröner. 2006. which Nietzsche was unable to complete. Elisabeth Förster-Nietzsche. of the Großoktavausgabe edition. the basis of his thought. in Leipzig between 1894 and 1926. G. since the reading of Karl Löwith. including the 1922 Musarion edition. and has. This compilation of Nietzsche's posthumous fragments. In these 20 volumes. under the influence of Nietzsche's anti-Semitic sister. so much so that Heidegger. So The Will to Power was not written by Nietzsche.[2] The Will to Power. which she gathered together and entitled The Will To Power. was in fact abandoned as a book by Nietzsche himself.[1] and later editions are considered more subtle in their presentation of Nietzsche's intent. under Löwith's influence. Walter Kaufmann's English edition is divided into four major parts: "European Nihilism". Encyclopædia Britannica. . The culmination of this organization was the publishing. Background After returning from Paraguay. This version has been judged more than dubious. have called The Will to Power a "historic forgery" artificially assembled by Nietzsche's sister and Peter Gast. "Critique of the Highest Values Hitherto". led to the book commonly known as The Will to Power.

" • Friedrich Nietzsche (1910). Books three and four" [7] . An attempted transvaluation of all values. which Förster-Nietzsche had cut up. prove case-by-case the distortions accomplished by Nietzsche's sister on his posthumous fragments. whose meaning was distorted according to Elisabeth Förster-Nietzsche's anti-semitic and Germanist biases.The Will to Power (manuscript) 80 Colli and Montinari research While researching materials for the Italian translation of Nietzsche's complete works in the 1960s. in Oscar Levy. saying that. "Dr. which appears for the first time at the end of the summer of 1885. Before Colli and Montinari's philological work.000 pages.' but unfortunately this does not mean that Ludovici's translations are roughly reliable. Gilles Deleuze himself saluted Montinari's work declaring: "As long as it was not possible for the most serious researcher to accede to the whole of Nietzsche's manuscripts. In fact. we knew only in a loose way that the Will to Power did not exist as such (. Levy was probably quite right when in a prefatory note he called Ludovici 'the most gifted and conscientious of my collaborators.500 pages of the Großoktavausgabe. This new plan was titled "Attempt at a revaluation of all values" [Versuch einer Umwerthung aller Werthe][3] . "The will to power. it also called into question the very conception of a Nietzschean magnum opus. published by The Macmillan Company) • Friedrich Nietzsche (1910). An attempted transvaluation of all values. and ordered the multiple fragments in a completely different way than the one chosen by Elisabeth Förster-Nietzsche. the earlier editions. and are a case of revisionism. Foulis. Heinz Wenzel would buy the rights of the complete works of Colli and Montinari (33 volumes in German) after the French Gallimard edition and the Italian Adelphi editions. Society and Art. "The will to power. Hollingdale offers both praise and criticism for Ludovici's edition. 15.N.. who would put them in contact with Heinz Wenzel. (Revised third edition 1925. Nature. From their work emerged the first complete and chronological edition of Nietzsche's posthumous fragments.) We wish only now that the new dawn brought on by this previously unpublished work will be the sign of a return to Nietzsche" [4] Not only did this critical philological work. a milestone in Nietzsche studies. according to Montinari. he had abandoned such plans before his collapse. Books one and two" [6] . Edinburgh and London: T. Colli and Montinari met Karl Löwith. as Nietzsche's fragments were cut up in various places and ordered according to his sister's will. The complete works of Friedrich Nietzsche. was replaced by another plan at the end of August 1888. which all depended on the Großoktavausgabe. and was published in Oscar Levy's edition of Nietzsche's papers. Edinburgh and London: T. during the International Colloquium on Nietzsche in Paris. In fact.. mixed and pasted together. The complete works of Friedrich Nietzsche. philologists Giorgio Colli and Mazzino Montinari decided to go to the Archives in Leipzig to work with the original documents.N. The Will to Power: In Science.Let us say that Ludovici was not a philosopher. the previous editions led readers to believe that Nietzsche had organized all his work toward a final structured opus called The Will to Power. Ludovici in 1910. The title of The Will to Power. are technically nonsense. The complete works comprise 5. as it was left to his sister to artificially combine Nietzsche's fragments into a unified opus magnum (which very concept is alien to Nietzsche's philosophy and style of writing).. in Oscar Levy. Foulis. In 1964. [5] Versions "Der Wille zur Macht" was first translated into English by Anthony M. and let it go at that. editor for Walter de Gruyter's publishing house.. ISBN 0394704371. given his style of writing and thinking. 14. The introduction of the most recent edition by Walter Kaufmann and R. (First edition) Another translation was published by Kaufmann with Hollingdale in 1968: • Friedrich Nietzsche (1968). if Nietzsche did consider producing such a book. . compared to the 3. according to her own antisemitic views (which were a source of contention between her and Nietzsche himself). J.. Random House.

archive. XIV. Paris. « La volonté de puissance » n’existe pas. html) [5] Mazzino Montinari and Paolo d'Iorio. soit celui du retour à Nietzsche in Mazzino Montinari and Paolo D'Iorio. for ex. [3] This sub–title appeared on the title page of the first edition. [4] Deleuze: "Tant qu'il ne fut pas possible aux chercheurs les plus sérieux d'accéder à l'ensemble des manuscrits de Nietzsche. And all in all and on the whole: some day I wish to be only a Yes-sayer. on savait seulement de façon vague que La Volonté de puissance n'existait pas comme telle (. as good. ed. Schillbach. I do not even want to accuse those who accuse. Vintage. 1996. beginning of Nietzsche II) (parts of which have been published under the name Nietzsche I (1936-1939). then I shall be one of those who make things beautiful. page xxvii. 1997. Schillbach. it is characterized by an acceptance of the events or situations that occur in one's life. — note that these publications are not the exact transcription of the 1930s courses. 1974. 454p. not in all eternity. traduit de l’italien par Patricia Farazzi et Michel Valensi. org/ details/ completeworksthe15nietuoft Amor fati Amor fati is a Latin phrase coined by Nietzsche loosely translating to "love of fate" or "love of one's fate". 596p.The Will to Power (manuscript) 81 References [1] Martin Heidegger already criticized this unauthorized publishing in his 1930s courses on Nietzsche (see. including suffering and loss. The phrase is used repeatedly in Nietzsche's writings and is representative of the general outlook on life he articulates in section 276 of The Gay Science. "'The Will to Power' does not exist" (http:/ / www. net/ lyber/ montinari/ postface. not forward. 1968. lyber-eclat. html) Mazzino Montinari. not backward. lyber-eclat. B.. [6] http:/ / www. and Nietzsche II (1939-1946). net/ lyber/ montinari/ ndt. See also • • • • • Thus Spoke Zarathustra Destiny Eternal Return Stoicism Fatalism . I do not want to accuse. org/ details/ completeworksrie033168mbp [7] http:/ / www. but were done post-war) [2] See Mazzino Montinari. 1996. Moreover. 192 p. called the Großoktav. ed. It is used to describe an attitude in which one sees everything that happens in one's life. Looking away shall be my only negation. I want to learn more and more to see as beautiful what is necessary in things. "'The Will to Power' does not exist" (http:/ / www. apporté par les inédits.) Nous souhaitons que le jour nouveau. It appeared in 1901 in volume XV of Nietzsche's Werke. archive. section 10[1] : My formula for greatness in a human being is amor fati: that one wants nothing to be different. still less conceal it—all idealism is mendaciousness in the face of what is necessary—but love it. which reads. Éditions de l’éclat. and so should be considered good. Not merely bear what is necessary. one feels that everything that happens is destiny's way of reaching its ultimate purpose. texte établi et postfacé par Paolo D’Iorio.. Amor fati: let that be my love henceforth! I do not want to wage war against what is ugly. A transcription is displayed in Walter Kaufmann's English translation of The Will to Power. That is. Quote from "Why I Am So Clever" in Ecce Homo. VIII.. B.

). Thomas Mann. Heinlein. the god of wine. music. and intoxication. German philosophy Although the use of the concepts of Apollonian and Dionysian is famously related to Nietzsche's The Birth of Tragedy. the terms were used before him in Prussia [1] . Chart of Character Traits Apollonian thinking self-controlled rational. ecstasy. death. Ayn Rand. etc. In the modern literary usage of the concept. while Winckelmann talked of Bacchus. Umberto Eco and cultural critic Camille Paglia. Apollo and Dionysus are both sons of Zeus. singer Jim Morrison. or tragedies. meaning decline. He goes on to argue that that has not been achieved since the ancient Greek tragedians. and ed. represent the summit of artistic creation. the rock band Rush. Nietzsche's usage Nietzsche's aesthetic usage of the concepts. while Dionysus is the god of wine. based on certain features of ancient Greek mythology. Stephen King. Apollo is the god of the Sun. the mythical home of poetry and all art. which he published in 1872. and poetry. deterioration. it is with Euripides. downfall.Amor fati 82 References [1] Basic Writings of Nietzsche. p. which was later developed philosophically. by Walter Kaufmann. Parnassus. he states. the true realization of tragedy. or dichotomy. Friedrich Nietzsche. Several Western philosophical and literary figures have invoked this dichotomy in critical and creative works. Diane Wakoski. and also Sophocles. Ruth Benedict. Apollonian and Dionysian The Apollonian and Dionysian is a philosophical and literary concept. Carl Jung. 1967. light versus darkness. including Plutarch. claiming that the infusion of ethics and reason robs tragedy of its foundation. literary critic G. In Greek mythology. Robert A. The ancient Greeks did not consider the two gods as opposites or rivals. was strongly associated with each of the two gods in separate legends. Hermann Hesse. trans. or civilization versus primitivism. namely the fragile balance of the Dionysian and Apollonian. instinctual chaotic state of intoxication wholeness of existence celebration of nature . Nietzsche objects to Euripides' use of Socratic rationalism in his tragedies. logical ordered the dream state principle of individuation value for human order and culture Dionysian feeling passionate irrational. His major premise here was that the fusion of Dionysian and Apollonian "Kunsttrieben" ("artistic impulses") forms dramatic arts. that tragedy begins its "Untergang" (literally "going under". Nietzsche is adamant that the works of above all Aeschylus. The poet Hölderlin used it. the contrast between Apollo and Dionysus symbolizes principles of individualism versus collectivism. However. 714. was first developed in his book The Birth of Tragedy. Wilson Knight.

Consider the perception of naïve young Israeli readers of the name ‫ סוס רוטקוד‬dóktor sus (cf. so to speak.[7] . Extending the use of the Apollonian and Dionysian onto an argument on interaction between the mind and physical environment. As this anecdote shows. and solidity. For her. and turning instead to the Apollonian trait of ordered creation.Apollonian and Dionysian 83 celebration of appearance/illusion plastic & visual arts human being(s) as artists brute realism & absurdity music human being(s) as the work and glorification of art The relationship between the Apollonian and Dionysian juxtapositions is apparent. Nietzsche claimed in The Birth of Tragedy. this tragedy allows us to sense an underlying essence.burdened with all the errors of youth” (Attempt at Self Criticism. especially Martin Heidegger in Nietzsche and the Post-modernists. For the audience of such a drama. what he called the "Primordial Unity".which is almost indescribably pleasurable."[3] "Specifically in linguistics. but Nietzsche does not mean one to be valued more than the other[6] . in the interplay of Greek Tragedy: the tragic hero of the drama. This ‘misunderstanding’ might correspond to Einar Haugen’s general claim with regard to borrowing. Truth being primordial pain. struggles to make order (in the Apollonian sense) of his unjust and chaotic (Dionysian) Fate. Many Israelis are certain that he is ‘Dr Horse’ since in Hebrew ‫ סוס‬sus means ‘horse’ . Though he later dropped this concept saying it was “. example of this general tendency is the story about the South Dakotan who went to Athens and was happily surprised to find out that the Greeks are fans of NASA’s projects: wherever he went. and the turn away from it towards socially constructed Apollonian virtues accounts for the prevalence of asexuality and homosexuality in geniuses and in the most culturally prosperous places such as ancient Athens. Paglia's Use Camille Paglia writes about the Apollonian and Dionysian in her book Sexual Personae [2] . while the Apollonian is associated with males. he saw the name Apollo. albeit frivolous."[4] Post-modern reading Nietzsche's idea has been interpreted as an expression of fragmented consciousness or existential instability by a variety of modern and post-modern writers. The two concepts split a set of dichotomies that create the basis of Paglia's theory. the etymythology that this arises from the prevalence of animals in Dr Seuss’s stories. along with the goal of oriented progress. and unconstrained sex/procreation. rationality/reason. An updated.[5] . The Dionysian is associated with females. the overarching theme was a sort of metaphysical solace or connection to the heart of creation. the Dionysian is dark and chthonic while the Apollonian is light and structured. which revives our Dionysian nature . that ‘every speaker attempts to reproduce previously learned linguistic patterns in an effort to cope with new linguistic situations’ (1950: 212). Dr Seuss).. clarity. the Dionysian and the Apollonian form a dialectic. our existential being is determined by the Dionysian/Apollonian dialectic. Apollonianism is manifested in justifications for the use of a word and in the craving for meaningfulness. Nietzsche claimed. According to Peter Sloterdijk.. some linguists use Apollonianism to denote "the wish to describe and create order. the main protagonist. wild/chaotic nature. Paglia attributes all the progress of human civilization to males revolting against the Dionysian forces of females. they are contrasting. especially with unfamiliar information or new experience. Abraham Akkerman has pointed to masculine and feminine features of city form. The Dionysian is a force of chaos and destruction which is the overpowering and alluring chaotic state of wild the ‘Apollonian tendency’ would also seem to include a significant dimension of ethnocentricity. §2). Apollonianism in linguistics Similar to Nietzsche's usage. though he dies unfulfilled in the end.

or Nietzsche's Appropriation of an Aesthetic Norm (http:/ / links. 244–245 of Zuckermann. springerlink. foreword by Jochen Schulte-Sasse. . which is the ultimate attempt at order among chaos. " Dionysian Classicism.1007/s10746-006-9019-4.. Fishman. Some farmers accept this and use strategies like crop rotation. 237–258. pp. Islam and Christianity. all control is partial. and must depend on chemicals or genetic tampering to defend encroaching disorder. ISBN 0816617651 [7] Akkerman. Abraham (2006). . edited by Tope Omoniyi and Joshua A. but can't match the production or homogeny necessary to supply restaurant chains. Explorations in the Sociology of Language and Religion. "Etymythological Othering' and the Power of 'Lexical Engineering' in Judaism. CO. org/ sici?sici=0022-5037(198910/ 12)50:4<589:DCONAO>2. 1989). jstor. 4 (Oct. edited by Tope Omoniyi and Joshua A. Ghil‘ad (2006). . temporary and largely illusory. translation by Jamie Owen Daniel. Fishman. "'Etymythological Othering' and the Power of 'Lexical Engineering' in Judaism. [4] See p. ISBN 978-0719037450 p. Human Studies 29 (2): 229–256. Peter Hulme. Amsterdam: John Benjamins. Islam and Christianity. pp. University of Minnesota Press. 50. Farmers who embrace the chaos are usually far more successful and less beholding to corporations. 589–605 (English) [2] Paglia. "Femininity and Masculinity in City-Form: Philosophical Urbanism as a History of Consciousness" (http:/ / www. 1990 [3] See pp. pp. Ghil‘ad (2006). A Socio-Philo(sopho)logical Perspective". Sexual Personae. No.1992. [5] Postmodernism and the re-reading of modernity By Francis Barker. com/ content/ 9337128m117q48k2/ ).2-T& size=LARGE)".Apollonian and Dionysian The dichotomy is a major theme in Michael Pollan's book. Minneapolis. Margaret Iversen. Thus. "The Botany of Desire" in which he details man's attempt at controlling nature through large-scale production of food crops. Explorations in the Sociology of Language and Religion. 84 See also • • • • Weimar Classicism Folk etymology Phono-semantic matching Caledonian Antisyzygy References [1] Adrian Del Caro. 1989. 0. A Socio-Philo(sopho)logical Perspective". Amsterdam: John Benjamins. Other farmers try to sustain monocultures. 245 of Zuckermann. doi:10. 237–258. 258 [6] Thinker on Stage: Nietzsche's Materialism. He argues any attempt to bring control to a single variable in a natural system only results in more variables to which disorder and entropy will reign. variety and secondary crops which complement their main crops with beneficial insects and such.Dec. Manchester University Press. Vol. in Journal of the History of Ideas.

though Friedrich Nietzsche resurrected it. and death from which one seeks liberation. With the decline of antiquity and the spread of Christianity. (see: Rebirth (Buddhism)). such as Hawking's "arrow of time".[1] However it is to be noted that the cycle of life in Buddhism does not involve a soul passing from one body to another. In addition. a wheel of time concept known as the Kalachakra expresses the idea of an endless cycle of existence and knowledge. the philosophical concept of eternal recurrence was addressed by Arthur Schopenhauer. Time is viewed as being not linear but cyclical. The universe has no starting or ending state. but the karma of the deceased being carrying on to another being born. More philosophical concepts from physics. and will continue to recur in a self-similar form an infinite number of times. while the matter comprising it is constantly changing its state. is thought to bring about a chaotic state due to entropy). Physicists such as Stephen Hawking and J. The oscillatory universe model in physics could be provided as an example of how the universe cycles through the same events infinitely. provided the balance between mass and energy created the appropriate cosmological geometry. To get rid of this cycle the person should get rid of its karma through the attainment of enlightenment. as a consequence of T-symmetry. and so sooner or later the same state will recur. life. Premise The basic premise is that the universe is limited in extent and contains a finite amount of matter. discuss cosmology as proceeding up to a certain point. In Tantric Buddhism. while time is viewed as being infinite. . for example. The number of possible changes is finite. The concept initially inherent in Indian philosophy was later found in ancient Egypt. The Wheel of life represents an endless cycle of birth. predominantly in Jainism and inclusive of Hinduism and Buddhism among others. Indian religions The concept of cyclical patterns is very prominent in Indian religions. It is a purely physical concept.Eternal return 85 Eternal return Eternal return (also known as "eternal recurrence") is a concept which posits that the universe has been recurring. and was subsequently taken up by the Pythagoreans and Stoics. whereafter it undergoes a time reversal (which. Richard Gott have proposed models by which a/the universe could undergo time travel. involving no supernatural reincarnation. but the return of beings in the same bodies. the concept fell into disuse.

") The ancient Mayans and Aztecs also took a cyclical view of time. It is also noted in a posthumous fragment. I say. the concept of eternal return was connected with Empedocles. As Heidegger points out in his lectures on Nietzsche. via posthumous fragments. and Stoicism. In Ecce Homo (1888).M. presents this concept as a hypothetical question. In ancient Greece. Renaissance The symbol of the Ouroboros. who revised the first catalogue of Nietzsche's personal library in January 1896. an attempt to describe eternal recurrence was made by the physician-philosopher Sir Thomas Browne in his Religio Medici of 1643: And in this sense. and not a fact. Zeno of Citium. my dying place was Paradise."[2] The thought of eternal recurrence appears in a few of his works. it is the burden imposed by the question of eternal recurrence—whether or not such a thing could possibly be true—that is so significant in modern thought: "The way Nietzsche here patterns the first communication of the thought of the "greatest burden" [of eternal recurrence] makes it clear that this "thought of thoughts" is at the same time "the most burdensome thought. Scarab on a fresco. in particular §285 and §341 of The Gay Science and then in Thus Spoke Zarathustra. Nietzsche's first mention of eternal recurrence in aphorism 341 of The Gay Science (cited below). a reminder of the life to come. (R. (See also "Atum" and "Ma'at. to August 1881. According to Heidegger. possibly borrowed from the Norse concept of Jörmungandr or the Midgard Serpent.[3] The origin of this thought is dated by Nietzsche himself. and thus was I dead before I was alive. The alchemist-physicians of the Renaissance and Reformation were aware of the idea of eternal recurrence. Rudolf Steiner. and at an end before it had a beginning. the snake or dragon devouring its own tail.Eternal return 86 Classical antiquity In ancient Egypt. he wrote that he thought of the eternal return as the "fundamental conception" of Thus Spoke Zarathustra.Part 1:57) Ouroboros Friedrich Nietzsche The concept of "eternal recurrence" is central to the writings of Friedrich Nietzsche. pointed out that Nietzsche would have . though my grave be England. the world was before the Creation.[4] Several authors have pointed out other occurrences of this hypothesis in contemporary thought. the scarab (or dung beetle) was viewed as a sign of eternal renewal and reemergence of life. and Eve miscarried of me before she conceived of Cain. is the alchemical symbol par excellence of eternal recurrence. at Sils-Maria.

you will have to live once more and innumerable times more' ... Walter Kaufmann suggests that Nietzsche may have encountered this idea in the works of Heinrich Heine. Vogt. Would you not throw yourself down and gnash your teeth and curse the demon who spoke thus? Or have you once experienced a tremendous moment when you would have answered him: 'You are a god and never have I heard anything more divine. Henri Lichtenberger and Charles Andler have pinpointed three works contemporary to Nietzsche which carried on the same hypothesis: J. all of themselves.[7] Blanqui is mentioned by Albert Lange in his Geschichte des Materialismus (History of Materialism). who once wrote: [T]ime is infinite. have their determinate numbers. in the Untimely Meditations. "'Everything straight lies. and Auguste Blanqui was named only in 1883.' murmured the dwarf disdainfully. are formed out of them is also determinate. Jung claims that the dwarf states the idea of the Eternal Return before Zarathustra finishes his argument of the Eternal Return when the dwarf says. still less to conceal it--all idealism is mendaciousness before the necessary--but to love it. and to not merely come to peace with it but to embrace it. Gustave Le Bon is not quoted anywhere in Nietzsche's manuscripts. and the numbers of the configurations which. 'All truth is crooked. 87 . warning him against over-simplifications.[8] The eternal recurrence is also mentioned in passing by the Devil in Part Four. Zarathustra rebuffs the dwarf in the following paragraph. requires amor fati. which Nietzsche readily criticized..[9] Nietzsche calls the idea "horrifying and paralyzing". Now. was read by Nietzsche during this summer of 1881 in Sils-Maria. but these particles. attract. on the other hand.. a book closely read by Nietzsche. Not merely to bear the necessary. however long a time may pass. the atoms. Eine real-monistische Weltanschauung (1878). L'homme et les sociétés (1881). Lou Andreas-Salomé pointed out that Nietzsche referred to ancient cyclical conceptions of time.'" However.[11] In Carl Jung's seminar on Thus Spoke Zarathustra. are finite. monumental work The Arcades Project. Book XI. time itself is a circle. not backward. Vogt's work. §341] To comprehend eternal recurrence in his thought. repulse. Auguste Blanqui. and says that its burden is the "heaviest weight" ("das schwerste Gewicht")[10] imaginable. the concrete bodies.G. They may indeed disperse into the smallest particles. not forward. in particular by the Pythagoreans. Die Kraft. "love of fate":[11] My formula for human greatness is amor fati: that one wants to have nothing different. and corrupt each other again. but the things in time. The wish for the eternal return of all events would mark the ultimate affirmation of life: What. Chapter 9 of Dostoevsky's The Brothers Karamazov. if some day or night a demon were to steal after you into your loneliest loneliness and say to you: 'This life as you now live it and have lived it. all configurations which have previously existed on this earth must yet meet. kiss. according to the eternal laws governing the combinations of this eternal play of repetition. not in all eternity. Walter Benjamin juxtaposes Blanqui and Nietzsche's discussion of eternal recurrence in his unfinished.[6] However. which is another possible source that Nietzsche may have been drawing upon.Eternal return read something similar in Eugen Dühring's Courses on philosophy (1875). L'éternité par les astres [5] (1872) and Gustave Le Bon.' [The Gay Science.

