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Going Green: Why Asia is Moving Toward a Green Model of Economic Growth

Going Green: Why Asia is Moving Toward a Green Model of Economic Growth

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The latest issue of ADB's quarterly magazine explores the concept of green growth: the embracing of environmentally sound and sustainable policies with the need to maintain high economic growth. It features an exclusive interview with leading expert Ashok Khosla, who takes a hard look at the promises and failings of green growth. In other stories, we look at pioneering efforts to deliver medicine through a soda company's distribution network.
The latest issue of ADB's quarterly magazine explores the concept of green growth: the embracing of environmentally sound and sustainable policies with the need to maintain high economic growth. It features an exclusive interview with leading expert Ashok Khosla, who takes a hard look at the promises and failings of green growth. In other stories, we look at pioneering efforts to deliver medicine through a soda company's distribution network.

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Published by: Asian Development Bank on Feb 14, 2012
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January-March 2012

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vvv.develo¡menl.asia }anuary÷March 2O12 'HYHORSPHQW$VLD 1
WWW.DEVELOPMENT.ASIA
ĝ 2012 Asian Deve|opment Bank
ISSN 1998-7528
ASIAN DEVELOPMENT BANK
PUBLISHER
Ann Quon
MANAGING EDITOR
Andrew Perrin
SENIOR EDITOR
F|oyd Wha|ey
EDITORIAL ADVISOR
Nessim Ahmad
ASSOCIATE EDITOR
Maria Liza So|ano
COPY EDITOR
Caro|ine Ahmad
ART DIRECTOR
Tony Victoria
Development Asia features deve|opment issues
important to Asia and the Paciñc. It is pub|ished
four times a year by the Asian Deve|opment Bank.
The views expressed in this magazine are those of
the authors and do not reñect the views and po|icies
of the Asian Deve|opment Bank and Haymarket
Media Ltd. Use of the term "country" does not
imp|y any [udgment by the authors or the Asian
Deve|opment Bank and Haymarket Media Ltd. as to
the |ega| or other status of any territoria| entity.
Advertising of any speciñc commercia| product,
process, service by trade name, trademark,
manufacturer, or otherwise, in this pub|ication
does not constitute or imp|y ADB's endorsement,
recommendation, or favoring of any of the
product or the entity thereof.
COMMENTS
Send your feedback to the editor at
|etters@deve|opment.asia
ADVERTISING
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advertising@deve|opment.asia
SUBSCRIPTIONS
Contact subscriptions@deve|opment.asia
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artic|es, photos, graphics, and other content, is
copyrighted. Materia| may not be reproduced,
repub|ished, or redistributed without written
permission of Development Asia. For reprint
permission, p|ease contact editor@deve|opment.
asia. Photographs not owned by ADB require
permission from the copyright ho|der for reprinting.
Deve|opment Asia
Department of Externa| Re|ations
Asian Deve|opment Bank
6 ADB Avenue, Manda|uyong City
1550 Metro Mani|a, Phi|ippines
editor@deve|opment.asia
www.adb.org
Cover Photograph. Getty Images
Cover Photo I||ustration. Tony Victoria
Note. In this pub|ication, "$" refers to US do||ars
A pub|ication of the Asian Deve|opment Bank,
designed and distributed by Haymarket Media Limited
7KH*UHHQ,PSHUDWLYH
'
evelo¡ed counlries and develo¡ing counlries have alvays
had differing vievs on lhe environmenl. Many of lhe vorld's
veallhiesl counlries have made lheir economies much more
environmenlally friendly. And lhey vanl develo¡ing counlries
lo do lhe same. The develo¡ing vorld has res¡onded lhal veallhy counlries
became rich by ex¡loiling nalural resources vilh lillle regard for lhe
environmenl. As lhey slruggle lo ex¡and lheir economies, and lifl lheir ¡eo¡le
oul of ¡overly, develo¡ing counlries are being held lo an environmenlal
slandard lhal rich counlries never had lo follov.
This edilion of 'HYHORSPHQW$VLD ex¡lores vhal many feel is lhe besl
solulion lo lhis divide. In our cover slory, longlime Asia-based |ournalisl and
aulhor Gregg }ones looks al lhe conce¡l of green grovlh: lhe embracing of
environmenlally sound and suslainable ¡olicies vilh lhe need lo mainlain
high economic grovlh.
In an exclusive inlerviev, Ashok Khosla, one of lhe vorld's leading ex¡erls
on lhe environmenl and suslainable develo¡menl, lakes a hard, no-holds-
barred look al lhe ¡romises and failings of green grovlh.
As ¡arl of lhis lheme, lhe economics of biodiversily÷lhe monelary
value of a counlry's nalural resources÷is examined. Òlher slories in lhe
cover ¡ackage look al valer and air ¡ollulion, and lhe groving ¡roblem of
hazardous vasle in lhe region.
In lhe Arlicles seclion, an inlriguing queslion is asked: Why in some of lhe
mosl remole ¡laces in lhe vorld, vhere ¡eo¡le cannol hnd clean valer or
sim¡le medicine, can you slill buy a cold Coca-Cola` The ansver is lhal lhe
mullinalional sofl drink com¡any has one of lhe vorld's besl dislribulion
syslems. Òne organizalion vanls lo use lhal syslem lo gel medicine and olher
essenlial su¡¡lies lo some of lhe vorld's neediesl ¡eo¡le.
Òlher slories include an inlerviev by regular conlribulor }ade Lee-
Duffy vilh Annie Dußo, one of lhe brighl young slars in lhe vorld of aid
effecliveness research.
We ho¡e lhis edilion ins¡ires you lo look al lhe environmenl around you
and do your ¡arl lo im¡rove il. As alvays, your lhoughls and commenls are
velcome al HGLWRU#GHYHORSPHQWDVLD Q
Ann Quon
Iublisher
PUBLISHER’S NOTE
2DevelopmentAsia}anuary–March2O12 vvv.develo¡menl.asia
CONTENTS
YEARV,NUMBERXII,JANUARY—MARCH2012
FOCUS
ENVIRONMENT
6 THE BIG READ
GROWING GREEN
Musl develo¡ing Asia sacrihce ils
environmenlforeconomic¡ros¡erily`
Agrovingnumberof¡olilicalleaders
lhinknol.
By Gregg Jones
___________________________________
14 THE BIG PICTURE
ATMOSPHERIC EFFORTS
Alreadyamonglhelo¡lhrealslo
heallh,ouldoorair¡ollulionisa
concerninciliesacrossdevelo¡ing
Asia.Thoughlhesilualionis
im¡rovinginmanyareas,challenges
remainas¡o¡ulalionsshifllourban
cenlersandgrovingeconomies
¡roducemorevehiclesandinduslry.
By Mark Blackwell
___________________________________
16 THE BIG VOICE
ASHOK KHOSLA
An inßuenlial lhinker on lhe
environmenlex¡lainsvhylhe¡lanel
cannol co¡e vilh inhnile economic
grovlh,andvhyßhulan’sgross
nalionalha¡¡inessindexisno|oke.
By John Otis
_______________________________
20 GREENBACK GROWTH
Thedividebelveenenvironmenlalisls
and¡olicymakersoflenremainsvide,
bulbridgesarebeingbuill.
By Gregg Jones
46 PROFILES IN DEVELOPMENT
A LIFE EXAMINING
Annie Dußo is ¡arl of a groving
breedofyoungdevelo¡menl
¡rofessionalsvhoarevorkinglo
lesllheeffeclivenessofdevelo¡menl
¡rograms.
By Jade Lee-Duffy
_______________________________
48 RECONNAISSANCE
A REFRESHING DEVELOPMENT
Inremole,im¡overished¡lacesvhere
cleanvalerandmedicinearehardlo
hnd, ¡eo¡le can slill buy an ice-cold
Coke.
By Andrew Marshall
_______________________________
DEPARTMENTS
4 OFF THE PRESS
Nolevorlhyexcer¡lsonglobalissues
fromlheinlernalional¡ress
_______________________________
5 ON THE WEB
Develo¡menlhols¡olsonlhe
vorldvideveb
_______________________________
40 OFF THE SHELF
Recommendedreadingoneconomic
anddevelo¡menllo¡ics
_______________________________
52 ON THE RECORD
Nolablequolesonkeyissues
24 DIRTY BUSINESS
Asiaisonlhereceivingendofsomeof
lhevorld’smoslloxicvasle.
By William Branigin
_______________________________
28 DRY COUGH
ßoomingeconomiesandanex¡anding
car-loving middle class are fouling
Asia’sskies…andlheymighlbelhe
beslvayloclearlhem.
By Floyd Whaley
Also,sidebar: FOUR-STROKE
SAVINGS
_______________________________
32 MURKY WATER
Waler¡ollulionlhrealensmillionsin
Asiabulinnovalivesolulionsarebeing
found.
By Jade Lee-Duffy and Karen Emmons
_______________________________
36 CAMBODIA GOES GREEN
Cambodiahasaggressivelyembraced
lheconce¡lofgreengrovlhbulserious
challengeslieahead.
By Karen Emmons
_______________________________
ARTICLES
42 GOOD INVESTMENT
Inveslors villing lo acce¡l belov-
markelrelurnsloachieve¡osilive
socialchangearearisingforceinglobal
develo¡menl.
By Gregg Jones
16 MAKING THE CASE FOR
A SUSTAINABLE FUTURE
42 PATIENT CAPITAL: INVESTING
FOR PUBLIC GOOD
48 COLALIFE: LEVERAGING A SODA
COMPANY'S NETWORK
subjects. He is the author of the upcoming
book Honor in the Dust: Theodore
Roosevelt, War in the Philippines, and the
Rise and Fall of America’s Imperial Dream.
Andrew Marshall is a Bangkok-based
journalist and the author of The Trouser
People, a political travelogue about
Myanmar.
Floyd Whaley covers the Philippines for
the International Herald Tribune and The
New York Times. He is the senior editor
of Development Asia and operates Asia
Editorial Services.
Jade Lee-Duffy has worked
as a journalist in Hong Kong
for more than 10 years,
covering education, property,
the arts, food, and health
issues. She is a regular contributor to the
South China Morning Post.
Karen Emmons is a Bangkok-based
journalist who writes on public health and
social issues.
Gregg Jones was a
correspondent in Asia for 10
years, covering development
issues, civil wars and other
vvv.develo¡menl.asia
Contributors
Development Asia
House AD
Mark Blackwell has more than 20 years of
experience covering issues ranging from
science and economics to politics and
international affairs for news organizations,
including the Hearst Corporation and
Capital Cities/ABC. He specializes in
information graphics.
William Branigin served as
Southeast Asia bureau chief
of The Washington Post
for 10 years, reporting from
more than a dozen countries
in the region. He was based in Bangkok
from 1981 to 1986 and in Manila from 1990
to 1995.
vvv.develo¡menl.asia
6--;/,79,::
4DevelopmentAsia}anuary–March2O12
“Voucherssolvemanyoflheserious
¡roblemslhalhavealvays¡lagued
in-kindfoodaid….|AndjAidis
mulli¡liedasilhel¡snolonly
reci¡ienls,bulmerchanls.”
—The New York Times, 3 November 2011
Good as Cash
Dirty Recovery
“AnalysisbylheIricevalerhouseCoo¡ersLovCarbonLconomyIndexshovs
lhalduringlherecession,manycounlriesincludingßrilainsavemissionsfall
faslerlhangrossdomeslic¡roducl,ameasureoflhelolaleconomy,becauselheir
manufacluringoul¡ulfell.ßulin2O1O,globalGDIgrovlhvas|uslabove5/,
vhileemissionsrosebynearly6/.”—Daily Telegraph, 7 November 2011
A Bright Idea
“Whilesvilchinglocom¡acl
ßuorescenl bulbs÷75/ more efhcienl
lhan incandescenls÷has become
unremarkableinsomedevelo¡ed
nalions, lhe signihcance of |lhe
Ieo¡le’sRe¡ublicofjChina’smove
shouldnolbeundereslimaled….
Wilh|lheIRCjchurningoulbillions
of efhcienl bulbs, cosls vill fall. Thal
meansilvillbe¡ossibleloculcarbon
emissionsfromlighlingaroundlhe
vorldvilhouldenyinglhemoslbasic
ofamenilieslolhevorld’s¡oor.”—
Damian Carrington’s Environment Blog,
The Guardian, 5 November 2011
6--;/,79,::
Blame Game
“Humanaclivilyhascaused¡rofound
changeslolheclimale,biodiversily,
oceanicacidilyandgreenhouse-gas
levelsinlhealmos¡here.ßulildoes
nolaulomalicallyfollovlhallhemore
¡eo¡lelhereare,lhevorselhedamage.
In 2OO7 Americans and Auslralians
emilledalmosl2Olonnesofcarbon
dioxideeach.Inconlrasl,morelhan6O
counlries÷including lhe vasl ma|orily
of African ones÷emilled less lhan 1
lonne¡er¡erson….Global¡ollulion
villbemoreaffecledbylhe¡allern
of economic grovlh÷and es¡ecially
vhelheremergingnalionsbecomeas
energy-inlensiveasAmerica,Auslralia
and|lheIeo¡le’sRe¡ublicofj
China.”—The Economist, 22 October 2011
Get Used to High Prices
¨Calaslro¡hic ßooding and cro¡ losses in Thailand, lhe vorld's leading rice
ex¡orler, are raising concerns lhal anolher food crisis may be in lhe ofhng. Also
disquielingislhe¡ossibililylhallhevorldmayhavealreadyenleredanev
eravhere¡ersislenllyhighfood¡ricesarelhe‘NevNormal.’Alalimevhen
¡olicymakersaregra¡¡lingvilhahosloflhornyeconomicissues,lhe¡ossibilily
maybeunvelcome,bulmuslnolbeignored.”—Asian Development Bank’s Iwan J.
Azis in an opinion piece for The Japan Times, 7 November 2011
Consumption Trumps Growth
Signs of the Times
“AslheUNre¡orl¡oinlsoul:‘Considerable¡o¡ulaliongrovlhconlinues
lodaybecauseoflhehighnumbersofbirlhsinlhe195Osand196Os,vhichhave
resulledinlargerbase¡o¡ulalionsvilhmillionsofyoung¡eo¡lereachinglheir
re¡roducliveyearsoversucceedinggeneralions…’Yes,¡o¡ulaliongrovlh
conlribulesloenvironmenlal¡roblems.No,ilisnollhedecisivefaclor.Lvenlhe
availabililyofgrainisaffecledmorebyrisingliveslocknumbersandlheuseof
biofuels÷driven, again by consum¡lion÷lhan by human ¡o¡ulalion grovlh.¨—
George Monbiot’s Blog, The Guardian, 27 October 2011
Private Money for the Public Good
¨Irivale foundalions have emerged as increasingly ¡olenl ¡layers in lhe hghl
againsl ¡overly alongside ofhcial develo¡menl aid. According lo a Hudson Inslilule
re¡orl, lolal ofhcial develo¡menl assislance vas $12O billion in 2OO9, vhile global
¡hilanlhro¡y amounled lo $53 billion. Irivale ca¡ilal inveslmenl ($228 billion)
forms lhe largesl hnancial ßov from richer lo ¡oorer counlries, vhile remillances
($174 billion) vere lhe second-largesl ßov.¨—The Guardian, 9 November 2011
“Anyeconomicmodellhaldoesnol¡ro¡erlyaddressinequalilyvillevenlually
faceacrisisoflegilimacy.Unlesslherelaliveeconomicrolesoflhemarkeland
lheslalearerebalanced,lhe¡roleslsof2O11villbecomemoresevere,vilhsocial
and¡olilicalinslabililyevenluallyharminglong-lermeconomicgrovlhand
velfare.”—Economist Nouriel Roubini, writing for Project Syndicate in October 2011
vvv.develo¡menl.asia }anuary–March2O12DevelopmentAsia5
65;/,>,)
What’s Your Footprint?
Global Footprint Network
http://www.footpr|ntnetwork.org
H
ovmuchofanim¡acldoesyourlifeslylemakeon
Larlh`Hovmuchlandareadoesillakelosu¡¡orl
yourconsum¡lion`GlobalIool¡rinlNelvorkhas
madelhisa¡ersonalqueslionvilhaquizonlheirvebsile
lhalgivesusersaneslimaleoflheirecologicalfool¡rinl.
Thevebsilevalksuserslhroughavarielyofqueslions,
suchashovoflenlheyealmeal,hovlheyheallheirhome,
andhovoflenlheylakelhelrain.Afleransveringlhe
queslions,are¡orlcardonlheuser’sim¡aclonlheearlhis
¡rovided.Ilincludessuchadmonilionsas:“Ifeveryonelived
lhesamelifeslyleasyou,vevouldrequirelheregeneralive
ca¡acilyof1.6¡lanelseachyear”and“losu¡¡orlyour
lifeslyle,illakes2.8heclaresoflheearlh’s¡roduclivearea.”
Allhoughlhesciencebehindsuchaquizmighlbe
queslionable(lhevebsile¡rovidesalinklhaloullinesils
scienlihc basis), lhe im¡acl on lhe user is signihcanl. The
mereansveringoflhequeslionsforcesusersloconlem¡lale
hovmuchlheyareconsumingandlheim¡aclilishaving.
Allheendoflhequiz,alinkis¡rovidedloassesshov
userscanlessenlheirecologicalfool¡rinl,vhichaflerall
islhevhole¡oinloflheexercise.Iornov,lhequizisonly
offeredinAsiaforresidenlsoflheIeo¡le’sRe¡ublicof
China,India,and}a¡an,bulvorkisundervayloaddmore
counlries.
The quiz is a clever as¡ecl of allem¡ls by lhe non¡rohl
organizalion,GlobalIool¡rinlNelvork,lodevelo¡a
slandardizedmelhodofmeasuringhumanim¡aclonlhe
earlh.Thegrou¡seekslodevelo¡ecologicalfool¡rinlre¡orl
cardsforcilies,com¡anies,andindividualslobeusedasa
loollolessenlheim¡aclonlheenvironmenl.
Their¡lanisambilious,bulilallslarlsbylakingaquiz.Ŷ
Reality
Hedley Environmental Index
http://hed|ey|ndex.sph.hku.hk/home.php
G
overnmenlsaroundAsiaaregra¡¡lingvilhhov
lomonilorandres¡ondloair¡ollulion.Ievhave
comeu¡vilheslimalesonhovmuch¡oorair
qualilycoslssociely.
The¡ublic¡olicylhinklankCivicLxchange,basedin
HongKong,China,haslakenlheinilialiveandhoslsa
vebsilelhalhasbecomeanexam¡leofhovlomeasureand
illuslralelheim¡aclofair¡ollulion.
Thesile¡ublishesinreallimelheeconomiccoslsofHong
Kong,China’sair¡ollulioninlermsof¡ublicheallhim¡acls
andlheirmonelaryvalue.Thisincludes¡remaluredealhs,
hos¡ilalbeddays,anddoclorvisils.
When users hrsl land on lhe ¡age, a s¡inning licker lells
lhemhovmanydollarshavebeenlosldueloair¡ollulion
inHongKong,China,sincemidnighl.Clickanolherbullon
andillellshovmanyliveshavebeenloslsince}anuary1
(833 as of December 7). A daily check of lhe sile is a sobering
reminderoflheim¡aclofair¡olluliononsociely.
Thesilealsoincludesanairqualilylrackingloollhal
allovsuserslocom¡arecurrenlairqualilyloWorld
HeallhÒrganizalionairqualilyguidelinesinreallime,or
locom¡arehisloricalrecordsofgoodandbadairdays.Il
includesa¡holooflheHongKong,Chinaskylinelhalis
u¡daledevery15minulesbylheHongKongÒbservalory.
TheindexislhebrainchildofAnlhonyHedley,lhechairof
CommunilyMedicineallheSchoolofIublicHeallhalHong
KongUniversily,andaleamofresearchersvhohavefor
decadesvorkedonair-relaledheallhissuesinHongKong,
China,andsoulhernIeo¡le’sRe¡ublicofChina.Q
ResearchedandvrillenbyIloydWhaley
vvv.develo¡menl.asia 6DevelopmentAsia}anuary–March2O12
A
llheßoaoIorumforAsia
inlheIeo¡le’sRe¡ublicof
China(IRC)in2O1O,some
2,OOO¡olilicalandbusiness
leadersfromaroundlheregion
a¡¡laudedvhenIRCVice-Iresidenl
Xi}in¡inginhiskeynoleaddress
calledfor“greenandsuslainable
develo¡menl.”Hisforvard-lhinking
blue¡rinlforfulureAsiandevelo¡menl
includedlhe¡romolionofrenevable
energyandlov-carbonlechnology,and
efforlsaimedalslee¡ingAsiansinlhe
cullureofconservalion—idealslhal
verehardly¡rioriliesformoslleaders
inlheregion|uslafevyearsago.
The nalions of Asia and lhe Iacihc
havedazzledlhevorldvilhlheir
robusleconomicgrovlhoverlhe¡asl
2decades,reducing¡overlyrales
anddeliveringmiddle-classcomforls
lomillions.ßullheregionhasalso
becomealeaderinlheunvelcome
by¡roduclsoflradilionaldevelo¡menl:
reducedvalerandairqualily,de¡leled
naluralresources,andim¡eriled
biodiversily.
Thalisbeginninglochange.
“Greengrovlh”¡ro|eclsare
s¡roulingaroundlheregion.TheIRC,
foryearsbeslknovnforilss¡eclacular
economicgrovlhands¡iraling
environmenlal¡roblems,hasalso
becomealeaderinlhedevelo¡menlof
greenlechnologies.In2OO9,lheIRC
overlookDenmark,Germany,S¡ain
andlheUniledSlaleslobecomelhe
Growing Green
Mustdeve|opingAsiasacrificeitsenvironmentforeconomicprosperity?
Agrowingnumberofpo|itica||eadersthinknot
ßYGregg}ones
,5=09654,5;!;/,)0.9,(+
GREEN PATH Soft light illuminates a
forest path in Bosung, Republic of Korea.
The country has committed to investing
2% of its gross domestic product (GDP)
in green growth.
vvv.develo¡menl.asia }anuary–March2O12DevelopmentAsia7
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vorld’slo¡manufaclurerofvind
lurbines,andilsdomeslicmarkel
forlurbineshasalreadybecomelhe
vorld’slargesl.TheIRCalsoboasls
lhevorld’slongeslhigh-s¡eedrail
nelvork,andholdscloselo1,OOOlocal
andinlernalional¡alenlsforhigh-
s¡eedraillechnologies.
Su¡¡orlforenvironmenlally
friendlygrovlhisn’llimiledloAsia’s
economically¡overful.Allheßoao
IoruminlheIRC,formerIhili¡¡ine
IresidenlIidelRamosurgedAsian
leaderslo¡ursueagreenrecovery,
evenifilmeanla¡ainfullransilion
forcounlriesinlheregion.Mongolian
IrimeMinislerSukhbaalarynßalbold
concededlhalilvouldlakedecadeslo
veanhiscounlryfromilsde¡endence
onfossilfuels,bul¡ledgedlo¡romole
greenslralegiesinmining,railvays,
andconslruclion.
ThelalkvassimilarlyboldinSeoul,
Re¡ublicofKorea,in}unelaslyear
allheGlobalGreenGrovlhSummil
hosledbylheGovernmenloflhe
Re¡ublicofKoreaandlheÒrganisalion
forLconomicCo-o¡eralionand
Develo¡menl.Thelhemeoflhe
galheringvas“ßuildingIlanel-
Res¡onsibleCivilizalion.”High-level
governmenl ofhcials, develo¡menl
ex¡erls,andolher¡arlici¡anlsshared
slralegiesforgreengrovlhandcross-
bordercoo¡eralioninlhe¡ursuilof
suslainableeconomies.Inhiso¡ening
remarks,LeeMyung-bak,Iresidenl
oflheRe¡ublicofKorea,sellhelone
bycallingforlechnologicaladvances
essenliallobuildinggreeneconomies
lhalvon’llhrealenlhe¡ros¡erilyof
fuluregeneralions.
“Wecanmakechanges,”hesaid,
“ifveconcenlraleallourefforlson
harmonybelveenmanandlheLarlh.”
‘VORACIOUS APPETITE’
Iorvard-lhinkersinAsiahave
varnedforyearslhallhedaysof
grovlhvilhoulregardforresource
consum¡lionorenvironmenlalcosls
couldnolconlinue.ßullhe¡ressure
DQGWKH3DFLÀF,laidoullheharmful
resullsoflheregion’srushlodeliver
economicgrovlh.Develo¡ing
counlries in Asia and lhe Iacihc found
lhemselves“challengedbyassocialed
airandvaler¡ollulion,degraded
naluralresourcesandlhrealened
ecosyslems,vorseningvalerslress,
naluraldisaslers,andincreased
generalionofvaslesincluding
hazardousvasle.”Andlhe¡roblems
arebeingexacerbaledbyclimale
change.
“Anlhro¡ogenicclimalechangeis
aseriouschallengelosuslainabilily,”
noleslhere¡orl.“Illhrealensnol
onlylheinlegrilyofnaluralsyslems,
bulalsolheveryfabricofeconomic
andsocialsyslems,es¡eciallyinlhe
develo¡ingvorld.Amongalllhe
regions, Asia and lhe Iacihc has lhe
grealeslnumberof¡eo¡lealriskfrom
climalechangeim¡acls.”
Wilh¡o¡ulalionslhroughoulmuch
oflheregionconlinuinglorise,lhe
¡ressurelodelivereconomic¡rogress
isn’lgoingloeaseinlheforeseeable
fulure.Indeed,lhe¡olilicalim¡eralive
locrealemore|obs,modernize
infraslruclure,andbuildnevcilies
only¡romisesloincrease.
