David Herrin, Ph.D.

University of Kentucky
Modal and Harmonic Analysis using ANSYS
Modal/ Har monic Analysis Using ANSYS
ME 599/ 699 Vibr o-
Acoust ic Design
Dept . of Mechanical Engineer ing
Univer sit y of Kent ucky
Modal Analysis
g Used to determine the natural frequencies and
mode shapes of a continuous structure
Modal/ Har monic Analysis Using ANSYS
ME 599/ 699 Vibr o-
Acoust ic Design
Dept . of Mechanical Engineer ing
Univer sit y of Kent ucky
Review of Multi DOF Systems
g Expressed in matrix form as
M
1
M
2
K
2
C
2
K
1
C
1
K
3
C
3
x
1
x
2
F
1
F
2
[ ]{ } [ ]{ } [ ]{ } { } F u K u C u M · + +
& & &
Modal/ Har monic Analysis Using ANSYS
ME 599/ 699 Vibr o-
Acoust ic Design
Dept . of Mechanical Engineer ing
Univer sit y of Kent ucky
Review of Multi DOF Systems
[ ]{ } [ ]{ } [ ]{ } { } F u K u C u M · + +
& & &
g The mass, damping and stiffness matrices are
constant with time
g The unknown nodal displacements vary with
time
Modal/ Har monic Analysis Using ANSYS
ME 599/ 699 Vibr o-
Acoust ic Design
Dept . of Mechanical Engineer ing
Univer sit y of Kent ucky
Modal Analysis
g A continuous structure has an infinite number of
degrees of freedom
g The finite element method approximates the
real structure with a finite number of DOFs
g N mode shapes can be found for a FEM having
N DOFs
g Modal Analysis
ü Process for determining the N natural frequencies and
mode shapes
Modal/ Har monic Analysis Using ANSYS
ME 599/ 699 Vibr o-
Acoust ic Design
Dept . of Mechanical Engineer ing
Univer sit y of Kent ucky
Modal Analysis
g Given “suitable” initial conditions, the structure
will vibrate
ü at one of its natural frequencies
ü the shape of the vibration will be a scalar
multiple of a mode shape
g Given “arbitrary” initial conditions, the resulting
vibration will be a
ü Superposition of mode shapes
Modal/ Har monic Analysis Using ANSYS
ME 599/ 699 Vibr o-
Acoust ic Design
Dept . of Mechanical Engineer ing
Univer sit y of Kent ucky
Modal Analysis
g Determines the vibration characteristics (natural
frequencies and mode shapes) of a structural
components
g Natural frequencies and mode shapes are a
starting point for a transient or harmonic analysis
ü If using the mode superposition method
Modal/ Har monic Analysis Using ANSYS
ME 599/ 699 Vibr o-
Acoust ic Design
Dept . of Mechanical Engineer ing
Univer sit y of Kent ucky
Mode Shape of a Thin Plate (240 Hz)
Modal/ Har monic Analysis Using ANSYS
ME 599/ 699 Vibr o-
Acoust ic Design
Dept . of Mechanical Engineer ing
Univer sit y of Kent ucky
Mode Extraction Methods
g Subspace
g Block Lanczos
g PowerDynamics
g Reduced
g Unsymmetric
g Damped and QR damped (Include damping)
Modal/ Har monic Analysis Using ANSYS
ME 599/ 699 Vibr o-
Acoust ic Design
Dept . of Mechanical Engineer ing
Univer sit y of Kent ucky
Steps in Modal Analysis
g Build the model
ü Same as for static analysis
ü Use top-down or bottom-up techniques
g Apply loads and obtain solution
ü Only valid loads are zero-value displacement
constraints
ü Other loads can be specified but are ignored
g Expand the modes and review results
Modal/ Har monic Analysis Using ANSYS
ME 599/ 699 Vibr o-
Acoust ic Design
Dept . of Mechanical Engineer ing
Univer sit y of Kent ucky
360 inches
I
ZZ
= 450 in
4
A = 3 in
2
H = 5 in
In-Class Exercise
E = 30E6 psi
2
3
lb s
8.031 4
in in
E
¸ _
¸ _
ρ · −