D. • James Joyce was influenced by Giambattista Vico (1668–1744). as posited by Poincaré. • Milan Kundera's seminal work. .[13] Arguments against eternal return Nietzsche scholar Walter Kaufmann has described an argument originally put forward by Georg Simmel. Modern cosmology Controversial theoretical physicist Peter Lynds suggested a model of eternal recurrence in a 2006 paper. an Italian philosopher who proposed a theory of cyclical history in his major work. the initial line-up would never recur. including the "first" sentence: "by a commodius vicus of recirculation". Others have approached the question of eternal recurrence from a physics perspective in different ways. with the continuation of the book's unfinished final sentence. Ouspensky whose novel Strange Life of Ivan Osokin (first published St. return to an arbitrarily small neighborhood of its initial state. but they will return to a configuration arbitrarily close to the initial one an infinite number of times. creating a circular reference whereby the novel has no true beginning or end. Robert Louis Stevenson. The Unbearable Lightness of Being. and the age of humans — after which the cycle repeats itself. If the second wheel rotated twice as fast as the first. thus. is rooted in the concept of eternal return. • The religious scholar Mircea Eliade has applied the term "eternal return" to what he sees as a universal religious belief in the ability to return to the mythical age through myth and ritual (see Eternal Return (Eliade)). Eliade's theory of "eternal return" describes a distinctly nonspontaneous process that depends on human behavior. which describes a mathematically inevitable process. after a sufficiently long time.[15] See also Ages of Man and Greek mythology. and these three points lined up in one straight line. Vico's theory involves the recurrence of three stages of history: the age of gods. It states that a system whose dynamics are volume-preserving and which is confined to a finite spatial volume will. New Science. Joyce puns on his name many times in Finnegans Wake. the same events will occur regardless. it should be distinguished from the philosophical theory of eternal return (the subject of this article). Suppose there were three wheels of equal size. "A sufficiently long time" could be much longer than the predicted lifetime of the universe (see 1 E19 s and more). one point marked on the circumference of each wheel. and if the speed of the third wheel was 1/π of the speed of the first. The greater part of the 11th chapter of his "A New Model of the Universe" (1914) is devoted to the idea and he there identifies allusions to eternal recurrence in the writings of Aleksey Konstantinovich Tolstoy. References in other literature • In modern times eternal recurrence was a major theme in the teachings of the Russian mystic P.[14] However. There are an infinite number of states that each wheel can occupy. with the narration explicitly referring to and building on Nietzsche's interpretation.[12] Lynds hypothesizes that if the universe undergoes a big crunch. Petersburg 1915) explores the idea that even given the free-will to alter events in one's life. including a hypothesis based on the Transactional interpretation of quantum mechanics. the arrow of time may reverse. Simmel's argument may not contradict eternal recurrence. Dante Gabriel Rosetti and Charles Howard Hinton. they would not have to repeat in the same configurations. Finnegans Wake begins in mid-sentence. which rebuts the claim that a finite number of states must repeat within an infinite amount of time: Even if there were exceedingly few things in a finite space in an infinite time. the age of heroes. rotating on the same axis.Eternal return 88 Poincaré recurrence theorem Related to the concept of eternal return is the Poincaré recurrence theorem in mathematics.

in Hannah and Her Sisters. to access these alternate realities where his dead father is still alive. • This idea plays an integral part in the story of the Xenosaga RPG trilogy. Implying the big crunch will restart the big bang and every person and life will be lived out in exactly the same way each time this occurs." • The American metal band Darkest Hour released the album The Eternal Return on June 23. Nash and Young references the concept in the song "Deja Vu" with the lyrics: "If I had ever been here before on another time around the wheel I would probably know just how to deal" and "I feel Like I've been here before" and "We have all been here before" • The plot premise of the Bill Murray movie Groundhog Day is essentially modeled on the idea of eternal return." 89 References in popular culture • In the re-imagined Battlestar Galactica. ultimate truth embodied at the absolute center of existence (the final door at the apex of the tower) be a trip back through time to start seeking ultimate truth (The Tower) again. 3-D. • Woody Allen. and the line." • At the end of the 2001 film K-PAX. • The sci-fi television series. citing it as being ". a day that broke up your mind." The monotheistic Cylons also adhere to this doctrine and repeat the phrase as often as the humans. the polytheistic religion of the humans of the Twelve Colonies is centered on the belief of eternal recurrence. the extraterrestrial named "prot" explains eternal return by scientific laws in the universe. "Sway". "that means I'll have to sit through the Ice Capades again. • The Rolling Stones' 1971 song. (p. utilizes a sample of "all of this has happened. it will surely happen again. and then time begins once again It is happening now. "Well. • Jim Morrison. A short story written by one of the play's characters describes a child who jumps through black holes. and it will all happen again. and the religious elements of the show frequently incorporate this idea with the scriptural phrase "All of this has happened before. references the eternal return by asking "did you ever wake up to find. "Time begins and then time ends. and it will happen again.. Lexx. repeatedly. • Flann O'Brien's novel The Third Policeman embodies an instance of eternal recurrence. Rabbit Hole. muses on themes of eternal return. Stills. says Woody.Eternal return • Jorge Luis Borges. we’re all in the cosmic movie.. primarily near the end of the third game.The End of "Light my Fire" (18:52) on Disc 2 of The Doors: Live in Detroit. you know that! That means the day you die.. destroyed your notion of circular time?" and then even alludes to Nietzsche's "demon. "Seek200". in his short story "The Doctrine of Cycles" explains and refutes the concept of the Eternal Return. or rabbit holes."[18] • The ending of Stephen King's Dark Tower series suggests the concept of eternal return by having the final...[16] [17] • The first line of Disney's Peter Pan is "All of this has happened before.usually attributed to Nietzsche. considers the theory of eternal recurrence. in CinemaScope." from a Peter Pan record. by David Lindsay-Abaire. including the concept of "cycles of time". the Old Man of Wandering Mountain and Childlike Empress to opposing and unified figures caught in The Circle of Eternal Return. with the protagonist being entraped on a circular hell. • Michael Ende's 1979 novel. • The 2007 Pulitzer Prize Winner for drama." This line has been cited as the inspiration behind the same theme in Battlestar Galactica. and it is a relatively important plot point throughout most of the early and mid-series. . The Never Ending Story. Xenosaga Episode III: Also sprach Zarathustra. • Crosby. • The Information Society song.. 195) • The idea of eternal recurrence is continually mentioned in the 2007 American horror film Wind Chill. So you better have some good incidents happenin’ in there. makes frequent references to this concept. touches on the concept of eternal recurrence. and a fitting climax" . "Great". 2009. spoke about the idea of eternal recurrence. you gotta watch your whole life recurring eternally forever... who was familiar with Nietzsche's works. it has happened before.

The Ideal Academic Library as Envisioned through Nietzsche's Vision of the Eternal Return. • In the anime The Melancholy of Haruhi Suzumiya. online at http://www. Ned.1939 (2 Volume Set). (1988). 1.mlaforum. Nietzsche's Zarathustra: Notes of the Seminar Given in 1934 . New York : Routledge. • In the sixth part of the manga JoJo's Bizarre Adventure. by accelerating the next cycle of existence without human spirits actually dying. (1998).C. • Lorenzen. ISBN 0-415-96758-9. ISBN 0-8223-2253-6. : Duke University Press. Nietzsche's Life Sentence: Coming to Terms with Eternal Recurrence. Durham. • The anime Zegapain is set in a virtual reality which must reset all history and memories to the initial state of the simulated time frame every 150 days. MLA Forum 5. (2005). • Lukacher. [19] Princeton University Press. Nietzsche's Existential Imperative. Lawrence J. • Magnus. no. so they will have subconscious awareness about the totality of the future.html. ISBN 0-253-34062-4. N. this is crucial to Enrico Pucci's plans to purge humanity of horror and sorrow. ISBN 978-0691099538. 8 episodes of the second season play off this concept. The humans themselves are not actually replications of their previous selves. Carl. • The 2009 horror film Triangle effectively portrays the eternal recurrence in its Nietzschean incarnation. 90 See also • • • • • • • • • • • Cyclical pattern Endless knot Eternal Return (Eliade) Historic recurrence Infinite loop Mandala Möbius strip Ourobouros Poincaré recurrence theorem Universal Function Eternalism (philosophy of time) References • Hatab. they are participating in a sequence of events that has happened on multiple previous occasions and is intended to repeat itself into the future. (1978).Eternal return • The The Matrix (series) trilogy plays with the theme through the planned creation and destruction of Zion and the Matrix itself. (2006). Bloomington : Indiana University Bernd. . Michael. • Jung. Time-Fetishes: The Secret History of Eternal Recurrence.

[12] Lynds. Psychologist. amazon. html) on the École Normale Supérieure's website) [8] Alfred Fouillée. Volume II: The Eternal Recurrence of the Same trans. David Farrell Krell. 25. which have not been understood enough. (Fourth Edition) Princeton University Press. See also Mazzino Montinari. ucd. and Philosophy: Thinking Freedom. The Arcades Project. ie/ arupa/ ouspensky. ens. html) and revision of previous catalogues (http:/ / www. Psychologist. in Revue philosophique de la France et de l'étranger. fr/ nietzsche/ bn/ catalogues. item. (11 [143]) [4] Nietzsche. French translation PUF. 207. ens. Paris 1909. org/ abs/ physics/ 0612053) [13] "Circular causality: A physical hypothesis of eternal recurrence" (http:/ / sites. if Y cannot happen without X. "Thus Spoke Zarathustra". 2. Will. 1974.e.Eternal return 91 References [1] August Thalheimer: Introduction to Dialectical Materialism (http:/ / 72. fr/ nietzsche/ bn.. Ecce Homo. Nietzsche. 14. Nietzsche praises Arthur Schopenhauer's "immortal doctrines of (. html) [16] Battlestar Galactica: Razor . marxists. An. "Why I Write Such Good Books". item.ucd. as a rule of quantum chaos or whatever). "Note sur Nietzsche et Lange: le "retour éternel" (http:/ / fr. calculability of the world from our perspective. And all necessary conditions taken together make a sufficient basis (a cause): if there is no lacking condition for Y. Philosopher. in general. Howard Eiland and Kevin McLaughlin. com/ sfw/ column/ sfw12188. or whatever). New York: Harper and Row. states that everything has a cause. Antichrist. org/ wiki/ Note_sur_Nietzsche_et_Lange_:_«_le_retour_éternel_»).. "On a finite universe with no beginning or end" (http:/ / arxiv. although they . p327 [15] erg. [10] Kundera. So. Friedrich Nietzsche. Hegel. page 201.g. §1 [5] http:/ / (http:/ / erg. 1959. The law of causality Schopenhauer argued that the law of causality is the basis of all our intellectual capability. Nietzsche. 104/ search?q=cache:8TukAqIPIuQJ:www. Walter. [11] Dudley.18 @ Wake the Dead (http:/ / www. Walter. The problem of freedom and fate is not the same as the problem of determinism and indeterminism. html) [19] http:/ / www.. Schopenhauer In The Gay Science. page 276. html [6] Walter Benjamin. html) [18] Transcript for Brigadoom.) the a priori nature of the causal law (. [7] See Posthumous fragment. 101-119. org/ archive/ thalheimer/ works/ diamat/ 06. wikisource. i. Y must happen. 519-525 (French) [9] Kaufmann. because the negation thereof would then be another law: "out of nothing something can arise" (e. the universe plus God. 67. De Gruyter. This law (that everything has a basis from which it springs) cannot be negated." pp. 1991. the general organization of the world – because there is nothing beyond. See chapter D. htm+ eternal+ recurrence& hl=en& start=5) from Google Cache [2] See Heidegger Nietzsche.. scifi. 2001) and also Nietzsche's personal library (see also (http:/ / www. page 5. Nietzsche: Philosopher. Cambridge: Belknap-Harvard. The Unbearable Lightness of Being. which he considers false. 34.The Hybrid's Prophesy (http:/ / puntabulous. T. com/ dp/ 0691099537 Nietzsche and free will The 19th-century philosopher Friedrich Nietzsche is known as a critic of Judeo-Christian morality and religions in general. google. "Boredom Eternal Return. com/ 2008/ 01/ 22/ battlestar-galactica-razor-the-hybrids-prophesy/ ) [17] scifi. 11 [312] 1881. although this does not mean determinism. Milan.. 1999. Following is the short description of his views. geocities.[2] The law of causality. com/ site/ jdquirk/ articles/ circular-causality) [14] Kaufmann. One of the arguments he raised against the truthfulness of these doctrines is that they base upon the concept of free will. Antichrist. 1974 (German (http:/ / www. uqac. We call X a necessary condition for Y. [3] 1881. everything has a cause (except the whole. 1984. except for The Whole (the universe. S. Trans. or ex nihilo nihil.) and the unfreedom of the will"[1] . 2002.. 2002. com/ Paris/ Jardin/ 6009/ trans218.). ca/ classiques/ blanqui_louis_auguste/ eternite_par_les_astres/ eternite_.

over many things. And. But is this power unlimited? Does a will rule without being ruled itself? Does a Christian want to sin? – Nietzsche disagrees. absolute randomness (a chance). we ask: "is will itself willed? do you want your will to become such-and-such?". and society therefrom. with more than Munchausen daring. whether something can be predicted. and likewise a pious man becomes godless without any merit or guilt. Nietzsche criticizes the concept of free will both negatively and positively.e. and. it is because of the power of his values. . out of the slough of nothingness. Next. something that is known already – if we know that the sufficient cause is present). or not. in the chapter "Backworldsmen". Finally. such as still holds sway.g. An event is called random (relatively to some sufficient basis) if it does not follow from this basis.e. therefore. of the will for truthfulness. 14).[2] He calls necessity an implication from a sufficient cause (i. 21[5] . whether it is already known for sure (because of the sufficient cause). 48). it would mean a lack of any sufficient cause. involves nothing less than to be precisely this causa sui. Schopenhauer calls the fact that we can do whatever we will a physical freedom. Schopenhauer draws a distinction between necessity and chance. and to absolve God. hard to break) or weak: The "non-free will" is mythology.. 92 Physical freedom In his On the Freedom of Will. Nothing is (nor can be) fully resistant to stimula. Men generally agree that will is power. the desire to bear the entire and ultimate responsibility for one's actions oneself. which does not mark moral freedom. where everything is a necessity because the Creator knows it already. This question appears in Nietzsche's Zarathustra. the world. still "beyond time"): and then he is surprised and subdued by what I do (and well. It is therefore the question of whether something depends on another thing (i. (This vision is brought up by Nietzsche in The Antichrist. The latter probably relates to ordinary-man's visions like there is a God which (after the ellapse of eternal waiting) creates the world and then waits and observes (being.[3] Chance vs necessity In his On the Freedom of Will. on the other side. lack of obstacles. "Freedom" of will then in fact means: power of will (see argument from The Antichrist. he shows that it represents an error of causa sui (X is a cause of X – whereas "cause" should mean something beyond): The desire for "freedom of will" in the superlative. what you wanted to will".Nietzsche and free will partially intersect. Or. e. metaphysical sense. he suggests that the only real thing about will is whether it is strong (i. As freedom means lack of necessity. if we try to use it to the will itself. for that would mean it is unchangeable: whereas nothing in this world is or can be unchangeable[6] . sect..e. to pull oneself up into existence by the hair. and calls the idea a boorish simplicity. chance. chance in all languages is defined "that what cannot be predicted"[4] . unfortunately. Nietzsche suggests in many places that if a pious man becomes godless. A godless man becomes pious as a "grace". in other words. Compare Luther's argument. in real life it is only a question of strong and weak will. he did not want it. Nietzsche's analysis Power of will In Beyond Good and Evil. Will has power over actions. i. He calls it a folly resulting from extravagant pride of man. in the minds of the half-educated. He therefore continues Schopenhauer's question of "whether you will.[2] "Free" here means: one acting according only to one's will. I am too!). i. however.e. is in some way determined by it) or does not depend on anything (then we call it a chance).e. things are determined by will. ancestors.