“Theinduslriallransformalionin
Asia’sdevelo¡ingeconomies,lherise
inlhemalerialslandardofliving,
andlhereduclionof¡overlyinmany
oflhesecounlriesvillrequiregreal
amounlsofnaluralresourcesand
generalelargequanliliesofemissions,”
saysAchimSleiner,anunder-secrelary-
generalallheUniledNalionsand
execulivedireclorofUNLI.“ßecause
resources are hnile and lhe absor¡live
ca¡acilyoflheLarlh’secosyslemsis
limiled,lheas¡iralionsoflhesenalions
villmosllikelybeconslrainedby
environmenlalfaclors.”
Allhoughra¡idlygrovingcounlries
inAsiaarebecomingmoreresource-
efhcienl over lime, lhey are slill
relalively less efhcienl lhan develo¡ed
counlries,saysNessimAhmad,
direclorofADß’sLnvironmenland
ONE WORLD Leaders from around the
world will convene in June for the Earth
Summit in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.
lo¡roducerising¡ros¡erilylefllhose
varningslargelyunheeded.In2OO5,
Asia’svoraciousa¡¡elileforrav
malerialshilavorld-leading35billion
lons. Thal hgure is on largel lo reach a
slaggering8Obillionlonsby2O5O.The
region’ssoaringdemandforenergy
issimilarlyinsaliable:Asiaandlhe
Iacihc's share of global energy demand
s¡ikedfromaboul2O.5/in1975lo
aboul35.6/in2OO5,andilis¡ro|ecled
loreach5O/by2O28,accordinglo
lheUniledNalionsLnvironmenl
Irogramme(UNLI).
ArecenlAsianDevelo¡menlßank
(ADß)re¡orl,Greening Growth in Asia
“The concepts of a
green economy and
green growth are
now moving into
the mainstream of
global and regional
policy discourse, not
to mention national
strategies. ”
-As|an Deve|opment Bank
Pres|dent Haruh|ko Kuroda
vvv.develo¡menl.asia 8DevelopmentAsia}anuary–March2O12
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SafeguardsDivision.Henoleslhal
Asia's resource efhciency÷using fever
resources¡erunilofgrossdomeslic
¡roducl—isakeyfaclorinlheregion’s
suslainabledevelo¡menl.
“In2OO5,forinslance,lheIRCand
Indiahadmalerialinlensiliesof9.2
and6.84kilograms¡erdollarofGDI,
res¡eclively,vhile}a¡anhadamalerial
inlensilyofunderO.3Okg¡erdollar
of GDI. These exisling efhciency ga¡s
signalalremendouso¡¡orlunilyfora
region lo ado¡l more resource-efhcienl
¡roduclion¡rocessesvhile¡ursuing
grovlh,”hesays.
ThechallengeforAsiaislodeliver
economicgainsvhilesellingaside
lhegrovlh-al-any-¡ricedevelo¡menl
model.“Climalechangeand
environmenlalsuslainabililyare
amonglhekeychallenges,”Ahmad
says.“Thegrov-nov-clean-u¡-laler
a¡¡roachvillunderminelhefulure
grovlhand¡overlyreduclion¡olenlial
oflheregion.”
Thefailurelochangevillcosllhe
regiondearly,ex¡erlsvarn.
“Asiacannolconlinueilscurrenl
¡alhofdevelo¡menl,vhichis
nolsuslainable,”saysNayHlun,
aformerUNassislanlsecrelary-
generalvilhconsiderableex¡erience
indevelo¡menl,environmenl,and
energyissues.“Theconsequences
includeincreasinginequilies,¡overly,
socialslrife,relardingeconomic
develo¡menlandgrovlhand
vorseningenvironmenlalqualily,vilh
seriouseffeclsonhumanheallhand
vell-being.”
TheUN’sSleinerechoeslhal
direnole.“Ullimalely,lheregion’s
com¡eliliveviabililyvillbegoverned
bylhes¡eedandscalealvhichil
ado¡lsnevinduslrialsyslemslhaluse
farlessenergy,malerials,andvaler
asvellasilsconlinued¡rogresson
achieving¡ros¡erilyforlhe¡eo¡le,”
hesays.
Thoseslarkrealilieshaveallracled
Asian¡olicymakerslolheideaof
greendevelo¡menl.
INTERDEPENDENT AND
INSEPARABLE
Il’shardloarguevilhlhe¡hiloso¡hy
of green grovlh. As dehned by UNLI,
ilincreasesincomeandem¡loymenl,
reducescarbonemissionsand
¡ollulion,enhancesenergyand
resource efhciency, and ¡revenls lhe
lossofbiodiversilyandecosyslem
services.
Theconce¡lisaderivaliveof
“suslainabledevelo¡menl,”anidea
lhalaroseinlhe198Osvilhlhebelief
lhaleconomicadvancemenlaround
lhevorldhadlo¡roceedingrealer
harmonyvilhlhenaluralenvironmenl.
A1987re¡orlbylheUN-backed
WorldCommissiononLnvironmenl
andDevelo¡menlmadelhecasefor
lheinlerde¡endenceofeconomic
develo¡menlandlheenvironmenl.
“Theenvironmenldoesnolexislasa
s¡herese¡aralefromhumanaclions,
ambilions,andneeds,andlhereforeil
shouldnolbeconsideredinisolalion
fromhumanconcerns,”asummaryof
lhere¡orlslales.“Theenvironmenlis
vherevealllive,anddevelo¡menl
isvhalvealldoinallem¡linglo
im¡roveourlolvilhinlhalabode.The
lvoareinse¡arable.”
Theideagainedcrilicalmassin}une
1992vhendelegalesfromaroundlhe
vorldconvenedinRiode}aneiro,
ßrazil, for lhe hrsl UN Conference
onLnvironmenlandDevelo¡menl.
TheAgenda21aclion¡lanado¡led
bylheconferencecalledonnalions
loado¡lamodelofsuslainable
develo¡menlinlheir¡ursuilof
socialandeconomicadvancemenl
inlhe21slcenlury.Ayearlaler,lhe
UNeslablishedlheCommissionon
SuslainableDevelo¡menllooversee
im¡lemenlalionoflheagendaado¡led
alRio.
TenyearsaflerlheRiogalhering,
lheWorldSummilonSuslainable
Develo¡menlconvenedin
}ohannesburg,SoulhAfrica,lo
reinvigoralelheefforlsselinmolionin
ßrazil.
Òverlhe¡asldecade,lheconce¡l
has undergone sublle rehnemenls,
givingriseloa¡hiloso¡hylhal¡laces
grealerem¡hasisongrovlhralher
lhan sacrihcing develo¡menl ambilions
losavelheenvironmenl.Il’sacrilical
dislinclionfor¡olicymakersinAsia
WALL OF PROMISES United States
President George H. W. Bush signs the
Earth pledge with his wife Barbara during
the ñrst United Nations-sponsored Earth
Summit in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil in 1992,
which set in motion the global drive for
sustainable development.
vvv.develo¡menl.asia }anuary–March2O12DevelopmentAsia9
andolherdevelo¡ingregionsoflhe
vorld.
“Theconce¡lsofagreeneconomy
andgreengrovlharenovmoving
inlolhemainslreamofglobaland
regional¡olicydiscourse,nollo
menlionnalionalslralegies,”saidADß
IresidenlHaruhikoKurodainarecenl
s¡eech.
¨Il is aboul hnding vays for
counlrieslogrovmoresuslainably.Il
seekslocreale|obsandnevsources
ofeconomicadvancemenlbasedon
lhedevelo¡menlandde¡loymenlof
cleanlechnologieslhalcurb¡ollulion,
conserveourecosyslems,and¡revenl
resourcede¡lelion.”
Thecam¡aignforgreengrovlhvill
markanolhermilesloneala¡ro¡ilious
momenlin2O12,vhendelegalesfrom
aroundlhevorldrelurnloRiofor
lheUNConferenceonSuslainable
Develo¡menl.
LEADING THE WAY
AlRio,re¡resenlalivesofAsiaand
lhe Iacihc vill be able lo ¡oinl lo
subslanlial¡rogressinseveralareas
crilicallogreengrovlh:energy
conservalionandrenevableenergy
develo¡menl,¡ollulionmiligalion,
ex¡ansionofcleanmasslransil
syslems,im¡rovedurban¡lanning,
and¡reservalionofnaluralresources.
“Resha¡ingandrefocusing
¡oliciesandinveslmenlscanlead
lobellerrelurnsonnalural,human,
andeconomicca¡ilal,”saysSleiner.
“UNLIisalreadyvorkingvilhmany
counlriesinlheregionlomakelhe
lransilionloasuslainabledevelo¡menl
model,vhichisslilllheoverarching
goal.”
HecileslhreecounlriesinAsialhal
aremaking¡rogressonlhisfronl.
ª The Re¡ublic of Korea has
¡romoled lhe efhcienl use of resources,
vasle¡revenlionandresource
reulilizalion,exlended¡roducer
res¡onsibilily,andrecyclingsince
lheearly199Os.In2OO8,ildevelo¡ed
analionalslralegyandaclion¡lan
forlovcarbongreengrovlh.More
recenlly,ilhaslaunchedlheGreen
NevDealIolicyloinvesl2/ofils
GDIingreengrovlhandcrealedlhe
GlobalGreenGrovlhInsliluleinSeoul.
ª }a¡an has ¡ioneered resource
efhciency and recycling vilh ils
IundamenlalLavandIlanfor
LslablishingaSoundMalerial-Cycle
Sociely,vhichvasado¡ledin2OOO,
andilsLavonIromolingGreen
Iurchasing,enacledinlhesameyear.
Numerousinilialiveshavefolloved.
ª The IRC has launched a series of
greengrovlhinilialives,beginning
vilha2OO2lav¡romolingcleaner
¡roduclion,ilsSolidWasleAcl
(amendedin2OO4),andilsCircular
LconomyLavin2OO8,vhich¡romoles
im¡rovedresourceulilizalionand
reduclion,reuse,andrecyclingof
resourcesduring¡roduclion.The
IRCalsorecenllyado¡ledagreen
develo¡menl¡lanas¡arlofils12lh
Iive-YearIlan.
Sleinernolesolherim¡orlanl
inilialivesundervayaroundlhe
region:Indonesia’sefforlslo¡haseoul
fossilfuelsandreducedeforeslalion,
Thailand’sinilialiveonclean
lechnology,VielNam’s¡olicieson
energylariffsandsubsidyreforms,
India’sRuralLm¡loymenlGuaranlee
AclandCleanLnergyIund,and
ßhulan’sGrossNalionalHa¡¡iness
indices as ¡arl of a redehnilion of
veallhandeconomic¡rogress.
“Inmyo¡inion,leadershi¡and
visionhavebeenfundamenlallolhe
develo¡menlofsuchgreeninilialives
andlhe¡olilicalleadersofAsia–
Iacihc should be congralulaled for
recognizinglheneedlochangeand
lakingsle¡slovardgreenerandmore
suslainabledevelo¡menl,”saysSleiner.
“Allhesamelime,lheinduslrial
andbusinessseclors,civilsociely
organizalions,andordinary¡eo¡leare
allmakinganim¡orlanlconlribulion.”
Whilevorkingloachievebeller
environmenlalbalanceinils
develo¡menlefforls,lheIRChasalso
been a leader in la¡¡ing lhe ¡rohl
RECYCLING PIONEER A TV set is placed
on a disassembly line in Japan where
workers dismantle the appliance and
remove parts that may be recycled.
Japan has pioneered resource efñciency
and recycling with its Fundamental
Law and Plan for Establishing a Sound
MateriaI-CycIe Society in 2000.
vvv.develo¡menl.asia 1ODevelopmentAsia}anuary–March2O12
,5=09654,5;!;/,)0.9,(+
¡olenlialoflheshifllolov-carbon,
greenlechnologies—afaclunderscored
bylheIRC’sra¡idemergence
aslheleadingvorldsu¡¡lierof
vindlurbinesandhigh-s¡eedrail
lechnology.In2OO8,lheIRCearned
morelhan$6Obillion—1.4/ofils
GDI—fromgreenlechnologybusiness
aclivilies.
The recenl hnancial crisis has nol
slovedlhegalheringmomenlumfor
greengrovlhinAsia.Infacl,lhe2OO8–
2OO9crisisvasanim¡elusforclean
grovlh.Auslralia,lheIRC,}a¡an,
andlheRe¡ublicofKoreahavebeen
singledoulfor¡raisebygreengrovlh
advocales for devoling signihcanl
¡orlionsofeconomicslimulusfunds
duringlhecrisislogreengrovlhand
cleanlechnologyinveslmenls.
“Whilecounlriesacrosslheglobe
arenovrelhinkinglheireconomies
and¡allernsofdevelo¡menlinorder
lominimizelhekindsofshocksand
vildlyoscillalingcommodily¡rices
lhalvehaverecenllyvilnessed,one
lessonlearnedfromlhecrisisvaslhal
counlriesshouldnolrelysolelyon
ex¡orlsforgrovlh,”saysSleiner.“As
aresull,lherehasbeenashiflinlhe
regionlovarddomeslicconsum¡lion
asadriverofgrovlh.Ò¡¡orlunilies,
lherefore,lieinlhede¡loymenlof
greenlechnologiesmorevidely
vilhinAsia,ralherlhanem¡hasizing
exclusivelyexlernalmarkelsforlhese
¡roducls.”
NayHlunnoleslhalgreen
inilialiveshavebeenlaunchednol
|uslbygovernmenls,bulalsoby
nongovernmenlorganizalionsandlhe
¡rivale seclor in Asia and lhe Iacihc.
“Universilies,loo,aregreeninglheir
cam¡usesandcurricula,”sayslhe
former UN ofhcial vho is currenlly
research¡rofessoralSlonyßrook
UniversilyinNevYork.“}a¡an,|lhe
Ieo¡le’sRe¡ublicofjChina,and
|Re¡ublicofjKoreahavema|orgreen
¡rograms.”In}a¡an,lheIukushima
earlhquakeandnucleardisasler“has
energizedlhegovernmenl,business,
andinduslry,and,im¡orlanlly,lhe
general¡ubliclogo‘green’very
¡roaclivelyandexlensively.”
Inanolhersignoflhechanging
alliludesvilhinlhe¡rivaleseclor,a
ma|orinduslrialandresidenlialeslale
develo¡erinIndonesia,IT}ababeka
Terbuka,novadverlisesenvironmenlal
res¡onsibililyasaselling¡oinllo
foreigncor¡oralionslookinglorelocale
lolheSoulheaslAsiancounlry.Illouls
a¡ollulion¡revenlion¡rogram,lhe
“3Rconce¡l(reduce,recycle,reuse)
lolessenlhenegaliveim¡aclsonlhe
environmenl¨ and an energy-efhciency
¡rogram“loreducegreenhousegas
emissions.”WorkingvilhIndonesia’s
eminenlenvironmenlalisland
suslainabledevelo¡menladvocale,
LmilSalim,lhecom¡anyhas¡romoled
lree¡lanlingandolhergreenaclivilies.
ADß,lheUN,lheWorldßank,and
olherinslilulionshave¡rovidedvilal
su¡¡orllolhegreendevelo¡menl
efforlsundervayinlheregion.And
lhisbroadcoalilionof¡arlnersisvhal
isneededinlhefulureasvell.
“Alolof¡rogresshasbeen
madesincelhe1992Conferenceon
LnvironmenlandDevelo¡menlinRio,
andlhereisreasonlobecauliously
o¡limislicaboulvhalcomesinlhe
fulure,”saysßinduLohani,ADßvice-
¡residenlforKnovledgeManagemenl
andSuslainableDevelo¡menl.
“Hovever,lhechallengesin
achievinggreengrovlhremain
numerousandvaried,”hesays.“This
highlighlslheneedforcoordinaled
aclionandknovledgesharinglo
¡romoleenvironmenlallysuslainable
grovlh in Asia and lhe Iacihc.¨
CARROT AND STICK APPROACH
Amonglhosechallengesarelhorny
governanceandregulaloryissues.
Carbon-¡ollulingfossilfuelsremain
heavilysubsidizedinmanycounlries.
Inmanycases,enlrenchedbusiness
and¡olilicalinlereslsandcorru¡lion
obslruclgreen¡olicychanges.
Iro¡onenlsofgreengrovlhargue
lhalecologicallaxreformneedslo
lake¡laceloensureequallrealmenl
oflradilionalfuelsand¡raclicesand
cleanlechnologies.Theyadvocale
lheim¡osilionofcarbonlaxes,
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CLEAN CATCH A man throws a ñshing
net over the Mekong River in Phnom
Penh, Cambodia. Keeping water sources
clean is one of the major issues facing
Asia, which is under pressure to
conserve this essential resource in the
face of growing demand by fast-growing
cities and industries.
vvv.develo¡menl.asia }anuary–March2O12DevelopmentAsia11
leviesonlheuseofnonrenevable
energyandvirginmalerials,and
feesandchargeson¡racliceslhal
¡ollulelheenvironmenlorvasle
naluralresources,andlheycallfor
laxbreakson¡roduclionmelhodsor
consum¡lion¡allernslhal¡roduce
greenoulcomes.Òneexam¡leciledby
greengrovlhadvocalesislheIRC’s
subslilulionofaslandardroadlax
vilhafuellaxlhalencouragesenergy
efhciency.
Thekeyisamixofmarkelincenlives
andgovernmenlregulalion,ex¡erls
say.
“Wilhoulaslrongandcredible
com¡lianceenforcemenlsyslem,no
incenlivesframevorkvilldeliver
behavioralchangesnecessarylo
achievegreengrovlh,”saysADß’s
Ahmad.“Iorexam¡le,ex¡eriences
inforeslmanagemenlshovlhala
moraloriumonloggingbackedu¡by
incenlivesforsuslainablemanagemenl
and¡roleclioncanvorkbellerlhan
eilhera¡¡roachonilsovn.”
TheAsianLnvironmenlal
Com¡lianceandLnforcemenl
Nelvork,formedin2OO5,hasalloved
environmenlal agency ofhcials from
aroundlheregionlocom¡arenolesas
lheyallem¡lloenforceregulalionsand
im¡roveenvironmenlalcom¡liance.
Anolherchangelhalvouldfacililale
grealeracce¡lanceoflhegreengrovlh
¡hiloso¡hyisaneva¡¡roachlo
measuringeconomic¡erformance,
someex¡erlssay.Theconlenlionislhal
GDIneedslobead|usledloaccounl
forsuchfaclorsasresourcede¡lelion
and¡ollulion.
UNLI’srecenlGreen Economy
Report noleslhal“ama|orchallengeis
reconcilinglhecom¡elingeconomic
develo¡menlas¡iralionsofrichand
¡oorcounlriesinavorldeconomylhal
isfacingincreasingclimalechange,
energyinsecurily,andecological
scarcily.”Ilconlendslhallhisis
¡ossiblelhroughagreeneconomy
lhaloffers“adevelo¡menl¡alhlhal
reducescarbonde¡endency,¡romoles
resource and energy efhciency, and
lessensenvironmenlaldegradalion.
Aseconomicgrovlhandinveslmenls
becomelessde¡endenlonliquidaling
environmenlal assels and sacrihcing
environmenlalqualily,bolhrich
and¡oorcounlriescanallainmore
suslainableeconomicdevelo¡menl.”
ßulforgingaconsensusbelveen
develo¡inganddevelo¡edcounlries
onlheseissuesmaybelhegrealesl
challengeofall,saysIndonesia’sSalim,
aneconomislandanenvironmenlalisl.
HeacknovledgeslhalIndonesia
can’lsuslainlhede¡lelionofnalural
resourcescausedbyilsminingand
¡lanlalion-basedeconomy.Ior
Indonesia,lhe¡alhloagreener
economyvouldmeanaddingvaluelo
ilsex¡orls,lransformingco¡¡er,¡alm
oil,andolherrav¡roduclsinlomore
valuable hnished goods. ßul, he says,
Indonesia’sefforlsinlhisregardare
beinglhvarledbylhecoslofforeign
lechnology,andlhehigherlariffslhal
Indonesia’svalue-added¡roducls
confronlvhenex¡orledlolheUSand
olherdevelo¡edcounlries.
“Thalisaninequilyinlhevaylhe
globalmarkelvorks,”hesays,an
inequilylhalisblockingIndonesia
frommovingfaslerlovardagreen
economyand¡reservingilsnalural
resources.“Wecan’lsolvelhis¡roblem
onourovn.”
Indonesiaandolherdevelo¡ing
counlriesfaceasimilardilemmavhen
confronledvilhoulside¡ressurelo
shiflfrom¡ollulingfossilfuelslo
renevableenergysources,hesays.
“Thelechnologyforrenevable
energyisex¡ensive,”hesays.“When
lhegovernmenlisconfronledvilh
lhechoice—foodforlhe¡ooror
lechnologyforrenevableenergy—il
villo¡lforfoodforlhe¡oor.”
Indeed,lhroughoullheregion¡olicy
makersfacelhedaunlingchallengeof
deliveringenvironmenlallysuslainable
develo¡menlvhilesalisfyinglhe
economicdemandsofra¡idly
groving¡o¡ulalions.Theacceleraling
migralionofruraldvellerslocilies
acrossAsia¡resenlslheregionvilh
un¡recedenledinfraslrucluredemands.
AsAsia’sciliessvellby44million
¡eo¡leeachyear,¡olicymakersare
facedvilhlheslaggering¡ros¡eclof
adding2O,OOOurbandvellings,25O
kilomelersofroads,and6millionlilers
of¡olablevalereachdaylomeellhe
soaringdemands.
Whileacknovledginglhe
daunlingchallengelhis¡resenls,
SHIFTING GEARS A commuter rides past
transmission towers in Beijing. Asia has
made solid progress in reducing poverty.
Yet, experts say the only way to achieve
Iong-term prosperity is to minimize the
impact on the environment by using less
energy and resources.
“The technology for
renewable energy
is expensive. When
the government is
confronted with the
choice—food for the
poor or technology for
renewable energy—it
will opt for food for the
poor”
-Em|| Sa||m, Indones|a's em|nent
env|ronmenta||st and susta|nab|e
deve|opment advocate
vvv.develo¡menl.asia 12DevelopmentAsia}anuary–March2O12
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,5=09654,5;!;/,)0.9,(+
ADß’sAhmadconlendsilisalso
a“grealo¡¡orlunilylodesign,
build,ando¡eraleinfraslruclureon
¡rinci¡lesofsuslainabilily,including
accessibilily, eco-efhciency, and social
inclusiveness.”
Com¡licalinglheenormoussocial
andeconomicdemandslhallhe
governmenls of Asia and lhe Iacihc
villconfronlinlhecomingdecades
arelhemounlingchallenges¡osed
byclimalechange.ADßisamong
lhoseadvocaling“ecosyslem-based
a¡¡roaches”loco¡evilhlheexlreme
effeclsofclimalechange.Ònesuch
exam¡leismakingaddilionalefforls
lo¡roleclmangrovesralherlhan
buildingseavallsasabufferagainsl
increasinglyviolenlslorms—efforls
lhalarenolonlycosl-effeclive,bulalso
¡reservevilalecosyslemsandgenerale
olher economic and social benehls.
The¡olilicalvillofgovernmenls
villbefurlherlesledaslhe
lransformalionloagreenereconomy
unfolds.Asmanyas5Omilliongreen
|obscouldbeinAsiaby2O25,lhe
InlernalionalLabourÒrganizalion
eslimales,bulmillionsofolhersvillbe
loslaslhefossilfuelinduslryandolher
inefhcienl or lov-lechnology seclors
decline.Thisvillrequireinlerimefforls
locushionlheim¡acl.
Thelransilionloasuslainable
economyinlheregion¡romiseslobe
coslly,bulgreengrovlhadvocales
conlendlhaldelayorinaclionis
evenmoreex¡ensive.Lnvironmenlal
miligalioncoslsindevelo¡ing
counlriesvilllo¡$1OObillionby2O3O.
Asia and Iacihc alone faces annual
coslseslimaledal$4Obillionloada¡l
ilseconomieslolhedemandsof
environmenlalsuslainabilily—amounls
farbeyondlhemeansofgovernmenl
budgels.
Thekeyisusinglimiled¡ublicseclor
funds lo leverage far more signihcanl
amounlsof¡rivaleca¡ilalforgreen
inveslmenls.
Globalvenlureca¡ilalinveslmenls
incleanlechnologysoaredfrom$2.O
billionin2OO5lo$7.8billionin2O1O,
bulonlyaboul1O/oflhalamounlhas
foundilsvaylolheregion.
ADßhaslaunchedlheAsiaClimale
ChangeandCleanLnergyVenlure
Ca¡ilalInilialiveloincreaselhal
ralio.ADßaimslonurlurelherise
ofcleanlechnologycom¡aniesin
lheregion’sdevelo¡ingcounlries
bysu¡¡lemenlinglheinveslmenls
ofvenlureca¡ilalfundsvilh
equilyinfusions.Thelong-lerm
goalisloslimulalelhemovemenl
ofvenlureca¡ilallovardclimale
changemiligalionandcleanenergy
inveslmenlsinlheregion.