¸ ,
¸ ,
Modal/ Har monic Analysis Using ANSYS
ME 599/ 699 Vibr o-
Acoust ic Design
Dept . of Mechanical Engineer ing
Univer sit y of Kent ucky
In-Class Exercise
g Set element type to BEAM3
g Set the appropriate real constants and material
constants
g Create Keypoints at the start and end of the
beam and a Line between them
Modal/ Har monic Analysis Using ANSYS
ME 599/ 699 Vibr o-
Acoust ic Design
Dept . of Mechanical Engineer ing
Univer sit y of Kent ucky
Mesh the Line and Apply B.C.s
g Set the meshing size control of the line to 5
g Fix the Keypoint at the right end of the beam
Modal/ Har monic Analysis Using ANSYS
ME 599/ 699 Vibr o-
Acoust ic Design
Dept . of Mechanical Engineer ing
Univer sit y of Kent ucky
Set Solution Options
g Change the analysis type to Modal
ü Solution > Analysis Type > New Analysis
ü <Modal>
g Set the analysis options
ü Solution > Analysis Options
ü Extract 10 mode <OK>
ü Enter <1500> for the ending frequency
Modal/ Har monic Analysis Using ANSYS
ME 599/ 699 Vibr o-
Acoust ic Design
Dept . of Mechanical Engineer ing
Univer sit y of Kent ucky
Set Solution Options
g At this point, you have told ANSYS to find a
particular quantity of modes and to look within a
particular frequency range. If ANSYS finds that
quantity before it finishes the frequency range, it
will stop the search. If ANSYS does not find that
quantity before finishing the frequency range,
then it will stop the search.
Modal/ Har monic Analysis Using ANSYS
ME 599/ 699 Vibr o-
Acoust ic Design
Dept . of Mechanical Engineer ing
Univer sit y of Kent ucky
Set Solution Options
g Solve the load set
g ANSYS generates a substep result for each
natural frequency and mode shape
Modal/ Har monic Analysis Using ANSYS
ME 599/ 699 Vibr o-
Acoust ic Design
Dept . of Mechanical Engineer ing
Univer sit y of Kent ucky
Postprocessing
g List results summary
ü General Postproc > List Results > Results
Summary
g Read results for a substep
ü General Postproc > Read Results > First Set
ü Plot deformed geometry
ü General Postproc > Read Results > Next Set
ü Plot deformed geometry
David Herrin, Ph.D.
University of Kentucky
Theoretical Modal Analysis
Modal/ Har monic Analysis Using ANSYS
ME 599/ 699 Vibr o-
Acoust ic Design
Dept . of Mechanical Engineer ing
Univer sit y of Kent ucky
Structural Vibration at a Single DOF
g At a single degree of freedom
( ) t u ω φ · cos
DOF nodal a of nt displaceme · u
amplitude · φ
Modal/ Har monic Analysis Using ANSYS
ME 599/ 699 Vibr o-
Acoust ic Design
Dept . of Mechanical Engineer ing
Univer sit y of Kent ucky
Structural Vibration for the Entire Structure
{ } { } ( ) t u ω φ · cos
{ } nts displaceme nodal of Vector · u
{ } DOF each for amplitudes of vector · φ
Modal/ Har monic Analysis Using ANSYS
ME 599/ 699 Vibr o-
Acoust ic Design
Dept . of Mechanical Engineer ing
Univer sit y of Kent ucky
Mode Shapes
g The vector of amplitudes is a mode shape
2
φ
3
φ
4
φ
5
φ
6
φ
7
φ
8
φ
g Use subscript i to differentiate mode shapes
and natural frequencies
{ } { } ( ) t u
i i
ω φ · cos
Modal/ Har monic Analysis Using ANSYS
ME 599/ 699 Vibr o-
Acoust ic Design
Dept . of Mechanical Engineer ing
Univer sit y of Kent ucky
Appropriate Initial Conditions
g If the I.C.s are a scalar (a) multiple of a specific
mode shape then the structure will vibrate in the
corresponding mode and natural frequency
{ }
i
a φ · ICs
Modal/ Har monic Analysis Using ANSYS
ME 599/ 699 Vibr o-
Acoust ic Design
Dept . of Mechanical Engineer ing
Univer sit y of Kent ucky
Determining Natural Frequencies
g Consider a multi DOF system
[ ]{ } [ ]{ } { } 0 · + u K u M
& &
g Note that the system is
ü Undamped
ü Not excited by any external forces
Modal/ Har monic Analysis Using ANSYS
ME 599/ 699 Vibr o-
Acoust ic Design
Dept . of Mechanical Engineer ing
Univer sit y of Kent ucky
Modal Analysis
{ } { } ( ) t u
i i
ω φ · cos
g If the system vibrates according to a particular
mode shape and frequency
{ } i
i
shape mode · φ
i
i
frequency natural · ω
Modal/ Har monic Analysis Using ANSYS
ME 599/ 699 Vibr o-
Acoust ic Design
Dept . of Mechanical Engineer ing
Univer sit y of Kent ucky
Modal Analysis
{ } { } ( ) t u
i i i
ω φ ω sin − ·
&
g First derivative (Velocity)
g Second derivative (Acceleration)
{ } { } ( )
2
cos
i i
i
u t · −ω φ ω
&&
Modal/ Har monic Analysis Using ANSYS
ME 599/ 699 Vibr o-
Acoust ic Design
Dept . of Mechanical Engineer ing
Univer sit y of Kent ucky
Modal Analysis
[ ] [ ]
( )
{ } { }
2
0
i
i
M K − ω + φ ·
g Plug velocity and acceleration into the equation
of motion
g Two possible solutions
{ } { }
0
i
φ ·
[ ] [ ]
( )
2
det 0
i
M K − ω + ·
Modal/ Har monic Analysis Using ANSYS
ME 599/ 699 Vibr o-
Acoust ic Design
Dept . of Mechanical Engineer ing
Univer sit y of Kent ucky
The Eigen Problem
g The Eigen Problem
[ ] [ ]
( )
2
det 0
i
M K − ω + ·
λ g Eigenvalue
{ }
x
g Eigenvector
[ ]{ } [ ]{ } x I x A λ ·
Modal/ Har monic Analysis Using ANSYS
ME 599/ 699 Vibr o-
Acoust ic Design
Dept . of Mechanical Engineer ing
Univer sit y of Kent ucky
Modal Analysis – An Eigen Problem
[ ] [ ]
( )
{ } [ ]
2
0
i
M K − ω + φ ·
g Natural frequencies are eigenvalues
g The mode shapes are eigenvectors
[ ]{ } [ ]{ }
2
i
K M φ · ω φ
2
i
ω
{ }
φ
[ ] [ ]{ } [ ]{ } φ ω · φ

I K M
i
2
1
Modal/ Har monic Analysis Using ANSYS
ME 599/ 699 Vibr o-
Acoust ic Design
Dept . of Mechanical Engineer ing
Univer sit y of Kent ucky
Modal Analysis – An Eigen Problem
g Solving the eigen problem
[ ] [ ]
( )
{ }
0 A I x −λ ·
[ ] [ ]
( )
det 0 A I −λ ·
[ ]{ } [ ]{ } x I x A λ ·
[ ] [ ]{ } [ ]{ } φ ω · φ