The same. All Too Human[9] . that is an action of an action: they set up the same event first as the cause and then yet again as its effect. It is will what makes man reluctant to toss a coin for something (see The Antichrist. This topic is to be found as early as in Human. then there is indeterminism. Next problem is the role of chance. Nietzsche states more clearly that it is a tautology ("what will I do? what will my decision be?" – "it's up to you" – that actually means: your decision depends on your decision. i. will. something independent from anything. in just the same way as people separate lightning from its flash and take the latter as an action. . "we ourselves" means: our will and its filtering and determining capabilities). as if behind the strong person there were an indifferent substrate. "it is you who wants things") is already recognized as empty in the preface of Beyond Good and Evil (or as connected with the superstition about the soul). they simply do what they cannot help doing"). chosen. See e. "The doer" is merely made up and added into the action – the act is everything.). and irredeemable reality – is a voluntary achievement. patient virtue. just as if the weakness of the weak man himself – that means his essence. uncontrollable). who would certainly prefer not to sin and would construct himself otherwise if he could. And if it happens otherwise ("a chance chooses us"). a chance is generally responded by will. thanks to that counterfeiting and self-deception of powerlessness. adiaphora.) "We weak people are merely weak.e. still.e. there is no "being" behind the doing. Unless the change brought to us is big enough. becoming. whether it is itself ruled? And here there are two terms which complicate the picture: the term "me" and "chance" (i. And only when it hath been quite cooked do I welcome it as my food. but still sorely lacketh self-obedience!"[8] – Nietzsche criticizes the idea of "free choice". The term "me" (as in sayings "it's up to you". it is at that time morally indifferent to us. man wants to affirm himself ("will to power"). an act.)[10] Earlier in this part: "The time is now past when accidents could befall me. and what could not fall to my lot which would not already be mine own!"[11] To cut it short... and it returns in many places of Zarathustra. his entire single.. People basically duplicate the action: when they see a lightning flash. dressed itself in the splendour of a self-denying. acting. however. 44. something happens in your mind and not somewhere else. so popular morality separates strength from the manifestations of strength. which is free to express strength or not. his actions. "And many a one can command himself. we are not strong enough for that" – but this bitter state. not against anything (and therefore even more there is no guilt).. and chance Will is something that determines man's acts.. can be applied to the moral weakness of a Christian (his lack of resistance). inevitable. For example in part 3 it is discussed as follows: I am Zarathustra the godless! I cook every chance in my pot.. about Christians: "in point of fact. He calls it "the redemption (of chance)". It's good if we do nothing. wherever there is will. The problem is.Nietzsche and free will 93 "Me". this shrewdness of the lowest ranks. (. something of merit. On the Genealogy of Morals[7] : For. then there would be determinism (for "we". Later. But the latter case means we have no will in a topic. And verily. has. if it was always that "we choose a chance". But there is no such substrate.g. as the effect of a subject which is called lightning. and even of "choice" (see the end of above quotation): man does not want to "choose". something willed. which even insects possess (when in great danger they stand as if they were dead in order not to do "too much"). thoughts etc. many a chance came imperiously unto me: but still more imperiously did my Will speak unto it (.

chance means: that what cannot be predicted. To exist is to represent will to power.. And indeed Nietzsche says it with the mouth of Zarathustra: Out into distant futures. nor for chances he encounters (which conquer him unwillingly – and which. Therefore (through induction). without former willing from our side) needs some foreign will. as things totally independent from anything. going back to the already-mentioned definition." and everything of necessity. in short: wherever we feel our power. If one thing was otherwise. — where gods in their dancing are ashamed of all clothes: (. it is deterministic.. Responsibility Because causa sui is nonsense.. but still: if one thing was set otherwise. One can cause influence only on something that exists. and shaping.)[15] To Nietzsche everything in this world is an expression of will to power (see BGE. disposing. and it is "divine dice" (or "Divine Plan"): If ever I have played dice with the gods at the divine table of the earth. Although Nietzsche considers both terms entirely fictional. their feeling of freedom.[14] The world is semi-deterministic Yet in another part of Zarathustra Nietzsche claims that when we look long-term enough. that necessity and "freedom of will" are then the same thing with them. of subtlety. no-one is responsible neither for the necessities (laws and powers) he represents. there can always happen . and snorted forth fire-streams: – – For a divine table is the earth. and from the bird's-eye perspective of supreme powers big enough. that he is not responsible for them — they come unwillingly: and thus we are not the doers — unfree will (i. after all. so that the earth quaked and ruptured. where necessity was freedom itself.[12] In short.Nietzsche and free will 94 What is unfree will? If people talk about free will. wherever we call something free. an unexpected change. only the "supreme being" could change). which constitute the order of the world and evolution: If ever a breath hath come to me of the creative breath. an act changes everything from that moment onwards.. and of the heavenly necessity which compelleth even chances to dance star-dances: (.) [15] To Nietzsche. and trembling with new active dictums and dice-casts of the gods: (. they who know only too well that precisely when they no longer do anything "arbitrarily. everything would have to be otherwise. then it is certainly some restricted reality (if "freedom" meant "everything". everything would have to be otherwise (and generally also backwards). reaching even the surface of his consciousness).. to cause influence (compare similar views of Protagoras' disciples in Plato's Teaitet). Therefore. reaches its climax — in short. of power. this general rule is not affected by chances: they of course change the world course too. we feel something free. because it is ruled and step-by-step softened and arranged by natural laws and necessities. Now. which played happily with the goad of freedom: — [13] The same in Beyond Good and Evil: Artists have here perhaps a finer intuition. of creatively fixing. there would be no need for a separate word). noone is absolutely and completely resistant. it is a necessity. even a chance has a cause (only the whole has no cause). he gives some clues about the psychological reality behind them: The states of power impute to a man a feeling that he is not the cause. What follows? That there must be events external to one's freedom: therefore. into warmer souths than ever sculptor conceived. Contrary to Chesterton's views. 36). besides "free will" there should also consequently be "unfree will". awareness of a change done to us.) Where all time seemed to me a blessed mockery of moments. which no dream hath yet seen. then it is "unfree will".e. If randomness affects man (unsubjugated. a chance is unimportant..

" – it is only thereby that the innocence of becoming is again restored . and by no means does anything for men's "salvation".g. or an aim. and evil causes the good. very often used by the priests. nor society. and yet evil happens. that the world be not regarded as a unity. A priest. where he portrays Christianity as the corruption of original doctrine taught by Jesus of equal rights for all to be children of God. the Aftersong in BGE. or "The Seven Seals". The dichotomy between God and the devil is a "dualistic fiction"[17] .e. A chance involves no obligation (A 25. measure.Nietzsche and free will something which changes you deeply enough.–there is nothing which could judge. – [16] 95 Nietzsche's conclusions About man and freedom In The Antichrist. 4. See e. (This argument is raised in The Antichrist. we belong to the whole. no gulf fixed between God and men). For what could he do? Knock at a chance? If Jesus came to rule. either as sensorium or as "spirit. But there is nothing outside the whole! – This only is the grand emancipation: that no one be made responsible any longer. We are necessary. for being formed so and so. we are part of destiny. We deny God. neither God. a prophet. . compare. nor he himself (the latter absurd idea here put aside has been taught as "intelligible freedom" by Kant. . . that the mode of being be not traced back to a causa prima. we deny responsibility by denying God: it is only thereby that we save the world. The concept of "God" has hitherto been the greatest objection to existence . near the end). Good causes the evil. . Man wants the good. No one is responsible for existing at all. perhaps also by Plato). we exist in the whole. . a moralist only rules. from Zarathustra. a will. He is not the result of a special purpose. that doesn't change anything. the doctrine of no guilt. Nietzsche argues that man should be treated no otherwise than as a machine. ." – it is absurd to try to shunt off man's nature towards some goal. for that would be to judge. compare. . – But he said: "I haven't come to be served". And if we add some general chaos (randomness) to the image. About organized religion Religion is about controlling people: one human-machine wants to achieve power over another. From Twilight of the Idols: What alone can our teaching be? – That no one gives a man his qualities. his will is by definition always fulfilled (it is impossible that he wills something and it is not fulfilled). He points both to the weakness of man and of God. it would be senseless. power) of will? And where is this good God? About good and evil These two are mixed and interdependent. measure. . Even the term "freedom". or condemn our being. Religion is by no means more "fulfilling the will of God" than anything else. and at the same time were the "Son of God". for being placed under those circumstances and in this environment. because God rules everything anyway. the attempt is not here made to reach an "ideal of man. . in its positive sense actually means "power"." an "ideal of happiness. So where is this "freedom" (i. nor his parents and ancestors. "God" wants the good. 14. His own destiny cannot be disentangled from the destiny of all else in past and future. We have invented the notion of a "goal:" in reality a goal is lacking . As God is primary and almighty. and condemn the whole ." or an "ideal of morality.

And in order to master it. W. 4. because "When one gives up the Christian faith. This morality is by no means self-evident. 3. 1. "The Wanderer". And we have killed him. Section 125. "The Bedwarfing Virtue". "The Seven Seals". where he shows the notion of "unfree will" as crucial to religious explanations (such as actions of gods or spirits). section 108 (New Struggles). 173.J. in section 125 (The Madman). W. 4. R. the problem is to retain any system of values in the absence of a divine order. not only to the rejection of a belief of . Walter Kaufmann Explanation "God is dead" never meant that Nietzsche believed in an actual God who first existed and then died in a literal sense. tr. "Old and new tables". W. the faith in God. the murderers of all murderers? What was holiest and mightiest of all that the world has yet owned has bled to death under our knives: who will wipe this blood off us? What water is there for us to clean ourselves? What festivals of atonement.. pl/ books?id=WuTGU6Z674IC& printsec=frontcover) [17] The Antichrist. [16] Twilight of the Idols (http:/ / books. Nietzsche says. The idea is stated in "The Madman" as follows: God is dead. "Old and new tables". T. [7] On the Genealogy of Morals. [13] Thus spake Zarathustra. tr. tr. and for a third time in section 343 (The Meaning of our Cheerfulness). Common. where he quotes Thomas Hobbes. sect. . §135. which is most responsible for popularizing the phrase. All Too Human. sect. By breaking one main concept out of Christianity. Critique of religion. God remains dead. 2. tr. sect. one breaks the whole: nothing necessary remains in one's hands. The Gay Science. [9] See Human. [4] Dictionary meanings of "chance" (http:/ / dictionary. a work which primarily addresses atheists.. tr. The death of God will lead. under the topic: Corriger la fortune (to correct a chance). one pulls the right to Christian morality out from under one's feet. sect. Hollingdale. Book II ("Critique of highest values hitherto"). 99. c. [10] Thus spake Zarathustra. [2] See Schopenhauer's On the Freedom of Will. Common. Kaufmann. [11] Thus spake Zarathustra. also known as the death of God) is a widely-quoted statement by German philosopher Friedrich Nietzsche. [15] Thus spake Zarathustra. [12] The Will to Power.Nietzsche and free will The whole "freedom" is invented by the priests in order to master the process that takes place in the machine called human brain – nothing more. they have first to denaturize it (A. com/ browse/ chance) [5] Beyond Good and Evil. [8] Thus spake Zarathustra. tr. Kaufmann. It may be more appropriate to consider the statement as Nietzsche's way of saying that the "God" of the times (religion and other such spirituality) is no longer a viable source of any received wisdom. 96 References [1] The Gay Science. H. Genesis of religions. "The backworldsmen". 3. T. Zimmern [6] Twilight of the Idols. tr. c. I. The death of God is a way of saying that humans are no longer able to believe in any such cosmic order since they themselves no longer recognize it. 2. sect. [14] Beyond Good and Evil. 3. How shall we comfort ourselves. google. Kaufmann. reference. 21. 17. It is also found in Nietzsche's classic work Thus Spoke Zarathustra (Deutsch: Also sprach Zarathustra). what sacred games shall we have to invent? Is not the greatness of this deed too great for us? Must we ourselves not become gods simply to appear worthy of it? —Nietzsche. Nietzsche recognizes the crisis which the death of God represents for existing moral considerations. [3] Thus spake Zarathustra. God is dead "God is dead" (German: "Gott ist tot". 213. It first appears in The Gay Science (Deutsch: Die fröhliche Wissenschaft)."[1] This is why in "The Madman". 26). trans.

This deed is still more distant from them than the most distant stars—and yet they have done it themselves. and we have killed him.much laughter. to Nietzsche. though done. "I seek God! I seek God!" He arouses some amusement. 97 Nietzsche and Heidegger Martin Heidegger understood this part of Nietzsche's philosophy by looking at it as death of metaphysics. This nihilism is what Nietzsche worked to find a solution for by re-evaluating the foundations of human values. sect. In this manner. binding upon all individuals. the loss of an absolute basis for morality leads to nihilism. would no longer stand in the way. the man is described as running through a marketplace shouting. In the madman's passage. crying out that "God is dead. so human beings might stop turning their eyes toward a supernatural realm and begin to acknowledge the value of this world. no one takes him seriously. He would find a basis in the "will to power" that he described as "the essence of reality. the 'revaluation of all values'. he wrote. which can be both exhilarating and terrifying. If metaphysics is dead. The Christian God. The people who eventually learn to create their lives anew will represent a new stage in human existence.[2] New possibilities Nietzsche believed there could be positive possibilities for humans without God. in Heidegger's words. the personal archetype who.God is dead cosmic or physical order but also to a rejection of absolute values themselves — to the rejection of belief in an objective and universal moral law. it has not yet reached the ears of men. people would despair and nihilism would become rampant. Philosophy has. themselves become a sort of mythical hero. Lightning and thunder require time. Nietzsche's voice Although Nietzsche puts the statement "God is Dead" into the mouth of a "madman" in The Gay Science. he also uses the phrase in his own voice in sections 108 and 343 of the same book. as his detractors of a minute before stare in astonishment: people cannot yet see that they have killed God. the Übermensch — i. In his view.e. Therefore." Nietzsche believed that the majority of people did not recognize this death out of the deepest-seated fear or angst. you and I!" "But I have come too soon. 125 Earlier in the book (section 108). Nietzsche uses the metaphor of an open sea. there may still be caves for thousands of years in which his shadow will be shown. too. reached its maximum potential as metaphysics and Nietzsche's words warn of its demise and that of any metaphysical world view. Walter Kaufmann. He goes on to say: This prodigious event is still on its way. Maybe he took an ocean voyage? Lost his way like a little child? Maybe he's afraid of us (non-believers) and is hiding?-. looking for foundations that went deeper than Christian values. Socrates or Jesus. Frustrated." . giving a new philosophical orientation to future generations to overcome the impending nihilism. when the death did begin to become widely acknowledged. deeds. Nietzsche's words can only be understood as referring not to a particular theological or anthropological view but rather to the end of philosophy itself. but given the way of men. still require time to be seen and heard. Nietzsche wrote "God is Dead. —trans. The 'death of God' is the motivation for Nietzsche's last (uncompleted) philosophical project." he immediately realizes. through the conquest of their own nihilism. Relinquishing the belief in God opens the way for human creative abilities to fully develop. the light of the stars requires time. And we — we still have to vanquish his shadow. The Gay Science. Heidegger warns. the madman smashes his lantern on the ground. He may have seen himself as a historical figure like Zarathustra. This is partly why Nietzsche saw Christianity as nihilistic. still wandering. that is because from its inception that was its fate. This meant.

based on the Kabbalah. The saint answered: 'I make songs and sing them. But when Zarathustra was alone he spoke thus to his heart: 'Could it be possible? This old saint in the forest has not yet heard anything of this. cry. Altizer. this was the moment in time in which humanity was awakened to the idea that a theistic God may not exist. that God is dead!' —trans. In 1961. 1966 edition of Time and the accompanying article concerned a movement in American theology that arose in the 1960s known as the "death of God". J. Unlike Nietzsche. commenting to himself after visiting a hermit who. Altizer concluded that God had incarnated in Christ and imparted his immanent spirit which remained in the world even though Jesus was dead. crying. and when I make songs. In Vahanian's vision a transformed post-Christian and post-modern culture was needed to create a renewed experience of deity. God is a historical process. He concluded that for the modern mind "God is dead". Paul Van Buren. he no longer accepted the possibility of affirming belief in a transcendent God. laughing. Part I. it was no longer possible to believe in an orthodox/traditional theistic God of the Abrahamic covenant. According to the norms of contemporary modern thought. In a technical sense he maintained. rather. I laugh. William Hamilton and Thomas J. Theos means God and Thanatos means death. Both Van Buren and Hamilton agreed that the concept of transcendence had lost any meaningful place in modern thought. no transcendental purpose or sense of providence. every day. With singing.3 98 Death of God theological movement The cover of the April 8. What is more. Altizer offered a radical theology of the death of God that drew upon William Blake. But what do you bring us as a gift?' When Zarathustra had heard these words he bade the saint farewell and said: 'What could I have to give you? But let me go quickly lest I take something from you!' And thus they separated. Prologue. However. Although the literal death of God did not occur at this point. In responding to this collapse in transcendence Van Buren and Hamilton offered secular people the option of Jesus as the model human who acted in love. Zarathustra later refers not only to the death of God. The death of God movement is sometimes technically referred to as "theothanatology" (In Greek. and hum: thus do I praise God. and humming do I praise the god who is my god. Hegelian thought and Nietzschean ideas. that God had "died" in creating the world. laughing as two boys laugh. to be replaced by the life of the übermensch. God is dead. Rubenstein. Altizer believed that God truly died. Vahanian's book The Death of God was published. It is not just one morality that has died. Section XXII. Walter Kaufmann. Rubenstein represented that radical edge of Jewish thought working through the impact of the Holocaust. lacking any sacramental meaning.God is dead The protagonist in Thus Spoke Zarathustra also speaks the words. for modern Jewish culture he argued that the death of God occurred in Auschwitz.' —trans. the new man: 'DEAD ARE ALL THE GODS: NOW DO WE DESIRE THE OVERMAN TO LIVE. and the rabbi Richard L. Vahanian argued that modern secular culture had lost all sense of the sacred. 2. sings songs and lives to glorify his god: 'And what is the saint doing in the forest?' asked Zarathustra. The encounter with the Christ of faith would be open in a church-community. but all of them. He conceived of theology as a form of poetry in which the immanence (presence) of God could be encountered in faith communities. Thomas Common. sect.) The main protagonists of this theology included the Christian theologians Gabriel Vahanian. He is considered to be the leading exponent of the Death of God movement. but states: 'Dead are all the Gods'. Thus Spoke Zarathustra. Thus Spoke Zarathustra. the old one and the man. In Rubenstein's work. However.[3] .

html . Nietzsches Wort 'Gott ist tot (1943) translated as "The Word of Nietzsche: 'God Is Dead. 2007). The Death of God (New York: George Braziller. Expeditions of an Untimely Man. 2nd. 1961). • Thomas J. Contesting Spirit: Nietzsche.. Walter. Theology. Walter Kaufmann and R. Gianni Vattimo. 1998. Radical Theology and the Death of God (Indianapolis: Bobbs-Merrill. Antichrist. 2002. sect. "God After the Death of God" in After Auschwitz: History. Religion. Walter de Gruyter 2000 [3] Richard L. 5 [2] Wolfgan Muller-Lauter. com/ [5] http:/ / www. 1966). Twilight of the Idols. Psychologist.God is dead 99 See also • • • • • Christian atheism Postmodern Christianity Deconstruction-and-religion Post-theism Post-monotheism Further reading • Heidegger. Princeton: Princeton University Press. edited by Jeffrey W. "Death of God Theology" [5] References [1] trans. Martin.J. Cambridge University Press. • Bernard Murchland. frame-poythress. • Hamilton. Altizer and William Hamilton. 1966). ISBN 978-0826406415 External links • John M. • John D. org/ frame_articles/ 1988Death. Tyler T. 1994). William. ed. wordpress. and Contemporary Judaism. 1974.'" in Holzwege. 293-306 [4] http:/ / godisdying. The Gospel of Christian Atheism (Philadelphia: Westminster." (London. New York: Continuum International Publishing Group. Frame. • Gabriel Vahanian. 1967). After the Death of God. J. Princeton: Princeton University Press. Heidegger und Nietzsche: Nietzsche-Interpretationen III. Caputo. ed (Baltimore: John Hopkins University Press. God is Dying Blog [4] Death of God theology • Thomas J. Rubenstein. Robbins (New York: Columbia University Press. God is Dying Blog . The Meaning of the Death of God (New York: Random House. Nietzsche: Philosopher.The evolution of religion through modern times. • J Vidovich-Munsie. 1992). "A Quest for the Post-Historical Jesus. • Kaufmann. J. Altizer. edited and translated by Julian Young and Kenneth Haynes. Hollingdale. Affirmation. • Roberts.