“Lnergy,urbandevelo¡menl,
lrans¡orl,infraslruclure,valer,
vasles,|andjbiodiversilyareall
inlerconnecled,”saysNayHlun,lhe
former UN ofhcial. ¨The ¡alhvay
lovardgreeningisaninlegraled
andmulliseclor,mullidisci¡linary
a¡¡roach.Thema|orchallenge
ishovloinlegrale.Whalarelhe
¡olicies,economicincenlives,
hnancial mechanisms, normalive
measures,lechnology`Asia’s
challenge,asinolhercounlries,vill
belheim¡eralivebehavioralchange
lovardadevelo¡menlal¡aradigmof
suslainabilily,resilience,inclusiveness,
and equilable benehls for all.¨
GREENING THE GLOBAL ECONOMY
Òn2O–22}une2O12,vorldleaders,
develo¡menlex¡erls,environmenlal
advocales,andolherslakeholders
villgalherinRiode}aneiroforlhe
¡ivolalUniledNalionsConference
onSuslainableDevelo¡menl.Rio+2O,
aslheconferencehasbeendubbed,
villmarklhe2Olhanniversaryoflhe
hisloricUniledNalionsConferenceon
LnvironmenlandDevelo¡menlinRio,
vhichselinmolionlheglobaldrive
forsuslainabledevelo¡menl.Ilvill
alsocoincidevilhlhe1Olhanniversary
oflheWorldSummilonSuslainable
Develo¡menl,vhichreinvigoraledlhe
movemenl.
Theconferencehaslhreeslaled
ob|eclives:losecurereneved
¡olilicalcommilmenllosuslainable
develo¡menl,assesslhe¡rogress
andim¡lemenlalionga¡sin¡revious
agreemenls,andaddressnevand
emergingchallenges.ßullhelheme
BRIDGE OVER TROUBLED WATER
Buddhist monks build a bridge above
hoodwaters in Bangkok in November
2011. A recent report by the Asian
Development Bank calls climate
change “the most dramatic symptom of
unsustainable development.”
vvv.develo¡menl.asia }anuary–March2O12Development Asia13
lhalvilldominalelheRiosessionsis
lheurgenldrivelorebalance¡overly
eradicalionandeconomicdevelo¡menl
efforlsinanincreasinglyfragileglobal
environmenl,ex¡erlsandadvocales
say.
Across Asia and lhe Iacihc, green
grovlhandlheRioconferenceare
lo¡icsofinlensediscussionslhese
days.InearlyÒclober,aboul1OO
high-level governmenl ofhcials
andex¡erlsfromaroundlhevorld
convenedinNevDelhi,India,for
adialogueon“GreenLconomyand
InclusiveGrovlh.”Themeeling,
organizedbylheGovernmenlofIndia
andlheRio+2OSecrelarial,foslered
adiscussiononhovgreeneconomy
inilialivescanadvance¡overly
eradicalionandsocialdevelo¡menl
efforlsbyenhancingfoodandenergy
securilyforlhe¡oor.Lalerlhalmonlh,
lheRe¡ublicofKoreahosledlheAsia–
Iacihc Regional Ire¡aralory Meeling
forRio+2O,co-organizedbylheUN
LconomicandSocialCommissionfor
Asia and lhe Iacihc, UNLI, and ADß.
Themeelingsveresomelhingofa
dressrehearsalforlheRioconference,
as¡arlici¡anlsallem¡ledloreacha
consensusoncrilicalcom¡onenlsof
greendevelo¡menl.
WhilelhenalionsofAsiaandlhe
Iacihc are making greal efforls lo
comelogelherands¡eakasonevoice
alRio,aglobalconsensus¡romiseslo
be much more difhcull. The agenda
forsuslainabledevelo¡menland
greengrovlhhasbeenfragmenled
bya¡roliferalionofenvironmenlal
lrealiesoverlhe¡asl2decades.The
Rioconferenceoffersano¡¡orlunily
lobringaboulamorecohesiveefforl
lohel¡greendevelo¡menlcomelo
fruilion.
“Alloflhegovernmenls
¡arlici¡alinginlheRio+2Oconference
villhaveahislorico¡¡orlunilylo
¡romoleagreeneconomyasavehicle
forachievingsuslainabledevelo¡menl
and¡overlyeradicalion,”sayslhe
UN’sSleiner.Heisho¡efullhallhe
exam¡leoflheIRC,}a¡an,andlhe
Re¡ublicofKoreacominglogelher
locrealealrilaleral¡arlnershi¡lo
achievelov-carbongrovlhacross
lheregionvillsellhelone.“These
inilialivesaresellinglheslageforlhe
ly¡eofcoo¡eralionveex¡eclloseeon
aglobalscaleallheRio+2OSummil,”
hesays.“Inaddilion,veex¡ecllhe
¡rivaleseclorandnongovernmenl
organizalionsinlheregionlobe
increasinglyvocal¡arlici¡anlsinlhe
¡rocess.”
ßulo¡inionsaredividedaslo
vhelherlhedifferencesbelveen
develo¡inganddevelo¡ednalionsand
olher ga¡s can be sufhcienlly bridged
lo¡roduceameaningful¡olilical
slalemenlonhovlheglobaldrivefor
greendevelo¡menlvill¡roceed.
“Ma|orconferenceslikeRio+2O
raiseconsiderableavarenessamong
¡olilicalleadersonlheissuesbeing
addressed,”saysNayHlun.“This
isalvaysanim¡orlanlsle¡leading
lo aclions, including in Asia÷Iacihc.
TheLarlhSummilalRio2Oyears
agoraisedavarenessandconsensus
onsuslainabledevelo¡menl.Iam
ho¡efullhalbuildingu¡onlhis
consensus,Rio+2Ovilllakesuslainable
develo¡menllolhecom¡rehensive
¡aradigmofgreeningandlhelinkage
vilh¡overlyeradicalion.”
ßulIndonesia’sSalimisske¡lical
lhallheconferencevill¡roducea
dramalicsle¡forvardinlheslruggle
loachieveglobalgreengrovlh.He
noleslhallheUSvillbefacinga
¡residenlialeleclioninNovember2O12,
andseeslillle¡ros¡ecllhallhecounlry
villriskaboldinilialivelhalmighl
alienalevolers.WilhoulUSleadershi¡,
Luro¡eisunlikelylosu¡¡orlbold
sle¡s,hesays.
“Lx¡eclbeaulifuls¡eeches,”he
says,“bulIdon’llhinklherevillbe
meaningful¡rogress.”
Sleinerismoreho¡eful.
“ßyallaccounls,vearealready
movinglovardagreeneconomy,”
hesays.“Theeconomicim¡eralive
lo achieve grealer resource efhciency
anddevelo¡nevlechnologies
demandslhalvemuslalsoconsider
lheenvironmenlalandsocialas¡ecls
oflhisdevelo¡menl.TheRio+2O
summilvillbeano¡¡orlunilyloguide
lhisdevelo¡menlandloaccelerale
andscale-u¡ilsim¡lemenlalion.If
governmenlsfaillocrealelheenabling
framevorksneededforaglobal
lransilionloagreeneconomy,lheyrisk
losing oul on lhe many benehls lhal
couldresullfrommulualcollaboralion.
Also,inlhelonglerm,counlrieslhal
arealreadysellinglhe¡aceinlhisarea
villhaveanadvanlage—fromcrealing
grealer efhciencies by u¡grading lheir
buildingsandinduslrieslogeneraling
hugecoslsavingsbylea¡frogging
develo¡edcounlries.”
“Rio+2Ocanbe|uslanolherdalein
lhecalendar,”Sleinerconcludes,“or
ano¡¡orlunilyloevolvesuslainable
develo¡menllomeellhe¡ersislenland
emergingchallengesoflhe21slcenlury
vhileharveslinglheo¡¡orluniliesfora
fundamenlallyfresh,focused,andfair
fulureforcloselo7billion¡eo¡le.”Q
HARNESSING SOLAR POWER The
largest solar photovoltaic power plant
in Asia lies on the plains of Lopburi,
Thailand.
vvv.develo¡menl.asia
;/,)0.70*;<9,
14DevelopmentAsia}anuary–March2O12
Atmospheric Efforts
Already among the top threats to health, outdoor air pollution is a concern in cities
across developing Asia. Though the situation is improving in many areas, challenges remain
as populations shift to urban centers and growing economies produce more vehicles and industry.
C
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Air quality indicators
Selected indicators; annual ambient levels in selected Asian cities, averaged, in micrograms per cubic meter.
Particulate matter (PM
10
a
)
Associated with lung cancer, cardiopulmo-
nary disease; “Estimated to cause about 9%
of lung cancer deaths, 5% of cardiopulmo-
nary deaths and 1% of respiratory infection
deaths,” according to the World Health
Organization.
Nitrogen dioxide (NO
2
)
Long-term exposure may impair lung
function and increase the risk of respiratory
symptoms, including persistent cough in
children, and exacerbate asthma.
Sulfur dioxide (SO
2
)
Can affect lungs and eyes. Evidence of
links to child respiratory disease and
cardiac diseases, and increased mortality
rate. Primary cause of acid rain.
0
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14 14
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49
67
Deaths Due to Outdoor Air Pollution
Per 100,000 population; 2008 data.
Listed as having a rate of less
than 1 per 100,000: Bhutan,
Cook Islands, Kiribati, Mauritius,
FSM, Nauru, Niue, Palau,
Samoa, Solomon Islands,
Timor-Leste, and Tuvalu
RESEARCH AND DESIGN: MARK BLACKWELL
a
PM
10
= particulate matter of less than 10 microns in diameter
Note: FSM = Federated States of Micronesia, GDP = gross domestic product, Lao PDR = Lao People’s Democratic Republic, PRC = People’s Republic of China.
vvv.develo¡menl.asia }anuary–March2O12DevelopmentAsia15
Sources: World Health Organization (WHO).Global Health Observatory Data Repository. http://apps.who.int/ghodata (accessed 28 November 2001); Clean Air Initiative for Asian Cities (CAI-Asia) Center, 2010. Air
Quality in Asia: Status and Trends, 2010 Edition. Pasig City, Philippines; WHO. http://www.who.int/gho/phe/outdoor_air_pollution/en/ (accessed 28 Novermber 2011); WHO. Health Aspects of Air Pollution with
Particulate Matter, Ozone and Nitrogen Dioxide. Report on a WHO Working Group Bonn, Germany, 13–15 January 2003. www.euro.who.int/__data/assets/pdf__le/0005/112199/E79097.pdf (accessed 28 November
2011); WHO. Air Quality Guidelines for Particulate Matter, Ozone, Nitrogen Dioxide and Sulfur Dioxide, Global Update 2005. Summary of Risk Assessment.
http://whqlibdoc.who.int/hq/2006/WHO_SDE_PHE_OEH_06.02_eng.pdf (accessed 28 November 2011); WHO. Air Quality and Health. www.who.int/mediacentre/factsheets/fs313/en/ (accessed 28 November 2011);
HEI International Scientific Oversight Committee. 2010. Outdoor Air Pollution and Health in the Developing Countries of Asia: A Comprehensive Review. Special Report 18. Health Effects Institute, Boston, MA.
1990
0
50
100
150
200
250
1995 2000 2005
Change in urban particulate matter
concentration, by subregion
Cleaner fuels, growing energy efficiency, and falling emissions
have been credited with much of the decline in urban PM
10

concentrations.
OtherSoutheastAs|a
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Ind|a
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Ambient PM
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micrograms per cubic meter
1
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7
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6
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–20%
–32%
1993
–60
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–20
0
20
40
60
80
100
120
140
1995 1997 1999 2001 2003 2005
Percent Change in Concentration of pollutants
and of economic indicators in Asia
GDP
SO
2
PM
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E|ectr|c|tyconsumpt|on
E|ectr|c|tygenerat|on
Growing economy and air pollution
Improvements in concentration of some pollutants despite
economic growth and rises in energy use have been attributed
to direct efforts to manage air quality.
0
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–90
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120
150

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Percent change from 1990 to 2000 in SO
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SO
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emissions per GDP in 1995 US$
16DevelopmentAsia}anuary–March2O12 vvv.develo¡menl.asia
I
I
C
T
U
R
L

C
R
L
D
I
T
:
A
I
I
,5=09654,5;!;/,)0.=60*,
Natural Capitalist
Aninf|uentia|thinkerontheenvironmentexp|ainswhythep|anetcannotcopewithinfiniteeconomic
growth,andwhyBhutan’sgrossnationa|happinessindexisno[oke
ßY}ohnÒlis
A
shokKhoslaisoneoflhe
vorld’sleadingex¡erls
onlheenvironmenl
andsuslainable
develo¡menl.Heisalsoa¡ioneer.
Inlhe196Os,Khoslavas¡arlofa
leamlhaldesignedandlaughllhe
hrsl undergraduale course on lhe
environmenlalHarvardUniversily.
ÒneofhissludenlsvasAlGore.
ßorninIndiain194O,Khoslahas
|um¡edfromacademialogovernmenl
lobusinesslocivilsociely,alllhe
vhile¡ursuingagreenagenda.Afler
s¡ending22yearssludyingand
leachingoverseas,herelurnedlohis
counlryvherehebecamelhefounding
direcloroflheGovernmenlofIndia’s
Òfhce of Lnvironmenlal Ilanning and
Coordinalion, lhe hrsl such agency in a
develo¡ingcounlry.
Asoneoflhedireclorsoflhe
UniledNalionsLnvironmenl
Irogram(UNLI),Khosladesigned
andlaunchedInfolerra,lheglobal
environmenlalinformalionexchange.
In1982,helefllheUniledNalions
lofoundDevelo¡menlAllernalives,
aDelhi-basednongovernmenl
organizaliondevoledlo¡romoling
commerciallyviable,environmenlally
friendlylechnologies.In2OO2,he
vasavardedlhe¡resligiousUNLI
SasakavaLnvironmenlIrize.The
seleclioncommilleesaidKhosla’svork
“hashadalargeri¡¡leeffeclnolonly
inIndiabularoundlhevorld.”
Khoslaiscurrenlly¡residenloflhe
InlernalionalUnionforConservalion
ofNalure,anallianceofconservalion
agencies lhal focuses on hnding
vorkablesolulionslolhevorld’smosl
¡ressingenvironmenlal¡roblems.
Hes¡okevilhDevelopment Asia
corres¡ondenl}ohnÒlisaboullhe
challengesofsuslainabledevelo¡menl,
lhelooming¡ossibililyofaresource
crisisinAsia,andlhemisconce¡lions
surroundinglhelermgreengrovlh.
DA: How did you become an
environmentalist?
AK:Isavalolof¡overlyandmisery
asarefugeeandIlhoughllhalil
shouldn’lhavelobelikelhal.Ibecame
delerminedlolearneverylhingIcould
lhalvouldhel¡meconlribuleloa
bellerIndia.Whilemanysludenls
and¡rofessionalsvereemigraling
ouloflhecounlry,IknevIvas
comingbackloIndiaandIvanledlo
be¡re¡ared.AlHarvard,Ivorked
vilhRogerRevelle,agianlinlhe
realmofsciencevhosevorkledlo
lhediscoveryofclimalechange.This
vasvaybackinlhe196Osvhenlhe
environmenlmovemenlvasfocused
onchemical¡ollulion,famine,and
¡o¡ulaliongrovlhandlhalvasaboul
il.Inlhemid196Os,becauseoflhe
vorkofRachelCarsonandolhers,
concernsalsobeganlogrovaboul
conlaminalionofourfoodchain,or
acidrain.Webecameins¡iredby
havingloreacllolhisone-sidedviev.
Wecamelolheconclusionveryearly
inlhegamelhalenvironmenlalismvas
meaninglessunlessilvascombined
vilhlheissuesofsocielyandhuman
develo¡menl.
DA: What’s your view of Asia’s
unprecedented economic growth?
AK:Òne¡roblemislhalgross
domeslic¡roducl(GDI)grovlhhas
becomeasacrosanclgoalinilsovn
righl.TheIndiangovernmenllalks
aboulGDIgrovlhasifil’slheonly
lhinglhalcounls.SodoeslheIeo¡le’s
Re¡ublicofChina(IRC).Sodoeslhe
}anuary–March2O12Development Asia17 vvv.develo¡menl.asia
UniledSlales.Sodoeseverybody.ßul
conlinuedex¡onenlialgrovlhlhal
de¡endsonlheuseofmoreandmore
malerials from a hnile resource base
villhiladeadendsoonerorlaler.Asia
slarledoulasakindofvorksho¡for
induslrializedcounlries.NovAsia
isbecominginduslrializedinilsovn
righl.ßulil’sha¡¡eningmainlyby
co¡ycallingWeslernandNorlhern
modelslhalhaven’lvorkedandfrom
vhich¡eo¡learenovlryinglosave
lhemselves.Thesemodelsarelolally
ina¡¡ro¡rialeinlermsofresource
managemenl,energy,andvaleruse,
andlhelrealmenlofhumanbeingsand
nalure.Solhevord“grovlh”carries
aconnolalionvhichIlhinkisvery
unheallhy:lhalil’sadesirableaimlo
kee¡ongroving.Ilisnol,unlessone
visheslobelikeacancer.
DA: But economic growth has also
helped legions of Asians move up in the
world.
AK:Yes,halfabillion¡eo¡lehavebeen
¡ulledoulof¡overly.ßullellmehov
many¡eo¡lehavebeenleflbehindin
¡overly.Andlhal’salargernumber.
Wehaveacluallydeslroyedfarmore
|naluralca¡ilaljlhanvehavecrealed.
ThisislrueinlheIRCandIndiaand
ilisnovbeginningloha¡¡enallover
SoulheaslAsialoo.Indiahaslosllarge
lraclsofilsforeslsandvellands.The
IRChasneglecledilsresourcebase
lolheexlenllhalilsriversaredrying
u¡,ilssoilsaredegrading,andvasl
areasmusl,forexam¡le,dealvilhdusl
slorms.
DA: Are Asian nations discussing the
limitations of growth?
AK:MahalmaGandhiraisedmany
oflhesesamequeslions1OOyearsago
andlheyareallcomingbackinlolhe
mainslreamdiscussionloday.Many
civilsocielyorganizalionsandsome
academicsqueslionlhevaylhings
aregoing.Thereisagrovingbodyof
forvard-lhinking¡olilicalleadershi¡.
IseelhalinlheRe¡ublicofKorea,
“The word ‘growth’
carries a connotation
which I think is very
unhealthy: that it’s a
desirable aim to keep
on growing. It is not,
unless one wishes to
be like a cancer”
-Ashok Khos|a
inßhulan,andeveninIndiavhere
ve’vehadsomehighlydedicaled
governmenlminislers.ßullheyhave
gainedverylilllesuslainedlraclion.
Mosl¡olilicalleadersandca¡lains
ofinduslrydon’lhaveanyqueslions
regardinglhenegaliveas¡eclsof
grovlhalall.Zero.Nada.Zi¡.Il’s
nol|usllheAsiangovernmenls.
Moslifnolallgovernmenlsarelike
lhis.Theyre¡resenllheinlereslsof
lhe¡eo¡levhogellhemelecled.
Andlhose¡eo¡learelherich,lhe
induslrialisls,andlhebusiness¡eo¡le.
Thesearevesledinleresls,¡eo¡le
vilhlheirsnoulsinlhelroughvho
aregellingagrealdealouloflhe
¡resenlsyslem.Theyhavelhe¡over,
money,conneclions,andabililyloslo¡
anylhingfromchanging.
DA: Do you see any major businesses
moving toward greener practices?
AK:Youlellme.Whoareyoulalking
aboul`Tellmevhichminingcom¡any
hasim¡rovedils¡erformancevis-à-vis
¡eo¡leornalure`Theremuslsurelybe
somecom¡anies.ßulI’dralheryoulell
mevholheyarebecausenonecomes
lolhelo¡ofmymindveryeasily.
DA: Yet there is a strong economic
argument in favor of a more sustainable
model.
AK:Lilerally,lrillionsofdollarsin
naluralca¡ilalsuchasforesls,soil,
valersourcesinlheformofglaciers,
rivers,andgroundvalerarebeing
“mined”vilhoulre¡lacemenland
lhereforelosleveryyear.Thisisso
obviouslhalnoonecandenyil.ßul
lhe¡eo¡levhoreallyunderslandlhis
arenolinmainslreameconomics,and
lherearenolenoughoflhemlomakea
difference.Asforlhecoslsofreform,if
youchangelhe¡allernsof¡roduclion
andconsum¡lionrighlnov,ilvillcosl
muchless.Ifaclionisdelayedandis
forcedu¡onus,ilvillcomealamuch
highercosl.
DA: Could Asia change its tax policies to
foment a green agenda?
AK:Ifyouvanllodiscouragebad
lhings—likeresourceconsum¡lion,
vasle crealion, and inefhciency÷you
shouldbelaxinglhoselhings.Andyou
shouldsubsidizelhegoodlhings,like
em¡loymenlandlhecrealionof|obs.
ßuloverlhelasl7Oor8Oyears,syslems
havebeendesignedlolaxlhegood
lhings,suchasincome,andencourage
lhebadlhings,suchasresource
exlraclionandvaslefuluseofenergy.
Thalmakesnosensevhalsoever.
Wehavegollohaveafundamenlal
relhinkingofourlaxslruclure.ßul
Idon’lseemanygovernmenlsor
eveneconomisls¡ro¡osingchanges.
Andonceyougellockedinlolhese
laxsyslems,youcan’lgeloulof
lhembecauselargebureaucracies
andgovernmenlagenciesacquirea
¡ermanenllifeoflheirovn.
DA: Do you see Asia heading toward an
environmental catastrophe?
AK:Theshorlansveris“yes.”Sim¡le
com¡ulermodelshavealreadyshovn
lhis.Sodidlhe1972bookThe Limits
to Growth. Thingsareunfoldingeven
faslerlhanlhebook¡redicled—lhal
vilhin1OOyearsfromils¡ublicalion
in1972,vearerunninginloasilualion
ofovershoolandcolla¡se.Thevorld’s
¡o¡ulalionandeconomyincrease,
fooddemandconlinueslogrov,and
agriculluralandinduslrial¡roduclion
kee¡ongoing.ßullheresourcebase
18DevelopmentAsia}anuary–March2O12 vvv.develo¡menl.asia
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2/6:3(!;/,)0.=60*,
andlhesyslemslhalabsorbourvasles
arebreakingdovn.Today,lheArclic
iceismellingalara¡idraleandcould
begonein3Oyears,somelhinglhal
hasn’lha¡¡enedinlensoflhousands
ofyears.Il’sdramalic.Wearevay
aheadofschedule.The Limits to Growth
vaslalkingonlyaboul1OOyears.
Already,vilhin4Oyears,veseealllhe
signsofovershoolandcolla¡se.
DA: Will it be overshoot and collapse that
ñnaIIy bring about deep-seated changes
in the region?
AK:Òurgovernmenlsmaygradually
slarlloreaclalilllebulreformisnol
likelylocomefromvilhin,ilislikely
lobeavailinggameforavhileunlil
lhe sea levels rise signihcanlly, lhe hsh
aregone,lhereisnovalerlodrink,
andhungry¡eo¡leareriolinginlhe
slreelsforreasonably¡ricedfood.This
couldbeinanolher1Oyears,maybe
2O,vhichisnollong—duringour
lifelimes.Thefundamenlal¡remiseof
moderndevelo¡menlislhallheliving
slandardsofeverygeneralionshould
bebellerlhanlhoseofearlierones.
Hovarelhegovernmenls,com¡anies,
inlernalionaldevelo¡menlagencies
goingloex¡lainlhecircumslances
lhalleadloara¡id,lhoughavoidable,
delerioralioninlhelivesofour
children`Verysoonchangevillbe
forcedu¡ongovernmenls,businesses,
andagenciesby¡ublico¡inionor
inlernalionallrealies—orma|orevenls
suchasHurricaneKalrinaorlhe
IukushimaTsunami.
DA: What’s been the impact of
international climate treaties?
AK: They force governmenl ofhcials
lorecognizeenvironmenlalissues.ßul
governmenlscanre¡ackagelhemin
differenlvaysandconlinuelodovhal
lheyaredoing.Solhelrealiesarenol
alvayslendinglocorrecloulcomes.
Induslrializedcounlriesare¡layinga
verynegaliverolebecauselheyvanl
lo¡almofflhecoslsoflhingslhey’ve
beendoingforlhe¡asl2OOyearsonlo
¡oorcounlries.Climalechange,lhe
lossofs¡ecies,andlhedeslruclionof
habilalshavenolbeencausedby¡oor
counlries.Andyelininlernalional
negolialions,lherichcounlries
cynicallyvanllhe¡oorcounlrieslo
lakeres¡onsibililyfordoingsomelhing
aboulilvilhoullhemselvesmaking
anycommilmenlalall.
DA: What about the concept of green
growth as an alternative path forward?
AK:Greengrovlhdoesnolsim¡ly
meanmaking¡over¡lanlsmore
efhcienl or ¡lanling more lrees. Il is
aboulmakingfundamenlalchanges
inourconsum¡lion¡allernsand
our¡roduclionsyslems.Those
vhoarecurrenllyin¡osilionsof
¡rivilegeunforlunalelyseegreen
grovlhasameansloconlinuelheir
¡redalory¡allernsofex¡loilinglhe
earlh’sresourcesandvaslinglarge
amounlsoflhesevhile¡roselylizing
loolherslhallheymuslbehavemore
res¡onsiblyvis-à-vislheenvironmenl.
Ier¡elual,lo¡sided,resource-guzzling
grovlh cannol be suslained on a hnile
¡lanelorinafairand|uslvorld.
Greengrovlhisaboulanequilable
boolslra¡¡ingoflheeconomysolhal
everyone benehls from il. Il means an
environmenlallyandeconomically
soundvayofcrealingeconomic
o¡¡orluniliesvhereeveryonecan
havea|ob,andadecenllife,andcan
sendlheirkidsloschool.ßullhal’s
nolvhal’sha¡¡eninginanyoflhese
¡laces.
DA: Why not?