I K M
i
2
1
Modal/ Har monic Analysis Using ANSYS
ME 599/ 699 Vibr o-
Acoust ic Design
Dept . of Mechanical Engineer ing
Univer sit y of Kent ucky
Example Eigen Problem
1 1
2 2
2 3
3 2
i
x x
x x
¹ ¹ ¹ ¹ 1
· λ
' ) ' )
1
¸ ] ¹ ¹ ¹ ¹
2 3 1 0
det 0
3 2 0 1
i
¸ _
1 1
−λ ·

1 1
¸ ] ¸ ]
¸ ,
Modal/ Har monic Analysis Using ANSYS
ME 599/ 699 Vibr o-
Acoust ic Design
Dept . of Mechanical Engineer ing
Univer sit y of Kent ucky
Find Eigenvalues
2 3
det 0
3 2
¸ −λ _
1
·

1
−λ
¸ ]
¸ ,
( )( )
2
2 2 9 4 5 − λ − λ − · λ − λ −
g Eigenvalues
1
1 λ · −
2
5 λ ·
Modal/ Har monic Analysis Using ANSYS
ME 599/ 699 Vibr o-
Acoust ic Design
Dept . of Mechanical Engineer ing
Univer sit y of Kent ucky
For Eigenvector 1
1
1 λ · −
( )
1
2
1
2 3 1 0 0
1
3 2 0 1 0
x
x
¸ _
¹ ¹ 1 1 ¹ ¹
− − ·
' ) ' )
1 1
¸ ] ¸ ] ¹ ¹ ¹ ¹
¸ ,
1
2
1
2 1 3 0
3 2 1 0
x
x
¸ + _
¹ ¹ 1 ¹ ¹
·
' ) ' )
1
+
¸ ] ¹ ¹ ¹ ¹
¸ ,
Modal/ Har monic Analysis Using ANSYS
ME 599/ 699 Vibr o-
Acoust ic Design
Dept . of Mechanical Engineer ing
Univer sit y of Kent ucky
For Eigenvector 1
1
2
1
3 3 0
3 3 0
x
x
¸ _
¹ ¹ 1 ¹ ¹
·
' ) ' )
1
¸ ] ¹ ¹ ¹ ¹
¸ ,
2 1
x x · −
g x
1
can be any value
1
2
1
1 .7071
1 .7071
x
x
¹ ¹ ¹ ¹ ¹ ¹
· ·
' ) ' ) ' )
− −
¹ ¹ ¹ ¹ ¹ ¹
Modal/ Har monic Analysis Using ANSYS
ME 599/ 699 Vibr o-
Acoust ic Design
Dept . of Mechanical Engineer ing
Univer sit y of Kent ucky
For Eigenvector 2
2
5 λ ·
( )
1
2
2
2 3 1 0 0
5
3 2 0 1 0
x
x
¸ _
¹ ¹ 1 1 ¹ ¹
− ·
' ) ' )
1 1
¸ ] ¸ ] ¹ ¹ ¹ ¹
¸ ,
1
2
2
2 5 3 0
3 2 5 0
x
x
¸ − _
¹ ¹ 1 ¹ ¹
·
' ) ' )
1

¸ ] ¹ ¹ ¹ ¹
¸ ,
Modal/ Har monic Analysis Using ANSYS
ME 599/ 699 Vibr o-
Acoust ic Design
Dept . of Mechanical Engineer ing
Univer sit y of Kent ucky
For Eigenvector 2
1
2
2
3 3 0
3 3 0
x
x
¸ − _
¹ ¹ 1 ¹ ¹
·
' ) ' )
1

¸ ] ¹ ¹ ¹ ¹
¸ ,
2 1
x x ·
g x
2
can be any value
1
2
2
1 .7071
1 .7071
x
x
¹ ¹ ¹ ¹ ¹ ¹
· ·
' ) ' ) ' )
¹ ¹ ¹ ¹ ¹ ¹
Modal/ Har monic Analysis Using ANSYS
ME 599/ 699 Vibr o-
Acoust ic Design
Dept . of Mechanical Engineer ing
Univer sit y of Kent ucky
Example
g Equations of motions
M
1
M
2
K
1
K
2
x
1
x
2
1 1 1 1 1 2
0 M x K x K x + − ·
&&
2 2 2 2 1 2 1 1
0 M x K x K x K x + + − ·
&&
1
5 kg M ·
2
10 kg M ·
1
800 N/m K ·
2
400 N/m K ·
Modal/ Har monic Analysis Using ANSYS
ME 599/ 699 Vibr o-
Acoust ic Design
Dept . of Mechanical Engineer ing
Univer sit y of Kent ucky
Matrix Form
1 1 1 1 1
2 2 1 1 2 2
0 0
0 0
M x K K x
M x K K K x

1 ¹ ¹ 1 ¹ ¹ ¹ ¹
+ ·
' ) ' ) ' )
1 1
− +
¹ ¹ ¸ ] ¹ ¹ ¸ ] ¹ ¹
&&
&&
1 1
2 2
5 0 800 800 0
0 10 800 1200 0
x x
x x

¹ ¹ ¹ ¹ 1 1 ¹ ¹
+ ·
' ) ' ) ' )
1 1

¸ ] ¸ ] ¹ ¹ ¹ ¹ ¹ ¹
&&
&&
Modal/ Har monic Analysis Using ANSYS
ME 599/ 699 Vibr o-
Acoust ic Design
Dept . of Mechanical Engineer ing
Univer sit y of Kent ucky
Set Up Eigen Problem
[ ] [ ]{ } { }
1
2
i
M K