Modern psychological and economic research has identified herd behavior in humans to explain the phenomena of large numbers of people acting in the same way at the same time. ranging from cognitive neuroscience [2] to economics. sporting events. Hamilton asserted that each individual group member reduces the danger to itself by moving as close as possible to the center of the fleeing group. including humans. In The Theory of the Leisure Class. Possible mechanisms • Hamilton’s Selfish Herd Theory • Byproduct of communication skill of social animal or runaway positive feedback • Neighbor copying Escape Panic Characteristics • • • • • • Individuals attempt to move faster than normal Interactions between individuals become physical Exits become arched and clogged Escape is slowed by fallen individuals serving as obstacles Individuals display a tendency towards mass or copied behavior Alternative or less used exits are overlooked[3] Herd behavior in human societies The German philosopher Friedrich Nietzsche was the first to critique what he referred to as "herd morality" and the "herd instinct" in human society. episodes of mob violence and even everyday decision making. mice. . Theoretical models have demonstrated symmetry breaking similar to observations in scientific studies. and schools. but its function emerges from the uncoordinated behavior of self-serving individuals. street demonstrations. Herd behavior in animals A group of animals fleeing a predator shows the nature of herd behavior." where some members of a group mimic other members of higher status. Instincts of the Herd in Peace and War (1914). Thorstein Veblen explained economic behavior in terms of social influences such as "emulation. describing two key issues. and ants. and to human conduct during activities such as stock market bubbles and crashes. a majority will favor one exit while the minority will favor the other. in the oft cited article "Geometry For The Selfish Herd.Herd behavior 100 Herd behavior Herd behavior describes how individuals in a group can act together without planned direction. Thus the herd appears as a unit in moving together. The term pertains to the behavior of animals in herds. The British surgeon Wilfred Trotter popularized the "herd behavior" phrase in his book.[3] Symmetry breaking in herding behavior Asymmetric aggregation of animals under panic conditions has been observed in many species. It has been suggested that bringing together diverse theoretical approaches of herding behaviour illuminates the applicability of the concept to many domains[1] ." evolutionary biologist W. For example when panicked individuals are confined to a room with two equal and equidistant exits. flocks. judgment and opinion forming. D. In 1971. religious gatherings. early sociologist George Simmel referred to the "impulse to sociability in man". the mechanisms of transmission of thoughts or behaviour between individuals and the patterns of connections between them. In "The Metropolis and Mental Life" (1903). Recently an integrated approach to herding has been proposed.

such as Freud (crowd psychology). and Gustave Le Bon (the popular mind). both of which showed that herd behavior may result from private information not publicly shared. A summary of the progress of this strand of literature can be found in the paper by Plott (2000). Population exchanges between India and Pakistan brought millions of migrating Hindus and Muslims into proximity.Herd behavior and sought to describe "the forms of association by which a mere sum of separate individuals are made into a 'society' ". fear in the crashes.[5] The academic study of behavioral finance has identified herding in the collective irrationality of investors. Other social scientists explored behaviors related to herding. Even if herd behavior might only be observed rarely. latter-day example of sports violence. Their result is even more interesting since it refers to a market with a well-defined fundamental value. particularly when confronted by an opposing ethnic or racial group. Behavior in crowds Crowds that gather on behalf of a grievance can involve herding behavior that turns violent. The Los Angeles riots of 1992. New York Draft Riots and Tulsa Race Riot are notorious in U. More specifically.[6] and Nobel laureates Vernon Smith. The most violent single riot in history may be the sixth-century Nika riots in Constantinople. The seminal references are Banerjee (1992) and Bikhchandani. The second of the strands of literature motivating this paper is that of information aggregation in market contexts. The football hooliganism of the 1980s was a well-publicized. both of these papers showed that individuals. Hey and Morone (2004) analysed a model of herd behavior in a market context. Amos Tversky. may end up choosing the socially undesirable option.[4] Some followers of the technical analysis school of investing see the herding behavior of investors as an example of extreme market sentiment. which started with flooding of the Cigar Lake Mine in Saskatchewan. A very early reference is the classic paper by Grossman and Stiglitz (1976) that showed that uninformed traders in a market context can become informed through the price in such a way that private information is aggregated correctly and efficiently. precipitated by partisan factions attending the chariot races.S. particularly the work of Robert Shiller. . Carl Jung (collective unconscious). Sporting events can also produce violent episodes of herd behavior. Individual investors join the crowd of others in a rush to get in or out of the market.000 and one million. 101 Stock market bubbles Large stock market trends often begin and end with periods of frenzied buying (bubbles) or selling (crashes). the ensuing violence produced an estimated death toll of between 200. One such hurdish incident was the price volatilaty that surrounded the 2007 Uranium bubble. history. Swarm theory observed in non-human societies is a related concept and is being explored as it occurs in human society. Their work is related to at least two important strands of literature. acting sequentially on the basis of private information and public knowledge about the behavior of others. but those episodes are dwarfed by the scale of violence and death during the Partition of India. Many observers cite these episodes as clear examples of herding behavior that is irrational and driven by emotion—greed in the bubbles. Hey and Morone (2004) showed that it is possible to observe herd-type behavior in a market context. The idea of a "group mind" or "mob behavior" was put forward by the French social psychologists Gabriel Tarde and Gustave Le Bon. The first of these strands is that on herd behavior in a non-market context. during the year 2006[7] [8] [9] . Hirshleifer and Welch (1992). and Daniel Kahneman. this has important consequences for a whole range of real markets – most particularly foreign exchange markets.

so at random. as when a person on the street decides which of two restaurants to dine in. Suppose that both look appealing. They see that restaurant A has customers while B is empty. and choose A on the assumption that having customers makes it the better choice. with restaurant A doing more business that night than B. Soon a couple walks down the same street in search of a place to eat. Millennium Point stampede The Hillsborough disaster riot stampede . but both are empty because it is early evening. this person chooses restaurant A. This phenomenon is also referred as an information cascade. And so on with other passersby into the evening.[10] [11] See also • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • Anxiety Bandwagon effect Collective behavior Collective consciousness Collective effervescence Collective intelligence Crowd psychology Conformism Fear Flocking (behavior) Group behavior Groupthink Herd mentality Hive mind Informational cascade Mass hysteria Mean world syndrome Meme Mob Mentality Mob rule Moral panic Propaganda Self-organization Sheeple Socionomics Spontaneous order Swarm intelligence Symmetry Breaking in Herding Behavior Team player The 2009 Birmingham.Herd behavior 102 Everyday decision-making Benign herding behaviors may be frequent in everyday decisions based on learning from the information of others.

• Rook. Symmetry Breaking in Escaping Ants. Diss. Vol. "An Economic Psychological Approach to Herd Behaviour. [3] W. com/ news/ UraniumSeek/ 1219431716. Schultz W. et al. 3389/ fnhum. pp. com/ science?_ob=ArticleURL& _udi=B6VH9-4X6PPCY-1& _user=10& _coverDate=10/ 31/ 2009& _rdoc=1& _fmt=high& _orig=search& _sort=d& _docanchor=& view=c& _searchStrId=1345409312& _rerunOrigin=google& _acct=C000050221& _version=1& _urlVersion=0& _userid=10& md5=831b2c0d964de08777a5c58e6bb97199''Herding). 1970. Economica. The Wave Principle of Human Social Behavior. Banerjee. pp. New Classics Library (1999). New York: Oxford University Press. Marco. Tobler PN.. and Cultural Change as Informational Cascades. sciencedirect. Sushil. Asset Pricing under Asymmetric Information : Bubbles. 00048/ ''Striatal). • Stanford. uraniumseek. org/ neuroscience/ humanneuroscience/ paper/ 10. M. UK . • Hamilton. php)] [10] Abhijit V. oup. com/ us/ catalog/ general/ subject/ Economics/ Business/ ?view=usa& ci=9780198296980). Ebsco. and Cultural Change as Informational Cascades. David Hirshleifer.Herd behavior 103 Further reading • Bikhchandani. . "Herd Behavior and Investment: Comment. 2001. [6] Robert J. [2] Burke CJ. Custom." Journal of Economic Issues XL (2006): 75-95. [7] [ (http:/ / www. Oxford University Press (2001). "Avoiding Predators: Expectations and Evidence in Primate Antipredator Behaviour. Oxford. • Rook." Journal of Political Economy. pp." The Quarterly Journal of Economics. David.. No. "An Economic Psychological Approach to Herd Behavior. Vol. Ebsco. Shiller. • E. 797-817. [11] Sushil Bikhchandani. 3. 695-704. Technical Analysis. [5] Robert Prechter. No. pp. Chater N. • Ottaviani. 637–659. Princeton University Press (2000). Craig B. Vol. com/ TonyLocantro/ 1121781600. Custom. and Andrea Morone. "Geometry for the Selfish Herd. Fall. Vol. The American Naturalist. pp. goldseek. Laurens. 166:6.1 (2006): 75-95. Altshuler. Trends in Cognitive Sciences (2009). Laurens. pp. "Do Markets Drive out Lemmings . 1914. Keyword: herd Behavior. November 2004." International Journal of Primatology 23 (2001): 741-757. 100.5." American Economic Review. php)] [9] [ (http:/ / news. D. Hirshleifer. 107. Fashion. 2000. Brunnermeier.. 100. References [1] Raafat RM. info/ prices/ monthly. No. "A Theory of Fads. Vol. and Welch. 2010. Frith C. Volume 31. Irrational Exuberance. Baddeley. Hamilton (1971). 992–1026. The Instincts of the Herd in Peace and War." Journal of Theoretical Biology. • Hey. Asset Pricing under Asymmetric Information: Bubbles. Technical Analysis. No. uranium. and Peter Sorenson.. 90. 71. John D. • Brunnermeier. Ivo Welch. Issue 2." Journal of Political Economy. Ivo. BOLD response reflects the impact of herd information on financial decisions (http:/ / frontiersin. Crashes. Fall. No. [4] Markus K. 284.. html)] [8] [ (http:/ / www. pp. 149-153.5. Keyword: Herd Behaviour. Markus Konrad. October 1992. W D.or vice versa?". 152-153. Jun. "A Simple Model of Herd Behavior. 2005. and Herding. Fashion. (2004). Geometry for the Selfish Herd. 3. Crashes. 1992. in humans (http:/ / www. 992-1026. • Wilfred Trotter." Journal of Economic Issues 40. and Herding (http:/ / www. "A Theory of Fads. 295-311. Frontiers in Human Neuroscience (2010). Imperial College.

who merely earns his living and keeps warm. strong enough to live without the consolation of an egalitarian ethics. "the event itself is far too great."[1] See also • Oblomov • Superfluous man • The End of History and the Last Man References [1] Gay Science. If the "Übermensch" represented his ideal – the ideal of a being strong enough to create a new master morality. the "Übermensch". Nietzsche saw that nothing great is possible for the Last Man. whose imminent appearance is heralded by Zarathustra. But the full implications of the death of God had yet to unfold. Nietzsche predicted.Last man 104 Last man The last man (German: der letzte Mensch) is a term used by the philosopher Friedrich Nietzsche in Thus Spoke Zarathustra to describe the antithesis of the imagined superior being. One of Nietzsche's greatest fears was the creeping mediocrity brought about by democratic sensibility and universal equality. who is unable to dream. would be one response to nihilism. one who is tired of life. §343 . and strong enough to recognize and embrace the "eternal return" as the ultimate reality – then Nietzsche’s so called "last man" is the exact opposite. The last man. This 'Over Man' may be contrasted to a weak-willed individual. too distant. who has no great passion or commitment. seeks only comfort and security: the last man. takes no risks. As he said. and it is Nietzsche's contention that Western civilization (Europe) is moving in the direction of the last man. an apathetic creature. too remote from the multitude's capacity for comprehension even for the tidings of it to be thought of having arrived as yet.

"the value or non-value of an action was derived from its consequences"[1] but ultimately. slave morality originates in the weak.. therefore usefulness is goodness as a value. the master morality is the full recognition that oneself is the measure of all things. timid and petty. In the end it must be as it has always been: great things are for the great.[5] As master morality originates in the strong. courage. The essence of slave morality is utility[6] : the good is what is most useful for the whole community. codes and practices. it is characterized by pessimism and skepticism. that good is everything that is helpful. slave morality avoids admitting that their humility was in the . that in the prehistoric state."[2] For these strong-willed men. Master morality weighs actions on a scale of good or bad consequences unlike slave morality which weighs actions on a scale of good or evil intentions. Masters are creators of morality. "There are no moral phenomena at all."[3] Other qualities that are often valued in master moralities are open-mindedness. Master morality Nietzsche defined master morality as the morality of the strong-willed. Nietzsche saw this as a contradiction. Slave morality does not aim at exerting one's will by strength but by careful subversion.Master-slave morality 105 Master-slave morality Master-slave morality is a central theme of Friedrich Nietzsche's works. cowardly. in sum. "And how could there exist a 'common good'! The expression is a self-contradiction: what can be common has ever been but little value. it villainizes its oppressors."[4] In this sense. "The noble type of man experiences itself as determining values. a particular morality is inseparable from the formation of a particular culture. the will to power) are 'evil'. only moral interpretations of phenomena. not by a transcendent deity. shudders and delicacies. while the 'bad' is the weak. For Nietzsche. By saying humility is voluntary. Slave morality Unlike master morality which is sentiment. the 'good' is the noble. Because slave morality is a reaction to oppression. narratives. it is value-creating. slave morality is literally re-sentiment--revaluing that which the master values. which he identifies with contemporary British ideology. as are the qualities they originally could not choose because of their weakness. strong and powerful. truthfulness. What Nietzsche meant by 'morality' deviates from common understanding of this term. it does not need approval. the weak gain power by corrupting the strong into believing that the causes of slavery (viz. In the Death of God. it judges. in particular the first essay of On the Genealogy of Morality. This strays from the valuation of actions based on consequences to the valuation of actions based on "intention". "Fear is the mother of morality. and. and institutions are informed by the struggle between these two types of moral valuation. abysses for the profound. As such. the strong-willed man values such things as 'good'. for the refined. He argues that this view has forgotten the origins of the values. Nietzsche argued that there were two fundamental types of morality: 'Master morality' and 'slave morality'. all rare things for the rare. and thus it calls what is useful good on the grounds of habitualness . morality is seen as something that was created by humankind. trust and an accurate sense of self-worth. This means that its language. it knows itself to be that which first accords honour to things. Slave morality is created in opposition to what master morality values as 'good'. Insomuch as something is helpful to the strong-willed man it is like what he values in himself. not the strong. The essence of master morality is nobility. Nietzsche criticizes the view. For Nietzsche. but to make them slaves as well. therefore. slaves respond to master-morality with their slave-morality."[7] Since the powerful are few in number compared to the masses of the weak. and for slave and master. It does not seek to transcend the masters.what is useful has always been defined as good. what is bad is what is harmful. Master morality begins in the 'noble man' with a spontaneous idea of the good. 'what is harmful to me is harmful in itself'. then the idea of bad develops as what is not good. master-slave morality provides the basis of all exegesis of Western thought. Slave morality is the inverse of master morality. Morality is designed to protect that which the strong-willed man values. He continues explaining.

p. Walter Kaufmann disagrees that Nietzsche actually preferred master morality to slave morality. [3] Nietzsche. Beyond Good and Evil. References [1] Nietzsche. weak). Friedrich (1973). He calls the heroes "men of a noble culture"[10] . 62. 96. [5] Nietzsche. Friedrich (1967). ISBN 978-0-140-44923-5. giving a substantive example of master morality. 123. ISBN 978-0-140-44923-5. [4] Nietzsche. which is the jealousy of the weak seeking to enslave the strong with itself. He certainly gives slave morality a much harder time. New York: Vintage Books. Friedrich (1973). and thus enslaving the masters as well.Master-slave morality beginning forced upon them by a master. p. which might have made his views more explicit. The Antichrist had been meant as the first book in a four-book series. ISBN 978-0-140-44923-5. charity. Beyond Good and Evil. London: Penguin Books. and pity are the result of universalizing the plight of the slave onto all humankind. According to Nietzsche.but simply that master morality was preferable to slave morality. Friedrich (1973). Friedrich (1973). London: Penguin Books."[9] 106 Society This struggle between master and slave moralities recurs historically. 'sensual' into one and were the first to coin the word 'world' as a term of infamy. did not believe that humans should adopt master morality as the be-all-end-all code of behavior . ISBN 978-0-140-44923-5. and the classical roots of the Iliad and Odyssey exemplified Nietzsche's master morality. [9] Nietzsche. 'evil'. This resentment Nietzsche calls "priestly vindictiveness". p. p. ISBN 0-679-72462-1. slave conquered master. p. London: Penguin Books. Historically. [11] Nietzsche. Friedrich (1973). The Homeric hero is the strong-willed man. 118. Robert C. London: Penguin Books. According to Nietzsche. On The Genealogy of Morals. Beyond Good and Evil. ISBN 978-0-140-44923-5. the essential struggle between cultures has always been between the Roman (master. Nietzsche claimed that the nascent democratic movement of his time was essentially slavish and weak. although this is debatable. Beyond Good and Evil. ISBN 978-0-140-44923-5. inspired by "the most intelligent revenge" of the weak. 125.he believed that the revaluation of morals would correct the inconsistencies in both master and slave morality . It is this inversion of values (with which is involved the employment of the word for 'poor' as a synonym for 'holy' and 'friend') that the significance of the Jewish people resides: with them there begins the slave revolt in morals. 71. but this is partly because he believes that slave morality is modern society's more imminent danger. ISBN 978-0-140-44923-5. London: Penguin Books. Beyond Good and Evil. Nietzsche saw democracy and Christianity as the same emasculating impulse which sought to make all equal—to make all slaves. Friedrich (1973). He condemns the triumph of slave morality in the West. p. ISBN 0-534-6332805. 'violent'. Beyond Good and Evil. [8] Nietzsche. 39.. [6] Nietzsche. London: Thomson Wadsworth. p. London: Penguin Books. p. 63. strong) and the Judean (slave. London: Penguin Books. Friedrich (1973). Friedrich (1973). 'godless'. 127. London: Penguin Books. [7] Nietzsche. ancient Greek and Roman societies were grounded in master morality.the Jews achieved that miracle of inversion of values thanks to which life on earth has for a couple millennia acquired a new and dangerous fascination--their prophets fused 'rich'. but Nietzsche was afflicted by mental collapse that rendered him unable to write the latter three books. . "Toward a Re-Evaluation of All Morals". [10] Nietzsche. p. humility. p. to Nietzsche. p. Nietzsche. London: Penguin Books. master morality was defeated as the slave morality of Christianity spread throughout the Roman Empire. Beyond Good and Evil. Friedrich (1973). 2005. [2] Nietzsche.. saying that the democratic movement is the "collective degeneration of man"[11] . Beyond Good and Evil. "The democratic movement is the heir to Christianity. ISBN 978-0-140-44923-5. however. and Clancy Martin. 122. London: Penguin Books. Beyond Good and Evil. ISBN 978-0-140-44923-5. ". Beyond Good and Evil. 153. Friedrich (1973). re-sentiment conquered sentiment. Biblical principles of turning the other cheek. Since Socrates: A Concise Sourcebook of Classic Readings. ISBN 978-0-140-44923-5. • Solomon. Such movements were. Weakness conquered strength."[8] --the political manifestation of slave morality because of its obsession with freedom and equality.

which he designates as Rousseauistic. in Derridean philosophy. 278-293. 1967. and Play. melancholic response. Rousseau's perspective focuses on deciphering the truth and origin of language and its many signs. Trans. Sign. and without origin which is offered to an active interpretation. the affirmation of a world of signs without fault. This shock allows for two reactions in Derrida’s philosophy: the more negative. a more resolute response to language.” Derrida articulates Nietzsche’s perspective as …the joyous affirmation of the play of the world and of the innocence of becoming. Hollingdale translators) New York: Random House. In “Structure. This acceptance of the inevitable allows for considerable relief — evident in the designation of the loss of center as a noncenter — as well as the opportunity to affirm and cultivate play.Master-slave morality 107 See also • The Marriage of Heaven and Hell • Orthodoxy • Master-slave dialectic Nietzschean affirmation Nietzschean affirmation is a concept in the philosophy of Friedrich Nietzsche. no center or origin within language and its many parts. and if our soul has trembled with happiness and sounded like a harp string just once. neither in us ourselves nor in things. Jacques. however. This application acknowledges that there is. 1978.J. no firm ground from which to base any Truth or truths. An exemplary formulation of this kind of affirmation can be sought in Nietzsche's Nachlass: If we affirm one moment. in fact. (Walter Kaufmann and R.[1] Much of this spirit resides in the abandonment of any sort of new humanism. . Derrida acquires and employs Nietzsche’s optimism in his concept of play: "the substitution of given and existing. (pages 532-533) Derridean interpretation Jacques Derrida allocates this concept and applies it specifically to language. all eternity was needed to produce this one event . in doing so. redeemed. an often exhaustive occupation. Chicago: U of Chicago P. Derrida's response to Nietzsche. “Structure. and affirmed. its structure and play.[1] Essentially. Derrida not only fosters Nietzsche’s work but evolves it within the sphere of language. Alan Bass.and in this single moment of affirmation all eternity was called good. For nothing is self-sufficient.[1] References [1] Derrida. and Play in the Discourse of the Humanities. —Nietzsche. which enables humanity and the humanities “to pass beyond man and humanism” (292). pieces" (292). justified. or the more positive Nietzschean affirmation.” Writing and Difference. Friedrich. offers an active participation with these signs and arrives at. present. we thus affirm not only ourselves but all existence. Sign. The Will to Power. without truth.

This means that there are no objective facts. and means that there are no ethical or epistemological absolutes. it has no meaning behind it. and the individual concepts of existence are defined by the circumstances surrounding that individual.—“Perspectivism. The Will to Power. the scientific method. We always adopt perspectives by default. rejects objective metaphysics as impossible. but it is interpretable otherwise. – Friedrich Nietzsche. the world is knowable. Walter Kaufmann . This implies that no way of seeing the world can be taken as definitively "true". in his interpretation of Nietzsche's thought. View Perspectivism. a particular idea in seemingly self-contradictory ways but upon closer inspection would reveal a difference of contextuality and of rule by which such an idea (e. This separates truth from a particular (or single) vantage point.[2] “Truth” is thus formalized as a whole that is created by integrating different vantage points together. and that there can be no knowledge of a thing in itself. trans. Therefore. adds to the overall objective measure of a proposition under examination. our drives and their For and Against.g. that is fundamentally perspectival) can be validated. §481 (1883-1888) Interpretation Richard Schacht. but countless meanings. Truth is made by and for individuals and peoples..[emphasis added] Every drive is a kind of lust to rule.[4] .” It is our needs that interpret the world. which takes root in Hume's Empiricism and Kant's Idealism and was further developed by Schopenhauer and Nietzsche. without taking into consideration culture and context. etc. taking account of its individuated context. and claims that there are no objective evaluations which transcend cultural formations or subjective designations. perspectivism does not implicate any method of inquiry nor a structural theory of knowledge in general. for example.[3] This view differs from many types of relativism which consider the truth of a particular proposition as something that altogether cannot be evaluated with respect to an "absolute truth". or perspectives in which judgment of truth or value can be made..e. those of philosophy. Nevertheless.Perspectivism 108 Perspectivism Perspectivism is the philosophical view developed by Immanuel Kant that all ideations take place from particular perspectives. whether we are aware of it or not. but does not necessarily entail that all perspectives are equally valid. each one has its perspective that it would like to compel all the other drives to accept as a norm. This view is outlined in an aphorism from Nietzsche's posthumously-assembled collection Will to Power.) according to the circumstances of individual perspectives. In so far as the word “knowledge” has any meaning.[1] This leads to constant reassessment of rules (i. This means that there are many possible conceptual schemes. it can be said each perspective is subsumed into and. argues that this can be expanded into a revised form of “objectivity” in relation to “subjectivity” as an aggregate of singular viewpoints that illuminate.