AK:There’slhisidealhalgreengrovlh
isahardlhinglodo.Mosl¡eo¡le
¡erceive il as sacrihcing lhings ve
aresu¡¡osedlovalueforlhegood
oflhe¡lanel,likesvilchingfrom
comforlablefossilfuelslolessfamiliar
andrenevableenergieslikevindand
solar.ßulIdon’llhinklhal’sagood
vaylo¡ursuegreengrovlh.Green
grovlhshouldbesomelhinglhal’s
agreal¡rivilegelohave.Wehavelo
lransformlhelhinkingof¡eo¡leand
inslilulionssolhallheyvaluelhings
lhalaregoodforlheminlheirovn
righl. If you could redehne lhe lerm lo
besomelhing¡osilive,lhalinvolves
changesinconsum¡lion¡allernsand
¡roduclionsyslemslomakehumanlife
more inleresling, more fulhlling, and
ha¡¡ier,lhenlhelermgreengrovlh
vouldbeokay.ßullheconce¡lof
greengrovlhalsohaslobelem¡ered
vilhlheunderslandinglhalyou
can'l kee¡ groving forever on a hnile
resourcebase.Soonerorlaler,lhevord
“grovlh”villlri¡overilself.
DA: Aren’t there some spots on the map
where green growth is catching on?
AK:Inßhulanlheyare¡ursuing
suslainabledevelo¡menlvilhgreal
dedicalionandlhe¡eo¡lehave
vholehearledlyado¡ledlheideaof
grossnalionalha¡¡inessasasocielal
goalfarsu¡eriorloGDI.Theydon’l
see il as a sacrihce. They see il as a
greal¡rivilegeandlhebeslvaylolive.
IromlheKingandlheIrimeMinisler
ondovnlolhelillleschoolchildren,
lheyarebasicallyvillinglosay:“No,
HAPPY PEOPLE Bhutanese students
cross a long bridge on their way to
school. The King of Bhutan has made it
a national priority to raise gross national
happiness, which he considers a better
measure of prosperity than gross
domestic product (GDP).
}anuary–March2O12Development Asia19 vvv.develo¡menl.asia
lhankyou,vedon’lvanllhekindof
life‘modern’socielieshavebecome
addicledlo.Weareinleresledinhaving
afulllifevilhclean,heallhyfoodand
goodeducalion.”Andlheymadelheir
commilmenls.Thaldoesn’lmeanevery
ßhulanesehasmadelhalcommilmenl,
bulaverylargema|orilyhas.
DA: Is Bhutan’s experiment with gross
national happiness having much impact
elsewhere in Asia?
AK:Whalislhe¡ur¡oseoflife`The
UniledSlalesConslilulionbegins
vilh:“The¡ursuilofha¡¡iness”as
beingnexlloonlylifeandliberly.
Soeven25Oyearsago,¡eo¡levere
lalkingaboulil.Whal’smore,lhe
shorlcomingsofmeasuring¡rogress
lhroughGDIarehorrendous.Ildoes
nolincludelhevorkofnearlyhalflhe
¡o¡ulalion—housevives—orlheloss
ofenvironmenlalasselssuchasforesls
orsoils,orlhebreakdovnofsocial
ca¡ilalsuchasfamilyandcommunily.
Andlhalisonlylhebeginningofa
vholelilanyofshorlcomingsoflhis
so-called“measure”ofsocielal
¡rogress.Who,olherlhanan
economisl,vouldconsiderlhisa
meaningfulvaylogaugelheheallh
of a sociely` GDI is such a ßaved
inslrumenllhalilacluallyincludes
lhecullingdovnoflrees—vhichis
lhedeslruclionofnaluralca¡ilal—as
¡osiliveincome.Il’ssucharidiculously
badmeasuremenl,yelGDIisacce¡led
bylheex¡erlsvhorunourvorld
asbeinglheonlyvaylodescribe
¡rogress.Ònlheolherhand,ifyoulell
lhemaboulgrossnalionalha¡¡iness,
lheyvilllaugh.Slill,lheseare
conce¡lsvhich,likeolhers,havelheir
li¡¡ing¡oinls.ÒnceGDIbecomes
dysfunclionalanddisre¡ulable,¡eo¡le
villslarllookingforsomelhingelselo
describe¡rogress.Somevorkonlhis
hasalreadyslarled,suchaslhe|Uniled
NalionsDevelo¡menlIrogramme’sj
HumanDevelo¡menlIndex.
DA: Do you expect any concrete
progress to come out of the 2012 Rio
Summit?
AK: The hrsl global environmenlal
conferencevasin1972inSlockholm.
Tvenlyyearslalervehadlhe
RioLarlhSummil,lhencame
}ohannesburg,andnovanolherone
inRio.Inbelveenve’vehadlhe
MillenniumDevelo¡menlGoals.Yel
lhevorldisn’lbelleroff.Idon’lvanl
losoundlikeaone-slringguilar,bul
lhevesledinlereslsarelheroolof
lhe¡roblem.The¡eo¡levhocalllhe
sholsarenolreallyveryvorriedaboul
vhalha¡¡enslolhereslofus—nov
orinlhefulure.ßullhoughnolhing
muchhasha¡¡ened,eachoneofus
kee¡ssaying:“Ifvedon’llrynov
lhenilvillgelevenvorse.”Soveall
gololhesesummilsandvealllrylo
dosomelhing.Andmoslofuskee¡
ho¡inglhalmaybesomelhingvill
comeoulofil.
DA: What other developments give you
optimism?
AK:Ònecanbeo¡limisliclhalafler
afevencounlersvilhcalaslro¡he
¡eo¡levillrealizelhallhingshave
lochange.Ialsolhinklhaliflhereis
ho¡eforlhefulureilisbecauseofcivil
sociely,vhichhaslhediversilyand
lheangerandlhevill¡overlolrylo
slo¡lheinexorabledrivevilhafool
¡ressinglheacceleralor¡edallovard
lhecliff.
DA: What role can new technology play?
AK:Nalure-basedlechnological
innovalionscanhel¡savehumanily.
There’savhilebeellefromIndonesia
fromvhichvecanlearnaboulhov
lomakeacemenlsubslilulevilhoul
havinglouseanyenergyorhigh
lem¡eralures.S¡idersilkisslronger
lhanlilanium¡erunilofveighland
couldbeusedonlhingsnormally
madevilhaluminum,lilanium,or
sleel.Theselechnologiescouldhave
lheirrenaissanceinAsiabecauselhey
hl some of lhe ¡hiloso¡hies of lhis
region.Theyalso¡rovideAsiavilh
ano¡¡orlunilybecausevehaven’l
yelmadealllhoseinveslmenlsin
lradilionalinfraslruclure.Iorexam¡le,
vedon’lhavealllheroadslhal
¡reordainlhecarasamainmodeof
lrans¡orl.Whynollryolhervays,like
airshi¡s`
DA: What is Asia’s potential role in
setting a greener agenda?
AK:Asiaisina¡osilionlo¡laya
ma|orleadershi¡roleinlhenev
lhinkinglhalisrequiredlomakelhe
vorldabeller¡lace.Ilcanselareal
exam¡lebysellingnevkindsofsocial,
economic,and¡olilicalgoalslhalare
nolsim¡lyco¡ycalgoalsfromlheWesl
orlheNorlh,buloneslhalmakesense
loourlradilionsandcullures.The
civilizalionsofAsiaarequileancienl
andhavecenluries,ifnolmillennia,of
lhinkingaboulhovlolive¡eacefully
andinharmonyvilhnalure.ßulil
seemslomelheyhavelem¡orarily
forgollenmanyoflheselessons.Dee¡
dovnlheselessonsshouldslillbe
availablelolhem.Andiflheyaccess
lhemsoon,lheycouldbringaboul
signihcanl changes lhal vould be a
modelforlheresloflhevorld.Ifnol,
veareinreallrouble.Q
GLOBAL WARNING An activist dresses
as a penguin at a demonstration held
during an international climate change
conference in Indonesia. Khosla sees
civil society playing a major role in
convincing governments to address
climate change issues.
vvv.develo¡menl.asia 2ODevelopmentAsia}anuary–March2O12
,5=09654,5;
L
nvironmenlalaclivislsfor
yearshaveslressedlhe
im¡orlanceof¡reservinglhe
¡lanel’sbiologicaldiversily.
ßulinaregionlhalishomelolvo-
lhirdsoflhevorld’s¡oor,ilhas
¡roven ¡olilically difhcull for Asian
governmenlslolurnavaycor¡oralions
andlheircash-generaling¡ro¡osalsfor
ex¡loilingscarcenaluralresources.
Thedebalehasbeenlargelyone-
inlheregion’snaluralca¡ilal.
Lalely,hovever,conservalion-
minded¡olicymakersand
environmenlal aclivisls are hnding a
more level ¡laying held.
ChangesundervayinVielNam
illuslrale lhe nev dynamics. Afler
yearsofmangrovedeslruclionlo
make vay for shrim¡ farms and hsh
¡onds,lhegovernmenlinvesled
morelhan$1millionin¡lanlingand
sided.Cor¡oralionscouldlayoul
s¡readsheelsvilhrevenue¡ro|eclions
fora¡ro¡osed¡ro|ecl,vhile
conservalionislsslruggledloquanlify
lhe hnancial benehls of resource
¡roleclion. In lhe meanlime, in Asia
andaroundlheglobe,legalandillegal
commercialinlereslsculforeslsand
mangroves,minedlhelandsca¡e,and
harvesledrare¡lanlsandanimals—
sellinginmoliona¡reci¡ilousdecline
Greenback Growth
Thedividebetweenenvironmenta|istsandpo|icymakersoftenremainswide,
butbridgesarebeingbui|t
ßYGregg}ones
vvv.develo¡menl.asia }anuary–March2O12Development Asia21
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¡roleclingnearly12,OOOheclaresof
lhevilalcoaslallrees.Therelurnonils
inveslmenlhasbeenim¡ressive:The
Soulheasl Asian nalion is nov seeing
annualsavingsofmorelhan$7million
indikemainlenance,arelurnlhal
cor¡oralionsaroundlhevorldmighl
envy.
Thelossofbiodiversily—lhelolalily
oflhe¡lanel’slivingorganismsandlhe
ecologicalcom¡lexeslheyinhabil—is
novrecognizedas¡erha¡slhe¡lanel’s
¡reeminenllhreal.
Asia and lhe Iacihc is home lo many
oflheearlh’sricheslecosyslems,says
Nessim Ahmad, direclor of Asian
Develo¡menlßank’sLnvironmenl
and Safeguards Division. Around 6O/
oflhevorld’s¡lanlsandanimalsare
found here, along vilh aboul 5O/
oflhe¡lanel’sremainingcoralreefs
and 17/ of ils vellands. Irolecling
lheseresourcesisnol|uslamallerof
environmenlalslevardshi¡,ilisalso
abouleconomicgrovlh.Lcosyslem
servicesarevorlh1O–1OOlimeslhecosl
of¡roleclinglhem.
Achim Sleiner, a Uniled Nalions
under-secrelary-generalandexeculive
direcloroflheUniledNalions
Lnvironmenl Irogramme (UNLI),
cilesanexam¡lelhaliscrilicallo
lhe survival of millions of Asians:
coralreefs.Lvenaslhesevilal
lro¡icalecosyslemsaredegradedand
deslroyedalasoaringrale,lheirvalue
hasbeenoverlookedbynalional¡olicy
makersandinlernalionaldevelo¡menl
inslilulions,hesays.
“Ifyoufaclorlhelruevalueofcoral
reefsinloeconomic¡lanning,ilislikely
lhalfarmoreralionalandsuslainable
choicesvouldbemadeinlermsof
develo¡menl,emissionsand¡ollulion
conlrol,andresourcemanagemenl,”
Sleiner says al lhe launch of a year-long
celebralionofbiodiversilyin2O1O.“Il
isasimilarsloryinres¡eclloallof
lhe¡lanel’snalure-basedassels,from
foreslsandfreshvalerslomounlains
andsoils.”
Timeisrunningshorl,hevarns.
“Theurgencyoflhesilualion
demandslhalasaglobalcommunily
venolonlyreverselheraleofloss,
bullhalveslo¡lhelossallogelher
andbeginresloringlheecological
infraslruclurelhalhasbeendamaged
anddegradedoverlhe¡revious
cenluryorso.”
A crilical hrsl sle¡ in lhal direclion
hasbeenaUN-guidedinilialive
designedlocalculalelhevalueof
nalureandlhecoslofloslnalural
ca¡ilal. As a resull, in minislerial
buildingsandconferencecenlers
around Asia, lhe economics of
biodiversilyislhefocal¡oinlof
allenlion.
ECONOMIC VALUE OF BIODIVERSITY
Theefforlsloquanlifyandsave
globalbiodiversilyarebeing
drivenbylhe¡recariousslaleof
lhevorld’sdecliningecosyslems.
Annual biodiversily losses range
belveen$2.Olrillionand$4.5lrillion,
according lo lhe key hndings of an
inlernalionalinilialive,TheLconomics
of Lcosyslems and ßiodiversily (TLLß).
Òn lhe ßi¡ side of lhe equalion, an
annualinveslmenlof$45.Obillionin
globalconservalionefforlsvouldyield
$5.Olrillioninecosyslemsavings,lhe
sludyfound.
TheTLLßinilialivegrevoulofa
2OO7¡ro¡osalbylheenvironmenl
minislersoflheGrou¡ofLighlleading
induslrialized counlries and hve
ma|or develo¡ing counlries (ßrazil,
lheIeo¡le’sRe¡ublicofChina,
India, Mexico, and Soulh Africa) lo
CONVERSION COST India has created
a system of compensatory payments
for converting forest land to other use.
Payments go to improving the country’s
forest cover, conserving wildlife such as
the Royal Bengal tiger, and creating
rural jobs.
“If you factor the true
value of coral reefs into
economic planning, it
is likely that far more
rational and sustainable
choices would be made
in terms of development,
emissions and pollution
control, and resource
management”
-Ach|m Ste|ner, Un|ted Nat|ons
under-secretary-genera| and
execut|ve d|rector of the Un|ted
Nat|ons Env|ronment Programme
vvv.develo¡menl.asia 22DevelopmentAsia}anuary–March2O12
,5=09654,5;
valuelheeconomicsofbiodiversily
loss.GermanyandlheLuro¡ean
Commissionlaunchedlhesludy,vilh
subsequenl hnancial su¡¡orl by lhe
UNLIandseveralolherLuro¡ean
counlries.Theob|eclivesincluded
dravingallenlionlolheglobal
economic benehls of biodiversily,
highlighlinglhegrovingcoslof
biodiversilylossandecosyslem
degradalion,and¡roviding¡raclical
solulions,suchaseslablishingan
ob|ecliveglobalslandardfornalural
ca¡ilalaccounling.
Led by Iavan Sukhdev, a senior
bankeralDeulscheßank,TLLß
released lhe hrsl of hve re¡orls in
2OO8.Ilssludieshavehighlighledlhe
economiclossesandhumancosls
causedbyvanishingbiodiversily.
“Nalureislhesourceofmuchvalue
louseveryday,andyelilmoslly
by¡assesmarkels,esca¡es¡ricing,
and dehes valualion,¨ Sukhdev vriles
inlheinilialre¡orl.“Thislackof
valualionis,vearediscovering,an
underlyingcauseforlheobserved
degradalionofecosyslemsandlheloss
ofbiodiversily.”
ßiodiversilylossiscrilicalloglobal
develo¡menlefforlsbecause¡overly,
climalechange,biodiversily,andlhe
lossofecosyslemslikelro¡icalreefsor
foreslsare“inexlricablyinlerlvined,”
lheTLLßre¡orlnoles.Indeed,
lhe sludy hnds lhal lhe ¡oor vere
ly¡ically lhe immediale benehciaries
ofecosyslemservicesandbiodiversily.
“Thelivelihoodsmoslaffecledare
subsislencefarming,animalhusbandry,
hshing, and informal foreslry÷mosl
oflhevorld’s¡oorarede¡endenlon
lhem.”
Ior decades, environmenlal aclivisls
haveslruggledloconvince¡olicy
makersoflhehiddencoslsoflosl
biodiversilyandnaluralresources.
Irom a ¡olicy maker's ¡ers¡eclive,
lhevalueofex¡loilingresourcesvas
fareasierlomeasure:Thegovernmenl
sells¡ermilsloallovacom¡any
lomineco¡¡erorgold,cullimber,
or calch hsh, and lhe com¡any, in
lurn, ¡ays laxes and ¡rohls from ils
aclivilies.
ßulvhalvenlunrecognized—or
alleaslunacknovledgedin¡olicy
circles—fordecadesvaslhecoslof
de¡lelinglhoseresources,andlhe
resullinglossofecosyslembiodiversily.
Nov,lheuseofrecenllydevelo¡ed
accounlingloolsandlechniquesis
alloving¡olicymakersloveighlhe
negaliveim¡aclofcerlainaclivilies
againsllhevalueofecosyslemservices,
suchaslhecarbonsequeslralionand
valercycleregulalionofalro¡ical
foresl,orlheslorm¡roleclion¡rovided
byamangroveforesl.
Òne exam¡le lhal TLLß ciles is a
cosl÷benehl analysis of converling
mangrovesinloshrim¡farmsin
soulhernThailand.Wilhgovernmenl
subsidies,commercialshrim¡farms
generalerelurnsofaboul$1,22O¡er
heclare.ßullocalcommunilieslose
aboul$12,OOO¡erheclareinecosyslem
services,slemmingfromlhelossof
voodandnon-voodforesl¡roducls,
hsheries, and coaslal ¡roleclion, lhe
sludynoles.
Around Asia, freshvaler and coaslal
vellandsarenovseenas¡roviders
ofeconomicallyvaluableecosyslem
services.Usingnevaccounlinglools,
vellandsaroundlhecilyofVienliane,
lheLaoIeo¡le’sDemocralicRe¡ublic,
forexam¡le,havebeeneslimaledlo
¡rovide $5 million in ßood ¡revenlion
services.
Thehiddencoslsofforeslloss,
ama|or¡roblemacrossmuchof
Asia, have also been revealed by lhe
nev efforls. Òne sludy has valued
¡ollinalionservices¡rovidedbyforesls
in Sulavesi, Indonesia, al aboul $6O
¡erheclare.Theconversionofforesled
areaslofarmlandandolherusesis
ex¡ecledloreducelhose¡ollinalion
services, vilh signihcanl economic
consequencesforcoffeegrovers:
yields reduced by u¡ lo 18/, and nel
revenues¡erheclarevilldeclinebyas
much as 14/ over lhe nexl 2 decades.
Al lhe Conference of lhe Iarlies lo
lheUniledNalionsConvenlionon
ßiologicalDiversilyinNagoya,}a¡an,
in2O1O,WorldßankIresidenlRoberl
AMAZON OF THE SEAS A local diver
watches different varieties of ñsh weave
through a maze of corals in Puerto
Galera, Philippines. The country is part
of the Coral Triangle Initiative, which
was formed to save one of the world’s
most diverse and threatened marine
ecosystems.
“Nature is the source of
much value to us every
day, and yet it mostly
bypasses markets,
escapes pricing, and
defies valuation”
-Pavan Sukhdev, a sen|or banker
at Deutsche Bank
vvv.develo¡menl.asia }anuary–March2O12Development Asia23
haveagreedlo¡ay$2.8millionlomore
lhan2,OOOforesl-dvellinghouseholds
lohel¡¡roleclvalershedslhal
su¡¡lylhehydro¡over¡lanls.This
villincreaseincomesforsubsislence
householdsvhilereducingo¡eraling
coslsandim¡rovinglhelong-lerm
suslainabililyoflhe¡lanls.
Òn a global scale, efforls are
undervayloreducegreenhousegas
emissionslhrougha¡rogramknovnas
ReducingLmissionsfromDeforeslalion
and Ioresl Degradalion or RLDD+.
Wilh Asia's ¡o¡ulalion ra¡idly
shiflingfromruralareaslourban
cenlers,ama|orchallengeforlhe
regionisaddressinglheecosyslem
im¡aclofover¡o¡ulaledcilies.Urban
aclivilies already accounl for aboul 67/
oflhevorld’senergyconsum¡lion
and 7O/ of greenhouse gas emissions.
Urbandvellersalsoaccounlformosl
oflheglobaldemandforfreshvaler,
vood,andolherravmalerials.
Singa¡ore, vhich has devised a
cilybiodiversilyindexlohel¡guide
ilsdevelo¡menl¡lans,hasbeena
leaderin¡roleclingbiodiversilyinan
urban selling. Among ils vilderness
areas o¡en lo lhe ¡ublic are Sungei
ßuloh,amangrove¡arkresloredfrom
shrim¡farms,andßukilTimahNalure
Reserve,vhichencom¡asses¡rimary
andsecondarylro¡icalrainforesl.
ThecilyofNagoya,}a¡an,hasalso
dislinguishedilselfbyinlroducinga
syslemoflradabledevelo¡menlrighls
lohel¡¡reserveilsvanishinggreen
s¡ace.Develo¡ersvhovishloexceed
limilsonhigh-risebuildingsmuslbuy
andconservegreenareasalriskof
develo¡menl. Òlher incenlives include
discounledbankloansfordevelo¡ers
lhalincor¡oralemoregreens¡acevilh
lheir¡ro|ecls.
Cilydvellers,alongvilhrural
communiliesandbusinesses,can
ex¡ecl lo receive benehls from
such efforls. Al lhe nalional and
inlernalionallevels,lheTLLß
researchersnole,lhereisanadded
¡ayofffor¡olicymakersvho¡lace
a¡remiumonbiodiversilyand
ecosyslemservices:Theyarelikelylo
en|oyslrongereconomicgrovlhinlhe
decadesahead.Q
HEART OF BORNEO Clouds cover a
forested mountain in West Kalimantan
province on Borneo island. In 2007,
Brunei Darussalam, Indonesia, and
Malaysia signed a declaration to protect
the Heart of Borneo, where only about
half of the original forests remain.
Zoellickannounceda5-year¡ilol
¡rogramloex¡andlheefforlslouse
innovaliveaccounlingloolslomeasure
lhevalueofecosyslems.“Il’savayof
lryinglohel¡¡eo¡leunderslandbeller
ineconomiclermslhevalueofnalural
veallh,”saysZoellick.
COMPENSATING NATURE
Asia is also al lhe forefronl of olher
nevmelhodsdesignedloaddresslhe
lossofbiodiversilyandecosyslem
degradalion,including¡aymenlsfor
ecosyslem services (ILS) ¡rograms.
A 2OO6 Su¡reme Courl ruling in
Indiaresulledinlhecrealionofa
syslemofcom¡ensalory¡aymenls
forconverlingvariously¡esofforesl
landloolheruse.Valuesvereassigned
accordinglolheuseoflheland,
rangingfromlimberandecolourism
losuchnon-usevaluesasconserving
lhe Royal ßengal liger and Asialic
lion.Underlhesyslem,a¡ermilmusl
beoblainedloconverlaforesllo
olherusesand¡aymenlsmadeinlo
a¡ubliclymanagedfunddevoled
loim¡rovingIndia’sforeslcover,
conservingvildlife,andcrealingrural
|obs.
In Viel Nam, under a ¡ilol ILS ¡olicy
crealed vilh assislance from lhe Asia
RegionalßiodiversilyConservalion
Irogram,lvohydro¡overfacililies
GARDEN CITY A couple looks down
from a walkway on a canopy of trees in
Singapore, dubbed the “Garden City of
Asia.” The city-state follows a biodiversity
index in its development plans.
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24DevelopmentAsia }anuary–March2O12 vvv.develo¡menl.asia
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Dirty Business
Asiaisonthereceivingendofsomeofthewor|d’smosttoxicwaste
ßYWilliamßranigin
ß
ylhedozenseachday,
cargoshi¡s¡ullinlo¡orl
inHongKong,China,and
ofßoad 4O-fool conlainers
hlled vilh discarded eleclronic goods
fromelsevhereinlhevorld,moslly
fromNorlhAmerica.Therefuseis
ly¡icallylakenlofencedscra¡yardsor
varehousesforinilialsorlingnorlhof
Kovloon,lhenmovedinlolheIeo¡le’s
Re¡ublicofChina(IRC)bylruckor
boal.
Theeleclronicvasle,knovnas
e-vasle or e-scra¡, oflen ends u¡ in
Guiyu,alovnaboul22milesvesl
ofShanlouinruralGuangdong
Irovince.There,lhousandsofvorkers,
manyoflhemvomenandchildren,
usebasiclools,o¡enburning,and
acidbalhslorecoverco¡¡er,sleel,
¡laslic,aluminum,com¡ulerchi¡s,
lead-lin solder, and small amounls of
¡reciousmelalssuchasgold.ßulin
lhe¡rocess,lheyex¡oselhemselves
andlheenvironmenlloahoslofloxins
includinglead,mercury,cadmium,
beryllium, and brominaled ßame
relardanls.
ThesilualioninGuiyu,documenled
byvalchdoggrou¡s,suchaslheßasel
AclionNelvorkandGreen¡eace,
re¡resenlsoneas¡ecloflhegroving
¡roblemofhazardousvasleinAsia.
Ilalsoex¡osesvhallhegrou¡shave
calledlhedirlylilllesecreloflhe
eleclronicsrecyclinginduslry:lhe
common cosl-culling ¡raclice of sim¡ly
ex¡orling e-vasle from counlries,
suchaslheUniledSlales,insleadof
¡rocessingilsafelyalhome.
,5=09654,5;
E-WASTE EXPOSÉ Activitists mount
an installation made from computer
monitors on a truck during a protest in
New Delhi in 2007. Watchdog groups
have exposed the threat posed by the
improper processing of these toxic
materials to health and the environment.
