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Developmental Task from Infancy to Late Maturity

1. Infancy and Childhood (0-5) 1) Learning to walk: Once the basic skills are mastered, he learns during later years to run, jump, and skip. 2) Learning to take solid foods: The way the child is treated during the weaning period, the schedule on which he is fed, and the age and suddenness of weaning, all have profound effects upon his personality. 3) Learning to talk: Between ages of twelve and eighteen months, the great moment of speech arrives. The two theories agree to this extent, namely (1) that the human infant develops a repertory of speech - sounds without having to learn them, and (2) that the people around him teach him to attach certain meanings to these sounds. 4) Learning to control the elimination of body waste: To learn to urinate and defecate at socially acceptable times and places. Toilet training is the first moral training that the child receives. The stamp of this first moral training probably persists in the child's later character. 5) Learning sex differences and sexual modesty: The kinds of sexual behavior he learns and the attitudes and feelings he develops about sex in these early years probably have an abiding effect upon his sexuality throughout his life. 6) Achieving physiological stability: It takes as many as five years for the child's body to settle down to something like the physiological stability of the child. 7) Forming simple concepts of social and physical reality: And, when his nervous system is ready, he must have the experience and the teachers to enable him to form a stock of concepts and learn the names for them. On this basis his later mental development is built. 8) Learning to relate oneself emotionally to parents, siblings, and other people: The way he achieves this task of relating himself emotionally to other people will have a large part in determining whether he will be friendly or cold, outgoing or introversive, in his social relations in later life. 9) Learning to distinguish right and wrong and developing a conscience: During the later years of early childhood he takes into himself the warning and punishing voices of his parents, in ways that depend upon their peculiar displays of affection and punishment toward him. Thus he develops the bases of his conscience, upon which a later structure of values and moral character will be built. 2. Childhood (6-12) 1) Learning to physical skills necessary for ordinary games: To learn the physical skills that are necessary for the games and physical activities that are highly valued in childhood--such skills as throwing and catching, kicking, tumbling, swimming, and handling simple tools. 2) Building wholesome attitudes towards oneself as a growing organism: To develop habits of care of the body, of cleanliness and safety, consistent with a wholesome, realistic attitude which includes a sense of physical normality and adequacy, the ability to enjoy using the body, and a wholesome attitude toward sex. Sex education should be a matter of agreement between school and parents, with the school doing what the parents feel they cannot do so well. The facts about animal and human reproduction should be taught before puberty. 3) Learning to get along with age-mates: To learn the give-and-take of social life among peers. To learn to make friends and to get along with enemies. To develop a "social personality."

6) Selecting and preparing for an occupation: The goal: to choose an occupation for which one has the necessary ability. to prepare for this occupation. to learn to work with others for a common purpose. 4) Achieving emotional independence of parents and other adults: The goal: to become free from childish dependence on parents. which is to assist boys and girls who are having difficulty with the task. but it is of increasing importance to girls. This is primarily a task for boys. in our society. according to Piaget.4) Learning an appropriate masculine or feminine social role: To learn to be a boy or a girl--to act the role that is expected and rewarded. if necessary. Attitudes. disregarding personal feelings. to develop affection for parents without dependence upon them. are learned mainly in three ways. 5) Developing fundamental skills reading. 8) Achieving personal independence: To become an autonomous person. The task is to acquire a store of concepts sufficient for thinking effectively about ordinary occupational. to become an adult among adults. 3) Accepting one's physique and using the body effectively: The goal: to become proud. The sex role is taught so vigorously by so many agencies that the school probably has little more than a remedial function. 6) Developing concepts necessary for everyday living: A concept is an idea which stands for a large number of particular sense perceptions. of one's body. civic. and calculate well enough to get along in society. Adolescent (13-18) 1) Achieving new and more mature relations with age-mates of both sexes: The goal: to learn to look upon girls as women and boys as men. and social matters. 9) Developing attitudes toward social groups and institutions: To develop social attitudes that are basically democratic. 3. . or emotionalized dispositions to act. able to make plans and to act in the present and immediate future independently of one's parents and other adults. 7) Developing conscience. respect for moral rules. and a scale of values: To develop an inner moral control. Later. and calculating: To learn to read. from games to government. 5) Achieving assurance of economic independence: The goal: to feel able to make a living. 2) Achieving a masculine or feminine social role: To accept and to learn a socially approved adult masculine or feminine social role. (3) by a single deeply emotional experience--pleasant or unpleasant--associated with a given object or situation. to learn to lead without dominating. (2) by collection and combination of pleasant or unpleasant experiences associated with a given object or situation. (1) by imitation of people with prestige in the eyes of the learner. The young child has become physically independent of his parents but remains emotionally dependent on them. is imposed on the child first by the parents. morality. or which stands for a number of ideas of lesser degrees of abstraction. or at least tolerant. writing. and the beginning of a rational scale of values. and thus learns a "morality of cooperation or agreement" which is a true moral autonomy and necessary in a modern democratic society. to use and protect one's body effectively and with personal satisfaction. Morality. write. or respect for rules of behavior. the child learns that rules are necessary and useful to the conduct of any social enterprise.