Thomas. net/ vasquezrocca129. Richard. Scott-Kakures. konvergencias. htm . http:/ / www. Nietzsche. p 61. History of Philosophy.Perspectivism 109 See also • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • Conceptual framework Contextualism Philosophy of Friedrich Nietzsche Fallibilism Anekantavada Immanuel Kant George Berkeley Rhizome (philosophy) Exclusive disjunction Degrees of truth False dilemma Fuzzy logic Logical equality Logical value Metaphilosophy Multi-valued logic Multiperspectivalism Phenomenology Psychologism Propositional logic Relativism Principle of Bivalence Michel Foucault Consilience External links • La Voluntad de ilusión en Nietzsche. page 418 Schacht. Nietzsche. Richard. Dion. page 346 Schacht. bases del perspectivismo| in Konvergencias [5] References [1] [2] [3] [4] [5] Mautner. The Penguin Dictionary of Philosophy.

Two Ages: A Literary Review (T)he problem with the other origin of the “good. Levelling is a silent. Currently of great import as a term widely used in Psychology and Existentialism.. or even the French "ressentiment". in a reflective age. Friedrich Nietzsche later independently expanded the concept. for something must be done.[5] [6].[4] The term came to form a key part of his ideas concerning the psychology of the 'master-slave' question (articulated in Beyond Good and Evil). Latin intensive prefix 're'. Walter Kaufmann ascribes Nietzsche's use of the term in part to the absence of a proper equivalent term in the German language.. But in an age without passion. If the jewel which every one desired to possess lay far out on a frozen lake where the ice was very thin. moral frameworks and value systems. Perspectives Kierkegaard and Nietzsche The ressentiment which is establishing itself is the process of levelling. see esp §§ 10–11). and later suppressed by the Nazis. The term was also put to good use by Max Scheler in his book Ressentiment. and abstract occupation which shuns upheavals. then in a passionate age the crowds would applaud the courage of the man who ventured out. the ice was perfectly safe. and while a passionate age storms ahead setting up new things and tearing down old. it levels. while. and the resultant birth of morality. A term imported by many languages for its philosophical and psychological connotations. Nietzsche's first use and chief development of Ressentiment came in his book On The Genealogy of Morals." if not for a translator. they would tremble for him and with him in the danger of his decisive action. or morality. neither speaks to the special relationship between a sense of inferiority and the creation of morality. It is not surprising that the lambs should bear a . The sense of weakness or inferiority and perhaps jealousy in the face of the "cause" generates a rejecting/justifying value system. History Ressentiment was first introduced as a philosophical/psychological term by the 19th century philosopher Søren Kierkegaard[1] [2] [3] . so as 'to do something. and 'sentire' "to feel"). contending that said absence alone "would be sufficient excuse for Nietzsche. which attacks or denies the perceived source of one's frustration.” of the good man. The ego creates an enemy in order to insulate itself from culpability. it would be otherwise. they would grieve over him if he were drowned. published in 1912.' Søren Kierkegaard. While the normal words both speak to a feeling of frustration directed at a perceived source. an assignment of blame for one's frustration. Ressentiment is viewed as an effective force for the creation of identities. ressentiment is not to be considered interchangeable with the normal English word "resentment". Ressentiment is the French word for "resentment" (fr. razing and demolishing as it goes. demands some conclusion. a reflective and passionless age does exactly the contrary: it hinders and stifles all action.Ressentiment 110 Ressentiment In philosophy and psychology. . as the person of ressentiment has thought it out for himself. the term 'Ressentiment' as used here always maintains a distinction. People would think each other clever in agreeing that it was unreasonable and not even worth while to venture so far out. watched over by the danger of death. Thus. they would make a god of him if he secured the prize. closer in. that is. mathematical. ressentiment (pronounced /rəsɑ̃tiˈmɑ̃/) is a particular form of resentment or hostility. And in this way they would transform daring and enthusiasm into a feat of skill. Ressentiment is a sense of hostility directed at that which one identifies as the cause of one's frustration.

passionless age". and he who least resembles a bird of prey. is ideally a short action: it is not a prolonged filling of his intellect. but for St. It is through loving like God that we are deified. "We bear no grudge against them. but it is rooted in a deeply felt confidence that through loving I become more personalized and most real to myself. Francis. God's love is an expression of His superabundance. The ego creates the illusion of an enemy. This movement is a consequence of the Christian understanding of the nature of God as fullness of being. but rather by an external "evil. but that is no reason for blaming the great birds of prey for taking the little lambs. and his reactions (like imagining he is actually better) become less compulsive. these good lambs. strong-willed. a lamb. the threats to well-being are inconsequential because at the core of his being there is the awareness that his existence is firmly rooted in and sustained by the ground of ultimate being. Scheler disagrees. i. Fear of death is a sign of a declining.Ressentiment grudge against the great birds of prey. but a creative urge to express the infinite fullness of being. On the Genealogy of Morality 111 Ressentiment is a reassignment of the pain that accompanies a sense of one's own inferiority/failure onto an external scapegoat. but simply because they are obstacles to those absolute values which allow a person to enter into a relationship with God. who is rather its opposite. in which the populace stifles creativity and passion in passionate individuals. Francis' love and care for the lepers would have mortified the Greek mind. According to Nietzsche. the healthy help the sick. and who moves others through the force of attraction because efficient causality would degrade its nature. Poverty and sickness are not values to be celebrated in order to spite those who are rich and healthy. the less perfect love the more perfect. Rich people are harder to love because they are less in need of your generosity. And when the lambs say among themselves. we even love them: nothing is tastier than a tender lamb. The unmoved mover is self-sufficient being completely immersed in its own existence. Greek love is rooted in need and want. one was thwarted not by a failure in oneself. The highest object of contemplation. In Christian love. a cause that can be "blamed" for one's own inferiority/failure.—should he not be good?" then there is nothing to carp with in this ideal's establishment. The motive for love is not charity nor the neediness of the lover. the noble help the vulgar. the less place and time is left for contemplating all that is done to him. to suppress reaction." According to Kierkegaard. Kierkegaard argues that individuals who do not conform to the masses are made scapegoats and objects of ridicule by the masses. sick. ressentiment occurs in a "reflective. This is why Scheler sees the Christian saint as a manifestation of strength and nobility and not manifesting ressentiment. This is clearly indicated by the Aristotelian concept of God as the "Unmoved Mover". "These birds of prey are evil. Christian love. The reaction of a strong-willed man (a "wild beast")." Friedrich Nietzsche. The perfect do not love the imperfect because that would diminish their value or corrupt their existence. . when it happens. St. The motive for the world is not need or lack (à la Schopenhauer). the lower values that are relative to life are renounced not because they are bad. in order to maintain status quo and to instill into the masses their own sense of superiority. and broken life (Ressent 60). The strong bend to the weak. Scheler Max Scheler attempted to reconcile Nietzsche's ideas of master-slave morality and ressentiment with the Christian ideals of love and humility. while Greek and Roman culture was characterized as a master morality. Greek love is described as a movement from lower value to higher value. the more a man is active. The weaker love the stronger. He begins with a comparison of Greek love and Christian love.e. Thus. In genuine. Ressentiment comes from reactiveness: the weaker a man is. the less his capability for adiaphoria. but they simply provide the opportunity for a person to express their love. and dynamic. though the birds of prey may regard it a little mockingly. there is a reversal in the movement of love. and maybe say to themselves. Nietzsche saw Christian morality as a kind of slave morality.

[5] http:/ / www. an ethical salvation religion of a "pariah people. Nietzsche's "ressentiment" was an incapacity to acknowledge one's inferiority. htm [6] http:/ / www. 1967. Rowman & Littlefield. Stivers. "Editor's Introduction. The Sociology of Religion. (Boston: Beacon Press. and that sooner or later God's wrath will overtake them. See also • Søren Kierkegaard • Friedrich Nietzsche • • • • • Max Scheler Existentialism Psychology Bad faith (existentialism) Master-slave morality References [1] [2] [3] [4] Poole. nietzschecircle. bu. com/ essayArchive1. Kaufmann. teaches that the unequal distribution of mundane goods is caused by the sinfulness and the illegality of the privileged. Kierkegaard.where Sartre's "bad faith" was the denial of one's full capabilities. John. p. edu/ wcp/ Papers/ Anth/ AnthMore. whereas Nietzsche denied it . 2004.Ressentiment 112 Weber Max Weber in The Sociology of Religion relates Ressentiment to Judaism. Sartre Jean-Paul Sartre used the term bad faith to describe a highly similar phenomenon of blaming one's own failure on external factors and therefore denying responsibility for oneself. 1993)." (Max Weber. p. University of Virginia Press. et al. 110. html . Walter. 226-228. Kierkegaard after MacIntyre. Roger. Richard. The major difference between the two is that Sartre presupposed the existence of free will. 2001. Walter Kaufmann. Section 3" On the Genealogy of Morals in Nietzsche: Basic Writings. Shades of loneliness. p. tr. Davenport. 1993. New York: The Modern Library." Weber defines Ressentiment as "a concomitant of that particular religious ethic of the disprivileged which. in the sense expounded by Nietzsche and in direct inversion of the ancient belief.14-16. Open Court . 165.

Christianity's elevation of chastity (including.from the first day of Christianity! Why not rather from its last? From today? Revaluation of all values! —Nietzsche. the story of Mary's virginal pregnancy) is counter to the natural instincts of humanity. Christianity limits and lowers humankind by assailing its natural and inevitable instincts as depraved ("sin"). therefore beyond the scope of moral condemnation. The Antichrist. Buddhism promotes "benevolence. and an acceptance of every instinct or lust as organic and therefore valid. Christianity is contrasted unfavorably. and is "hostile to life". Conclusion. secret. The Revaluation of All Values was also the working title of a series of four books Nietzsche was planning to write. However.Transvaluation of values 113 Transvaluation of values The revaluation of all values or the transvaluation of all values (German: Umwertung aller Werte) is a concept from the philosophy of Friedrich Nietzsche." Similarly. to Nietzsche. a very fundamental affirmation of life. Elaborating the concept in The Antichrist. for example. While Christianity is full of "revengefulness" and "antipathy" (e. and it was this scheme that his sister Elisabeth Förster-Nietzsche used to assemble his notes into the final book with that title.I call it the one immortal blemish of mankind… And one calculates time from the dies nefastus on which this fatality arose -. . Nietzsche asserts that Christianity.g. for example. the one great instinct for revenge for which no expedient is sufficiently poisonous. Nietzsche posits that while Christianity is "the struggle against sin". rather than either sinful or pious. As "the religion of pity". and life as a mere investment toward the hollow promise of an illustrious afterlife: death prevailing over life." Martyrdom. whereas Buddhism advises one merely to eschew suffering. and therefore a contradiction of "natural values". is indicative of an "obtuseness to the question of truth. as Nietzsche states near the end of The Antichrist. "contempt of man". Christianity elevates the weak over the strong. with Buddhism. Nietzsche perceived the moral framework of Christian civilization to be oppressive: reproduction derided as sinful. only the first of which – The Antichrist – he completed. not merely as a religion but also as the predominant moral system of the Western world. as health-promoting. one of his schemes for The Will to Power used "The Revaluation of All Values" as a subtitle. and because "Christianity makes a thousand promises but keeps none.. petty -. What one desires would be the product of stimuli rather than the product of "will". for its being strictly "phenomenalistic"." Buddhism is also suggested to be the "honest" of the two religions. I call Christianity the one great curse. in fact inverts nature. subterranean. being kind. The transvaluation of all values would mean the exaltation of life rather than the exaltation of suffering. exalting that which is "ill-constituted and weak" at the expense of that which is full of life and vitality. the Last Judgment). Buddhism is "the struggle against suffering". in Nietzsche's thought. What one desires would merely be what one desires. Because sex is. rather than being a moral high ground or position of strength. the one great intrinsic depravity. Nietzsche contrasts 19th century European morality to that of pre-Christian Greek civilization. for its being the very process by which human life is created. Nietzsche's enthusiasm for what he called "the transvaluation of all values" stemmed from a contempt for Christianity and the entirety of the moral system that flowed from it: indeed.

socialism. Nietzsche describes methods of Christian attempts to "improve" humanity. Tschandala Tschandala (old German transcription of chandala) is a term Friedrich Nietzsche borrowed from the Indian caste system. while ostracizing and making life miserable for the Tschandala. where a Tschandala is a member of the lowest social class. the chandala. Princeton: Princeton University Press. the gospel preached to the poor and base. Nietzsche again cites the law of Manu. and opposed to this is the envious and revengeful spirit of the Tschandalas themselves (cf. on the other hand. Christianity. for making him weak. ISBN 0691019835. Psychologist. sprung from Jewish roots and comprehensible only as a growth on this soil. The law of Manu. the general revolt of all the downtrodden. than to make him sick—it was the fight with the "great number. Nietzsche deplores this type of morality. even the existence of the Tschandalas. As a metaphor. the unbred man. the humiliating and oppressive edicts against the Tschandala are a defensive means of keeping the castes pure: "Yet this organization too found it necessary to be terrible—this time not in the struggle with beasts. and favors it in a relative sense to the morality of Judeo-Christianity.g. of "breeding". but with their counter-concept." just as he does the (Christian) "animal tamer". against "race": the undying chandala hatred as the religion of love…"[3] In The Antichrist. as opposed to the Christian version of morality which attempts to "tame" man. of race. Walter (1974). the victory of chandala values. has Christianity "tamed" the Teutonic races. but which in reality has lost vitality and is only weakened. Nietzsche's interpretation and use of the term relied on a flawed source but was used by certain interpreters to connect him to Nazi ideology. the wretched. Nietzsche: Philosopher. And again it had no other means for keeping him from being dangerous. the untouchables. At first. By this he means that Judaism and Christianity after it are the morality born of the hatred of the oppressed (like the Tschandala) to their oppressors: "Christianity. Christianity is a product of Judaism. "Chapter 3". Nietzsche's use of the term Nietzsche uses the term "Tschandala" in the Götzen-Dämmerung (Twilight of the Idols)[1] and Der Antichrist (The Antichrist)[2] . the mishmash man. the less favored.Transvaluation of values 114 Further reading • Kaufmann. . that of the "breeder. tries to "improve" humanity by creating 4 castes of people. e. In just such a way. he uses a trained beast in a menagerie which is said to be "improved"." In his view. the revaluation of all Aryan values. Here he uses the "law of Manu“ with its caste system as an example of one kind of morality. However. privilege:—it is the anti-Aryan religion par excellence. Nietzsche says. Nietzsche also uses the term Tschandala for some of his opponents. Antichrist. he much prefers it to the Christian "slave-morality. the "Tschandala-religion"."[3] According to Nietzsche. represents the counter-movement to any morality of breeding. slave morality). master morality vs. as he is opposed to all 'morality'. the failures. Nietzsche describes the "most spiritual" and "strongest" men who can say "yes" to everything.

August Strindberg wrote a novel called "Tschandala" in 1889. this translation of the Manusmriti is not reliable and differs widely from other sources. p. nowhere in his works he used the contrary Untermensch that in the 20th Century became a notorious concept in the racist Nazi ideology. Although Nietzsche never directly says this. Nietzsche was not a nationalist. which gives an "unbelievable. Nietzsche's comparison between the Tschandalas and Judaism (see below) fitted in with antisemitism.Nietzsche: A Philosophical Biography.Biographie seines Denkens (2000) München : Hanser. Nietzsche would have easily been able to falsify several of Jacolliot's pseudo-scientific claims. destruction of the weak was favoured by national socialism. 2002. "Aryan" and others Nietzsche used in his later works were very useful for Nazi ideologues who tried to take him in for their political program.W. Nietzsche may have followed a long footnote by Jacolliot. Also. ISBN 0-393-05008-4 . even though. 340–352 Rüdiger Safranski Nietzsche . explicitly despised the German culture and also called himself an "anti-antisemite". gutenberg. References [1] [2] [3] [4] [5] "Die ‚Verbesserer‘ der Menschheit" (KSA 6. The pitiless humiliation and. According to Annemarie Etter. Norton. gypsies and homosexuals. 98–102) chapter 56 and 57 (KSA 6. p. he may have increased the impact of Jacolliot's "effusive admiration for ancient Eastern wisdom and civilization with a more or less open and pronounced antisemitism and antichristianism" (Etter). Mahomet (1876) by French writer Louis Jacolliot. is in fact not contained in any of the usual texts.[4] For example. "breeding". all Semitic peoples. the high respect it gives to women. especially the Hebrews. New York: W. [5] Literary influence Inspired by Nietzsche. Eng. which Nietzsche quotes in opposition to "Christian misogyny". Though Nietzsche did use the term Übermensch. Die "Verbesserer" der Menschheit Annemarie Etter: Nietzsche und das Gesetzbuch des Manu in: Nietzsche-Studien 16 (1987). In so doing. According to Jacolliot. translated by Shelley Frisch. abstruse and scientifically completely untenable" (Etter) theory. that was used for races and individuals that it perceived "inferior". like Jews. Manou. are descendants of emigrated Tschandalas. org/ etext/ 7203).Tschandala 115 Nietzsche's flawed source Nietzsche's source for the law of Manu was the book Les législateurs religieux. Descendant uses Nazi appropriation Terms like "race". eventually. as Etter points out. 239–244) Götzen-Dämmerung (http:/ / www. In his description and interpretation of the "Tschandala". it seems plausible that he believed in Jacolliot's theory at least to some extent. p. Moïse.

as well. he says. or intensity. English: Overman. Common was anticipated in this by George Bernard Shaw. by a dissatisfaction with life. Part of other-worldliness. Walter Kaufmann lambasted this translation in the 1950s for failing to capture the nuance of the German über and for promoting an eventual puerile identification with the comic-book character Superman. Superman) is a concept in the Philosophy of Friedrich Nietzsche. then." Scholars continue to employ both terms. Truth and nature are inventions by means of which men escape from this world. As the drama of Thus Spoke Zarathustra progresses. The book's protagonist. was the abnegation and mortification of the body. depending on the words to which it is prepended. Nietzsche posited the Übermensch as a goal for humanity to set for itself in his 1883 book Thus Spoke Zarathustra (German: Also Sprach Zarathustra).[3] [4] The turn away from the earth is prompted. His preference was to translate Übermensch as "overman. The Übermensch is not driven into other worlds away from this one. transcendence. The German prefix über can have connotations of superiority. This-worldliness Nietzsche introduces the concept of the Übermensch in contrast to the other-worldliness of Christianity: Zarathustra proclaims the Übermensch to be the meaning of the earth and admonishes his audience to ignore those who promise other-worldly hopes in order to draw them away from the earth. some simply opting to reproduce the German word. In his translation published in 1909. And man shall be just that for the overman: a laughingstock or a painful embarrassment… There is no overall consensus regarding the precise meaning of the Übermensch. Zarathustra. or asceticism. who did the same in his 1903 stage play Man and Superman. Thomas Common rendered Übermensch as "Superman".Übermensch 116 Übermensch The Übermensch (German. rather than to a man specifically. The adjective übermenschlich[2] means superhuman. . Zarathustra further links the Übermensch to the body and to interpreting the soul as simply an aspect of the body. a dissatisfaction that causes one to create another world in which those who made one unhappy in this life are tormented. The Christian escape from this world also required the invention of an eternal soul which would be separate from the body and survive the body's death. contends that "man is something which ought to be overcome:" All beings so far have created something beyond themselves. the turn to metaphysics in philosophy and Platonism in general come to light as manifestations of other-worldliness. Tille translated Übermensch as Beyond-Man. Friedrich Wilhelm Nietzsche Übermensch in English The first translation of Thus Spoke Zarathustra into English was by Alexander Tille published in 1896. in the sense of beyond human strength or out of proportion to humanity. and do you want to be the ebb of this great flood and even go back to the beasts rather than overcome man? What is the ape to man? A laughingstock or a painful embarrassment. nor one of the importance of the concept in Nietzsche's thought.[1] Mensch refers to a member of the human species. excessiveness. The Übermensch is also free from these failings.