A FAST-GROWING PROBLEM
Ior several years nov, e-vasle has
been lhe faslesl-groving vasle
¡robleminlhevorld,accordinglo
lheUniledNalionsLnvironmenl
Irogramme (UNLI) and ils afhlialed
ßaselConvenliononlheConlrol
ofTransboundaryMovemenlsof
HazardousWaslesandTheirDis¡osal.
L-vasle accounls for aboul 8/ of
}anuary–March2O12DevelopmentAsia25 vvv.develo¡menl.asia
munici¡alvasleandiseslimaled
lobe¡ilingu¡al3limeslheraleof
munici¡alvaslevorldvide.
“Ilisex¡onenliallygroving,”says
KalharinaKummerIeiry,headof
lhe Sviss-based ßasel Convenlion
secrelarial.“Allhelimelheßasel
Convenlion vas ado¡led in 1989,
lhisdidnolevenexislasavasle
slream. Nov e-vasle is lhe key vasle
slreamlhallheßaselConvenlionis
lookingal.”
Accordinglo}imIuckell,execulive
direclor of lhe Seallle-based ßasel
AclionNelvork,agrou¡vorking
loaddressloxicvasleissues,u¡lo
8O/ of lhe e-vasle collecled in lhe US
forrecyclingacluallyendsu¡being
ex¡orled.Muchofilcomesfrom
enliliessuchasgovernmenlagencies
andschoolslhalsignrecycling
conlraclsvilhlheloveslbidder,he
says.Shi¡¡ingconlainerslrackedby
hisgrou¡havemadelheirvaylo
India,Indonesia,Malaysia,Iakislan,
andVielNam,Iuckellsays,bulmosl
areslillgoingloHongKong,China,
enroulelolheIRC.
Likehazardousvaslegenerally,
lhe ex¡losion of e-vasle has been
drivenin¡arlby¡o¡ulaliongrovlh
andrisingconsum¡lion.ßulil
alsoovesmuchlolheaslonishing
¡roliferalion of high-lech devices
vorldvide,ra¡idobsolescence,
manufacluringlechniqueslhal
make disassembly difhcull, and
vides¡readunavareness—evenin
develo¡edcounlries—oflheloxic
nalureofmalerialshiddenin¡ersonal
com¡ulers,cell¡hones,monilors,and
manyolhereleclronic¡roducls.
“Thevorld¡o¡ulalionissleadily
increasing,consum¡lionlevelsare
groving,andasaresulllheglobal
vaslehea¡isgellingbiggerand
bigger,”saysadraflre¡orl,Vital Waste
Graphics 3,¡roducedforlheßasel
Convenlion and UNLI. ßy mid-
cenlury,ilsays,a¡ro|ecledvorld
¡o¡ulalionof9billionisex¡ecledlo
generalemorelhan13.1billionlons
of vasle a year, aboul 2O/ more lhan
in2OO9.
A PROLIFERATION OF PLASTICS AND
TECHNOLOGY
ßecause of varying dehnilions and
re¡orling mechanisms, il is difhcull
loeslimalehovmuchofglobalor
regionalvasleishazardous.ßula
ma|orconcernislhesoaringshare
ofmunici¡alvaslesre¡resenledby
¡laslics.Novmassivelymanufaclured
alloverlhevorld,¡laslicsareusedin
moreandmore¡roducls,including
eleclronics,andcanabsorband
lransfer¡ersislenlorganic¡ollulanls,
knovnasIÒIs—chemicals,oflen
usedin¡eslicides,lhalendureinlhe
environmenlandaccumulaleinlhe
foodchain.
Allhough¡laslicvasleoflenends
u¡ in landhlls, il also nov abounds
inlhevorld’soceans,vherelarge
rolalingsurfacecurrenlscalledgyres
have formed ¨enlire ßoaling islands
ofmarinedebris,”accordingloVital
Waste Graphics 3. Large high-densily
concenlralionsofmorelhan5O,OOO
¡laslic¡arlicles¡ersquarekilomeler
arefoundinlheNorlhandSoulh
Iacihc (as vell as lhe Norlh and Soulh
Allanlic), vhile a vasl medium-densily
svalh of 2O,OOO-¡lus ¡ieces ¡er square
kilomeler ßoals in lhe Indian Òcean,
lhere¡orlsays.Wilhinlhosegyres,il
says,“marinefaunaingesl¡laslicor
becomeenlangledinil,”vhilemosl
humansremainoblivious.
InAsiaasinolherregions,mounling
concernsaboulhazardousvaslehave
beenaccom¡aniedbyadramalic
shiflinlhe¡roduclionandusage
ofinformalionandcommunicalion
lechnology(ICT).Since2OO3,mobile
¡honesubscribersinlhedevelo¡ing
vorldhaveoulnumberedlhosein
develo¡edcounlriesandnovaccounl
for nearly 7O/ of lhe vorld lolal. The
volumeofobsolele¡ersonalcom¡ulers
indevelo¡ingcounlriesis¡ro|ecled
loexceedlhenumberindevelo¡ed
nalionsbyaboul2O16.
TheInlernalionalTelecommunicalion
Unionhaseslimaledlhallhenumber
ofmobile¡honesinusevorldvide
TOXIC EXPORT Greenpeace activists in
Hong Kong, China lower a banner on a
cargo ship allegedly carrying an illegal
shipment of electronic waste from the
United States in 2008.
“The world
population is
steadily increasing,
consumption levels
are growing, and as a
result the global waste
heap is getting bigger
and bigger”
·=P[HS>HZ[L.YHWOPJZproduced
for the Base| Convent|on and
the Un|ted Nat|ons Env|ronment
Programme
26DevelopmentAsia }anuary–March2O12 vvv.develo¡menl.asia
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increasedfrom145millionin1996lo
more lhan 4 billion in 2OO8, a year vhen
salesofmobilehandselsre¡orledly
reached1billion.Wilhmoslmobile
¡honesdeslinedlobediscardedvilhin
1–3yearsof¡urchase,ilisnovonder
lhallheICTinduslryis¡ro|ecledlo
generale 53 million lons of e-vasle by
2O12.
A GLOBAL WASTE MARKET
Òf lhe e-vasle, only aboul 13/ is
re¡orledloberecycled,vilhorvilhoul
adequalesafely¡rocedures,according
lolhe2O1Oannualre¡orlofGlobal
InformalionSocielyWalch(GISWalch),
anelvorklhal¡romolessuslainable
ICT.Yel,lhalisenoughlofuela
globalvaslemarkelvorlhroughly
$3OObillionayear.Worldvide,vasle
¡ickingorscavenginginaninformal
recyclinginduslry¡rovidesincomelo
morelhan15million¡eo¡le,almoslall
oflhemindevelo¡ingcounlries.
InlheIRC,alleasl1Omillion¡eo¡le
vorkinrecycling,roughly7OO,OOOof
lhem in lhe e-vasle seclor, according
loUNLI.There,Guiyuhasemerged
aslhe“groundzeroforlheeleclronic
vaslelrade,”saysIuckell,vhohas
¡ersonallyinvesligaledcondilionsin
lhelovnforlheßaselAclionNelvork.
Allhoughilisillegalloim¡orl
hazardousvasleinlolheIRC,hesays,
roughly5O–1OOshi¡¡ingconlainers
,5=09654,5;
hlled vilh e-vasle arrive in Hong
Kong,China,eachday,deslinedfor
arecyclinginduslrylhalsincelhe
mid-199Os has lransformed Guiyu
from a ¡oor, rural, rice-groving
communilyinloabooming—bul
heavily¡olluled—¡rocessingcenler
fordiscardedeleclronics.Asaresull,
lhearea’sgroundvalerhasbeen
conlaminaled,forcingaulhorilieslo
builda¡i¡elinelobringinfreshvaler
from3Okilomelersavay,Iuckellsays.
Levelsofdioxinsandheavymelalsare
someoflhehigheslinlhevorld,and
leslshaveshovnelevaledleadlevelsin
children’sblood,hesays.
CondilionsinIndiaandIakislan,
vhere e-vasle ¡rocessing has
mushroomed,maybeevenvorselhan
lhoseinlheIRC,lheßaselAclion
Nelvorkre¡orls.Ilcileslheo¡en
burningofcircuilboardsbychild
laborersinNevDelhineighborhoods
andunvenlilaledo¡eralionsinKarachi
usingblovlorchesandacid—alllo
recoverchi¡sand¡reciousmelals.
“Increasingly,Indiaisbecoming
a dum¡ing ground for e-vasle,¨
accordingloacounlryre¡orl¡ublished
byGISWalch.Indiageneraledaboul
3OO,OOO lons of e-vasle in 2OO7, an
amounl¡ro|ecledlogrovlo1.6million
lonsby2O12.Inaddilion,aboul5OO,OOO
lons a year of e-vasle are im¡orled
illegally,lhere¡orlsays.
TheGovernmenlofIndiahasdrafled
rules lo manage e-vasle, bul lhey do
nolcoverlheinformalseclor,vhere
9O/ of lhe counlry's e-vasle recycling
iscarriedoul,accordinglolhe2O1O
re¡orl.
InlheIhili¡¡ines,vheremobile
¡honesubscri¡lionshaveskyrockeled
andeleclronicsmakeu¡morelhan
4O/ of im¡orls, dum¡sile scavengers
commonly svarm over landhlls lhal
conlain e-vasle mixed vilh olher solid
vasle.ßulunderarecyclingloo¡hole
inlheßaselConvenlion,alradein
secondhandeleclronicshasdevelo¡ed,
conlribulinglolhegrovinghea¡sof
e-vasle, GISWalch re¡orls. In 2OO7
alone, 98,823 lons of second-hand
eleclricalandeleclronicequi¡menl
vereim¡orled,mosllyfrom}a¡anand
lheRe¡ublicofKorea.
Moreover, a 2OO8 agreemenl vilh
}a¡anallovedlheim¡orlalionof
}a¡anesechemical,hos¡ilal,and
munici¡alvaslesinlolheIhili¡¡ines,
angeringenvironmenlalislsand
¡rom¡lingoneIhili¡¡inenevs¡a¡er
locom¡lainlhallhecounlryvas
“¡osilioningilselfasaglobalvasle
dum¡.”
BASEL CONVENTION SEEKS
SOLUTIONS
LikelheIRC,India,}a¡an,lhe
Re¡ublicofKorea,andmoslSoulheasl
Asiannalions,lheIhili¡¡ineshas
ralihed lhe 1989 ßasel Convenlion,
vhichvasdesignedloreducelhe
movemenlsofhazardousvasleamong
nalions.Illookeffeclin1992andnov
has 178 ¡arlies. The US has signed bul
nol ralihed il.
Amoreambiliousmeasure,knovn
aslheßanAmendmenl,vasado¡led
bylheconvenlion’s¡arliesin1995
MONEY FROM TRASH A boy collects
usable materials among the garbage
washed up at Manila Bay. More than
15 million people, almost all of them in
developing countries, make a living by
scavenging for recyclables.
}anuary–March2O12DevelopmentAsia27 vvv.develo¡menl.asia
ado¡leda“¡aradigmshiflinlhevay
lhalvaslesarelookedal.”Inslead
offocusingmainlyonconlrolling
“vasledis¡osalandlransboundary
movemenls,”shesays,lheconference
agreed lo embrace more of a ¨life-
cyclea¡¡roach,solhal¡revenlion
andminimizalionofvasleshould
be¡romoledbylhe¡arliesandall
slakeholders.”
Thismeansmoreem¡hasison“green
¡roduclion,”aimedalminimizing
loxicmalerialsinlhemanufaclureof
eleclronics,forexam¡le,andal“using
recyclingasanacce¡lablevaylo
generalegreen|obsando¡¡orlunilies.”
AllheßaselAclionNelvorkand
olheradvocacygrou¡s,innovalive
solulionsareinlhevorks,Iuckell
says.Òneexam¡leislhedevelo¡menl
ofa“benignchemicalmelhod”
forslri¡¡ingcircuilboardsusing
“nonaggressivechemicals,”vhich
vouldalleaslmiligalesomeoflhe
harmfulheallhandenvironmenlal
im¡acls of e-vasle ¡rocessing in lhe
informalseclor.
TheßaselAclionNelvorkandolher
grou¡s also ¡romole ¨lake-back¨
¡rogramsinvhichmanufaclurersare
requiredloacce¡llheirold¡roducls
fromconsumersfor¡ro¡errecycling.
Such¡rogramshavegainedlraclion
inmanycounlries,includinglheIRC,
vhereconsumersare¡aidlolurn
inequi¡menllheynolongervanl,
Iuckellsays.ßullhe¡rograma¡¡lies
onlylo¡roduclssoldinlheIRC.
Domeslic e-vasle ¨is a ¡roblem, and
|lheIeo¡le’sRe¡ublicofjChinais
vorkingonil,”Iuckellsays.“ßul
lhey’relurningablindeyelolhe
smugglinginHongKong,Chinaand
lheim¡orlsinloGuiyu,unforlunalely.”
Lnvironmenlalislsarealso¡ushing
cleaner¡roduclionasavaylolimil
hazardousvasleallhesourceand
curlail lhe lechno-lrashing of lhe
¡lanel.Manufaclurers“aredoingmuch
morevorkonlhalnov,”allhoughlhey
are“nolaggressiveenough,”Iuckell
says.“They’rereallylimidlomarkel
green¡roducls.”
Hecileslheexam¡leofama|or
mobile¡honemakerlhalhas¡roduced
a ¨loxic-free ¡hone¨ bul has resisled
¡ublicizingil.Thecom¡anydoesnol
vanllohighlighllhefacllhallheresl
ofils¡roduclsconlainloxicmalerials,
ofvhichlhe¡ublicislargelyunavare,
Iuckellsays.Headdslhalconsullanls
ofmanufaclurershaveadmilledlohim
lhallheyhavelheabililyloeliminale
hazardousmalerialsfromcom¡ulers
and olher high-lech ¡roducls by 2O15, if
nolbefore.
“Thal’slhefruslralinglhing.We
could really have loxic-free equi¡menl
nov,andcerlainlyin5years,iflhevill
vaslhere,”Iuckellsays.“Somuchof
lhissluffisavoidable.”Q
vilhlheaimof¡rohibilingallex¡orls
ofhazardousvaslesfromdevelo¡ed
counlrieslodevelo¡ingnalionsfor
any reason. Il has been ralihed by 71
counlries,bulilhasnolyelenlered
inloforce,andkeycounlriessuchas
}a¡an,lheRe¡ublicofKorea,andlhe
UShaverefusedlosignilorhonor
ils¡rovisions.InlheUS,lhevorld’s
biggesl e-vasle ex¡orler, lhe scra¡
induslryhasvigorouslyo¡¡osedsuch
¡rovisionsongroundslheyreslriclfree
lrade.
ßuladvocalesoflheamendmenl
seesomeho¡efulsigns.Aconference
oflheßaselConvenlion¡arliesin
ColombiainÒcloberlaslyearresolved
alongslandingdeadlockbyagreeing
lhal 17 more ralihcalions are needed for
lheßanAmendmenllolakeeffecl.
Ierha¡smoreim¡orlanlly,according
loKummerIeiry,lheßaselConvenlion
execulivesecrelary,lhe¡arlies
FASTER THAN TWEETING A gambler in
Phnom Penh talks on 18 mobile phones
at the same time as he comments on a
boxing match. Environmentalists fear
that the proliferation of mobile phones
in Asia will compound the problem of
e-waste in the region.
“We could really have
toxic-free equipment
now, and certainly in
5 years, if the will was
there”
-J|m Puckett, execut|ve d|rector
of the Seatt|e-based Base| Act|on
Network
28DevelopmentAsia }anuary–March2O12
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nlhelale199Os,lheIndiancily
ofDelhivasnearlyinlolerable.
Alhickhazeblankeledlhe
melro¡olisonmosldays,and
residenlsroulinelyhadlobrealheone
oflhedeadlieslly¡esofair¡ollulion,
lheloxic¡arliclesblasledfromlheback
ofvehiclescalled¡arliculalemaller.
Drivenby¡ublicoulrage,and
aclivisllavsuils,lhecounlry’scourl
syslemcom¡elledlhecilyandnalional
governmenlsloacl.Thousandsof
¡ollulinglexlileandchemical¡lanls
vereorderedlocleanu¡orclose,
and mosl signihcanlly, all ¡ublic
lrans¡orl—includingbuses,laxis,and
Dry Cough
Boomingeconomiesandanexpandingcar-|ovingmidd|ec|assarefou|ingAsia’sskies…
andtheymightbethebestwaytoc|earthem
ßYIloydWhaley
,5=09654,5;
vvv.develo¡menl.asia
molorizedlricycles—vererequiredlo
converllocleaner-runningcom¡ressed
naluralgas(CNG).
Theresullsvereim¡ressive.The
counlry’sCenlralIollulionConlrol
ßoardre¡orleda24/decreasein
deadly¡arliculalemallerinDelhi’s
airfrom1996lo2OO2.Thissaved
aneslimaled3,629lives¡eryear,
accordingloa2OO5Worldßankre¡orl.
ThoughDelhi’sbooming¡o¡ulalion
andex¡losionofvehicleovnershi¡
hasreversedmanyoflhegains
madebylheCNGconversionoflhe
lale199Os,lheex¡erienceoflhecily
remainsanexam¡leoflenciledby
PIERCING THE HAZE A policeman
directs trafñc on a foggy morning in New
DeIhi. BeIow, an auto-rickshaw refueIs at
a compressed naturaI gas (CNG) station
in the Indian capital.
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FOUR-STROKE SAVINGS
I
nlheIhili¡¡ines,many¡eo¡le
lravelshorldislancesaroundlhe
cilyonmolorizedlricycles.They
arechea¡,¡o¡ular,and¡overed
bylvo-slrokeengines,oneoflhemosl
¡ollulingly¡esofcombusliononlhe
road.Thedeadlyvhilesmokeasingle
lvo-slrokelricycleemilscan¡ollule
morelhananenlirebus.Themore
modernfour-slrokeenginesruncleaner
bullheyareex¡ensive,vhichmakes
lhedriverslessinclinedlou¡grade.
A¡ro|eclinlheManila-areacilyof
Mandaluyongaddressedlhisissue
using microhnance. Tricycle drivers
verelenlenoughmoneylobuyafour-
slrokebikeiflheyagreedlogiveu¡
lheirlvo-slrokeengine.Thiscrealeda
4O/savinginfuel,¡arlofvhichcould
beusedlo¡aybacklheloan.Several
driversinlhe¡ilol¡ro|eclhavealready
¡aidbacklheirloaninfullandnov
¡ro|ecladminislralorsarelookinglo
scaleu¡lheefforlloolherciliesinlhe
counlry.Thedriversrecognizedlhal
cleanerenginesverealsoheallhierfor
lhemselvesandlheircommunily,say
¡ro|eclorganizers.Q
WIN-WIN DEAL A city in ManiIa is offering
tricycIe owners easy ñnancing to convert
their two-stroke engine to a four-stroke
engine, which consumes Iess fueI.
environmenlalislsandgovernmenl
ofhcials alike of hov big cilies' skies
canbecleanedu¡.
ThroughoulAsia,ma|orciliesare
facingasimilarsilualion.Thriving
urbancenlersinsomeoflhefaslesl
grovingeconomiesinlhevorldare
¡roducingmoreexhausl-belching
vehicles,more¡rivaleaircondilioners,
morefaclorysmokeslacks,andlevels
ofurban¡ollulionunseensincelhe
hrsl decades of lhe 19OOs in Luro¡e and
NorlhAmerica.
“InAsia,lhehighraleof
urbanizalionandeconomicgrovlh
hasledloara¡idincreaseinvehicles
andenergyconsum¡lion,”says
So¡hieIunle,execulivedirecloroflhe
CleanAirInilialiveforAsianCilies,
eslablishedbylheAsianDevelo¡menl
ßankandolher¡arlners.“Thishas
ha¡¡enedquickly.Theeconomic
develo¡menlinAsialhalhaslaken
¡laceinlhelasl2decadeslook
hundredsofyearsinlheWesl.”
Thisra¡idgrovlhhaslefl
governmenlsinlheregionslruggling
lokee¡lheirskiesclean.IevAsian
counlrieshavesyslemalicairqualily
managemenl¡rogramslhalallov
governmenlsloselslandards,
im¡lemenlbroad-based¡rograms,and
monilorresulls,slaleslhe2O1Ore¡orl
Outdoor Air Pollution and Health in the
Developing Countries of Asia, bylhe
HeallhLffeclsInsliluleinlheUniled
Slales.
Thoughlhereareafevbrighl
s¡olsinlermsofconlrollingvehicle
emissions,mosl¡arlsofAsiaslillhave
old,high-¡ollulingvehiclesonlheir
roads.Manyoflhesevehiclesrunon
¡oor qualily, ¨dirly¨ fuel. Relrohlling
modern¡ollulionconlrolsyslems,
suchascalalylicconverlersonvehicles
muslbedoneincoordinalionvilh
lhe¡hasingouloflov-gradegasoline
anddiesel.Thisisahugelaskforany
cilyorruralarea.Ra¡idlyex¡anding
numbersof¡rivalevehicleslhroughoul
“The public health
and social policy
implications of the
relations among
health, air pollution,
and poverty are likely
to be important,
especially in areas
such as Asia, where
air pollution
concentrations are
high and many live in
poverty”
-Hea|th Effects Inst|tute report
6\[KVVY(PY7VSS\[PVUHUK/LHS[OPU
[OL+L]LSVWPUN*V\U[YPLZVM(ZPH
3ODevelopmentAsia }anuary–March2O12
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lheregioncom¡oundlhe¡roblem
furlher.
Com¡licalinglhesilualionislhefacl
lhalinmanycounlriesinAsia,lhereis
aclashofinlereslinlhegovernmenl
agencyres¡onsibleforaddressingair
¡ollulion,saysIunle.
“Thereisa¡erverseincenlivelo
avoidairqualilymoniloring,”she
says.“Theagencymandaledvilh
addressingairqualily¡roblems—
usuallylheenvironmenlminislry
inacounlry—isalsolhemoniloring
agency.Iflheymonilor¡ro¡erly,and
hnd high levels, lhey are burdened
vilhexlravorkandres¡onsibililyin
solving lhe ¡roblem lhey idenlihed.
Solheincenliveislo¡rovideveak
moniloring.Whalislheirincenlive
lo hnd ¡roblems lhal lhey musl lhen
correcl`”
Againsllhisbackdro¡,lheregion
muslalsoaddressavarielyofolher
sourcesofair¡ollulion,suchaso¡en
burningoflrashandolhermalerials,
emissionsfromcombuslionoflov-
qualilyindoorfuels,andlargenumbers
ofunregulaledsmallbusinessesand
induslries.
Aslheseissuesareaddressed,lhe
benehls lo lhe global climale change
silualionslandloim¡roveasvell,
ex¡erlsnole.Reducinglocalair
¡ollulionreducescarbonemissionand
lhusmiligalesclimalechange.
QUANTIFYING THE HEALTH IMPACT
Theregion’sra¡idgrovlhvilhoul
adequaleairqualilymanagemenl
syslemsin¡lacehasmadeAsiancilies
someoflheleaslheallhy¡lacesinlhe
vorldlolive.In2OOO,lhelasllimea
globalsludyvasdoneonlhemaller,
lheWorldHeallhÒrganizalion(WHÒ)
foundlhallvo-lhirdsoflheeslimaled
8OO,OOOdealhsand4.6millionlosl
yearsofheallhylifevorldvidecaused
byex¡osurelourbanair¡ollulion
occurredinlhedevelo¡ingcounlries
ofAsia.
Des¡ilelhedislurbingoverall
eslimales,dalaonheallheffeclsofair
¡ollulioninAsiaareseldomdireclly
useableby¡olicymakers,saysIunle.
Thisga¡belveenresearchand
¡olicymakinglimilslheabililiesof
¡olilicianslomakelheharddecisions
neededloaddressair¡ollulion.
“Ifsomeoneishilbyacar,you
knovvhylheydied,bulifsomeone
hasaslrokeorahearlallack,hov
doyouknovifilvascausedbyair
¡ollulion`”asksIunle.“Thedamage
issharedandlessvisible.If¡eo¡leon
averagedie1yearearlier,hovdoyou
knoviflhalisduelo¡oorairqualily`”
Asludylinkingdecliningheallhand
air¡ollulioninHoChiMinhCily,Viel
Namhas¡rovidedsomeoflhebesl
evidenceyellhaldirlyair¡uls¡eo¡le
inlolhehos¡ilal,andsomelimesinlo
lhegrave.
Thesludy,conducledbelveen2OO3
and2OO5,examinedadmissionsof
childrenunderlheageof5allhelvo
main¡edialrichos¡ilalsinlhecily.
Illookedalallchildrenoflhisage
admilledforaculeres¡iraloryillness.
“Nearlyallchildrenadmilledfor
res¡iraloryillnessesin(HoChiMinh
Cily)arehos¡ilalizedinoneoflhese
lvo¡edialrichos¡ilals,”asummaryof
lhere¡orlnoles.“Thus,veca¡lured
nearlyallchildren’sadmissionsfor
aculeres¡iraloryillness.”
The¡reliminaryresullsoflhesludy
vereslarlling.Whenlookedalona
charl,lhelineilluslralinglhenumber
of¡edialrichos¡ilaladmissionsfor
AT HIGH RISK Schoolchildren cross a
busy street in Pakistan. The WorId HeaIth
Organization says some of the hardest
hit by poor air quaIity are peopIe Iiving
near major roadways.
“If someone is hit
by a car, they know
why they died, but if
someone has a stroke
or a heart attack,
how do you know if
it was caused by air
pollution?”