φ · ω φ
[ ] [ ]
1
160 160
80 120
M K


1
·
1

¸ ]
160 160 1 0
det 0
80 120 0 1
¸ − _
1 1
−λ ·

1 1

¸ ] ¸ ]
¸ ,
Modal/ Har monic Analysis Using ANSYS
ME 599/ 699 Vibr o-
Acoust ic Design
Dept . of Mechanical Engineer ing
Univer sit y of Kent ucky
Solve Eigen Problem
160 160
det 0
80 120
¸ −λ − _
1
·

1
− −λ
¸ ]
¸ ,
1 1
5.011 rad/s ω · λ ·
2 2
15.965 rad/s ω · λ ·
1
2
1
0.7645
0.6446
φ
¹ ¹ ¹ ¹
·
' ) ' )
φ
¹ ¹ ¹ ¹
1
2
1
0.8601
0.5101
φ −
¹ ¹ ¹ ¹
·
' ) ' )
φ
¹ ¹ ¹ ¹
1
5.011
.7975 Hz
2
f · ·
π
2
15.965
2.5409 Hz
2
f · ·
π
Modal/ Har monic Analysis Using ANSYS
ME 599/ 699 Vibr o-
Acoust ic Design
Dept . of Mechanical Engineer ing
Univer sit y of Kent ucky
Weighted Orthogonality
[ ] 0
2
2
1
1
2
1
·
¹
)
¹
¹
'
¹
φ
φ
¹
)
¹
¹
'
¹
φ
φ
M
T
[ ] 0
2
2
1
1
2
1
·
¹
)
¹
¹
'
¹
φ
φ
¹
)
¹
¹
'
¹
φ
φ
K
T
Modal/ Har monic Analysis Using ANSYS
ME 599/ 699 Vibr o-
Acoust ic Design
Dept . of Mechanical Engineer ing
Univer sit y of Kent ucky
Modal Vector Scaling
[ ] 1
1
2
1
1
2
1
·
¹
)
¹
¹
'
¹
φ
φ
¹
)
¹
¹
'
¹
φ
φ
M
T
g Unity Modal Mass
Modal/ Har monic Analysis Using ANSYS
ME 599/ 699 Vibr o-
Acoust ic Design
Dept . of Mechanical Engineer ing
Univer sit y of Kent ucky
Modal Vector Scaling
1
6446
7645
10 0
0 5
6446
7645
1 1
·
¹
)
¹
¹
'
¹
1
]
1

¸

¹
)
¹
¹
'
¹
X
X
X
X
T
.
.
.
.
g Unity Modal Mass
376 . · X
¹
)
¹
¹
'
¹
·
¹
)
¹
¹
'
¹
φ
φ
242
287
1
2
1
.
.
Modal/ Har monic Analysis Using ANSYS
ME 599/ 699 Vibr o-
Acoust ic Design
Dept . of Mechanical Engineer ing
Univer sit y of Kent ucky
Mode 1
M
1
M
2
K
1
K
2
0.7645 0.6446
Modal/ Har monic Analysis Using ANSYS
ME 599/ 699 Vibr o-
Acoust ic Design
Dept . of Mechanical Engineer ing
Univer sit y of Kent ucky
Mode 2
M
1
M
2
K
1
K
2
-0.8601 0.5101
David Herrin, Ph.D.
University of Kentucky
Harmonic Response using ANSYS
Modal/ Har monic Analysis Using ANSYS
ME 599/ 699 Vibr o-
Acoust ic Design
Dept . of Mechanical Engineer ing
Univer sit y of Kent ucky
Harmonic Response Analysis
g Solves the time-dependent equations of motion
for linear structures undergoing steady-state
vibration
g All loads and displacements vary sinusoidally at
the same frequency
1
sin( )
i
F F t · ω + φ
2
sin( )
j
F F t · ω + φ
Modal/ Har monic Analysis Using ANSYS
ME 599/ 699 Vibr o-
Acoust ic Design
Dept . of Mechanical Engineer ing
Univer sit y of Kent ucky
Harmonic Response Analysis
g Analyses can generate plots of displacement
amplitudes at given points in the structure as a
function of forcing frequency
Modal/ Har monic Analysis Using ANSYS
ME 599/ 699 Vibr o-
Acoust ic Design
Dept . of Mechanical Engineer ing
Univer sit y of Kent ucky
360 inches
I
ZZ
= 450 in
4
A = 3 in
2
H = 5 in
In-Class Exercise
E = 30E6 psi
2
3
lb s
8.031 4
in in
E
¸ _
¸ _
ρ · −