Alternatively. they did not believe their ears. In this way.[8] . When I whispered into the ears of some people that they were better off looking for a Cesare Borgia than a Parsifal. The last man appears only in Thus Spoke Zarathustra. that human beings can be bred for cultural traits. they must be motivated by a love of this world and of life. the creation of these new values cannot be motivated by the same instincts that gave birth to those tables of values.. good and "evil". Christians. Nietzsche vehemently denied any idealistic. an alternative goal which humanity might set for itself. democratic or humanitarian interpretation of the Übermensch: "The word Übermensch [designates] a type of supreme achievement. The aspiration of a woman would be to give birth to an Übermensch. In Ecce Homo. her relationships with men would be judged by this standard. 'good' men. This interpretation of Nietzsche's doctrine focuses more on the future of humanity than on a single cataclysmic individual. as opposed to 'modern' men. the new values which the Übermensch will be responsible for will be life-affirming and creative. Some commentators associate the Übermensch with a program of eugenics. While this God was the ultimate expression of other-worldly values and the instincts that gave birth to those values. the Übermensch represents a higher biological type reached through artificial selection and at the same time is also an ideal for anyone who is creative and strong enough to master the whole spectrum of human potential. to become an "artist-tyrant". In order to avoid a relapse into Platonic Idealism or asceticism. and is presented as a condition that would render the creation of the Übermensch impossible. Zarathustra presents the Übermensch as the creator of new values. and other nihilists . there is a real chance of nihilism. and many would deny vehemently that Nietzsche would countenance a eugenics program at all."[7] Safranski argues that the combination of ruthless warrior pride and artistic brilliance that defined the Italian Renaissance embodied the sense of the Übermensch for Nietzsche. Übermensch as a goal Zarathustra first announces the Übermensch as a goal humanity can set for itself. it appears as a solution to the problem of the death of God and nihilism. There is no consensus regarding how this aspect of the Übermensch relates to the creation of new values.Übermensch 117 The death of God and the creation of new values Zarathustra ties the Übermensch to the death of God. for example. there are no grounds upon which to criticize or justify any action. Instead. The reduction of all psychology to physiology implies. belief in that God nevertheless did give life meaning for a time.. Re-embodiment of amoral aristocratic values For Rüdiger Safranski. With the sole source of values no longer capable of providing those values.[5] Zarathustra contrasts the Übermensch with the last man of egalitarian modernity. Because the Übermensch acts to create new values within the moral vacuum of nihilism. All human life would be given meaning by how it advanced a new generation of human beings. in the absence of this creation. to some. Nietzsche intended the ultra-aristocratic figure of the Übermensch to serve as a Machiavellian bogeyman of the modern Western middle class and its pseudo-Christian egalitarian value system.[6] This is most pronounced when considered in the aspect of a goal that humanity sets for itself. According to Safranski. including the particular values created and the means by which they are promulgated. there is nothing that this creative act would not justify. God is dead means that the idea of God can no longer provide values. Whereas Nietzsche diagnosed the Christian value system as a reaction against life and hence destructive in a sense.

and most human beings cannot avoid other-worldliness because they really are sick. after which he bore little resemblance to the previous character. Superman does find an adversary in the mold of the Nietzschean Übermensch in the recurring archvillain Lex Luthor.[10] Rather than positing an as-yet unexperienced perfection.[13] Their story has been dramatized many times. above the normal concerns of humanity. its main character considers himself an untameable revolutionary. Willing the eternal recurrence is presented as accepting the existence of the low while still recognizing it as the low. and to truly will their eternal return. only the Übermensch will have the strength to fully accept all of his past life. the latter waxes as the former wanes. including in the Alfred Hitchcock movie Rope and the 2002 movie Murder by Numbers. However. The Übermensch lies in the future — no historical figures have ever been Übermenschen — and so still represents a sort of eschatological redemption in some future time. however. was racial in nature. on the other hand. This action nearly kills Zarathustra. Therefore. In popular culture • Jack London dedicated his novels The Sea-Wolf and Martin Eden to criticizing Nietzsche's concept of the Übermensch and his radical individualism. which London considered to be selfish and egoistic. though he still had dubious morals. and thus as overcoming the spirit of gravity or asceticism. it could seem that the Übermensch. Still others suggest that one must have the strength of the Übermensch in order to will the eternal recurrence of the same. not because of any choice they made. A direct reference to the term occurs in the episode "Double Trouble" of the TV series Adventures of Superman. • In real life. suggests that the doctrine of eternal return is an esoteric ruse meant to save the concept of the Übermensch from the charge of Idealism. The Übermensch and the Nazis The term Übermensch was a favourite of the Nazi regime. for example. that is. this term does not originate with Nietzsche. morally upright figure of modern times. Only as the series progressed did Superman become the wholesome. untainted by the spirit of gravity or asceticism. in which a .Übermensch 118 Relation to the eternal recurrence The Übermensch shares a place of prominence in Thus Spoke Zarathustra with another of Nietzsche's key concepts: the eternal recurrence of the same. and so are inseparable from approval and disapproval. was originally a villain modeled on Nietzsche's idea (see "The Reign of the Super-Man"). in being devoted to any values at all. Leopold and Loeb committed an act of murder in 1924 partly out of a superficially Übermensch-like conception of themselves. Others maintain that willing the eternal recurrence of the same is a necessary step if the Übermensch is to create new values. yet it was dissatisfaction that prompted men to seek refuge in other-worldliness and embrace other-worldly values. • The comic-book hero Superman. • George Bernard Shaw's 1903 play Man and Superman is a reference to the archetype. including his failures and misdeeds. Several interpretations for this fact have been offered. Stanley Rosen. whereas Nietzsche himself was vehemently critical of both antisemitism and German nationalism.[9] This is in part due to the fact that even the Übermensch can appear like an other-worldly hope. Values involve a rank-ordering of things. when Jerry Siegel first created him. which borrowed selectively (and superficially) from Nietzsche's work and sought to adopt him as a philosophical mascot. Nietzsche would be the prophet of something that has occurred an infinite number of times in the past. Over the course of the drama. Laurence Lampert suggests that the eternal recurrence replaces the Übermensch as the object of serious aspiration. would necessarily fail to create values that did not share some bit of asceticism. He was re-invented as a hero by Joe Shuster. Their conception of the Übermensch.[11] [12] The Nazi notion of the master race also spawned the idea of 'inferior races' (Untermenschen) which could be dominated and enslaved.

J. Original publication in German .) Penguin Classics: Penguin Publishing (Originally published 1885) • Lampert. genetic engineering. (1961). (1885) Also Sprach Zarathustra • Hollingdale. dass die Erde einst des Übermenschen werde.Übermensch German-speaking character refers to the title character as "Übermensch".English translation of Zarathustra's prologue. 67. Mask of Enlightenment. [7] Nietzsche. eu/ german-english/ übermenschlich) PONS. Manhattan. Los Angeles: J." [5] Thus Spoke Zarathustra. Lampert. who. [10] Rosen. New Haven: Yale University Press. Norton & Co. through a scientific error. which also delves into the discussion of what traits a hypothetical superman would have. §1) [8] Safranski. [6] Safranski."Ich liebe die. References [1] Duden Deutsches Universal Wörterbuch A–Z. R. . 119 See also • • • • Knight of faith Great man theory New Soviet man Notes From the Underground • Strange Life of Ivan Osokin References • Nietzsche.V. Stanley. Nietzsche. 1995. R. to refer to an amoral subset of humanity. 2002. I. Nietzsche's Teaching. The Mask of Enlightenment. Colin. pons. Watchmen contains a character named Dr. 1986. The Outsider. Rudiger. Nietzsche's Teaching: An Interpretation of Thus Spoke Zarathustra. New York: W. F. (1961). and especially in The Book of Dreams. and nano-technology to transform themselves into a race of Übermenschen. Ecce Homo. page 44 . Tarcher. J. F. 118. Another of Moore's graphic novels. welche nicht erst hinter den Sternen einen Grund suchen. 365 [9] Lampert. The Mask of Enlightenment: Nietzsche's Zarathustra.p4. Laurence. 266-68. Translated by Shelley Frisch. E. (1885) . "I love those who do not first seek beyond the stars for reasons to go down and to be sacrifices: but who sacrifice themselves to the earth. • Rosen. über-. • Wilson. 1981. Rosen. • Safranski. Thus Spoke Zarathustra (Nietzsche. External links • Martin Heidegger and Nietzsche’s Overman: Aphorisms on the Attack [14] • Human Superhuman [15] Yahoo! Group dedicated to Nietzsche's Overman. that the earth may one day belong to the Superman" [4] Nietsche. Nietzsche: A Philosophical Biography. 262-64. • Jack Vance utilises the term in his Demon Princes series. Those who distrust them refer to them derogatively as "Ubers". Nietzsche's Teaching. unterzugehen und Opfer zu sein: sondern die sich der Erde opfern. Nietzsche.18. • Alan Moore makes a reference to the Übermensch in his comic-book series Online Dictionary [3] Hollingdale.W. F. New York: Cambridge University Press. Rieu. becomes a physical "overman" who transcends his fellow man.v. Why I Write Such Good Books. s. [2] Übermenschlich (http:/ / en. • The television series Andromeda has characters called Nietzscheans who have applied selective breeding. to whom the rest are lower beings to be used in the furtherance of their aims..P.

[11] "Nietzsche inspired Hitler and other killers - Page 7" (http:/ / www. trutv. com/ library/ crime/ notorious_murders/ famous/ nietzsche_crimes/ 7. html), Court TV Crime Library [12] http:/ / econ161. berkeley. edu/ tceh/ Nietzsche. html [13] "Nietzsche inspired Hitler and other killers" (http:/ / www. crimelibrary. com/ notorious_murders/ famous/ nietzsche_crimes/ index. html), Court TV Crime Library [14] http:/ / www. freewebs. com/ m3smg2/ HeideggerOverman. htm [15] http:/ / groups. yahoo. com/ group/ human_superhuman/


World riddle
For the musical term, see: World Riddle theme. The term "world riddle" or "world-riddle" has been associated, for over 100 years, with Friedrich Nietzsche (who mentioned "World Riddle" in his 1885 book Also sprach Zarathustra: Thus Spoke Zarathustra) and with the biologist-philosopher Ernst Haeckel, who as a professor of zoology at the University of Jena,[1] wrote the book Die Welträthsel in 1895–1899, in modern spelling Die Welträtsel, (German "The World-riddles"), with the English version published under the title The Riddle of the Universe, 1901.[1] The term "world riddle" concerns the nature of the universe and the meaning of life. The question and answer of the World Riddle has also been examined as an inspiration or allegorical meaning within some musical compositions, such as the unresolved harmonic progression at the end of "Also sprach Zarathustra" (1896) by composer Richard Strauss, made famous in the film 2001: A Space Odyssey. [2] [3]

Ernst Haeckel wrote about the World Riddle in 1895

View of Nietzsche
Friedrich Nietzsche referred to the "World Riddle" in his Also sprach Zarathustra (Thus Spoke Zarathustra) written during 1883–1885; however, his direct influence was limited to a few years, by his failing health. Although Nietzsche had become a professor at age twenty-five, he left due to illness at age thirty-four with a pension in 1879, became an independent philosopher for ten years, and then spent his final eleven years bedridden in the care of first his mother (until her death) and then his sister.

View of Haeckel

Friedrich Nietzsche.

Ernst Haeckel viewed the World Riddle as a dual-question of the form, "What is the nature of the physical universe and what is the nature of human thinking?" which he explained would have a single answer since humans and the universe were contained within one system, a mono-system, as Haeckel wrote in 1895:
[4] [5]

[From Monism as Connecting Religion and Science by Ernst Haeckel (translated):] "The following lecture on Monism is an informal address delivered extemporaneously on October 9, 1892, at Altenburg, on the seventy-fifth anniversary of the "Naturforschende Gesellschaft des

World riddle Osterlandes." ... The "exacting" Berlin physiologist shut this knowledge out from his mind, and, with a short-sightedness almost inconceivable, placed this special neurological question alongside of the one great "world-riddle," the fundamental question of substance, the general question of the connection between matter and energy. As I long ago pointed out, these two great questions are not two separate "world-riddles." The neurological problem of consciousness is only a special case of the all-comprehending cosmological problem, the question of substance. "If we understood the nature of matter and energy, we should also understand how the substance underlying them can under certain conditions feel, desire, and think." Consciousness, like feeling and willing, among the higher animals is a mechanical work of the ganglion-cells, and as such must be carried back to chemical and physical events in the plasma of these. -Ernst Haeckel, 1895 [5] Haeckel had written that human behavior and feeling could be explained, within the laws of the physical universe, as "mechanical work of the ganglion-cells" as stated.


View of William James
The philosopher William James in his book Pragmatism (1907) wrote about the world-riddle, as follows: [From Pragmatism (Lecture VII) by William James:] "All the great single-word answers to the world's riddle, such as God, the One, Reason, Law, Spirit, Matter, Nature, Polarity, the Dialectic Process, the Idea, the Self, the Oversoul, draw the admiration that men have lavished on them from this oracular role. By amateurs in philosophy and professionals alike, the universe is represented as a queer sort of petrified sphinx whose appeal to man consists in a monotonous challenge to his divining powers. THE Truth: what a perfect idol of the rationalistic mind!" --William James, Pragmatism, 1907.[6] William James has questioned the attitude of thinking that a single answer applies to everything or everyone. In the passage, the capitalized "THE" signifies the viewpoint meaning "the one and only" absolute truth.

See also
• Epistemology - study of the nature of knowledge. • Existentialism - philosophy of life.

• Ernst Haeckel, The Riddle of the Universe (Die Welträthsel or Die Weltraetsel, 1895–1899), Publisher: Prometheus Books, Buffalo, NY, 1992, reprint edition, paperback, 405 pages, illustrated, ISBN 0-87975-746-9. • Ernst Haeckel, Monism as Connecting Religion and Science ("translated from German by J. Gilchrist, M.A., B.Sc., PH.D."), Project Gutenberg Literary Archive Foundation, webpage: GutenbergOrg-7mono10 [7] (for free download).

World riddle


[1] "Biography of Ernst Heinrich Haeckel, 1834–1919" (article), Missouri Association for Creation, Inc., based on 1911 Britannica, webpage: Gennet-Haeckel (http:/ / www. gennet. org/ facts/ haeckel. html): life, career & beliefs. [2] "Colorado Symphony Orchestra - Richard Strauss (1864–1949): Also Sprach Zarathustra" (program notes), Charley Samson, Colorado Symphony Orchestra, 2004, webpage: CSO-AlsoSprach (http:/ / www. coloradosymphony. org/ default. asp). [3] "Classic Records Catalog / LSC-1806: Liner Notes" (description), Chicago Symphony Orchestra, R. D. Darrell, Radio Corporation of America (RCA), 1960, webpage: CSO-AlsoSprach (http:/ / www. coloradosymphony. org/ default. asp). [4] "KELVIN SMITH LIBRARY" (about Haeckel book on Monism), Case Western Reserve University, Cleveland, Ohio, 2004, webpage: CaseEdu-HaeMon00 (http:/ / library. case. edu/ ksl/ ecoll/ books/ haemon00/ haemon00. html): notes Monism book as dated 1895. [5] "7mono10 txt" (description of Ernst Haeckel's book Monism as Connecting Religion and Science), Project Gutenberg Literary Archive Foundation, webpage: GutenbergOrg-7mono10 (http:/ / www. gutenberg. org/ dirs/ etext05/ 7mono10. txt): book "translated from German by J. Gilchrist, M.A., B.Sc., PH.D."]. [6] "The Project Gutenberg EBook of Pragmatism, by William James" (text), Project Gutenberg, 2002, webpage: Gutenberg-Pragmatism (http:/ / www. gutenberg. org/ dirs/ etext04/ prgmt10. txt). [7] http:/ / www. gutenberg. org/ dirs/ etext05/ 7mono10. txt

Will to power
The will to power (German: "der Wille zur Macht") is a prominent concept in the philosophy of Friedrich Nietzsche. The will to power describes what Nietzsche believed to be the main driving force in man; achievement, ambition, the striving to reach the highest possible position in life, these are all manifestations of the will to power. Alfred Adler incorporated the will to power into his individual psychology. This can be contrasted to the other Viennese schools of psychotherapy: Sigmund Freud's pleasure principle (will to pleasure) and Victor Frankl's logotherapy (will to meaning). Each of these schools advocate and teach a very different main driving force in "man". The relevance of gender and cultural differences in the application of these theories to universal humanity and non-human life is a source for serious concern among many scholars. The "will to power" has been "identified" in nature in the dominance hierarchies studied in many living species.

Friedrich Nietzsche found early influence from Schopenhauer, whom he first discovered in 1865. Schopenhauer puts a central emphasis on will and in particular has a concept of the "will to live". Writing a generation before Nietzsche, Schopenhauer explained that the universe and everything in it is driven by a primordial will to live, which results in all living creatures' desire to avoid death and procreate. For Schopenhauer, this will is the most fundamental aspect of reality—more fundamental even than being. Another important influence is Roger Joseph Boscovich, whom Nietzsche discovered and learned about through his reading of Friedrich Albert Lange's 1865 Geschichte des Materialismus (History of Materialism), which Nietzsche read in 1866. As early as 1872, Nietzsche went on to study Boscovich’s book Theoria Philosophia Naturalis for himself.[1] Nietzsche makes his only reference in his published works to Boscovich in Beyond Good and Evil where he declares war on "soul-atomism"[2] Boscovich had rejected the idea of "materialistic atomism" which Nietzsche calls "one of the best refuted theories there are."[3] The idea of centers of force would become central to Nietzsche's later theories of will to power. Nietzsche began to speak of the "Desire for Power" (Machtgelüst), which appeared in The Wanderer and his Shadow (1880) and Daybreak (1881). Machtgelüst, in these works, is the pleasure of the feeling of power and the hunger to overpower. Wilhelm Roux published his The Struggle of Parts in the Organism (Der Kampf der Theile im Organismus) in 1881, which Nietzsche first read the same year.[4] The book was a response to Darwinian theory, proposing an alternative mode of evolution. Roux was a disciple of and influenced by Ernst Haeckel[5] who believed the struggle for

who wished to argue for evolution by different mechanism than the struggle for existence. Elsewhere in The Gay Science. In 1883 Nietzsche coined the phrase “Wille zur Macht” in Thus Spoke Zarathustra.”[11] There is will to power where there is life and even the strongest living things will risk their lives for more power. whose 1875 book Théorie Scientifique de La Sensibilité. Rolph was another evolutionary anti-Darwinist like Roux. it applies to all life.[15] Beyond Good and Evil has the most references to “will to power” in his published works. in 1883.. Nietzsche thinks his notion of the will to power is far more useful than Schopenhauer's will to live for explaining various events.”[8] excluding the vast majority of organisms from the desire for power. where in a section titled “On the doctrine of the feeling of power.[17] had considerable influence on his theory of will to power. in two sections.[7] he notes that it is only “in intellectual beings that pleasure. “Self-Overcoming” describes it in most detail. Schopenhauer's "Will to life" thus became a subsidiary to the will to power. Nietzsche began to expand on the concept of Machtgelüst in The Gay Science (1882). This suggests that the will to power is stronger than the will to survive. become predominant—not from any morality or immorality but because it is living and because life simply is will to power. complicatedly ordered idioplasma would usually defeat a simpler rival. noting that it has “been sheepishly put aside by Darwinists”. since."[14] The influence of Rolph and its connection to “will to power. similar 123 . will have to be an incarnate will to power. according to Dumont.[19] In other words. at this point. which Nietzsche acquired probably in 1886 and subsequently read closely. trying to make as much of what is found around them into part of themselves. seize. The various cells and tissue struggle for finite resources.” also continues in book 5 of Gay Science (1887) where Nietzsche describes will to power as the instinct for “expansion of power. Nietzsche read William Rolph’s Biologische Probleme probably in mid 1884 and it clearly interested Nietzsche.. le Plaisir et la Peine Nietzsche read in 1883. it will strive to grow. "1001 Goals" (1883). Lacking modern genetic theory and assuming a lamarckian or pangenetic model of inheritance. saying it is an “unexhausted procreative will of life. spread. with a military metaphor. Dumont’s theory also would have seemed to confirm Nietzsche’s theory that pleasure and pain are reserved for intellectual beings. pain and pleasure require a coming to consciousness and not just a sensing.[12] his copy is heavily annotated[13] and he made many notes concerning Rolph. The concept. life-affirming impulses in the European tradition. Nietzsche wrote a letter to Franz Overbeck about it. Nietzsche earlier had speculated that pleasures such as cruelty. displeasure. He also finds the will to power to offer much richer explanations than utilitarianism's notion that all people really want to be happy.[10] In Wanderer and Daybreak. then in part 2. are pleasurable because of exercise of power. the body grows stronger and better adapted. Organisms fulfill this need through assimilation. Nietzsche uses the will to power to explain both ascetic. Nietzsche's next published work is Beyond Good and Evil (1886). But Dumont. the theory had plausibility at the time. appearing in eleven aphorisms[16] and this was the time of greatest development of the idea.Will to power existence occurred at the cellular level. and argued. He called the seat of heritability the idioplasma. where the influence of Rolph seems apparent. Léon Dumont (1837-77). which is the stronger will.” which led to greater complexity. Through this mechanism. so that only the strongest survive. Rolph argued that all life seeks primarily to expand itself. especially human behavior—for example.[9] seems to have exerted some influence on this concept. for example by seeking to increase intake and nutriment. Life forms are naturally insatiable in this way. is no longer limited to only those intellectual beings that can actually experience the feeling of power. “Self-Overcoming” and “Redemption” (later in 1883). The phrase Wille zur Macht first appears in part 1. Karl Wilhelm von Nägeli's 1884 book Mechanisch-physiologische Theorie der Abstammungslehre. and will are to be found. Nietzsche writes. as well as both master and slave morality. provided a physiological basis for Nietzsche’s speculation. life-denying impulses and strong. Dumont believed that pleasure is related to increases in force. he is also arguing for internal evolution. that a more complex.”[6] he connects the desire for cruelty with the pleasure in the feeling of power.” fundamental to all life. "Even the body within which individuals treat each other as equals .[18] Nägeli believed in a “perfection principle. or the Platonist's notion that people want to be unified with the Good.