-Soph|e Punte, execut|ve d|rector
of the C|ean A|r In|t|at|ve for As|an
C|t|es
vvv.develo¡menl.asia }anuary–March2O12DevelopmentAsia31
vhoresideorvorkinclose¡roximily
loma|orroadvays.”
MIDDLE-CLASS DEMANDS
Inlhelasl3decades,Thailand’sca¡ilal
cilyofßangkokundervenlalransilion
commoninAsia.Aslheeconomy
ex¡anded,vehicleovnershi¡grev
ra¡idly.Thenumberofmolorvehicles
regisleredinßangkoksoaredlomore
lhan5.6millionin2OO7from6OO,OOO
in198O.Asex¡ecled,lhisvasfolloved
by a signihcanl increase in gasoline and
dieselfuelconsum¡lion.
Incilieslhroughoul¡ros¡erousLasl
Asia,lhesilualionhasre¡ealedilself.
Incomes,vehicleovnershi¡,andfuel
usage increase. Smog-hlled skies soon
follov.
ßulinßangkok,lhalvasnollhe
case.Whilevehicleovnershi¡and
fuelusageincreased,lhegovernmenl
im¡lemenledemissionconlrol
slralegiesandeffecliveair¡ollulion
moniloringsyslemslhalim¡rovedlhe
cily’sairqualilyoverlime.
Thecilyoblainedlhisresullby
enforcingvehicleemissionsslandards,
¡arlicularlylheinslallalionofcalalylic
converlersasvellasincenlivesfor
driverslo¡haseoullvo-slroke
engines,vhicharesomeoflhehighesl
¡ollulingvehiclesonlheroad.The
CONVERTED A garage worker instaIIs a
naturaI gas tank to a vehicIe in Bangkok.
governmenlalsomandaledins¡eclion
andmainlenance¡rograms,as¡arl
ofvehicleregislralion,and¡olice
conducledroadsidechecksonvehicles
emillingsmoke.
Aslhesemeasuresvere
im¡lemenled,roadsidemonilors
direclly reßecled corres¡onding
decreasesinair¡ollulion.
Inßangkok,anolherdynamic
vasalsoal¡lay.Theex¡anding
economydidnolonlyincreasevehicle
ovnershi¡andfuelconsum¡lion,il
alsoincreasedlhesizeoflhemiddle
class,vhichdemandedacleaner
environmenl.This¡henomenonisa
¡overfuldriverofchangelhroughoul
Asiaandlhevorld,saysIunle.
“Ònceyoureachacerlainlevelof
veallh, you hnd grealer concern for
lhe environmenl and ve're hnding
lhalinAsianov,”shesays.“AsAsian
economiesgrov,lhe¡ressureincreases
forgovernmenlsloaddressairqualily
issues.Agrovingmiddleclassvill
demandbeller¡ublics¡aces,im¡roved
‘valkabilily’inurbanareasandabeller
qualilyoflife.
“Cleanairisanim¡orlanl¡arlof
lhal.”Q
res¡iralory¡roblemsandlheline
shovinglheday’sincreaseinair
¡ollulionrunonverysimilar¡alhs.
Therevasvarialionbelveenrainy
anddryseasons,bullheconclusions
indicaledbylhedalaverecom¡elling.
“Increasedconcenlralionsofair
¡ollulanls…areassocialedvilh
increasedhos¡ilaladmissionsfor
aculeloverres¡iraloryinfeclionin
youngchildrenofHoChinMinhCily,
¡arlicularlyinlhedryseason,”slales
lhe re¡orl, vhich vas hnanced by lhe
AsianDevelo¡menlßankandHeallh
LffeclsInslilule.
ThoughlheVielNamsludydid
nolexaminelhe¡overlylevelsoflhe
childrenadmilledlolhehos¡ilal,il
islikelylhalmosloflhemvere¡oor.
Accordingloabroadersludyonlhe
im¡aclonheallhofair¡ollulion,lhere
isincreasingevidencelhal¡overly
com¡oundslhelikelihoodofsuffering
frommedicalcondilionsrelaledlo¡oor
airqualily.
“Lconomicallydisadvanlaged
communiliesareex¡osedlohigher
concenlralionsofair¡ollulion,”slales
lherecenlHeallhLffeclsInslilule
re¡orl.“ßecauseof¡oorernulrilion,
lessaccesslomedicalcare,andolher
faclors,¡eo¡leinlhesecommunilies
ex¡eriencemoreheallhim¡acl¡erunil
of¡ollulionex¡osure.”
Thecom¡rehensive284-¡agere¡orl
noleslhallovlevelsofeducalion,lov
familyincome,andresidenceina¡oor
neighborhoodareallriskfaclorsfor
develo¡ingheallh¡roblemsassocialed
vilh¡oorairqualily.
“The¡ublicheallhandsocial¡olicy
im¡licalionsoflherelalionsamong
heallh,air¡ollulion,and¡overlyare
likelylobeim¡orlanl,es¡eciallyin
areassuchasAsia,vhereair¡ollulion
concenlralionsarehighandmanylive
in¡overly,”lhere¡orlslales.
Someoflhehardeslhilby¡oorair
qualily,accordinglolheWHÒ,are
“¡eo¡lelivingin¡overlyvorldvide
vhousedirlybiomassfuelsforindoor
cookingandhealing,asvellaslhose
32DevelopmentAsia}anuary–March2O12 vvv.develo¡menl.asia
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fleraheavyrainslormin
}une,farmersaroundlhe
lovnshi¡sofQu|ingCily
inYunnanIrovinceinlhe
soulhveslIeo¡le’sRe¡ublicofChina’s
(IRC),vokeloadislurbingscene.
Theirgoals,shee¡,horses,andcallle
laydeadonhillsides.Theliveslockhad
consumedvalerlainledbyloxicvasle.
Aninvesligalionfoundlhalalocal
com¡anyhadhiredlruckdriverslo
dis¡oseoflhevaslealalrealmenl
¡lanlinlheborderingGuizhou
Irovince.Tosaveonlrans¡orlcosls,
lhedriversinsleadunloadedlheheavy-
melal-ladenslurrynearareservoirin
Qu|ing’sruralareas.Therainvashed
lheloxicsludgeinloalribularyof
lheIearlRiver,oneoflhecounlry’s
exlensiveriversyslems.
Nohumandealhsorin|uriesvere
re¡orled,bullhevaslelurnedlhe
valerinanearbyreservoiryellovand
villagersu¡anddovnslreambecame
afraidofallvaler.
Accordinglooneoflhevorld’s
foremoslvalerex¡erls,amanvho
advises¡rimeminislersandlhe
UniledNalions,¡eo¡leindevelo¡ing
counlrieshavemanyreasonslofear
lheirvaler—beyondlhereckless
disregardoflruckdrivers.
Asilßisvasbelieveslhe¡lanelis
chokingonvaler¡ollulionbullhal
valerqualily“hasdisa¡¡earedfrom
lheradarasacrilicalenvironmenlal
issue,”accordingloanedilorialhe
covrolelhala¡¡earedinlheBangkok
Postin}une2O11.Healsobelieves
valerex¡erls,lhemedia,andolher
inßuenlial seclors unnecessarily focus
onacomingvalercrisisfromlheangle
of¡hysicalscarcily.
“Iflhereisavalercrisisinlhefulure,
ilvillnolbeduelo¡hysicallackof
Murky Water
Waterpo||utionthreatensmi||ionsinAsiabutinnovativeso|utionsarebeingfound
ßY}adeLee-DuffyandKarenLmmons
,5=09654,5;
lhisresourcebulbecauseofilsqualily
vhichisdelerioralingconlinuouslyin
nearlyalldevelo¡ingcounlries,”he
vrolevilhhisvife,CeciliaTorla|ada,
inlheMay2O11issueofAsian Water.
ßolhvalerex¡erlsfoundedlheThird
WorldCenlreforWalerManagemenl
inMexicoandarevisiling¡rofessors
FISH KILL Workers remove over 50,000
kiIograms of dead ñsh from the Donghu
Iake in Wuhan in 2007. The PeopIeҋs
RepubIic of China admitted in 2010 that
water poIIution in 2007 was twice as bad.
}anuary–March2O12Development Asia33 vvv.develo¡menl.asia
“If there is a water
crisis in the future,
it will not be due to
physical lack of this
resource but because
of its quality which
is deteriorating
continuously in
nearly all developing
countries”
-As|t B|swas, founder of the
Th|rd Wor|d Centre for Water
Management |n Mex|co
GARBAGE DUMP A boy throws garbage
into the aIready poIIuted Yamuna river
in New DeIhi. The river has become a
Iiquid garbage dump with 3 biIIion Iiters
of waste and raw sewage (over haIf of
the cityҋs daiIy waste) pumped into the
1,300-kiIometer river every day, choking
most of its aquatic Iife.
as‘valerlovers,’insu¡¡orlingdry
season and droughl year ßovs u¡on
vhichhundredsofmillionsofAsians
de¡end,”lhere¡orlsays.“Climale
changeisalsovarmingvalerinlarge
lakesinlheregion.In¡asldecades,
lem¡eralureshaveincreasedbyO.45°C
onaverage,vhich,vhileseemingly
modesl,canhavedramaliceffecls
onvalerqualilyandecosyslemsin
lakes.Iurlhervarmingcouldresullin
ra¡idbiodiversilylossinfreshvaler
ecosyslems.”
“Theslalislicsonvaler¡ollulion
¡ainlagrim¡iclure—a¡¡roximalely
4O/of|lheIRC’sjvalervaysare
GradeIVloV+,meaninglhallhevaler
isunsuilablefordrinking,induslry,
oragricullure,”vrole}enniferTurner,
direcloroflheChinaLnvironmenl
IorumallheWoodrovWilson
InlernalionalCenlerforScholars,
WashinglonD.C.,inAsiaSociely’s2006
Water Security Report.
Òneoflhere¡orl’svrilers,U¡manu
Lall,direcloroflheColumbiaWaler
CenleralColumbiaUniversilyin
NevYorkCily,sayshesus¡eclslhe
silualionisvorseinIndia,muchbeller
inlheRe¡ublicofKoreaand}a¡an
andsomevhereinbelveenamong
SoulheaslAsiancounlries.
TheChallenges to International
Waters—Regional Assessments in a
Global Perspective re¡orldeclareslhal
valer¡ollulionalongvilhfreshvaler
shorlage are lvo of hve ¨serious
vorldvide¡roblemslhalareex¡ecled
loincreaseinseverilyby2O2O.”The
assessmenlsusedeighllransboundary
indicalorsvhenlookingal¡ollulanls:
sus¡endedsolids,eulro¡hicalion
(excessivenulrienlsinaqualicsyslems
causedlargelybysevageandferlilizer
runoff),microbial¡ollulion,solid
vasles,chemical¡ollulion,oils¡ills,
radionuclides,andlhermal¡ollulion.
There¡orl,¡roducedbylheUniled
NalionsLnvironmenlIrogramme,
alsoallribuleslheroolcausesof
¡ollulionloagriculluraldevelo¡menl,
¡o¡ulaliongrovlh,urbanizalionand
induslrializalion,andmarkeland
¡olicyfailures.
AccordinglolheUN,¡ollulanls
include¡alhogens,organicmaller,
nulrienls,heavymelals(including
arsenic)andloxicchemicals,sedimenls
andsus¡endedsolids,sills,andsalls.
POLLUTERS
Induslryiscerlainlyama|or¡olluler,
duelobolhaccidenlsandlhedirecl
releaseofloxicvasleinlovaler
resources.InlheIRCin2OO5,an
oilcom¡anyvasblamedforan
8O-kilomelers¡illofloxicbenzenein
lheSonghuaRiverlhalsu¡¡liesvaler
loHarbin,acilyof4million¡eo¡le.
LlsevhereinlheIRC,accordinglo
lheWater Security Report, asof2OO6
some2,8OOchemicalfacloriesare
localedaroundLakeTainearlhe
IRC’ssoulheaslerncoasl,lhecounlry’s
lhird-largeslfreshvalerbodynov
“devaslaledbyagriculluraland
induslrial¡ollulionasaconsequence
of|lheIRC’sjeconomicboomand
¡oormanagemenlofvasle.”The
re¡orlnoledlhal2million¡eo¡lehad
loslaccesslolheir¡rimaryfreshvaler
source and hsh yields, rice ¡roduclion,
andlourismhaddeclined.
Whileinduslrialaccidenlsand
recklesslruckdriversgelheadlines,
valerex¡erls¡oinllomunici¡al
vaslevalerandagriculluralrunoffas
lhemainsourcesof¡ollulionofbolh
surfaceandgroundvalersu¡¡lies.
In2O1O,lheIRCgovernmenl
re¡orledlhalvaler¡ollulionin2OO7
vasmorelhanlviceasdamagingas
allheLeeKuanYevSchoolofIublic
IolicyinSinga¡ore,amongavarielyof
¡rominenl¡osilions.In2OO6,ßisvas,
vhovasborninIndia,vasavarded
lheSlockholmWalerIrize.
ßisvasandhisvifearenollheonly
valerex¡erlss¡eakingoulaboul
qualilyissues.Arecenlre¡orlfromlhe
AsianDevelo¡menlßank,Greening
*URZWKLQ$VLDDQGWKH3DFLÀFnoles
lhallhe¡recariousvalersilualion
villfurlherbecom¡licaledbyclimale
change.
“ManylargeAsianriverbasinsare
¡arlicularlyvulnerableloregional
varming,givenlhecrilicalroleof
glaciers and snovhelds lhal serve
34DevelopmentAsia}anuary–March2O12 vvv.develo¡menl.asia
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ofhcial hgures originally indicaled.
Insleadof13.8millionmelriclons
of¡olluleddischargesinlolhe
counlry’svalersyslems,alolalof
3O.3 million melric lons ßoved inlo
lhevalerbodieslhalyear.Thechange
innumbersvasduelolherecenl
inclusionofagriculluralvasleinlolhe
re¡orl: agricullural efßuenls laced vilh
ferlilizers and ¡eslicides and ßuids
leaking from landhlls.
InIndia,largeslrelchesofriversare
dying.NevDelhi’sYamunaRiverhas
becomealiquidgarbagedum¡vilh3
billionlilersofvasleandravsevage
(overhalfoflhecily’sdailyvasle)
¡um¡edinlolhe1,3OO-kilomelerriver
everyday,chokingmoslofilsaqualic
life.Tolheeasl,lheGangesRiveris
oneoflhe1Omosl¡olluledriversin
lhevorld.Allhenorlheaslerncilyof
Varanasi,lheGanges’fecalcoliform
levelsaremorelhan1OOlimeslhe
ofhcial Indian governmenl limil.
InlheIhili¡¡ines,densely¡o¡ulaled
areashavecrealedhighly¡olluled
bodiesofvaler.Inlhefoururban
areasofMelroManila,CenlralLuzon,
SoulhernTagalog,andCenlralVisayas,
a¡¡roximalely58/ofsam¡led
groundvalervasconlaminaled
vilhcoliformbacleriaandrequired
lrealmenl.
Trealmenl,hovever,is¡ooracross
lheregionasilisaroundlhevorld.
ResearchbylheThirdWorldCenlrefor
WalerManagemenlinLalinAmerica
foundlhal1O/ofvaslevaler¡oinl
sources(suchassevageandinduslrial
efßuenl oulfalls) had ¡ro¡er lrealmenl
facililies,andßisvashaseslimaled
lhesilualionvassimilarinAsia’s
develo¡ingcounlries.
Inlermsofconlrollingvhalare
knovnasnon-¡oinlsourcesof
¡ollulion(diffusedsourcessuchas
runoff),ßisvasvrileslhal“lherecord
ofdevelo¡edcounlriesis¡oor,andlhal
ofdevelo¡ingcounlries…abysmal.”
Thesourceoflhisly¡eof¡ollulion
sourceis¡rimarilyagricullural
aclivilies,suchaslheuseof¡eslicides
andchemicalferlilizers(allhough
humanvasledueloo¡endefecalionis
aserious¡roblemalso).
Aboulabillion¡eo¡leslilllacksafe
drinkingvalerandlheMillennium
Develo¡menlGoallargelshalving
lhalnumberby2O15.ßullheWater
Security Report raises a ßag, conlending
lherehasbeen“afocusonensuring
adequalesu¡¡liesofvalervilhoul
a¡¡ro¡rialeconsideralionforvaler
su¡¡lysafelyandsecurily,valer
lrealmenlanddis¡osal,anddemand
managemenl.”Theresull,lhere¡orl
says,“isde¡endenceonincreasingly
conlaminaledvalersources.”
AccordinglolheUniledNalions
Children’sIund(UNICLI),only53/
ofIndonesia’s¡o¡ulalionin2OO4
oblainedvalerfromsourceslhalvere
morelhan1Omelersfromavasle
dis¡osalsile.In}akarlaalone,fecal
coliformvasfoundin84/ofshallov
vellsam¡les.
Climalechangeisexacerbaling
manyoflhesesilualions.Iarlicularly
indevelo¡ingcounlries,vhere
governmenlshavelimiledhuman,
inslilulional, and hnancial resources,
lhenegaliveim¡acloflorrenlialrains,
rising sea levels, cyclones, and ßash
ßoods adds addilional challenges lo
safedrinkingvalerandim¡roved
sanilalionforbolhgroundvalerand
surfacevalersu¡¡ly.
IMPACTS
Whenhelhinksofvaler¡ollulion,
Lallsayshelhinksofcancerim¡acls
andlhelossofbiodiversily:lhe
lossofaqualicecosyslemsandfood
sources (hsh in ¡arlicular), disease
(highincidenceofcancer,bluebaby
syndrome,blindness,andmalernal
andinfanlmorlalily)andeconomics
(lrealmenlcoslsfordrinkingvaler
areinordinalelyhighforlhe¡olluled
valer).
AWorldßanksludyfoundlhal
IRCfarmersverealmoslfourlimes
morelikelylodieoflivercancerand
lviceaslikelylodieofslomachcancer
com¡aredvilhlheglobalaverage.
Lallsays“cancervillages”arealso
evidenlinIndia’sIun|abslale.
LOW-COST SOLUTIONS A farmer pIants
sapIings at paddy ñeIds on the outskirts
of Hyderabad, India. To prevent the
poIIution of water by agricuIturaI runoff,
the CoIumbia Water Center in New York
is testing the use of Iow-cost tooIs that
heIps farmers minimize the appIication of
fertiIizers and pesticide.
vvv.develo¡menl.asia }anuary–March2O12Development Asia35
While ßisvas and his vife hnd lhal
anecdolalevidencealsoindicaleslhal
lheheallhandenvironmenlalcoslsof
valer-qualilydelerioralionarealready
inlhebillionsofdollarseachyear,
olher ex¡erls hnd lhe human cosl lo
bedeadly.Diarrheaconlracledfrom
sevage-conlaminaledvalerisoneof
lhebiggeslkillersinlheregion.The
Worldßankeslimaleslhaldiarrhea
killsaboul11O,OOOßangladeshichildren
youngerlhan5yearseveryyear.Dirly
valerisoneoflheleadingcausesof
dealhforchildreninIndia,accordinglo
lheWorldHeallhÒrganizalion.
POTENTIAL SOLUTIONS
AllhoughßisvasvroleinlheAsian
Watercommenlarylhal“lhereareno
signslhalgovernmenlsand¡eo¡le
areavareoflheseriousnessoflhis
¡roblemandlhedangerslhey¡ose
lohumanheallhandecosyslems,”
lherearemanyre¡orlsofinnovalions
in¡ockelsofAsiavorkinglobeller
managelhe¡roblem.
InIndia,moslsevagelrealmenl
¡lanlssus¡endo¡eralionsformonlhs
alalimeduelo¡overculsanderralic
ßoodvalers. A Hindu ¡riesl and
¡rofessorofhydraulicsandvaler
resourcesengineering,Veerßhadra
Mishra,vona¡¡rovalandsu¡¡orl
fromlhegovernmenlforagravily-
o¡eraled¡ilolsevage-lrealmenl
¡rogramlhalaimsloremovevasle
anddiseasefromlheGangesRiver.
Mishra’schea¡,suslainablesyslem
useslhegradienl,insleadofeleclric
¡um¡s,lodiverlsevageinlofour
big¡oolsoulsidelhecilyofVaranasi,
vhereharmful¡ollulanlsarebroken
dovnbyalgae,bacleria,andsunlighl.
Mosllrealmenl¡lanlsalonglheGanges
Riveronlyremovesolidvasleandnol
microorganisms.
TheHui|iaIeikeIigßreeding
Com¡anyselu¡YunnanIrovince’s
hrsl large-scale biogas digesler. The
com¡any’slargeanaerobicdigesler
lrealsu¡lo15Olonsof¡igvaslea
day,generalinganaverageof25Ocubic
squaremelersofbiogas.Theenergyis
usedlo¡overlheon-silefacililies,and
lhesur¡lusisdiverled,alnocosl,lo
42householdsnearby,vherelheyvill
saveaboul$92annuallyinfuelcosls.
Thiseco-friendly¡rocessremoves
aboul9O/ofliveslock¡ollulanlslhal
vouldolherviseendu¡onnearby
farmlandandinvalervays.
Lallandhisgrou¡ofresearchers
allheColumbiaWalerCenlerare
vorkingonslralegieslhalconfronl
lhe¡ollulionofvalerbyagricullural
runoff.Ònesolulioninvolveslheuse
ofverychea¡andsim¡lesensorslo
deleclsoilmoislureandlhe¡resence
oflhevellingfronlduringirrigalion,
andnilraleinlhesoilvaler,solhallhe
limingandde¡lhofirrigalion,andlhe
needfora¡¡licalionofferlilizerand
¡eslicidecanbedelerminedbylhe
farmer in lhe held and hence reduce
lheamounlused,savemoney,and
alsoreduce¡ollulion.Aslheclimale
changes,lhisa¡¡roachvould¡rovide
anada¡lalionslralegybyluninglolhe
changingcondilions.
“Inourex¡erimenlsvilh6,OOOor
sofarmers,onecaneasilysave3O/
ofvalerlhisvayandrecruilingand
lrainingfarmersdoesnolrequirea
lransformalion,”Lallsays.Hisresearch
grou¡isvorkinginßrazil,lheIRC,
India,Llhio¡ia,Mali,andlheUniled
Slales,vhereagricullural¡ollulion
isalsoahuge¡roblem.InAsia,he
adds,“lhe¡roblemisexacerbaledby
lhemonsoon—high-inlensilyrainfall
lhalise¡isodicleadsloahighraleof
vash-offofferlilizerand¡eslicidesand
area¡¡licalion,lhuscrealingacycleof
¡ollulionlhalishardlomanage.”
Lnvironmenlalaclivism,lhough
hardlyinnovalive,is¡o¡¡ingu¡in
unex¡ecled¡laces.Discovermagazine
re¡orledlhalmorelhan3,5OO
environmenlalorganizalionsnov
havelegalslalusinlheIRC.“Through
a¡rogramcalledlheGreenChoice
Alliance,environmenlalgrou¡s¡ublish
lislsofcom¡aniesinviolalionof
environmenlalregulalionsandoffer
loconduclalhird-¡arlyaudilifa
com¡anychooseslocleanu¡ilsacl,”
sayslhemagazineinMarch2O11.
ßisvasrecenllya¡¡laudedanev
resourceforinnovalivesolulions.
TheAsianInsliluleofTechnologyin
Thailandissellingu¡lheAsianWaler
ResearchandLducalionCenlervilh
ex¡erlsfromdifferenldisci¡lines
looking lo hnd Asia-s¡ecihc solulions
loAsia’svaler¡roblems,currenland
fulure.
“Iflhe¡ro¡ermanagemenlofvaler
qualilyconlinueslobeneglecled,”
ßisvasconcludesinhisBangkok Post
edilorial,“lhereisnoqueslionlhallhe
vorldislikelylofaceavalercrisis.”Q
CONVERTING WASTE INTO ENERGY
A man cooks his meaI on a biogas-
powered stove in Yunnan, the PeopIeҋs
RepubIic of China. A company has set
up the provinceҋs ñrst Iarge-scaIe biogas
digester, which treats up to 150 tons of
pig waste a day.
vvv.develo¡menl.asia 36DevelopmentAsia}anuary–March2O12
grovlh—lhebalancingofeconomic
ex¡ansionandenvironmenlal
¡reservalion.
ßysomeaccounls,Cambodia’s
efforlslogreenilseconomybeganina
vorksho¡ for governmenl ofhcials in
2OO7.Allhalmeeling,RaekvonChung,
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L
eyLeu¡hasbeenarice
farmerallofherlife.The
56-year-oldresidenlof
norlhernCambodialried
logrovvegelables,vhichgenerale
grealer ¡rohl, bul lhe high cosl of
ferlilizersand¡eslicideske¡lher
incomesolovlhalshegaveu¡.
Inlhelaslfevyears,lhings
havechanged.Shehasundergone
governmenllraininglhalhaslaughl
herhovloim¡roveherseedseleclion,
usevaslefromaroundherfarmas
organicferlilizer,anddeler¡esls
vilhoulchemical¡eslicides.
Today,lhecabbage,morning
glory,slringbeans,as¡aragus,and
Cambodia Goes Green
Cambodiahasaggressive|yembracedtheconceptofgreengrowthbutseriouscha||enges|ieahead
ßYKarenLmmons
,5=09654,5;
TEAM EFFORT A dragon boat team
paddles in unison along the Tonle
Sap river during the Water Festival
in Phnom Penh. Cambodia formed
an interministerial working group to
develop a strategy for the greening of its
economy.
caulißover lhal she grovs on her farm
are far more ¡rohlable lhan rice and
shemakesamuchmorecomforlable
living.