¸ ,
¸ ,
Modal/ Har monic Analysis Using ANSYS
ME 599/ 699 Vibr o-
Acoust ic Design
Dept . of Mechanical Engineer ing
Univer sit y of Kent ucky
In-Class Exercise
g Set element type to BEAM3
g Set the appropriate real constants and material
constants
g Create Keypoints at the start and end of the
beam and a Line between them
Modal/ Har monic Analysis Using ANSYS
ME 599/ 699 Vibr o-
Acoust ic Design
Dept . of Mechanical Engineer ing
Univer sit y of Kent ucky
Mesh the Line and Apply B.C.s
g Set the meshing size control of the line to 5
g Fix the Keypoint at the right end of the beam
Modal/ Har monic Analysis Using ANSYS
ME 599/ 699 Vibr o-
Acoust ic Design
Dept . of Mechanical Engineer ing
Univer sit y of Kent ucky
Set Solution Options
g Change the analysis type to Modal
ü Solution > Analysis Type > New Analysis
ü <Modal>
g Set the analysis options
ü Solution > Analysis Options
ü Extract 10 mode <OK>
ü Enter <1500> for the ending frequency
Modal/ Har monic Analysis Using ANSYS
ME 599/ 699 Vibr o-
Acoust ic Design
Dept . of Mechanical Engineer ing
Univer sit y of Kent ucky
Set Solution Options
g At this point, you have told ANSYS to find a
particular quantity of modes and to look within a
particular frequency range. If ANSYS finds that
quantity before it finishes the frequency range, it
will stop the search. If ANSYS does not find that
quantity before finishing the frequency range,
then it will stop the search.
Modal/ Har monic Analysis Using ANSYS
ME 599/ 699 Vibr o-
Acoust ic Design
Dept . of Mechanical Engineer ing
Univer sit y of Kent ucky
Set Solution Options
g Solve the load set
g ANSYS generates a substep result for each
natural frequency and mode shape
Modal/ Har monic Analysis Using ANSYS
ME 599/ 699 Vibr o-
Acoust ic Design
Dept . of Mechanical Engineer ing
Univer sit y of Kent ucky
Postprocessing
g List results summary
ü General Postproc > List Results > Results
Summary
g Read results for a substep
ü General Postproc > Read Results > First Set
ü Plot deformed geometry
ü General Postproc > Read Results > Next Set
ü Plot deformed geometry
Modal/ Har monic Analysis Using ANSYS
ME 599/ 699 Vibr o-
Acoust ic Design
Dept . of Mechanical Engineer ing
Univer sit y of Kent ucky
Forced Response
g Apply a 1.0 N load at the left end of the beam
g Set the Analysis Options
ü Set the solution method to “Full”
ü Set the DOF printout format to “Amplitude
and phase” <OK>
ü Set the tolerance to 1e-8 <OK>
g New Analysis > Harmonic
Modal/ Har monic Analysis Using ANSYS
ME 599/ 699 Vibr o-
Acoust ic Design
Dept . of Mechanical Engineer ing
Univer sit y of Kent ucky
Forced Response
g Set the frequency substeps
ü Solution > Load Step Opts – Time Frequency
> Freq and Substeps
ü Set the Harmonic Frequency Range to
between 0 and 50 Hz
ü Set the number of substeps to 100
ü Set to Stepped
Modal/ Har monic Analysis Using ANSYS
ME 599/ 699 Vibr o-
Acoust ic Design
Dept . of Mechanical Engineer ing
Univer sit y of Kent ucky
Forced Response
g Set the damping
ü Solution > Load Step Opts – Time Frequency
> Damping
ü Set the Constant Damping Ratio to 0.01
g Solve the model
Modal/ Har monic Analysis Using ANSYS
ME 599/ 699 Vibr o-
Acoust ic Design
Dept . of Mechanical Engineer ing
Univer sit y of Kent ucky
Forced Response
g Enter time history postprocessor
g Define a variable for UY at the leftmost node
g List and graph the variable
g Add a vertical truss member at the center of the
beam having an area of 10.

Modal Analysis
Modal/Harmonic Analysis Using ANSYS

Used to determine the natural frequencies and mode shapes of a continuous structure
g

Dept. of Mechanical Engineering University of Kentucky

ME 599/699 VibroAcoustic Design

Review of Multi DOF Systems
Modal/Harmonic Analysis Using ANSYS

x1 K1 F1 M1 C1
g

x2 K2 F2 M2 C2 C3 K3

Expressed in matrix form as

& & [M ]{u&}+ [C ]{u }+ [K ]{u } = {F }
Dept. of Mechanical Engineering University of Kentucky ME 599/699 VibroAcoustic Design

Review of Multi DOF Systems
& & [M ]{u&}+ [C ]{u }+ [K ]{u } = {F }
The mass, damping and stiffness matrices are constant with time
g

Modal/Harmonic Analysis Using ANSYS

The unknown nodal displacements vary with time
g Dept. of Mechanical Engineering University of Kentucky ME 599/699 VibroAcoustic Design

Modal Analysis
Modal/Harmonic Analysis Using ANSYS

A continuous structure has an infinite number of degrees of freedom
g

The finite element method approximates the real structure with a finite number of DOFs
g

N mode shapes can be found for a FEM having N DOFs
g g

Modal Analysis
Process for determining the N natural frequencies and mode shapes
ü

Dept. of Mechanical Engineering University of Kentucky

ME 599/699 VibroAcoustic Design

Modal Analysis Modal/Harmonic Analysis Using ANSYS Given “suitable” initial conditions. the structure will vibrate g ü ü at one of its natural frequencies the shape of the vibration will be a scalar multiple of a mode shape Given “arbitrary” initial conditions. the resulting vibration will be a g ü Superposition of mode shapes ME 599/699 VibroAcoustic Design Dept. of Mechanical Engineering University of Kentucky .

of Mechanical Engineering University of Kentucky ME 599/699 VibroAcoustic Design .Modal Analysis Modal/Harmonic Analysis Using ANSYS Determines the vibration characteristics (natural frequencies and mode shapes) of a structural components g Natural frequencies and mode shapes are a starting point for a transient or harmonic analysis g ü If using the mode superposition method Dept.

of Mechanical Engineering University of Kentucky ME 599/699 VibroAcoustic Design .Mode Shape of a Thin Plate (240 Hz) Modal/Harmonic Analysis Using ANSYS Dept.