without the least desire to rule—and. Nietzsche can be understood as claiming only that the will to power is a particularly useful principle for his purposes.[26] Nevertheless. because Nietzsche applies it most frequently to human behavior.[24] Throughout the 1880s.” Nietzsche appeared to imagine a physical universe of perpetual struggle and force. it is a necessity. Nonetheless. It does recur in his notebooks. which is developed in a number of places in his published writings. Nägeli’s drive towards complexity.[25] 124 Interpretations In contemporary Nietzschean scholarship. the desire to rule has often appeared to me a sign of inward weakness: they fear their own slave soul and shroud it in a royal cloak (in the end. This is reflected in the following passage from Nietzsche's notebooks: I have found strength where one does not look for it: in simple. and pleasant people. For example. except emphasizing complexity as the main factor instead of strength. except in the above mentioned aphorism from Beyond Good & Evil. etc. Nietzsche wanted to slough off the theory of matter. and Rolph’s principle of insatiability and assimilation are fused together into the biological side of Nietzsche’s theory of will to power. behind the desire to expand one’s power—the will to power. underlying all reality not just human behavior—thus making it more directly analogous to Schopenhauer's will to live. many scholars have insisted that Nietzsche's principle of the will to power is less metaphysical and more pragmatic than Schopenhauer's will to live: while Schopenhauer thought the will to live was what was most real in the universe. making it equivalent with some kind of social Darwinism. it seems appropriate that he should use his “will to power” as an anti-Darwinian explanation of evolution. who may have drawn influence from it or used it to justify their expansive quest for power and world domination.[22] Influenced by his earlier readings of Boscovich. However. where he references Boscovich (section 12). Thus. some interpreters have emphasized the will to power as a psychological principle. For example the concept was appropriated by some Nazis such as Alfred Bäumler. Even if.Will to power to Roux. during their lifetime. they need not lift one finger. but not all scholars want to consider these ideas as part of his thought. their fame. in his notebooks. This reading was criticized by Martin Heidegger in his 1930s courses on Nietzsche—suggesting that raw physical or political power was not what Nietzsche had in mind. Heidegger also argued that the will to power must be considered in relation to the Übermensch and the thought of eternal recurrence—although this . Some interpreters also upheld a biological interpretation of the Wille zur Macht.) The powerful natures dominate.[20] Having derived the “will to power” from three anti-Darwin evolutionists. He expresses a number of times[21] the idea that adaptation and the struggle to survive is a secondary drive in the evolution of animals. they still become the slaves of their followers. he began to develop a physics of the Will to Power. in his notebooks he continues to expand the theory of the will to power.[23] These ideas of an all inclusive physics or metaphysics built upon the will to power does not appear to arise anywhere in his published works or in any of the final books published posthumously. Nietzsche claims the "world is the will to power—and nothing besides!". which becomes tied with his theory of will to power as a potential physics integrated with the “eternal recurrence of the same. in relation to the entire body of Nietzsche's works. Dumont’s pleasure in the expansion of power. which successively completes its cycle and returns to the beginning again and again. conversely. they bury themselves in a garden house![27] Opposed to a biological and voluntary conception of the Wille zur Macht. Nietzsche sometimes seems to view the will to power as a more general force. mild. Nietzsche also developed an equally elusive theory of the “eternal recurrence of the same” and much speculation on the physical possibility of this idea and the mechanics of its actualization recur in his later notebooks. as well as Dumont. which he viewed as a relic of the metaphysics of substance. The idea of matter as centers of force is translated into matter as centers of will to power. Roux’s internal struggle.

for instance. both fictitious and necessary. exploitation. for Nietzsche. assault. assault.[29] It would be possible to claim that rather than an attempt to 'dominate over others'. humanistic self-perfection. and assert that the power held over others as a result of this is coincidental. in fact. an agent of the dissolution and destruction of man. the "Will To Power" can be understood (or misunderstood) to mean a struggle against one's surroundings that culminates in personal growth. which is bent upon power. Nietzsche considered consciousness itself to be a form of instinct. One must indeed grant something even more unpalatable: that. of course. In Beyond Good and Evil. love. A legal order thought of as sovereign and universal. does not have a conscious (or unconscious) "will".[30] 125 . rather than 'dominating over others' (a misinterpretation by Deleuze et al.g.' since life operates essentially. through injury. such as through art and aesthetic experience. he claims that philosophers' "will to truth" (i. In fact. and are subordinate to its total goal as a single means: namely. Not just instincts but also higher level behaviors (even in humans) were to be reduced to the will to power. absolute truth) is actually nothing more than a manifestation of their will to power. that every will must consider every other will its equal—would be a principle hostile to life. Nietzsche. And the process goes on. aristocratic domination." (see On the Genealogy of Morals) and is an idea behind the statement that words are "seductions" within the process of self-mastery and self-overcoming. power means self-perfection as well as outward.). harmless.Will to power reading itself has been criticized by Mazzino Montinari as a "macroscopic Nietzsche". that is in its basic functions. their apparent desire to dispassionately seek objective. legal conditions can never be other than exceptional conditions. But it continually encounters similar efforts on the part of other bodies and ends by coming to an arrangement ("union") with those of them that are sufficiently related to it: thus they then conspire together for power. as a means of creating greater units of power. and self-perfection. from the highest biological standpoint. it nevertheless acts as a site of resistance within the "will to power" dynamic. no injury. elitist. lying. Thus Nietzsche wrote: My idea is that every specific body strives to become master over all space and to extend its force (its will to power) and to thrust back all that resists its extension. exploitation. an attempt to assassinate the future of man. self-overcoming.e. Abir Taha) dispute the suggestion that Nietzsche's concept of the will to power is merely and only a matter of narrow. destruction and simply cannot be thought of at all without this character. Opposed to this interpretation. Other Nietzschean interpreters (e. This includes both such apparently harmful acts as physical violence.[28] Gilles Deleuze also emphasized the connection between the will to power and eternal return. a secret path to nothingness. and such apparently non-harmful acts as gift-giving. this will can be life-affirming or a manifestation of nihilism. not as a means in the struggle between power complexes but as a means of preventing all struggle in general perhaps after the communistic cliché of Dühring. Moreover. The "will to power" is thus a "cosmic" inner force acting in and through both animate and inanimate objects. They suggest that. explicitly and specifically defined the egalitarian state-idea as the embodiment of the will to power in decline: To speak of just or unjust in itself is quite senseless. the "will to power" is better understood as the tenuous equilibrium in a system of forces' relations to each other. While a rock. a sign of weariness. destruction can be 'unjust. for there is "no doer behind the deed. and praise on the other—though its manifestations can be altered significantly. on one hand. political. in itself. "will to power" is more accurately positioned in relation to the subject (a mere synecdoche. and domination.. since they constitute a partial restriction of the will of life. but it is the will to power all the same.

even supplant. [4] Moore. Kant’s view. His interpretation of Nietzsche's will to power was concerned with the individual patient's overcoming of the superiority-inferiority dynamic. Nietzsche. the will to pleasure) on which Freudian psychoanalysis is centered. "Roger Boscovich.” Nietzsche: His Philosophy of Contradictions and the Contradictions of His Philosophy. treating matter in terms of fields of force was the dominant understanding of the fundamental notions of physics.wikipedia. R. which again resemble in some respects the views of Féré and the older writers.'". 2002) [5] Müller-Lauter.D. That is why I speak of a will to meaning in contrast to the pleasure principle (or. Frankl compared his third Viennese school of psychotherapy with Adler's psychoanalytic interpretation of the will to power: . Chicago: U Illinois P.[32] Adler's intent was to build a movement that would rival.. Ph. Trans. the striving to find a meaning in one's life is the primary motivational force in man. Frankl. as we could also term it.. Benedict de Spinoza and Friedrich Nietzsche: The Untold Story. "Boscovich's theory of centers of force was prominent in Germany at the time. pp 161-182 [6] Section 13 [7] Section 110 [8] Walter Kaufmann trans. as well as in contrast to the will to power stressed by Adlerian psychology. David J. and to Viktor Frankl's logotherapy or the "will to meaning". Gregory. that of pain in a feeling of feebleness (Ohnmacht). Metaphor (New York: Cambridge UP. "Nietzsche’s Will to Power as a Doctrine of the Unity of Science". Studies in History and Philosophy of Science 25 (5): 738. By the time Nietzsche wrote. which reduces matter to force altogether. 25 (1996) pp 200-220 [2] section 12. others in psychology by arguing for the holistic integrity of psychological well-being with that of social equality. Lanier (1994). M. became very influential in German physics through the work of Hermann von Helmholtz and his References [1] Whitlock. Adler (1912) wrote in his important book Über den nervösen Charakter (The Neurotic Constitution): Nietzsche's "Will to power" and "Will to seem" embrace many of our views. Greg.[33] In Man's Search for Meaning. 1999. Boscovich’s theory 'is echoed in Immanuel Kant’s Metaphysical Foundations of Natural Science. See also • Schopenhauer's concept of will to live • The philosophy of Friedrich Nietzsche • Each of the following Viennese schools of psychotherapy advocate a very different main driving force in man: • Sigmund Freud's will to pleasure – pleasure principle • Alfred Adler's will to power – individual psychology • Victor Frankl's will to meaning – logotherapy • Heinz Ansbacher External links • http://de.[34] —Viktor E." Nietzsche Studien. Wolfgang. “The Organism as Inner Struggle: Wilhelm Roux’s Influence on Nietzsche. trans Kaufmann [3] Anderson. in turn.[31] Adler's adaptation of the will to power was and still is in contrast to Sigmund Freud's pleasure principle or the "will to pleasure". Parent. Biology. .Will to power 126 Individual psychology Alfred Adler borrowed heavily from Nietzsche's work to develop his second Viennese school of psychotherapy called individual psychology.. according to whom the sensation of pleasure originates in a feeling of power.D.

2001) p 166. Yard and Company. Spinoza and Nietzsche. [17] Brobjer says it is the most heavily annotated book of his 1886 reading. . §636 [30] Nietzsche. the nihilistic will. “Roger Boscovich. in German in 1991. The Will to Power. 127 . Nägeli. Stack.”).. 20. 227. Heinz.” Journal of the History of Ideas. (“Nietzsche’s Reading and Private Library. Christa Davis Acampora. Man's Search for Meaning. Second Essay. pp. pp 171-188. Eine Einführung. Stanley S. the phrase appears in Zarathustra thrice and it appears in Genealogy of Morality five times: II:12. an amalgam of a number of competing non-Darwinian theories. p. Harper Perennial (1964). Kaufmann trans [15] section 349. pp 447-463. ie/ media/ conferences/ a-secular-age-parallel-sessions-timetable. pp 260-272 [19] Horn. Metaphor p 55). p 265-266 [20] “The will to power is essentially .. “Will to Power in Nietzsche's Published Works and the Nachlass. p 450). “Nietzsche’s Reading and Private Library. “Boscovich. (1956). 38. 24 (whether 24 is about “will to power” is debatable) & Ecce Homo. org/ details/ neuroticconstitu00adle).. 23 36. Viktor (1959).. 198. ISBN 0061311545. 58:4 (Oct 1997). p 167 [11] Kaufmann tran [12] Moore.” South African Journal of Philosophy. New York: Moffat. p. Biology.. Williams.. Alfred (1912/1917). one-fifth of the occurrences of Wille zur Macht have to do with outlines of various lengths of the projected but ultimately abandoned book”(Williams. [25] For discussion. [21] Beyond Good & Evil 13. 135-152. 17.” Journal of the History of Ideas. The Individual Psychology of Alfred Adler. 154. and Small “The Physics of Eternal Recurrence” Nietzsche in Context pp. Friedrich Nietzsche (1974. [10] ibid. pp 663-693 [14] section 259. Berlin-New York. Nietzsche in Context (Burlington: Ashgate. 57:3 (1996). Linda L. 2009) "A Trojan Horse: Logotherapeutic Transcendence and its Secular Implications for Theology" (http:/ / docs. 2001. “Will to Power” appears in his completed but posthumously published books: Twilight of the Idols “Skirmishes” 11.” 207) [24] cf. Thomas H. Kaufmann-Hollingdale trans. Antichrist sections 2. 1885-1889. wants power. Linda L. II:18. Gay Science 349 & Genealogy of Morality II:12 [22] The phrase will to power appears in “147 entries of the Colli and Montinari edition of the Nachlass. Rowena R. Anette. Benedict de Spinoza and Friedrich Nietzsche”. transl. 24:4 (2005). “Nietzsche’s Eternal Recurrence as Riemannian Cosmology”. PUF. Friedrich Nietzsche. com/ gview?a=v& q=cache:FrKYAo88ckkJ:www. Roux & Rolph (Moore. 44 (“Macht-Willen. Metaphor. Nachlass. Massachusetts: Beacon Press. Ansbacher. see Whitlock. 186. The Neurotic Constitution (http:/ / www.” translated "power-will") 51. and in French. (June 10. 6. google. [26] The Will To Power. Walter Kaufmann. 211. Nietzsche. 132–133. Nietzsche.Will to power [9] Robin Small. Micells and military troops. pdf+ "Stan+ Seidner"& hl=en& gl=us).” namely. III:18 and III:27 (this last reference is not to the concept but to the book Will to Power). [23] Nietzsche comments in many notes about matter being a hypothesis drawn from the metaphysics of substance (Whitlock. “Nietzsche and Boscovich’s Natural Philosophy”. 16. Mater Dei Institute [33] Ansbacher. “Birth of Tragedy” 4.” Journal of the History of Ideas. III:14. pp. §11 [31] Adler. Fall 1880 6 [206] [28] Mazzino Montinari.” p 679 [18] quoted in Horn. 57:3 (1996). archive. Boston. Friedrich Nietzsche. 9 (the quote in 9 is “the will to the end. ix. As mentioned. 1067 [27] Friedrich Nietzsche. [32] Seidner. “Between Mechanism and Teleology: Will to Power and Nietzsche’s Gay ‘Science’” Nietzsche & Science. “Will to Power in Nietzsche's Published Works and the Nachlass. [34] Frankl. "On the Genealogy of Morality".121 chapter "Nietzsche and the consequences" [29] trans. De Gruyter. Moles. materdei. 257 (“Willenskräfte und Macht-Begierden” translated “strength of will and lust for power”) & 259. & “Ancients” 3. Kaufmann trans [16] Wille zur Macht appears in Beyond Good and Evil sections 22. . p 47 [13] Brobjer. “Nietzsche’s interpretation of his sources on Darwinism: Idioplasma. ISBN 0671023373. Biology.

as much recent work has stressed. Gilles Deleuze (and Félix Guattari). this should not obscure the fact that his work was also crucial to the right and to the neither right nor left fusions of developing French fascism. By 1937. it is not always possible to determine whether or not they actually read his work. for example. particularly in France and the United States. During the late 19th century Nietzsche's ideas were commonly associated with anarchist movements and appear to have had influence within them.[12] and in more recent years.[11] It has been suggested that Theodore Roosevelt read Nietzsche and was profoundly influenced by him. many Germans discovered his appeals for greater individualism and personality development in Thus Spoke Zarathustra. this association with National Socialism caused Nietzsche's reputation to suffer following World War II. However.Influence and reception of Friedrich Nietzsche 128 Influence and reception of Friedrich Nietzsche Friedrich Nietzsche's influence and reception varied widely and may be roughly divided into various chronological periods. however. probably never read Nietzsche. Pierre Klossowski. Foucault's later writings. used the much-maligned 'will to power' thesis in tandem with Marxian notions of commodity surplus and Freudian ideas of desire to articulate concepts such the rhizome and other 'outsides' to state power as traditionally conceived. but responded to those appeals in diverging ways. in 1894–95. for example. among them Martin Heidegger. Georges Bataille. In the context of the rise of French fascism one researcher notes. "Although. Hitler. though incapacitated by mental illness. German conservatives wanted to ban his work as subversive. Reactions were anything but uniform. this led Georges Bataille to argue against any 'instrumentalization' of Nietzsche's thought.[1] Beginning while Nietzsche was still alive. adopt Nietzsche's genealogical method to develop anti-foundationalist theories of power that divide and fragment rather than unite polities (as evinced in the liberal tradition of political theory).[4] By World War I. Mussolini certainly read Nietzsche. he had acquired a reputation as an inspiration for right-wing German militarism.[8] Many political leaders of the twentieth century were at least superficially familiar with Nietzsche's ideas. It has been argued the his work influenced Theodore Herzl. Bataille felt that any simple-minded interpretation or unified ideological characterization of Nietzsche's work granting predominance to any particular aspect failed to do justice to the body of his work as a whole.[10] as did Charles de Gaulle. and if he did. Such seemingly paradoxical acceptance by diametrically opposed camps is typical of the history of the reception of Nietzsche's thought. Michel Foucault. German soldiers even received copies of Thus Spoke Zarathustra as gifts during World War I. the Nazis made very selective use of Nietzsche's philosophy. and proponents of various ideologies attempted to appropriate his work quite early. arguably the foremost of Nietzsche's interpreters. his reading was not extensive.[9] However.[3] and Martin Buber went so far as to extol Nietzsche as a "creator" and "emissary of life".[5] [6] The Dreyfus Affair provides another example of his reception: the French anti-semitic Right labelled the Jewish and Leftist intellectuals who defended Alfred Dreyfus as "Nietzscheans"[7] . Richard Nixon read Nietzsche with "curious interest". Nietzsche had an important impact on "leftist" French ideology and theory. and Jacques Derrida. He had some following among left-wing Germans in the 1890s.[2] Nietzsche even had a distinct appeal for many Zionist thinkers at the turn of the century.[13] Perhaps Nietzsche's greatest political legacy lies in his 20th century interpreters. Deleuze. .

and advocated "branding his disciples [. at least for a time (including that fact that under his editorship the Neue Freie Presse dedicated seven consecutive issues to Nietzsche obituaries) Golomb points out that Herzl's cousin Raoul Auernheimer claimed. his distrust of the effect of both the market and the State on cultural production. his desire for an "overman" — that is. in a memorial tribute." In 1901 Buber. "Classical Zionism. and even the younger Murray Bookchin. was acutely aware of the crisis of Jewish tradition and its supporting institutions."[16] For Sunshine "The list is not limited to culturally-oriented anarchists such as Emma Goldman. art and scholarship. Nietzsche and Zionism Jacob Golomb observed. such as the writers Yosef Hayyim Brenner and Micah Yosef Berdichevski. Pro-Nietzschean anarchists also include prominent Spanish CNT–FAI members in the 1930s such as Salvador Seguí and anarcha-feminist Federica Montseny." Also in european individualist anarchist circles his influence is clear in thinker/activists such as Emile Armand[17] and Renzo Novatore[18] among others. Also more recently in post-left anarchy Nietzsche is present in the thought of Albert Camus.[14] This may be the result of a popular association during this period between his ideas and those of Max Stirner[15] . and his forwarding of the "transvaluation of values" as source of change. who gave dozens of lectures about Nietzsche and baptized him as an honorary anarchist. praise for Nietzsche was not by any means universal among Zionists. his disgust for the mindless social behavior of "herds". published a poem in Zarathustrastil ( a style reminiscent of Nietzsche's Thus Spoke Zarathustra) calling for the return of Jewish literature. some of Nietzsche's ideas seemed to have a particular resonance for some Zionists. Nietzsche was frequently associated with anarchist movements.. as opposed to a Marxist conception of class struggle and the dialectic of a linear history. anarcho-syndicalist militants like Rudolf Rocker. with the artist as his prototype. who had just been appointed the editor of Die Welt. that essentially secular and modernizing movement.[24] However. Max Nordau. his anti-Christianity. that Herzl was familiar with Nietzsche and had "absorbed his style". who cited Nietzsche's conception of the "transvaluation of values" in support of the Spanish anarchist project. Hakim Bey and Wolfi Landstreicher.[22] On the other hand. an early Zionist orator.Influence and reception of Friedrich Nietzsche 129 Nietzsche and anarchism During the 19th century. but remarks. and he strove to introduce "a Nietzschean perspective into Zionist affairs. "At the height of his fame between 1895 and 1902. in spite of the fact that in his writings he seems to hold a negative view of anarchists. and hence could not have been strongly influenced by Nietzsche. Gabriel Sheffer suggests that Herzl was too bourgeois and too eager to be accepted into mainstream society to be much of a revolutionary.[23] Martin Buber was fascinated by Nietzsche."[19] According to Steven Aschheim. Spencer Sunshine writes "There were many things that drew anarchists to Nietzsche: his hatred of the state. Nicosia notes. his praise of the ecstatic and creative self. insisted that Nietzsche had been insane since birth.."[21] Among many other facts that show Herzl had a serious interest in Nietzsche."[25] . "Nietzsche's ideas were widely disseminated among and appropriated by the first Hebrew Zionist writers and leaders.] as hysterical and imbecile."[20] Francis R. whom he praised as a heroic figure. for a new human who was to be neither master nor slave. "Yes" to the self-creation of a new world on the basis of nothing. including Theodore Herzl. who could say. "Some East European Jewish intellectuals. followed after Herzl because they thought that Zionism offered the chance for a Nietzschean 'transvaluation of values' within Jewry". the primary publication of the World Zionist Organization. Nietzsche was enlisted as an authority for articulating the movement's ruptured relationship with the past and a force in its drive to normalization and its activist ideal of self-creating Hebraic New Man.