Whenaskedifsheisanorganic
farmer,shesays:“Idon’lknov,bul
lhelraders¡aymoreifIdon’luse
chemicalsonmyvegelablessoIdon’l
uselhem.”
LeyLeu¡isonesmallexam¡le
ofabroadermovemenlundervay
inCambodialobringgreenand
suslainable¡raclicesvilhoul
sacrihcing economic grovlh.
Thoughasmallcounlry,Cambodia
isvorkingloeslablishilselfasaleader
inlheemerging¡raclicesofgreen
vvv.develo¡menl.asia }anuary–March2O12Development Asia37
“We want to show
the world this is
possible—to create
a new way of growth
that will allow
Cambodia to enhance
economic growth
while also preserving
and promoting its
environment and rich
ecosystems”
-J|eun Lee, a program off|cer w|th
the G|oba| Green Growth Inst|tute
SMART FARMING Ley Leup, a 56-year-
oId rice farmer, is making more proñt
from raising pesticide-free vegetables.
She is one small example of a broader
movement underway in Cambodia to
bring green and sustainable practices
without sacriñcing economic growth.
anenvironmenlal¡ioneer,lalked
aboullheconce¡lofgreengrovlh.He
rememberedlhalMokMarelh,senior
minislerandminislerforenvironmenl,
in¡arlicularvaskeenlyinleresled.
Chung,lhedirecloroflheLnvironmenl
andDevelo¡menlDivisionoflhe
UniledNalionsLconomicandSocial
Commission for Asia and lhe Iacihc
(LSCAI),encouragedlheCambodians
loconsiderlakinglheconce¡lfurlher.
Chung,aKorean,loldlhe
Cambodianslhallheonlyvaylhey
couldgoforvardvaslobringin
senior ofhcials from many minislries,
mosles¡eciallylhosevilhlhecloul
lo sink or ßoal ideas, such as hnance,
¡lanning,andinduslry.
Chungvaslellingeveryoneallhal
lime—asheslilldoes,¡assionalely—
lhallhecurrenlgrovlh¡allernof
lheregionisenergy-,resource-,and
carbon-inlensive,andlhallheregion
direclor-generalofCambodia’s
MinislryofLnvironmenl,havinglived
lhrougha“blackregime”inlhe197Os
vheninfraslruclurevasdecimaled
andhumanresourcesdeslroyed,he
andolherCambodiansvereafraidof
lhe¡ros¡eclsofsimilardeslruclionof
lheirnaluralresources.
TheCambodiansknevlheirforesl
covervasdvindlingfaslandlhey
hadhuge¡roblemsvilhvasle
managemenl.Theyalsoknevlhalas
aleasl-develo¡edagrariancounlry,
lheyverehighlyvulnerableloclimale
changeim¡acls.
Asgreengrovlhvasbeing
inlroduced,Cambodiaalsovas
conslrucling ils hrsl nalional ¡rogram
ofacliononada¡lalionloclimale
change.SaysHakMao,chiefof
lheClimaleChangeVulnerabilily
Assessmenl and Ada¡lalion Òfhce
vilhinlheMinislryofLnvironmenl,
everylhingvas¡oinlinglolheneed
“lodevelo¡inasuslainablevay”and
im¡rovelhecounlry’sresilience.
LOW-CARBON AND GREEN-GROWTH
MODEL
TheLSCAIa¡¡roachlolov-carbon
greengrovlhandilslechnical
guidancevereanofferlhalHakMao
sayslhegovernmenlvould“never
regrel.ӧyfollovinglheideaslhal
Chungandolhersencouraged,lhe
counlrycouldsuslainilsnaluralca¡ilal
andgrovlheeconomy.
“TheLSCAIgreengrovlhconce¡l
¡romoleschangeslolheeconomic
syslemlocloselhega¡belveen
economic efhciency and ecological
efhciency, shifling from lhe energy-,
resource-,carbon-inlensivegrovlh
¡allern lovard an efhcienl grovlh
¡allern—acrilicalslralegyforco¡ing
vilhlheloomingmulli¡lecrises,”
saysChung.“Thesechangesinclude
lhechangeoflheinvisibleslruclure
oflheeconomy,suchasmarkel¡rice,
regulalion,socialvalues,lifeslyle
andlechnology,andlhechangesof
lhevisibleinfraslruclure,suchaslhe
designofcily,building,lrans¡orl,
energy,valer,andvaslesyslems.”
Allhoughlessofaneasyselloulside
Cambodia’senvironmenlminislry,
¡arllybecausesofev¡eo¡lehad
everheardofgreengrovlhlelalone
underslandvhyilshouldinvolve
lhem,MokMarelhandKochSavalh
evenluallybroughleverygovernmenl
minislryinloaninlerminislerialgreen
grovlhvorkinggrou¡.
Inlimelhevorkinggrou¡became
im¡assionedaboulgreengrovlh
andvhalCambodiacouldachieve,
ex¡lainsAnelaNikolova,anLSCAI
environmenlal affairs ofhcer vho is
¡arlofaca¡acily-buildingleamlhal
Chungcrealedlohel¡¡olicymakersin
lheregionunderslandhovlodevelo¡
greengrovlh¡oliciesanda¡¡lylhe
conce¡llolheirconlexl.
villbehardeslhilbylhelooming
energy,resourceandclimalecrises.
Caringaboullheenvironmenl,ex¡lains
Chung, means using il efhcienlly,
vhichinlurnleadsloeconomic
efhciency and conlinued grovlh.
AccordingloKochSavalh,de¡uly
38DevelopmentAsia}anuary–March2O12 vvv.develo¡menl.asia
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EMPOWERING CONSUMERS A family
eats dinner on the hoor in front of a
portable lamp during a power outage in
Phnom Penh. A pilot project in Cambodia
aims to give villagers a low-cost,
clean energy option by training them
to manage solar-powered recharging
stations for rechargeable lamps.
AflerlrainingCambodianlrainers,
lheca¡acily-buildingleamandlhe
vorkinggrou¡overlhes¡anof2
years,halfadozenseminars,and
fundingfromlheGovernmenloflhe
Re¡ublicofKorea¡ullogelheran
exhausliveslralegy,righldovnlo
¡ossible|obs,forlheshorl-,medium-,
andlong-lermgreeningofCambodia’s
economy.
“Wemadelhemdreamandseelhe
horizon,”saysNikolova.
ILLUMINATING WHAT IS POSSIBLE
Theyalsoshovedlhemhovlo
illuminalelhosedreams(bolh
hguralively and lilerally) by including
ademonslralion¡ro|eclloilluslrale
lhe¡ro-¡oorgreenbusinessmodeland
hovlo¡ulilinlo¡raclice.The¡ro|ecl
inlroducedaninnovalive,clean,safe,
affordable,andofcourseenvironmenl-
friendly vay lo lighl u¡ ßoaling
villages.
Cambodiaisheavilyde¡endenl
u¡onenergyim¡orlsandlacksa
nalionvideeleclricilylransmission
syslem.Thosevhocanaccesslhe
grid¡aydearlyforlheunsleady
su¡¡ly.Muchoflhecounlryolhervise
isde¡endenlonex¡ensive,dirly,
unreliable,or¡olenliallydangerous
sourcesforenergy,heal,andlighl,
including¡orlablegeneralors,kerosene
lanlerns,andlead-acidballeries.
Througha¡ilol¡arlnershi¡vilh
SunlabobRenevableLnergy,lhe
CambodianRenevableDevelo¡menl
Team,lheNalionalGreenGrovlh
SecrelarialoflheMinislryof
LnvironmenlofCambodia,andlhe
KoreanInlernalionalCoo¡eralion
Agency,alov-feerenlalscheme
forrechargeablelam¡sandsolar-
¡overedrechargingslalionsvere
madeavailableloresidenlsinlvo
ßoaling villages in ßallambong
Irovince.Thevillagersverelrained
lomainlainlhescheme,givinglhem
energyinde¡endence.The¡lanislo
uselhelanlernsasamodelforfulure
¡ro-¡oorgreenbusiness¡ro|eclsbolh
in¡rovincialCambodiaandinolher
develo¡ingcounlries.
Cambodiahasalsolriedlorevu¡
inlereslininnovalivelechnologies,
suchas¡roducingbiogasenergy
alasmallscale.Agarmenlsfaclory
currenllyo¡eralesfromenergy
¡roduced from rice husk gasihcalion.
Inearly2O1O,aseniorre¡resenlalive
fromeveryminislrymelala
roundlableevenlloendorsevhalhas
becomeahisloricmilesloneinregional
efforlslovardim¡lemenlinggreen
grovlh.
Afevmonlhslaler,lheGlobalGreen
GrovlhInslilule(GGGI)vasselu¡
inSeoullohel¡develo¡ingcounlry
governmenlscrealegreengrovlh
slralegies.Allhoughsomevhalahead
oflhegamebulslillneedingimmense
lechnical and hnancial assislance, lhe
CambodiansaskedGGGIforhel¡lo
a¡¡lylheroadma¡.
Readingmorelikeanenvironmenl-
friendlysho¡¡inglisl,lheroadma¡
iscerlainlyheavyonzeal.Ilconlains
37¡riorilieslhaladdressvhalilcalls
lhesevenaccessareas.Theem¡hasis
isongreeneconomicgrovlh¡ro|ecls
and ¡rograms, including eco-efhcienl
and resource-efhcienl innovalions lhal
cancrealeo¡¡orluniliesandnevgreen
|obs.
Thedocumenlslales“vhilean
inslanl¡aradigmshifllovardgreen
grovlhisnollobeex¡ecled,”ilis
lookingfor“aneconomicgrovlh
modellhalismoreconducivefor
humandevelo¡menl,resilience,and
environmenlalsuslainabililylhanlhe
currenlbusiness-as-usuala¡¡roach.”
IMPLEMENTING THE ROAD MAP
Des¡ilelheim¡ressivebeginning,
lhereisyelnoformal¡olicyin¡lace.
Addilionally,avarenessofgreen
grovlhorevenoflheroadma¡
remainsexlremelylimiledvilhinlhe
¡rivaleseclorandlhegeneral¡ublic.
Therearesome¡romising
¡ro|eclsundervay,im¡lemenled
vilhinlernalionaldonorsu¡¡orl,
includingefforlslomakericefarmers
moreresilienlloclimalechangeand
encouragesmallfarmersloado¡l
suslainable¡raclicesanddiversify
agricullure.
Ilvilllikelylakeseveralyearslo
im¡lemenlsucha¡olicyinCambodia
onabroadscale,saysKochSavalh.
Henoleslhalillakeslimeloconvince
}anuary–March2O12Development Asia39 vvv.develo¡menl.asia
¡eo¡leoflheim¡orlanceofsuslainable
¡raclicesandlodevelo¡lhe¡olilical
villlomakegreengrovlhlhe¡olicy.
TheCambodians,says}ieunLee,a
¡rogram ofhcer vilh GGGI, ¨are nol
afraidoflearning.They’renolafraid
of¡olenlialhurdleslhallieaheadno
mallerhovlarge.Theyknovil’sa
longroadandlheyvillhavelovork
hardloachievesuccess.”
GGGIandlheGovernmenlof
Cambodiaareinlhe¡rocessof
develo¡inganalionalgreengrovlh
masler¡lanforbuildingu¡lhe
counlry’sca¡acilylogogreen.
AccordingloLee,lhegovernmenl
hascommilledlo¡ursuinga
moresuslainablemodelofgrovlh
loallevialelheslrain¡laced
onilsenvironmenlandnalural
resources.Themasler¡lanseekslo
eslablishanalionalcommilleeongreen
grovlhlooverseelhevorklobedone,
agreengrovlh¡olicy,andaregulalory
framevork.The¡riorilyseclorslhal
vill be addressed hrsl are suslainable
foreslry,vaslemanagemenl,andgreen
|obcrealion.Themasler¡lanalsohas
roomforinlensiveanalysisofeconomic
andinslilulional¡olenlial,lrainingfor
governmenl ofhcials and local ex¡erls,
andraising¡ublicavareness.
GGGIvanlsloassislCambodia
locreale|obsandnevo¡lionsfor
economicgrovlhvhilelearningfrom
lheRe¡ublicofKorea’sex¡erience,Lee
says,referringlolheKoreaneconomy
lhalgrevinloaninduslrial¡over
fromagarmenlsex¡orlbeginning
bulhasbeenfacingissuesofair
¡ollulionandolherenvironmenlal
¡roblems. S¡ecihcally, lhe Re¡ublic of
Koreacanlransferlheknov-hovand
ca¡acilygeneraledlhroughlhecrealion
ofconcrele¡oliciesandinslilulions,
shesays.
CanCambodialeadlhevayfor
develo¡ingcounlries`Drafling
legislalionislhenexlbigsle¡.The
lifeslylechangesmaylakelonger.Wilh
allgovernmenlem¡loyeesabovea
cerlainlevelenlilledloaralionoffree
¡elrolandsomeyoungcivilservanls
feelinglheneedlodriveaLexuslobe
lakenseriously,moreenvironmenl-
friendlylrans¡orlslillloomsasa
dreamonlhehorizon.
Addinglhalshe’sexciledby
vhalhasslarledinCambodia,Lee
concludes,“Theyhave¡olenliallo
beagrealexam¡lelolheresloflhe
vorld. Il's a nev held. We're o¡ening
markelsando¡¡orlunilies.Wevanllo
shovlhevorldlhallhisis¡ossible—lo
crealeanevvayofgrovlhlhalvill
allovCambodialoenhanceeconomic
grovlhvhilealso¡reservingand
¡romolingilsenvironmenlandrich
ecosyslems.”Q
ADB Annual Meeting AD
4ODevelopmentAsia}anuary–March2O12 vvv.develo¡menl.asia
6--;/,:/,3-
Borderless Economics
ChineseSeaTurt|es,IndianFridgesandtheNewFruitsofG|oba|Capita|ism
By Robert Guest
Palgrave Macmillan, November 2011, $27.00
I
nBorderless Economics,RoberlGuesl,businessedilor
ofThe Economist,argueslhal“lhefreemovemenlof
¡eo¡lemakeslhevorldricher,acceleraleslechnological
¡rogress,andhel¡sdisseminalegoodideas,from
genomicslodemocracy.”
Gueslnoleslhalmigranlscrealevalueinlheirado¡led
counlrylhroughlhenelvorkofconlaclslhallheybuildand
mainlain,lhankslochea¡lravelandchea¡communicalions,
suchaslhroughSky¡e.Iorinslance,IndiansinlheUniled
SlalescollaboralevilhlheircolleaguesinIndialo¡roduce
$7Ofridgesand$3OOhouses.Inlhemeanlime,migranlsalsohel¡boosllheir
homeland’seconomylhroughremillancesandknovledgelransfer.Knovnas
“sealurlles,”ChinesevhosludyinlheWeslandlhenrelurnhomesharevhal
lheyhavelearned,including,lheaulhorho¡es,democralicideas.
ßefore|oiningThe Economist,GueslvaslheTokyocorres¡ondenlforThe
Daily Telegraph. HealsovroleThe Shackled Continent in2OO4,vhichdiscusseslhe
¡roblemsfacingAfrica.
“Inlhishighlyreadableand¡ersonalaccounlbuilloninlervievsvilh
emigranlsfrommanycounlries,Guesl…conlendslhalvolunlaryemigralion
almosl alvays benehls lhe emigranls and usually benehls lheir counlries of origin
anddeslinalion,loo.Inrecenldecades,ChineseandIndianoverseasdias¡oras
have¡layedacrucialroleingeneralingra¡idgrovlhinlheirhomecounlries,
aslheirmembershavecrealedbusinessesando¡enedforeignmarkeling
channels.”—Richard N. Cooper, Foreign AffairsQ
The Price of
Civilization
ThePriceofCivi|ization
By Jeffrey Sachs
Random House, October 2011, $27.00
I
nhislaleslbook,}effreySachs,
oneoflhevorld’sleading
develo¡menleconomisls,offers
adiagnosisoflheeconomic
crisisinlheUniledSlales,lracinglhe
rooloflhe¡roblem
lo“lhedeclineof
civicvirlueamong
America’s¡olilical
andeconomicelile.”
Sachsislhe
direclorofThe
LarlhInslilule
and¡rofessorof
heallh¡olicyand
managemenlalColumbiaUniversily.
Heisalsos¡ecialadvisorloUniled
NalionsSecrelary-Generalßan
Ki-moon.
“Thisislhelaleslinas¡aleofbooks
¡rovokedbylhevorldeconomiccrisis
andoneoflhebesl…InThe End of
Povertyhea¡¡liedhisclinician’sskills
lolhedislem¡ersofAfrica,inlhis
bookhelurnslhemlolhehubrislic
andvaslefulhabilsofAmerica.The
delailsoflheIall—ifbylhalhemeans
lhecolla¡seoflheAmericanbanking
syslemin2OO8—donolconcern
him,ilisvhallheIalllellsusaboul
conlem¡oraryAmericanca¡ilalism.”—
Robert Skidelsky, The Guardian
“Sachsmanageslo¡ainlanalarming
¡iclureoflheUS,vhileleavinglhe
readervilhasenselhalils¡roblems
are eminenlly hxable. A second
achievemenlislhesheersvee¡ofhis
analysis, vhich ßouls lhe boundaries
ofeconomicsloencom¡ass¡olilics,
¡sychologyandmoral¡hiloso¡hy.The
gainin¡ers¡eclivemosllyoulveighs
lhelossinaulhorialaulhorily.”—
Martin Sandbu, Financial TimesQ
Grand Pursuit
TheStoryofEconomicGenius
By Sylvia Nasar
Simon & Schuster, September 2011,
$35.00
A
ulhoroflhebeslseller,
A Beautiful Mind, Sylvia
Nasarvrilesanolherbook
onnol|uslonebulseveral
“geniuses”inmodernhislory.
Grand Pursuit isaboullhemen
andvomenvholransformed
economicsfromadismalsciencelo
“aninslrumenlofmaslery”lhalcan
im¡rovelhehumancondilion.
Nasar’saccounl
beginsvilhCharles
Dickensand
HenryMayhevin
mid-19lh-cenlury
London.“ßefore
187O,economicsvas
mosllyaboulvhal
youcouldn’ldo.
Afler187O,ilvas
mosllyaboulvhalyoucoulddo,”she
vrilesinlhe¡reface.Thelaslcha¡ler
oflhebookisonIndia’sNobelIrize
vinnerAmarlyaSen.
Nasarislhe}ohnS.and}ames
L.KnighlIrofessorofßusiness
}ournalismalColumbiaUniversily.
vvv.develo¡menl.asia }anuary–March2O12DevelopmentAsia41
Stealth of Nations
TheG|oba|RiseoftheInforma|
Economy
By Robert Neuwirth
Pantheon, October 2011, $25.95
A
flervrilingaboullhe
vorld’s1billioninformal
selllersinShadow Cities,
RoberlNeuvirlhfocuses
hisallenliononlheinformaleconomy,
eslimaledlobevorlh$1Olrillion.
Thebook’slille,Stealth of Nations, isa
vord¡layonAdamSmilh’sWealth of
Nations.
Neuvirlhnoles
lhallheinformal
economy,or
SyslemD(alerm
lhaloriginaled
inIranco¡hone
Africaandlhe
Caribbean),is
“basedonsmall
salesandliny
incremenls of ¡rohl, yel il ¡roduces,
cumulalively,ahugeamounlofveallh.
Ilismassiveyeldis¡araged,o¡enyel
feared,microsco¡icyelglobal.”
NeuvirlhhasvrillenforThe New
York Times, The Washington Post,
Fortune,andWired. His hrsl book
Shadow Cities: A Billion Squatters, a
New Urban World vas¡ublishedby
Roulledgein2OO4.
“Avaluablebookbecauseil
challengesconvenlionallhinking
aboulvhalilmeansforaneconomylo
develo¡….Mr.Neuvirlhargueslhal
SyslemD|lheundergroundeconomyj
foslersenlre¡reneurshi¡vhilealso
meelinggovernmenls’needslo
encourageem¡loymenl,insomecases,
a modesl amounl of lax revenue is also
generaled.Movinginlolhe‘formal’
seclor,hesuggesls,maynolbeagoallo
vhichenlre¡reneursin¡oorcounlries
as¡ire.”—Marc Levinson, The Wall Street
JournalQ
The Quest
Energy,Security,andtheRemakingoftheModernWor|d
By Daniel Yergin
The Penguin Press, September 2011, $37.95

T
he QuestconlinueslheslorybeguninDanielYergin’s
IulilzerIrize-vinninghisloryofoil,The Prize. The
nevbookdravson5yearsofresearchlo¡rovide
acom¡rehensiveanalysisoflheglobalenergymarkelandlhedynamics
sha¡ingilsfulure.
“Thequesllosecurelheenergyfulurevill¡layoulacrosslheenlires¡eclrum
ofenergy—fromlradilionalsourceslikeoilandgaslorenevableenergyand
im¡rovemenls in efhciency÷and, as hislory shovs us, a heallhy dose of human
ingenuily,”saysYerginina¡ressslalemenl.
Yerginisareci¡ienloflheUniledSlalesLnergyAvard.Heischairmanof
CambridgeLnergyResearchAssociales(CLRA).
“Anevenbellerbook|lhanThe Prizej.Ilissearching,im¡arlialandalarmingly
u¡lodale….Mr.Yerginbrooksnocanlaboulclimale-changedenial,andlingers
onlhelo¡icofcleanerfulurefuels.Òurheadsmaybeburiedinoursleekla¡lo¡s
andgadgels,hismaslerlybookannounces,bulourloesareslillsoakingindirly,
morallyconlaminaledoil.“—Dwight Garner, The New York Times
¨Il is, hrsl, an accounl of lhe many vays in vhich ¡eo¡le have soughl lo
¡roduceenergy—byburningfossilfuels,harveslinglhevind,brevingbiodiesel
andlra¡¡inglhesun’sheal.Ilisalsoananalysisoflheincreasinglyfraughl
¡olilical conlexl in vhich lhis business is conducled, es¡ecially vilh regard lo
lhreebigandlongslandingfears:energyscarcily,energysecurilyand,moreand
more,lheenvironmenlalruinlhalenergycancause.The Questisamaslerly¡iece
ofvorkand,asacom¡rehensiveguidelolhevorld’sgrealenergyneedsand
dilemmas,ilvillbehardlobeal.“—The Economist Q
“Nasar’saim…isnollovrile
inlelleclualhislorybullo¡ullhe
readerinlolhelivesoflhecharaclers
ofasvee¡inghisloricaldramalhal
exlends from Viclorian Lngland lo
modern-dayIndia.Thalshelargely
succeeds reßecls lhe de¡lh and breadlh
ofherresearchbulalsolheelegance
ofher¡rose.”—Steven Pearlstein, The
Washington Post
“AllhecoreofNasar’snarralive
isanaccounloflheeconomically
lroubleddecadesbelveenlhelvo
vorldvars,asloldlhroughlhe
ex¡eriences of Keynes, Irving Iisher,
andSchum¡elerandHayek.…The
bookasavholeismadeu¡ofsomany
vonderful¡arlslhaloneisinclinedlo
excuse ils shorlcomings.¨—Justin Fox,
The New York Times
“IfNasar¡uls¡erha¡sloomuch
em¡hasis on lhe inßuence of early
economiclhinkers—vho,aflerall,
vereobservingcondilionsralher
lhancrealinglhem—shedoesshov
hovfullylhe¡rofessionhasbecome
enlvinedvilhlhevaygovernmenls
run….MuchofGrand Pursuitmaybe
areminderlhalasbadaslhingsseem
nov,lheyhavebeenvorse—much
vorse÷and lhal lhose difhcull limes
canshedlighlonvhalisha¡¡ening
loday.”—Alana Semeuls, Los Angeles
TimesQ
vvv.develo¡menl.asia 42DevelopmentAsia }anuary–March2O12
I
nlaleMay,invhalhasbecomean
annualevenl,morelhanadozen
gradualebusinesssludenlsfrom
lheUniledSlaless¡enl1Odays
inKenya,lalkingsho¡vilhgrassrools
enlre¡reneurs and observing hrslhand
lhe¡overoffree-markelinnovalion
and¡rivale-seclorinveslmenlsin
hghling ¡overly.
Aroundlhesamelime,65Ocor¡orale
execulives,fundmanagers,inveslors,
academics,andordinarycilizensfrom
morelhan5Ocounlriesgalheredinlhe
Nelherlandslodiscusshovim¡acl
inveslingcanlifllivingslandards
andreduceenvironmenlal¡roblems
aroundlhevorld.
IromAsialoAfrica,fromlhe
AmericasandLuro¡elolheMiddle
Lasl,lhede¡loymenlof¡alienlca¡ilal
byinveslorsvillingloacce¡lbelov-
markelrelurnsloachieve¡osilive
socialchangeisarisingforcein
globaldevelo¡menl.Combininglhe
idealismoflradilional¡hilanlhro¡y
vilhlheinnovalionoffreemarkels,
lhese¡ioneeringsocialca¡ilalislsare
¡arlneringvilhlocalenlre¡reneurs
lomanufaclureanlimalarialmosquilo
nelsinTanzania,delivereleclricilylo
slumdvellersinIndia,andirrigale
¡archedfarmsinIakislan,loname|usl
afev¡ro|ecls—allvhileslrivinglo
lurn a ¡rohl.
Theirsharedgoal,saysKevin}ones,
founderofaSanIrancisco,California-
based im¡acl inveslmenl hrm knovn
asGoodCa¡ilalandlheannual
SocialCa¡ilalMarkelsConference,
is“inveslingvilhadesireforclear,
measurablesocialandenvironmenlal
im¡acl.”