Mode Extraction Methods Modal/Harmonic Analysis Using ANSYS g g g Subspace Block Lanczos PowerDynamics Reduced Unsymmetric Damped and QR damped (Include damping) ME 599/699 VibroAcoustic Design g g g Dept. of Mechanical Engineering University of Kentucky .

of Mechanical Engineering University of Kentucky .Steps in Modal Analysis Modal/Harmonic Analysis Using ANSYS g Build the model ü ü Same as for static analysis Use top-down or bottom-up techniques g Apply loads and obtain solution Only valid loads are zero-value displacement constraints ü ü Other loads can be specified but are ignored g Expand the modes and review results ME 599/699 VibroAcoustic Design Dept.

031E − 4  3     in   in  360 inches Dept.In-Class Exercise Modal/Harmonic Analysis Using ANSYS A = 3 in 2 IZZ = 450 in 4 H = 5 in E = 30E6 psi 2  lb   s  ρ = 8. of Mechanical Engineering University of Kentucky ME 599/699 VibroAcoustic Design .

In-Class Exercise Modal/Harmonic Analysis Using ANSYS g Set element type to BEAM3 Set the appropriate real constants and material constants g Create Keypoints at the start and end of the beam and a Line between them g Dept. of Mechanical Engineering University of Kentucky ME 599/699 VibroAcoustic Design .

C.s Modal/Harmonic Analysis Using ANSYS g Set the meshing size control of the line to 5 Fix the Keypoint at the right end of the beam g Dept. of Mechanical Engineering University of Kentucky ME 599/699 VibroAcoustic Design .Mesh the Line and Apply B.

of Mechanical Engineering University of Kentucky .Set Solution Options Modal/Harmonic Analysis Using ANSYS g Change the analysis type to Modal ü ü Solution > Analysis Type > New Analysis <Modal> g Set the analysis options ü ü ü Solution > Analysis Options Extract 10 mode <OK> Enter <1500> for the ending frequency ME 599/699 VibroAcoustic Design Dept.

then it will stop the search. it will stop the search. g Dept. you have told ANSYS to find a particular quantity of modes and to look within a particular frequency range. If ANSYS finds that quantity before it finishes the frequency range.Set Solution Options Modal/Harmonic Analysis Using ANSYS At this point. If ANSYS does not find that quantity before finishing the frequency range. of Mechanical Engineering University of Kentucky ME 599/699 VibroAcoustic Design .

of Mechanical Engineering University of Kentucky ME 599/699 VibroAcoustic Design .Set Solution Options Modal/Harmonic Analysis Using ANSYS g Solve the load set ANSYS generates a substep result for each natural frequency and mode shape g Dept.

Postprocessing Modal/Harmonic Analysis Using ANSYS g List results summary General Postproc > List Results > Results Summary ü g Read results for a substep ü ü ü ü General Postproc > Read Results > First Set Plot deformed geometry General Postproc > Read Results > Next Set Plot deformed geometry ME 599/699 VibroAcoustic Design Dept. of Mechanical Engineering University of Kentucky .

Ph.D.Theoretical Modal Analysis David Herrin. University of Kentucky .

Structural Vibration at a Single DOF Modal/Harmonic Analysis Using ANSYS g At a single degree of freedom u = φ cos(ωt ) u = displacement of a nodal DOF φ = amplitude Dept. of Mechanical Engineering University of Kentucky ME 599/699 VibroAcoustic Design .

of Mechanical Engineering University of Kentucky ME 599/699 VibroAcoustic Design .Structural Vibration for the Entire Structure Modal/Harmonic Analysis Using ANSYS {u} = {φ}cos(ωt ) {u} = Vector of nodal displacements {φ} = vector of amplitudes for each DOF Dept.

Mode Shapes Modal/Harmonic Analysis Using ANSYS g The vector of amplitudes is a mode shape φ2 φ3 φ 4 φ 5 φ6 φ7 φ8 Use subscript i to differentiate mode shapes and natural frequencies g {u} = {φ}i cos(ωit ) Dept. of Mechanical Engineering University of Kentucky ME 599/699 VibroAcoustic Design .

of Mechanical Engineering University of Kentucky ME 599/699 VibroAcoustic Design .C.s are a scalar (a) multiple of a specific mode shape then the structure will vibrate in the corresponding mode and natural frequency g ICs = a{φ }i Dept.Appropriate Initial Conditions Modal/Harmonic Analysis Using ANSYS If the I.

of Mechanical Engineering University of Kentucky ME 599/699 VibroAcoustic Design .Determining Natural Frequencies Modal/Harmonic Analysis Using ANSYS g Consider a multi DOF system & [M ]{u&}+ [K ]{u} = {0} g Note that the system is ü ü Undamped Not excited by any external forces Dept.

Modal Analysis Modal/Harmonic Analysis Using ANSYS If the system vibrates according to a particular mode shape and frequency g {u} = {φ}i cos(ωit ) {φ}i = mode shape i ωi = natural frequency i Dept. of Mechanical Engineering University of Kentucky ME 599/699 VibroAcoustic Design .

of Mechanical Engineering University of Kentucky ME 599/699 VibroAcoustic Design .Modal Analysis Modal/Harmonic Analysis Using ANSYS g First derivative (Velocity) & {u} = −ω i {φ }i sin (ω i t ) g Second derivative (Acceleration) &&} = −ωi2 {φ}i cos ( ωit ) {u Dept.

Modal Analysis Modal/Harmonic Analysis Using ANSYS Plug velocity and acceleration into the equation of motion g ( − [ M ] ω + [ K ]) {φ} = {0} 2 i i g Two possible solutions {φ}i = {0} det ( − [ M ] ω + [ K ]) = 0 2 i Dept. of Mechanical Engineering University of Kentucky ME 599/699 VibroAcoustic Design .