the Nazi movement found much affinity with Nietzsche's ideas.Influence and reception of Friedrich Nietzsche 130 Nietzsche and fascism See also Nietzsche's criticisms of anti-Semitism and nationalism. and parliamentary governments. it was the Nietzschean emphasis on the Will that inspired the voluntarism and political activism of his comrades. in 1934 Hitler and Alfred Rosenberg visited her again.g. phrases like "the will to power" became common in Nazi circles. militarism and anti-Semitism of the Nazis. Mazzino Montinari. Such one-dimensional readings were vehemently rejected by another French writer. he resolved "to have nothing to do with anyone involved in the perfidious race-fraud"). in the same year the Führer posed for a photo gazing into the eyes of a white marble bust of Nietzsche. The wide popularity of Nietzsche among Nazis stemmed in part from the endeavors of his sister. Austrian) schools and universities. "That Heidegger sees Nietzsche heeding a command to reflect and prepare for earthly domination is of less interest to me than his noting that everyone thinks in terms of a position for or against Nietzsche. In Heinrich Hoffmann's best-selling Hitler as Nobody Knows Him (which sold nearly a half-million copies by 1938) the caption of the photo of Hitler with the bust of Nietzsche read. Christianity. and was presented by Elisabeth with Nietzsche's favorite walking stick. including: his attacks against democracy. "Man shall be trained for war and woman for the procreation of the warrior."[27] Nietzsche was no less popular among French fascists. Wistrich has pointed out The "fascist" Nietzsche was above all considered to be a heroic irrationalist and vitalist who had glorified war and violence. added titles of her own invention. According to the French fascist Pierre Drieu la Rochelle.[28] The German philosopher Heidegger."[29] Despite the protests of Bataille and others[30] . the gesture of setting up "Nietzsche" as a battlefield on which to take one's stand against or to enter into competition with the ideas of one's intellectual predecessors or rivals has happened quite frequently in the twentieth century." Alan D. after 1938. the anarchist Georges Bataille. into whose service the German philosopher had been pressed. who in the 1930s sought to establish the "radical incompatibility" between Nietzsche (as a thinker who abhorred mass politics) and "the Fascist reactionaries." He argued that nothing was more alien to Nietzsche than the pan-Germanism. who was (with great harm to his subsequent reputation) an active member of the Nazi Party. certain Nazis had employed a highly selective reading of Nietzsche's work to advance their ideology."[31] During the interbellum years. and to position themselves as inspired by them. etc. notably Alfred Baeumler in his reading of The Will to Power. while editing the posthumous fragments making up The Will to Power.") to their own social program for women. In particular. The era of Nazi rule (1933–1945) saw Nietzsche's writings widely studied in German (and. inspiring the anti-Marxist revolutions of the interwar period. Schrift cites this passage and writes. The Nazis also linked what they felt to be Nietzsche's clearly expressed views on women (e. found that Förster-Nietzsche. and an eventual Nazi sympathizer. racism. changed their order. any thing else is folly. "They belong in the kitchen and their chief role in life is to beget children for German warriors.[26] There can be no doubt that Italian and German fascist regimes were eager to lay claim to Nietzsche's ideas. while editing Nietzsche's posthumous works in the 1960s. Elisabeth Forster-Nietzsche received a rose bouquet from Hitler during a German premier of Mussolini's 100 Days. had cut extracts. himself noted that everyone in his day was either 'for' or 'against' Nietzsche while claiming that this thinker heard a "command to reflect on the essence of a planetary domination. Elisabeth Förster-Nietzsche. presenting her with a wreath for Nietzsche's grave with the words "To A Great Fighter". the editor of Nietzsche's work after his 1889 breakdown. It has been observed that In 1932.g. As Robert S. Despite the fact that Nietzsche expressed his disgust with anti-Semitism and German nationalism in the most forthright terms possible (e. and his (sometimes highly ambiguous) praise of war and warriors. included passages of others authors copied by Nietzsche as if they had been written by Nietzsche himself. "The Führer before the bust of the German philosopher whose ideas have fertilized two great popular movements: the National Socialist of Germany and the Fascist of Italy. his preaching in The Will to Power wherein he proclaimed the coming of a ruling race that would become the "lords of the earth".[32] .

the absurdity of describing Nietzsche's political thought as 'Fascist'.] has striking affinities with the philosophy of action expounded in our own time by Hannah Arendt. Lev Shestov. poets John Davidson. playwrights George Bernard Shaw. Curt von Westernhagen. Emil Cioran. Jews had caused him to depart from the Germanic principles enunciated by Meister Richard Wagner'" is a representative example. Freud took no interest in philosophy while a medical student. any more than I think that a Nietzscheite contempt for compassion is merely a matter of opinion.L. Hermann Hesse. – May 31. H. August Strindberg. a Nazi. Henri Bergson. Max Cafard and John Moore.[33] The real problem with the labelling of Nietzsche as a Fascist. poet. Joseph Conrad. Antijuden (1936) that the time had come to expose the 'defective personality of Nietzsche whose inordinate tributes for. Ludwig Wittgenstein. Abraham Maslow. K. occultist Aleister Crowley. philosopher. looks at his favorite philosopher through the lens of Nazism and World War II and ends up placing Nietzsche at a more critical distance. Jung. Georg Brandes. and espousal of. Mencken avidly read and translated Nietzsche's works and has gained the sobriquet "the American Nietzsche". Carl Rogers... Friedrich Georg Jünger. Robert E. Juden. Lawrence and Vladimir Bartol. Altizer. One of the characters in Mann's . and William Butler Yeats. Many of Nietzsche's ideas. Nikos Kazantzakis.[36] Yet Jones also reports that Freud emphatically denied that Nietzsche's writings influenced his own psychological discoveries. Jean-Paul Sartre. and Jack London. one which he locates in Greek agon which [. One "rabidly Nazi writer. novelists Marcel Proust. and he influenced other anarchists such as Guy Aldred. Antonin Artaud. particularly on artists and aesthetics.J. Martin Buber. or worse.[34] 131 Nietzsche and psychoanalysis The psychologist Carl Jung recognized Nietzsche's importance early on: he held a seminar on Nietzsche's Zarathustra in 1934. who announced in his book Nietzsche. although one of his final essays. composers Richard Strauss. and Fredrick Delius. but so far as they are touched by it they are destroyed by it. or Nazi. becomes readily apparent. D. Michel Foucault. Albert Camus. Illustrated London News Thomas Mann's essays mention Nietzsche with respect and even adoration. Men are not always dead of a disease and men are not always damned by a delusion. forming his opinion about Nietzsche later in life. and Eugene O'Neill. painters Salvador Dalí and Pablo Picasso. Fernand Braudel [37] and Paul Veyne. James Joyce. Alfred Adler. Gustav Mahler. Richard Wright. Miguel de Unamuno. sociologists Ferdinand Tönnies and Max Weber. Chesterton expressed contempt for Nietzsche's ideas: I do not even think that a cosmopolitan contempt for patriotism is merely a matter of opinion. Rainer Maria Rilke. when it is not simply medical. I think they are both heresies so horrible that their treatment must not be so much mental as moral. theologians Paul Tillich and Thomas J. Theodor Adorno. Freud frequently referred to Nietzsche as having "more penetrating knowledge of himself than any man who ever lived or was likely to live". Nietzsche was declared an anarchist by Emma Goldman. American writer H. psychologists Sigmund Freud. Leo Strauss. Knut Hamsun. journalist and Christian apologist G.[35] According to Ernest Jones. P. G. C. Ernst Jünger. and authors H. Franz Kafka. Lovecraft. is that it ignores the fact that Nietzsche's aristocratism seeks to revive an older conception of politics. André Gide. Thomas Mann. and Rollo May. are incorporated and explored throughout Mann's works.Influence and reception of Friedrich Nietzsche But Nietzsche's reception among fascists was not universally warm. The popular writer. Rudolf Rocker. Julius Evola. Howard. historians Oswald Spengler. Moreover. André Malraux. Menno ter Braak. 1919. "Nietzsche's Philosophy in the Light of Recent History". Once an affinity like this is appreciated. José Ortega y Gasset and Muhammad Iqbal. biographer and personal acquaintance of Sigmund Freud. Early 20th-century thinkers Early twentieth-century thinkers influenced by Nietzsche include: philosophers Martin Heidegger.

In Germany interest in Nietzsche was revived from the 1980s onwards. Nietzsche has also influenced members of the analytical philosophy tradition. especially among the French intellectual Left and post-structuralists. and soothed his wounded vanity with unkind remarks. Russell says: It is obvious that in his day-dreams he is a warrior. Truth And Truthfulness: An Essay In Genealogy (2002). – Russell. who did not count in their times and. but in an appeal to the emotions. Works such as Bruce Detwiler's Nietzsche and the Politics of Aristocratic Radicalism (University of Chicago Press. Hollingdale. as against any unpleasant but internally self-conscious ethic. nevertheless does not inflict pain because he has no wish to do so. Napoleon magnificent. Nietzsche's influence on continental philosophy increased dramatically after the Second World War. for a long time. I feel it the motive power to all that I desire as regards the world. so he kept away from women. not a professor. lies not in an appeal to facts. Jean-Luc Nancy. In recent years.. which is obviously one of fear. Nietzsche despises universal love. Does any one suppose that Lincoln acted as he did from fear of hell? Yet to Nietzsche.J. Gilles Deleuze and Pierre Klossowski wrote monographs drawing new attention to Nietzsche's work. Analytic philosophers. [. In one particularly harsh section. Fredrick Appel's Nietzsche Contra Democracy (Cornell University Press.] [H]e is so full of fear and hatred that spontaneous love of mankind seems to him impossible. "Forget not thy whip"-.. like every man's. because the men whom he most admires are conquerors. characterized him as a literary figure rather than as a philosopher. remained without influence in the history of philosophy. with all the fearlessness and stubborn pride of the superman. have continually grown in significance. His opinion of women. and Michel Foucault all owe a heavy debt to Nietzsche.] The effect of both is immeasurably great. all of the men he admires were military. even greater in general thinking than in technical philosophy – Jaspers. and a 1972 conference at Cérisy-la-Salle ranks as the most important event in France for a generation's reception of Nietzsche. who has devoted several essays to Nietzsche.] I dislike Nietzsche because he likes the contemplation of pain. dismissed Nietzsche in his 1916 Egotism in German Philosophy as a "prophet of Romanticism". Reason and Existenz Bertrand Russell in his epic History of Western Philosophy was scathing in his chapter on Nietzsche. particularly by the German philosopher Peter Sloterdijk. whose glory is cleverness in causing men to die. such as Bernard Williams in his last finished book.. Jacques Derrida. an American philosopher whose life and work betray some similarity to Nietzsche's. if they mentioned Nietzsche at all. because he erects conceit into duty. Even George Santayana. .. and he knew it. Philosophers after Hegel have increasingly returned to face them.Influence and reception of Friedrich Nietzsche 1947 novel Doktor Faustus represents Nietzsche fictionally. [.. calling his work the "mere power-phantasies of an invalid" and referring to Nietzsche as a "megalomaniac". but we may hope that it is coming rapidly to an end. combined with the rise of analytic philosophy. 1990).. Nietzsche's present stature in the English-speaking world owes much to the exegetical writings and improved Nietzsche translations by the German-American philosopher Walter Kaufmann and the British scholar R. [. and they stand today unquestioned as the authentically great thinkers of their age. He has never conceived of the man who. ensured that British and American academic philosophers would almost completely ignore him until at least 1950. Lincoln is abject. But I think the ultimate argument against his philosophy. Certain recent Nietzschean exegetes have emphasized the more untimely and politically controversial aspects of Nietzsche's philosophy. is an objectification of his own emotion towards them.but nine women out of ten would get the whip away from him. History of Western Philosophy 132 Nietzsche after World War II The appropriation of Nietzsche's work by the Nazis. Kierkegaard and Nietzsche. His followers have had their innings. In 1938 the German existentialist Karl Jaspers wrote the following about the influence of Nietzsche and Søren Kierkegaard: The contemporary philosophical situation is determined by the fact that two philosophers.

Cambridge University Press.. Jacob Golomb. Berel Lang. pp 25-27. Nietzschean ideas reached him through the filter of Alfred Rosenberg's Myth of the Twentieth Century. T. 2002. 1890-1990. L. Stanford University Press. p36. p162: "Arguably. if he did read him. Cornell University Press. Essays in Socialism and Philosophy. il ribelle aristocratico (Turin: Bollati Boringhieri. "Philologica: A Possible Solution to the Stirner-Nietzsche Question". against the view of particular influence on Herzl. p21: "We know that Mussolini had read Nietzsche" [11] J. References [1] Georges Bataille (Trans. it was not extensively". 1998. Vol. Brobjer. 4. God. U. 2008. Cornell University Press. Cold War Statesmen Confront the Bomb. Riley. Maurice Barres — and was steeped in conservative French historical and philosophical traditions. p9: "To be sure. Retrieved 2007-05-08.. Cornell University Press. 109-114 [16] Spencer Sunshine. Nietzsche's French Legacy: A Genealogy of Poststructuralism. May. East Central Europe in the Modern World. de Gaulle read voraciously as a boy and young man — Jacques Bainville. Nietzsche and Jewish Culture. 133 Further reading • John Moore with Spencer Sunshine.-Israeli Relations at the Crossroads. Forth. Stanley). p. org/ 2010/ 05/ 18/ nietzsche-and-the-anarchists/ ) [17] The Anarchism of Émile Armand by Emile Armand (http:/ / theanarchistlibrary. Fascism in Europe. Beyond Peace.). and Domenico Losurdo's Nietzsche. p135 [6] Kaufmann. The Search for Modern Tragedy. P. Misinterpretation. as Exemplified by the Work of John Henry Mackay". 2004. a title that inspired the title of his final book. Ewald. Post-Holocaust: Interpretation. E. Oxford University Press. Mencken (Ed. 2004. pp 234-235 [5] Steven E.". 1987. Nietzsche and Zion.2:126) he refers to "anarchist dogs" [15] "Nietzsche's possible reading. On Nietzsche. more simply. A. Spring 2003. E. org/ HTML/ Renzo_Novatore__Toward_the_Creative_Nothing.8 [7] Schrift. Routledge. Rosenberg. Vol. pp.Issue 25. 54. p184: "By all indications. Nicosia. in Journal of the History of Ideas. Vol. 828-843. 3. 1997. and Regeneration in France. Autonomedia. Bourdeau has pointed out the strange similarity which exists between the ideas of Andrew Carnegie and Roosevelt. Gaddis. Friederich [sic] Nietzsche." [13] Monica Crowley. 62. Georges Sorel (trans. p137 [9] Weaver Santaniello. Hitler himself never read a word of Nietzsche. Nietzsche and Zion. locating Nietzsche in the conservative-revolutionary tradition.. in PMLA. Wilder Publications. pp. 1. 1997. Transaction Publishers." Thomas H.Tauris. Indiana University Press." [14] In Beyond Good and Evil (6. 1908.. 2000.." [10] Simonetta Falasca-Zamponi. R. p44: "In 1908 he presented his conception of the superman's role in modern society in a writing on Nietzsche entitled. a race of predators.000 copies of a specially durable wartime Zarathustra were distributed to the troops" in The Nietzsche Legacy in Germany. p41: "Hitler probably never read a word of Nietzsche". html)]] [19] Jacob Golomb.D.] Nixon asked to borrow my copy of Beyond Good and Evil. Continuum International Publishing Group. Janos. 1997. ISBN 0-415-91147-8. 1992. 1994. Aschheim notes that "[a]bout 150. L. p214 "J.Influence and reception of Friedrich Nietzsche 1998). Jan. and those of Nietzsche: Carnegie deploring the wasting of money on the support of incompetents. it is almost certain that Hitler either never read Nietzsche directly or read very little. ISBN ISBN 1-57027-121-6. Nietzsche and Jewish Culture. 1947. 2004 [2] O. Gordon. 2008. H. No. Sep. html) [18] Toward the Creative Nothing by [[Renzo Novatore (http:/ / theanarchistlibrary. Berkeley and Los Angeles. Zionism and Anti-Semitism in Nazi Germany. pp. 160. knowledge. 1993. 2001. I. 400-426. Philip Morgan. pp. pp. Hitler never read Nietzsche. Fascist Spectacle: The Aesthetics of Power in Mussolini's Italy.). A.. No. I Am Not A Man. Decadence. 97-117 [3] Francis R. and plagiarism of Max Stirner's The Ego and Its Own (1845) has been a contentious question and frequently discussed for more than a century now. and. Nietzsche. ed (Paperback). in The Philosophical Review. org/ HTML/ Emile_Armand__The_Anarchism_of_Emile_Armand. 2002) challenge the prevalent liberal interpretive consensus on Nietzsche and assert that Nietzsche's elitism was not merely an aesthetic pose but an ideological attack on the widely held belief in equal rights of the modern West. see: Gabriel Sheffer. Routledge. through what was coffeehouse Quatsch in Vienna and Munich." [12] H. Roosevelt appealing to Americans to become conquerors. Andrew C. "Anti-Statism in German Literature. "Nietzsche. J. SUNY Press. Bruce Boone). Henri Bergson. Jul. "German Philosophy in 1907". and the Jews. Jacob Golomb. p153 (referring to Roosevelt's published speech The Strenuous Life): "It is inconceivable that Mr. certainly. "Nietzsche and the Anarchists" (http:/ / radicalarchives. Roosevelt should have formulated his present confession of faith independently of Nietzsche". 17. and the Claims of History. (1995). in The Journal of Nietzsche Studies . 1891-95".B. I Am Dynamite!: Friedrich Nietzsche and the Anarchist Tradition [38]. Routledge. Nixon in Winter. p1 . 1999. University of California Press. p170 [4] Jacob Golomb (Ed. Routledge. p217: "The son of a history teacher.S. Routledge. 2003. 2005. J. This at least is the impression he gives in his published conversations with Dietrich Eckart. [8] Mary Ann Frese Witt. Neither Mein Kampf nor Hitler's Table Talk (Tischgesprache) mentions his name. 1919-1945.". The Selected Writings of Friedrich Nietzsche. C. No. p351: "He read with curious interest the writings of Friedrich Nietzsche [. "The Philosophy of Force.

Cornell University Press. The Rise and Fall of the Third Reich: A History of Nazi Germany. Wistrich. Routledge. Wistrich. Oxford University Press. Princeton University Press. Cambridge University Press. Heidegger's Crisis: Philosophy and Politics in Nazi Germany. An Introduction to Nietzsche as Political Thinker: The Perfect Nihilist. "La Volonté de puissance" n'existe pas. p289 [27] Hans D. Laboratory for World Destruction: Germans and Jews in Central Europe. Nietzsche and Jewish Culture. University of Nebraska Press. p170 [24] Jacob Golomb (Ed. Nietzsche. Godfather of Fascism?: On The Uses and Abuses of a Philosophy. autonomedia.). Aschheim. pp 235-236 [25] Robert S. p179 [28] Jacob Golomb. pp 33-34 [35] Jung Timeline (http:/ / jung. 2002. Schrift (Ed. The Nietzsche legacy in Germany. p36 [22] Jacob Golomb. p149 [34] Keith Ansell-Pearson. Simon and Schuster. Routledge.). Robert S. Zionism and Anti-Semitism in Nazi Germany. Nietzsche and Zion. Harvard University Press. 1994. p102 [21] Francis R. 2000. Cambridge University Press. University of California Press. org/ nietzsche 134 . Godfather of Fascism?: On The Uses and Abuses of a Philosophy. University of California Press. html) [36] Jones. 2002. Editions de l'Eclat. [32] Mazzino Montinari. Repainting the Little Red Schoolhouse: A History of Eastern German Education. 1945-1995. U. p162 [29] Alan D. The Life and Work of Sigmund Freud [37] See Fernand Braudel's preface to The Mediterranean and the Mediterranean World in the Age of Philip II. Robert S. Why Nietzsche still?. 2007.-Israeli Relations at the Crossroads.S. Princeton University Press. 1997. pp 99-101. 1993. 2002. Wistrich. pp 184-185 [30] these included Thomas Mann and Albert Camus [31] William Lawrence Shirer. Nicosia. 1890-1990. where he says he had been largely influenced by the Second Untimely Meditation [38] http:/ / www. Sluga. 2008. 1996 [33] Jacob Golomb. 1994.Influence and reception of Friedrich Nietzsche [20] Steven E. org/ timeline. 1960. 2004. 1997. freudfile. pp 25-27 [23] Gabriel Sheffer. Nietzsche. p158 [26] John Rodden.

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