Definition: a value is an object or state of affairs which is desired. . strange cloud-land with giants and which to be circumvented and the goose that lays the golden eggs to be captured if only one can discover the know-how. and depends for its success greatly upon how well-managed this home is. (2) acquiring concepts. Good home management is only partly a matter of keeping the house clean. the task of finding a marriage partner is at once the most interesting and the most disturbing of the tasks of early adulthood. Now they are responsible for human life that is not their own. 5) Managing a home: Family life is built around a physical center. joy. 1) Selecting a mate: Until it is accomplished. This means learning how to manage the child. To meet this responsibility they must learn to meet the physical and emotional needs of young children. to develop a conscious purpose of realizing these values. live --so that one can live intimately and happily with one's spouse. human nature. 3) Starting a family: To have a first child successfully. having meals well-cooked. the furniture and plumbing and lighting fixtures in repair. 10) Acquiring a set of values and an ethical system as a guide behavior: The goal: to form a set of values that are possible of realization. (3) interests and motivation. geography. In the main this consists of learning to express and control one's feeling--anger. to develop language skills and reasoning ability necessary for dealing effectively with the problems of a modern democracy. 4. to keep one's world picture and one's values in harmony with each other. 8) Developing intellectual skills and concepts necessary for civic competence: The goal: to develop concepts law. politics. and the like. and social institutions which fit the modern world. Often he becomes so engrossed in this particular task that he neglects others. 4) Rearing children: With the gaining of children the young couples take over a responsibility far greater than any responsibility they have ever had before. It is like reaching the end of the ladder and stepping off onto a new. and disgust. region. to define man's place in the physical world and in relation to other human beings. and (mainly for girls) to get the knowledge necessary for home management and child rearing. 7) Taking on civic responsibility: To assume responsibility for the welfare of a group outside of the family--a neighborhood or community group or church or lodge or political organization. 9) Desiring and achieving socially responsible behavior: The goal: to participate as a responsible adult in the life of the community. government. Early Adulthood (19-30) This simple age-grading stops in our culture somewhere around sixteen to twenty. economics. and nation. Individual differences in mental development show themselves principally as differences in: (a) acquiring language and meanings. and also learning to adapt their own daily and weekly schedules to the needs of growing children. He may put off finding a wife altogether too long for his own happiness. to take account of the values of society in one's personal behavior. 2) Learning to live with a marriage partner: After the wedding there comes a period of learning how to fit two lives together. 6) Getting started in an occupation: This task takes an enormous amount of the young man's time and energy during young adulthood.7) Preparing for marriage and family life: The goal: to develop a positive attitude toward family life and having children. the home.

with teen-age children. Either the man or the woman is apt to move away from former friends. The Man of the Family a man a husband a father a provider a homemaker The Woman of the Family a woman a wife a mother a homemaker family manager The Teen-Ager a person a family member Unless the man performs well as a provider. 1) Achieving adult civic and social responsibility 2) establishing and maintaining an economic standard of living 3) assisting teen-age children to become responsible and happy adults 4) Developing adult leisure-time activities 5) Relating oneself to one's spouse as a person 6) Accepting and adjusting to the physiological changes of middle age 7) Adjusting to ageing parents . Especially for the woman. 5. The biological changes of ageing. men and women reach the peak of their influence upon society. make themselves known during the middle years. It is the period of life to which they have looked forward during their adolescence and early adulthood. which commence unseen and unfelt during the twenties. and the forming of new friendships. Middle Age (30-60) In the middle years. Unless the woman performs well as a mother. and his wife drops out of some of her purely feminine associations. whether old friendships are interrupted by distance or not. wife. The young man loses interest in some of his former bachelor activities. they react upon one another. it will be difficult for the teen-age child to meet the tasks of adolescence. and at the same time the society makes its maximum demands upon them for social and civic responsibility. Since most middle-aged people are members of families. are reciprocal. In any case. the latter years of middle age are full of profound physiologically-based psychological change. from about thirty to about fifty-five. The developmental tasks of the middle years arise from changes within the organism. Each family member has several functions or roles. the young couple faces something of a new task in forming a leisure-time pattern and finding others to share it with. And the time passes so quickly during these full and active middle years that most people arrive at the end of middle age and the beginning of later maturity with surprise and a sense of having finished the journey while they were still preparing to commence it. from environmental pressure. it will be difficult for the woman to perform well as a homemaker.8) Finding a congenial social group: Marriage often involves the breaking of social ties for one or both young people. and children as these people live and grow in relation to one another. it is useful to look at the tasks of husband. The developmental tasks of family members then. and above all from demands or obligations laid upon the individual by his own values and aspirations.

ac. and perhaps there is even a widening of them. In the social sphere there is a fair chance of offsetting the narrowing of certain social contacts and interests by the broadening of others. churches. his changes are better than even of living another ten years. moving to a smaller house. (2) privacy. (6) cheapness. During this time the man or his wife very likely will experience several of the following things: decreased income. are: (1) quiet. The developmental tasks of later maturity differ in only one fundamental respect from those of other ages.kr/~bkkim/won/won_117. Later Maturity (60. At age sixty-five when a man often retires from his occupation. After any of these events the situation may be so changed that the old person must learn new ways of living. In the spiritual sphere there is perhaps no necessary shrinking of the boundaries. (5) residence among own cultural group.gsnu. They still have new experiences ahead of them. (7) closeness to transportation lines and communal institutions --libraries. mental and economic spheres the limitations become especially evident.html . (4) nearness to relatives and friends. In the physical. They involve more of a defensive strategy--of holding on the life rather than of seizing more of it. a turn in the business cycle with a consequent change of the cost of living.6. References: http://nongae. etc. a crippling illness or accident. 1) Adjusting to decreasing physical strength and health 2) Adjusting to retirement and reduced income 3) adjusting to death of spouse 4) Establishing an explicit affiliation with one's age group 5) Meeting social and civic obligations 6) Establishing satisfactory physical living arrangements: The principal values that older people look for in housing. according to studies of this matter. (3) independence of action.) The fact that man learns his way through life is made radically clear by consideration of the learning tasks of older people. movies. the older person must work hard to hold onto what he already has. shops. loss of spouse by death. and new situations to meet.