The Eigen Problem det ( − [ M ] ω + [ K ]) = 0 2 i g Modal/Harmonic Analysis Using ANSYS The Eigen Problem [A]{x} = λ[I ]{x} λ g Eigenvalue Eigenvector g { x} ME 599/699 VibroAcoustic Design Dept. of Mechanical Engineering University of Kentucky .

of Mechanical Engineering University of Kentucky .Modal Analysis – An Eigen Problem ( − [ M ] ω + [ K ]) {φ} = [0] [ K ]{φ} = ω [ M ]{φ} 2 i Modal/Harmonic Analysis Using ANSYS 2 i [M ] [K ]{φ} = ω [I ]{φ} −1 2 i g Natural frequencies are eigenvalues The mode shapes are eigenvectors ω 2 i g {φ} ME 599/699 VibroAcoustic Design Dept.

Modal Analysis – An Eigen Problem Modal/Harmonic Analysis Using ANSYS [M ] [K ]{φ} = ω [I ]{φ} [A]{x} = λ[I ]{x} −1 2 i g Solving the eigen problem ([ A] − λ [ I ]) { x} = 0 det ([ A] − λ [ I ] ) = 0 Dept. of Mechanical Engineering University of Kentucky ME 599/699 VibroAcoustic Design .

Example Eigen Problem Modal/Harmonic Analysis Using ANSYS  x1   2 3   x1  3 2  x  = λi  x    2  2  2 3 1 0  det    − λi 0 1  = 0    3 2 Dept. of Mechanical Engineering University of Kentucky ME 599/699 VibroAcoustic Design .

Find Eigenvalues Modal/Harmonic Analysis Using ANSYS  2 − λ 3  det    = 0 2 − λ   3 2 ( 2 − λ )( 2 − λ ) − 9 = λ − 4λ − 5 g Eigenvalues λ1 = −1 λ2 = 5 Dept. of Mechanical Engineering University of Kentucky ME 599/699 VibroAcoustic Design .

For Eigenvector 1 Modal/Harmonic Analysis Using ANSYS λ1 = −1  2 3 1 0    x1  0    − ( −1) 0 1    x  = 0      2 1    3 2   2 + 1 3    x1  0     x  = 0  2 + 1   2 1    3 Dept. of Mechanical Engineering University of Kentucky ME 599/699 VibroAcoustic Design .

of Mechanical Engineering University of Kentucky ME 599/699 VibroAcoustic Design .7071    = =   x2 1 −1  −.7071 Dept.For Eigenvector 1 Modal/Harmonic Analysis Using ANSYS  3 3   x1  0      x  = 0   3 3   2 1   x2 = − x1 g x1 can be any value  x1   1   .

For Eigenvector 2 Modal/Harmonic Analysis Using ANSYS λ2 = 5  2 3 1 0   x1  0   − ( 5 )  0 1    x  = 0      2 2    3 2  2 − 5 3    x1  0     x  = 0  2 − 5   2  2    3 Dept. of Mechanical Engineering University of Kentucky ME 599/699 VibroAcoustic Design .

of Mechanical Engineering University of Kentucky ME 599/699 VibroAcoustic Design .7071 Dept.For Eigenvector 2 Modal/Harmonic Analysis Using ANSYS   −3 3    x1  0     x  = 0    3 −3   2 2   x2 = x1 g x2 can be any value  x1  1 .7071   = =   x2 2 1 .

Example M 1 = 5 kg M 2 = 10 kg Modal/Harmonic Analysis Using ANSYS x1 K1 M1 M2 x2 K2 K1 = 800 N/m K 2 = 400 N/m g Equations of motions M1 &&1 + K1 x1 − K1 x2 = 0 x M 2 &&2 + K 2 x2 + K1 x2 − K1 x1 = 0 x Dept. of Mechanical Engineering University of Kentucky ME 599/699 VibroAcoustic Design .

of Mechanical Engineering University of Kentucky ME 599/699 VibroAcoustic Design .Matrix Form Modal/Harmonic Analysis Using ANSYS  M1  0  && 0   x1   K1 − K1   x1  0   &&  +  − K K + K   x  = 0 M 2   x2   1 1 2  2   x 5 0   &&1   800 −800   x1  0  0 10   &&  +  −800 1200   x  = 0     x2    2   Dept.

of Mechanical Engineering University of Kentucky ME 599/699 VibroAcoustic Design .Set Up Eigen Problem Modal/Harmonic Analysis Using ANSYS [ M ] [ K ]{φ} = ω {φ} −1 2 i [M ] −1 160 −160  [ K ] = −80 120     160 −160 1 0   det    − λ 0 1   = 0     −80 120  Dept.

7645    =  5.7975 Hz 1 Modal/Harmonic Analysis Using ANSYS 2π ω2 = λ 2 = 15.965 f2 = = 2.5409 Hz 2π Dept.5101  ME 599/699 VibroAcoustic Design .965 rad/s 15.8601   =  φ2 1  0.011 φ2 1 0.011 rad/s  φ1  0.Solve Eigen Problem  160 − λ −160   det    = 0   −80 120 − λ   ω1 = λ1 = 5.6446 f = = . of Mechanical Engineering University of Kentucky  φ1  −0.

Weighted Orthogonality Modal/Harmonic Analysis Using ANSYS  φ1   φ1    [M ]  = 0 φ 2 1 φ 2  2  φ1   φ1    [K ]  = 0 φ 2 1 φ 2  2 T T Dept. of Mechanical Engineering University of Kentucky ME 599/699 VibroAcoustic Design .

Modal Vector Scaling Modal/Harmonic Analysis Using ANSYS g Unity Modal Mass  φ1   φ1    [M ]  = 1 φ 2 1 φ 2 1 T Dept. of Mechanical Engineering University of Kentucky ME 599/699 VibroAcoustic Design .

7645 X  5 0  .287    =  φ 2 1 .242 Dept. of Mechanical Engineering University of Kentucky ME 599/699 VibroAcoustic Design T .6446 X 1 0 10  1 X = .7645 X      .376  φ1  .Modal Vector Scaling Modal/Harmonic Analysis Using ANSYS g Unity Modal Mass .6446 X  = 1 .

6446 K2 M2 Dept.7645 K1 M1 0. of Mechanical Engineering University of Kentucky ME 599/699 VibroAcoustic Design .Mode 1 Modal/Harmonic Analysis Using ANSYS 0.

8601 K1 M1 0.Mode 2 Modal/Harmonic Analysis Using ANSYS -0.5101 K2 M2 Dept. of Mechanical Engineering University of Kentucky ME 599/699 VibroAcoustic Design .

University of Kentucky . Ph.D.Harmonic Response using ANSYS David Herrin.

of Mechanical Engineering University of Kentucky ME 599/699 VibroAcoustic Design .Harmonic Response Analysis Modal/Harmonic Analysis Using ANSYS Solves the time-dependent equations of motion for linear structures undergoing steady-state vibration g All loads and displacements vary sinusoidally at the same frequency g Fi = F sin(ωt + φ1 ) Fj = F sin(ωt + φ2 ) Dept.

of Mechanical Engineering University of Kentucky ME 599/699 VibroAcoustic Design .Harmonic Response Analysis Modal/Harmonic Analysis Using ANSYS Analyses can generate plots of displacement amplitudes at given points in the structure as a function of forcing frequency g Dept.

In-Class Exercise Modal/Harmonic Analysis Using ANSYS A = 3 in 2 IZZ = 450 in 4 H = 5 in E = 30E6 psi 2  lb   s  ρ = 8.031E − 4  3     in   in  360 inches Dept. of Mechanical Engineering University of Kentucky ME 599/699 VibroAcoustic Design .

In-Class Exercise Modal/Harmonic Analysis Using ANSYS g Set element type to BEAM3 Set the appropriate real constants and material constants g Create Keypoints at the start and end of the beam and a Line between them g Dept. of Mechanical Engineering University of Kentucky ME 599/699 VibroAcoustic Design .

of Mechanical Engineering University of Kentucky ME 599/699 VibroAcoustic Design .C.s Modal/Harmonic Analysis Using ANSYS g Set the meshing size control of the line to 5 Fix the Keypoint at the right end of the beam g Dept.Mesh the Line and Apply B.

Set Solution Options Modal/Harmonic Analysis Using ANSYS g Change the analysis type to Modal ü ü Solution > Analysis Type > New Analysis <Modal> g Set the analysis options ü ü ü Solution > Analysis Options Extract 10 mode <OK> Enter <1500> for the ending frequency ME 599/699 VibroAcoustic Design Dept. of Mechanical Engineering University of Kentucky .

then it will stop the search. it will stop the search.Set Solution Options Modal/Harmonic Analysis Using ANSYS At this point. If ANSYS finds that quantity before it finishes the frequency range. If ANSYS does not find that quantity before finishing the frequency range. of Mechanical Engineering University of Kentucky ME 599/699 VibroAcoustic Design . you have told ANSYS to find a particular quantity of modes and to look within a particular frequency range. g Dept.

Set Solution Options Modal/Harmonic Analysis Using ANSYS g Solve the load set ANSYS generates a substep result for each natural frequency and mode shape g Dept. of Mechanical Engineering University of Kentucky ME 599/699 VibroAcoustic Design .

Postprocessing Modal/Harmonic Analysis Using ANSYS g List results summary General Postproc > List Results > Results Summary ü g Read results for a substep ü ü ü ü General Postproc > Read Results > First Set Plot deformed geometry General Postproc > Read Results > Next Set Plot deformed geometry ME 599/699 VibroAcoustic Design Dept. of Mechanical Engineering University of Kentucky .

0 N load at the left end of the beam New Analysis > Harmonic Set the Analysis Options ü ü g g Set the solution method to “Full” Set the DOF printout format to “Amplitude and phase” <OK> ü Set the tolerance to 1e-8 <OK> ME 599/699 VibroAcoustic Design Dept. of Mechanical Engineering University of Kentucky .Forced Response Modal/Harmonic Analysis Using ANSYS g Apply a 1.

of Mechanical Engineering University of Kentucky .Forced Response Modal/Harmonic Analysis Using ANSYS g Set the frequency substeps Solution > Load Step Opts – Time Frequency > Freq and Substeps ü Set the Harmonic Frequency Range to between 0 and 50 Hz ü ü ü Set the number of substeps to 100 Set to Stepped ME 599/699 VibroAcoustic Design Dept.

01 g Solve the model Dept. of Mechanical Engineering University of Kentucky ME 599/699 VibroAcoustic Design .Forced Response Modal/Harmonic Analysis Using ANSYS g Set the damping Solution > Load Step Opts – Time Frequency > Damping ü ü Set the Constant Damping Ratio to 0.

g Dept.Forced Response Modal/Harmonic Analysis Using ANSYS g Enter time history postprocessor Define a variable for UY at the leftmost node List and graph the variable g g Add a vertical truss member at the center of the beam having an area of 10. of Mechanical Engineering University of Kentucky ME 599/699 VibroAcoustic Design .

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