Good Investment
Investorswi||ingtoacceptbe|ow-marketreturnstoachievepositivesocia|
changearearisingforceing|oba|deve|opment
ßYGregg}ones
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(9;0*3,
Inlhelasl4yearsalone,morelhan
1OOnevfundsvilhlheslaledgoal
ofinveslingforsocialgoodhave
emerged.Tensofmillionsofdollars
fromlhesefundsandmoreeslablished
¡layers,suchaslheAcumenIund,are
delivering¡osilivechangelomillions
of¡oorinlhedevelo¡ingvorld.
“Idon’llhinkanybodyvholakes
lhese¡roblemsseriouslyvillsayve
cansolveeverylhingvilh|lradilional
develo¡menljgranls,orlhalvecan
solveeverylhingvilhlhemarkels,”
saysSashaDichler,direclorofbusiness
develo¡menlalAcumenIund.“We
shouldaskvhalloolsarelhereinlhe
chesllosolvelhis¡arlicular¡roblem,
and hgure oul vhich ones lo a¡¡ly.¨
vvv.develo¡menl.asia }anuary–March2O12DevelopmentAsia43
COLD-EYED WALL STREET APPROACH
Allhevanguardoflhesocialca¡ilal
movemenlislheNevYork-based
Acumen Iund, a non¡rohl venlure
ca¡ilal hrm lhal invesls in enler¡rises
lhal¡rovidecleanvaler,heallhcare,
housing,allernaliveenergy,and
olherserviceslolov-income¡eo¡le
in lhe develo¡ing vorld. The hrm
vasfoundedin2OO1by}acqueline
Novogralz,aformerChaseManhallan
banker and African microhnance
s¡ecialislvhoconvincedlhe
RockefellerIoundalionandahandful
ofolherdonorslo¡rovideseedmoney
for a markel-based a¡¡roach lo hghling
vorld¡overly.
AcumenIund’s$6Omillion
inveslmenl¡orlfolioallheendoflhe
2O11secondquarlersu¡¡orleddozens
ofenler¡risesinIndia,Iakislan,and
LaslAfrica.
Novogralzhasbecome¡erha¡slhe
moslrecognizable¡ublicadvocale
formarkel-basedsolulionslo¡overly
andolhersocialandenvironmenlal
¡roblems.Her2OO9memoir,The Blue
Sweater: Bridging the Gap Between Rich
and Poor in an Interconnected World,
becameaNew York Timesbeslseller.
Illellslhesloryofherlransformalion
fromrisingWallSlreelbankerlo
¡overly-hghling ¡ioneer.
Asayoungglobe-lrollingbanker
chargedvilhrevievingChase
Manhallan’sloansinßrazilandolher
slrugglingeconomies,Novogralz
hadbeenlroubledbylhefacllhal
lhebank’sdoorsvere“closedlolhe
¡oorandvorkingclass.”Shebeganlo
lhinkhovshecoulduseherex¡erlise
loim¡rovelhelivesoflhevorld’s
dis¡ossessed,andlearnedaboullhe
CLEAR VISION A student draws grafñti
on a waII in BangaIore as part of an
eye donation campaign. New York-
based Acumen Fund supported the
deveIopment of a Iow-cost Iens in India
that couId be impIanted in the eyes of
patients bIinded by cataracts.
“I don’t think anybody
who takes these
problems seriously
will say we can
solve everything
with [traditional
development] grants,
or that we can solve
everything with the
markets. We should
ask what tools are
there in the chest to
solve this particular
problem, and figure
out which ones to
apply”
-Sasha D|chter, d|rector of
bus|ness deve|opment at Acumen
Fund
vvv.develo¡menl.asia 44DevelopmentAsia }anuary–March2O12
¡roduclsdesignervhosedri¡
irrigalionsyslemshaveenabled275,OOO
smallfarmerslodoublelheiryields
andincomelevels,andacom¡any
inTanzanialhalem¡loysmorelhan
7,OOO¡eo¡leand¡roduces16million
lifesavinganlimalarialbednelsayear.
Òverlhe¡asldecade,Acumen
Iundandolherim¡aclinveslorshave
foslereddramalicchangesinlhevorld
of¡hilanlhro¡y.
“Alolmoreaccounlabililyhasbeen
buillin,”saysDichler.“Alolmore
innovalionhasbeenbuillin.Wehave
alolmoresuccessslories,nol|uslfrom
¡alienlca¡ilalbulacrosslheboard.We
havealolmore¡layerscomingin.Al
Acumen,vehave¡ul$6Omillionof
ca¡ilallovork,servinglensofmillions
of¡eo¡le.”
A GROWING FRACTION
Ònlyafraclionoflhevorld’sca¡ilalis
devoledlodayloim¡aclinveslmenls,
suchaslhosemadebyAcumenIund
andils¡eers.ßullhes¡aceisallracling
grovinginlereslandexcilemenl,
ex¡erlssay,andsu¡¡orlfromsuch
vorld hgures as former US Iresidenl
ßillClinlon,vhoseClinlonGlobal
Inilialivehas¡romoled¡alienlca¡ilal
asadevelo¡menllool.
(9;0*3,
¡ioneering microhnance vork in
ßangladeshbyeconomislMuhammad
YunusandhisGrameenßank.ßack
inNevYorkCily,shequilChase
Manhallanandvenllovorkfora
non¡rohl microhnance organizalion
forvomen,vhichsenlherloAfrica.
There,sheimmersedherselfinlhe
slruggleloovercome¡overly.
Òverlime,Novogralzbecame
convincedlhallhelradilional
develo¡menla¡¡roachoflhroving
money al ¡roblems vas ßaved.
Thesolulion,asshesavil,vaslo
invesldonalionsinenlre¡reneurial
enler¡riseslhal¡rovidedbasicservices
lolhe¡oor.Ilvouldbeacold-eyed
WallSlreela¡¡roach,vilhlvonolable
exce¡lions:grealer¡alienceanda
loleranceforloverrelurns.
Acumen’sinilialinveslmenls
focusedonlechnology-drivenheallh
careefforlsinIndiaandLaslAfrica.
Òneoflheseinvolvedsu¡¡orlinglhe
vorkofGovinda¡¡aVenkalasvamyin
¡rovidingaffordableeyecareloIndia’s
¡oor,includingdevelo¡menlofalov-
cosllenslhalcouldbeim¡lanledinlhe
eyesof¡alienlsblindedbycalaracls—
resloringsighl,asvellaslheabililylo
vork.
Morerecenlly,lhefund’sinveslmenls
haveincluded¡arlneringvilhan
enlre¡reneurinIndiavhosecom¡any
is¡rovidingsafevalerlomorelhan
25O,OOOrural¡oor,anagricullural
INVESTING IN SOCIAL CHANGE Patient
capitaI investors incIude eBay founder
Pierre Omidyar, who has set up a sociaI
investment ñrm caIIed Omidyar Network.
“Through investment,
we seek to break the
cycle of dependence
that aid can create by
helping countries
build their own
institutions and their
own capacity to deliver
essential services.
Aid chases need;
investment chases
opportunity”
-H|||ary C||nton, Un|ted States
Secretary of State
vvv.develo¡menl.asia }anuary–March2O12DevelopmentAsia45
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NET INVESTMENT SociaI
capitaIists are partnering
with IocaI entrepreneurs in
Tanzania to manufacture
mosquito nets, a criticaI
tooI in the ñght against
maIaria.
GLOBAL CAMPAIGNER
Foreign Minister Yang
Jiechi of the PeopIeҋs
RepubIic of China shakes
hands with former US
President BiII CIinton at a
2008 meeting of the CIinton
GIobaI Initiative, which has
promoted patient capitaI as
a deveIopment tooI among
others.
In2OO8,Clinlonlaunchedan
inilialivebyLea¡IrogInveslmenls,an
inlernalionalmicroinsurancefund,lo
¡lace$1OOmillioninAsianandAfrican
businesses,¡rovidinginsurancelo
lhe ¡oor÷a hnancial service seen as
cruciallolifling¡eo¡lefrom¡overly.
Afleronly18monlhs,Lea¡Irog
announcedin2O1Olhalilhadraised
$137millionforilsmicroinsurance
inveslmenlsinAfricaasvellasIndia,
Indonesia,andlheIhili¡¡ines.Ils
inveslors included lhe Wall Slreel hrm
}.I.Morgan,lheWorldßank,cor¡orale
reinsurerIlagsloneReinsurance
Holdings,andÒmidyarNelvork,lhe
social inveslmenl hrm crealed by eßay
founderIierreÒmidyar.
Afocal¡oinlofins¡iralionand
ideashasbecomelheannualSocial
Ca¡ilalMarkelsConference,vhich
heldilsfourlhannualgalhering
laslfallinSanIrancisco.Thebuzz
surroundingSÒCAI,asiliscommonly
knovn,hasgrovneachyearsinceil
beganvilhlilllefanfarein2OO8.The
2OO9conferenceallracledmorelhan
9OO¡arlici¡anlsfrom32counlries.
The2O1Oinslallmenlallracled1,5OO
¡arlici¡anlsfrom4Ocounlries.The
hrsl SÒCAI Luro¡e, held in lale May
andearly}une2O11inAmslerdam,
lheNelherlands,drevmorelhan65O
¡eo¡lefrom5Ocounlries.
CHASING OPPORTUNITY
Ma|ordevelo¡menlinslilulions,
suchaslheUniledSlalesAgencyfor
InlernalionalDevelo¡menl(USAID),
areembracinglhe¡ossibililiesoffree-
markelinveslmenlsasvell.USAID
hasaGlobalDevelo¡menlAlliance
leamlhalcoordinalesvilh¡rivale
seclorcor¡oralionsandfoundalions
andmanages1O“globalframevorks”
signedbelveenUSAIDand¡rivale-
seclor¡arlners.
AlleadingUSuniversilies,graduale
sludenlsaresludyingim¡aclinvesling
andlheefforlsof¡alienlca¡ilal-
infusedenlre¡reneursindevelo¡ing
counlries.
Lisa}onesChrislensen,an
assislanl¡rofessorofslralegyand
enlre¡reneurshi¡allheUniversily
ofNorlhCarolina’sKenan–Ilagler
ßusinessSchoolinCha¡elHill,recenlly
relurnedfromherannualimmersion
lri¡loKenya,vherehermaslerof
businessadminislralionsludenlssav
lhereal-liferesullsof¡alienlca¡ilal
alvorkasenlre¡reneurslurnedlrash
inlocookingbriquellesinaNairobi
slum.
“Thesludenlslearnhovolher
¡eo¡lereallyliveandvhyveneed
innovalionandenlre¡reneurshi¡so
des¡eralely,”saysChrislensen.“They
alsoseelherearealolofindigenous
localenlre¡reneursvhoaren’lvailing
foruslodro¡somelhinginlolheir
la¡,andlheyseelhalnolallgreal
innovalionsarecomingfromlheUS.”
InWashinglon,DC,SecrelaryofSlale
HillaryClinlonhasacknovledgedlhe
vorkofAcumenIundandlhe¡over
of slralegic inveslmenls in lhe hghl
againslglobal¡overly.Tradilional
aidvouldremaina“vilallool”for
lheforeseeablefulure,es¡ecially
inassislinglheviclimsofnalural
disaslersandolheremergencies,she
says.ßulslralegicinveslmenlsvould
evenluallysu¡¡lanllradilionalforeign
aid,she¡redicls.
“Throughaid,vesu¡¡lyvhalis
neededlolhe¡eo¡levhoneedil—be
ilsacksofriceorcarlonsofmedicines,”
shesaidinas¡eechlaslyear.“ßul
lhroughinveslmenl,veseeklobreak
lhecycleofde¡endencelhalaidcan
crealebyhel¡ingcounlriesbuild
lheirovninslilulionsandlheirovn
ca¡acilylodeliveressenlialservices.
Aidchasesneed,inveslmenlchases
o¡¡orlunily.”Q
vvv.develo¡menl.asia 46DevelopmentAsia}anuary–March2O12
796-03,:05+,=,3674,5;
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A Life Examining
AnnieDuf|oispartofagrowingbreedofyoungdeve|opmentprofessiona|swho
areworkingtotesttheeffectivenessofdeve|opmentprograms
ßY}adeLee-Duffy
Ò
nasunnydayinMay,
asur¡risevasvailing
inside3OO¡rimaryschools
acrosslheAfricancounlry
ofGhana.Insleadofoneleacherinlhe
classroom,novlhereverelvo.Ior2
hoursaday,nevleachingassislanls
veregoinglohel¡youngslersvho
couldn’lreador¡erformsim¡le
addilionsinmalh.
Hiredlhroughlhecounlry’sNalional
YoulhLm¡loymenlIrogram,leaching
assislanlsacross42ruralandurban
dislriclshadlobelrainedloleach
learninglhrough¡layinggames,
singingsongs,and¡resenlingfun,
child-friendlymaleriallhala¡¡ealedlo
alllhesenses.
Theim¡aclevalualionoflhis
remedialeducalion¡rograminGhana
is being led by Annie Dußo, one of
lhevice-¡residenlsandlheexeculive
direcloralInnovalionsforIoverly
Aclion (IIA), a non¡rohl research
organizalion,basedinNevHaven,
Conneclicul. According lo Dußo,
severaldevelo¡ingcounlrieshavea
largefraclionof¡rimarysludenls,aged
6lo1Oyearsold,lhalverenollearning
basiclileracyandnumeracyskills.
Theremedial¡rogramvaslargeledlo
breaklhislrend.
WilhIIA¡ro|eclsin46counlries,
Dußo's direclive is lo hnd oul ¨vhal
vorksandvhaldoesn’l”vhenil
comeslodevelo¡menl¡rograms
and¡ro|ecls.Throughlheuseof
randomized im¡acl evalualions, Dußo
andhernelvorkofresearchersassess
vhelherdevelo¡menl¡rogramsare
cosl-effecliveandyield¡osiliveresulls.
Sheis¡arlofagrovingbreedof
andaidorganizalionsarefuelinga
demandformoreim¡aclevalualionslo
ensurelhalmoneyfor¡rogramsisn’l
vasled.
GIVING A HELPING HAND
Dußo's vork in develo¡menl slarled
inIndiain2OOO.Iorhalfayear,she
volunleeredinlheNaluralResource
Develo¡menlunilofSevaMandir,a
youngdevelo¡menl¡rofessionalsvho
vorkvilheconomislsin¡arlnershi¡
vilhdevelo¡menlorganizalions,
microhnance inslilulions, governmenls,
and¡overlyallevialion¡rogramslo
develo¡andleslsolulionslhalaim
loim¡rovelhelivesoflov-income
familiesindevelo¡ingcounlries.
ßyshovingvhich¡rogramsare
cosl-effeclive, Dußo and her colleagues
arehel¡ingloencourageevidence-
based¡rogramsand¡olicies,andlo
movemuch-neededfundinglovard
lhese¡rograms.Aslhereisagroving
concernoverlhecosl-effeclivenessof
¡rograms,¡olicymakers,governmenls,
DUPLICATING SUCCESS Children play
footbaII at a park in Ghana. Annie Duho
(right) has helped Ghana launch its
Teacher Community Assistant Initiative
by adapting similar successful remedial
education programs in India.
vvv.develo¡menl.asia }anuary–March2O12DevelopmentAsia47
nongovernmenlorganizalion(NGÒ)
inlhehisloriccilyofUdai¡ur.She
lhenvorkedallhe}ai¡urbranchof
Iralham,aneducalionNGÒs¡read
acrossIndia.Shorllyafler,in2OO2,
Dußo managed a large-scale survey
of1OOvillagesinUdai¡urdislricl
onheallhcareslalusandheallhcare
delivery,ledbyresearchersallhe
MassachusellsInsliluleofTechnology
(MIT)andIrincelonUniversilyin
collaboralionvilhlheNGÒSeva
MandirandlheWorldßank.
Irom 2OO5 lo 2OO8, Dußo vas lhe
execulivedirecloroflheCenlrefor
MicroIinanceallheInslilulefor
IinancialManagemenlandResearch
inChennai.Thereshevorkedon
im¡rovinglheaccessibililyandqualily
of hnancial services, and encouraging
evidence-based¡olicieslhrough
research.
Hel¡ingolhersrunsinlhefamily.
Dußo vas inßuenced by her molher,
Violaine,a¡edialricianvhovorks
vilhlheIrench-basedNGÒl’A¡¡el,
vhichsu¡¡orlschildrenofarmed
conßicls, and her sisler Lslher,
¡rofessorof¡overlyallevialionand
develo¡menleconomicsalMITanda
founderanddirecloroflheAbdulLalif
}ameelIoverlyAclionLab(}-IAL),
vhichhel¡sdelerminevhally¡esof
aidandanli¡overly¡rogramsvorkin
¡oorcounlries.
TheIIA’sexeculivedirecloralso
holdsamasler’sdegreeinsocial
sciencesfroml’LcoledesHaulesLludes
enSciencesSociales,l’LcoleNormale
Su¡órieureinIaris,andamasler’s
degreein¡ublicadminislralionin
inlernalionaldevelo¡menlfromlhe
}ohnI.KennedySchoolofGovernmenl
alHarvardUniversily.
¨My role is lo reach oul lo NGÒs
andgovernmenlsandex¡lainlolhem
vhalarigorousevalualionisandhov
usingevidencevhendesigninglheir
¡rogramscanincreaselheirim¡acl,
andlohel¡im¡lemenlnevsludies,”
says Dußo, vho grev u¡ in Iaris.
Since |oining IIA in 2OO8, Dußo
hashel¡edex¡andlheorganizalion’s
nelvorkofresearcherslomorelhan
1OOfromaboul4O.Inlhelasldecade,
lhedemandforrigorousim¡acl
evalualionsbydonorsand¡raclilioners
hasincreasedlremendously,so
havingmoreresearchersloleadlhese
evalualionsiskey.Theseresearchers
vork closely vilh IIA's 14 ofhces in
counlries,includingGhana,Kenya,
Mexico,Mongolia,andlheIhili¡¡ines.
REMEDIAL EDUCATION IN GHANA
Theremedialeducalion¡rogramor
lheTeacherCommunilyAssislanl
Inilialive(TCAI),currenllybeing
evalualed by Dußo, is an ada¡lalion
ofsimilarsuccessful¡rogramsin
IndiaconducledbylheNGÒIralham,
andevalualedby}-Ial.Iundedby
lheUniledKingdom-basedChildren
InveslmenlIundIoundalion,lheTCAI
isbeingim¡lemenledbylheGhana
LducalionServices,in¡arlnershi¡
vilhlheNalionalYoulhLm¡loymenl
Irogram(NYLI)andlheGhana
NalionalAssocialionofTeachersin
collaboralionvilhIIA.
ßysharinglheresullsoflheim¡acl
evalualions, Dußo has hel¡ed lhe
governmenlada¡llhe¡rogramfrom
India lo hl lhe Ghana conlexl. ¨In
2OO9,vea¡¡roachedlheGovernmenl
ofGhana,melvilhlheleachers’
union,lheNYLI,andlheybecame
inleresled,¨ she says. ¨Lven lhough ve
areconvincedlhallhe¡rogramvorks,
sinceil’sbasedonrigorousevidence,
vearedoinganevim¡aclevalualion
inGhanabecauselhe¡rogramvill
alvaysendu¡beingalillledifferenl
|inanolhercounlryj.Also,veare
evalualingdifferenlvayslodolhe
¡rogramlounderslandvhichonevill
vorkbesl.”
TheIndia¡rogramrevealedilvas
¡ossible lo em¡loy lov-qualihed
lulorsloleachsludenlsinlheirovn
communiliesbasicskillsinarelalively
shorllimeusingasim¡lemelhodology
and lov-cosl malerials. ¨The key is lo
focusinslruclionallhechild’slevel—
andlhiscanbedonebyhavinglhese
lulorsleachlhelover-¡erforming
sludenlsse¡aralelyfromlheresloflhe
class, for ¡arl of lhe day,¨ says Dußo.
Inaddilionlohel¡ingsludenlsvilh
essenlialskills,lheTCAI¡rovides
em¡loymenlforlheassislanlsover
2years,andsalariesofaboul$6Oa
monlhfromlhegovernmenl’sNalional
YoulhLm¡loymenlIrogram.
Òneoflhe¡rogram’sunknovns
isvhelheril’sbesllo¡ullsludenls
oulofclassduringschoolhoursfor
addilionalinslruclion(andmiss¡arl
oflheregularclass)orlovailunlil
aflerschoolhoursvhenlheymaybe
lired,hungry,andvanllogohome
vilh lheir siblings. Dußo says lhey
arelryingbolho¡lionsloassess
vhich melhod is beller. ¨We are also
evalualingvhelherlhe¡rogram
canvorkvilhoulassislanlsby|usl
lraininglheleachersloassisllhe
veakeslsludenls,’sheadds.Asurvey
vasconducledinDecember2O11and
anolherinAugusl2O12villlake¡lace
lomeasureiflhe¡rogramhasindeed
im¡rovedlearninglevels.
Iflheresullsoflhesludyare
¡osilive, Dußo's goal is lo vork vilh
lheGovernmenlofGhanalohel¡scale
u¡lheremedial¡rogram,lakingil
nalionallyinlhefulure.Q
“My role is to reach
out to NGOs and
governments and
explain to them
what a rigorous
evaluation is and
how using evidence
when designing their
programs can increase
their impact; and to
help implement new
studies”
vvv.develo¡menl.asia 48DevelopmentAsia}anuary–March2O12
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n1988,vhenSimonßerryvasa
ßrilishaidvorkerinAfrica,he
madeaconneclionbelveenlvo
faclslhalvouldchangehislife.
Iacl1:Inremole¡arlsofZambia,
vherefamiliesscralchedoula
subsislencelivingbyfarming,many
youngchildrendiedof¡revenlable
diseases,suchasdehydralionfrom
diarrhea.
Iacl2:Inlhesesameruralareas,you
couldalmoslalvaysbuyCoca-Cola.
Thal’svhenßerry,lhenalechnical
coo¡eralionofficerforlheßrilish
aid¡rogram,madelheconneclion:
CouldCoca-Cola’sunrivaledlocal
dislribulionnelvorksbeharnessed
lodeliversim¡lebul¡olenliallylife-
savingmedicineslohard-lo-reach
¡laces`
Tvenlyyearslaler,inaconcerled
allem¡lloansverlhalqueslion,
ßerryandhisvife}anelaunchedan
inde¡endenlnon¡rofilorganizalion
calledColaLife.Theideaislo
leverageCoca-Cola’sdislribulion
channelslocarryso-calledsocial
¡roducls—oralrehydralionsolulion
(ÒRS),zincsu¡¡lemenls,valer
¡urificalionlablels—lhallaslmilelo
savechildren’slivesindevelo¡ing
A Refreshing
Development
Inremote,impoverishedp|aceswherec|eanwaterandmedicinearehardtofind,
peop|ecansti||buyanice-co|dCoke
ßYAndrevMarshall
BENEFICIARIES Two boys in Africa
receive an AirPod. ColaLife wants
to improve child mortality in remote
communities by distributing anti-diarrhea
kits through Coca-Cola’s extensive
distribution network.
vvv.develo¡menl.asia }anuary–March2O12DevelopmentAsia49
counlries.Insub-SaharanAfrica,one
insevenchildrendiedbeforelheirfiflh
birlhdayin2OO8,eslimaleslheUniled
Nalions.
Inilially,ßerrylhoughl,onebollleof
Cokecouldberemovedfromacrale
andre¡lacedvilhalubecarryinglhe
¡roducls.ßul}ane,vhosaysshes¡enl
herlongeveningsinZambia“reading
booksoninlernalionaldevelo¡menl
lofindoulvhysomuchgood-villed
bula¡¡arenllymisguidedefforlvasn’l
vorking,”hadanolheridea.“Why
don’lyoumakeuseoflheunused
s¡aceinslead`”sheloldhim.
SovasbornlheAidIod:acrush-
resislanl,vedge-sha¡edcanisler
lhalfilssnuglybelveenlhenecksof
lheCoca-Colabollles.TenAidIods
filinloaslandardcrale.“Allve’re
doingisusinglhalunuseds¡acelo
gelvilal¡roduclslolhesame¡laces
asCoca-Cola,”saysßerry.“We’re|usl
¡iggybacking—makinguseofaseclion
oflhehumanracevhoare¡arlicularly
goodalgellingsluffloremole¡laces.”
Il’sanealidea—soneal,infacl,lhal
ColaLifehasgeneraledlhousandsof
folloversonsocialnelvorks,suchas
Iacebook,asvellasaninvilalionfor
ßerrylos¡eakalaTLDxcommunily-
runevenlinßerlinin2O1O.ßul
villilvork`“Wedidn’lvanllobe
rememberedaslheguysvhocame
u¡vilhlhiscoolideaanddidnolhing
aboulil,”hesays.“Sovegaveu¡
our|obslasl}une|2O1Ojlofocusfull-
limeongellingalrialgoing.”The
resullsoflhallrial,vhichis¡lanned
lolake¡laceinZambia,couldhave
im¡licalionsforAsia,anolhervasl
andoflenhard-lo-accessregionvhere
reducingchildmorlalilyis¡rovingan
u¡hillslruggle.
Iersuadinglhevorld’slargesl
beveragecom¡anyloeven
conlem¡lale¡ullingsomebodyelse’s
sluffinilscralesis“abigsle¡,”says
ßerry.Whallhecom¡anycallslhe
Coca-ColaSyslemisamammolh
andvell-oiledmachine,¡erfecled
overacenlury.Whileilo¡eralesin
morelhan2OOcounlries,Coca-Cola
onlymakeslheconcenlralesand
beveragebasesforilssofldrinks,and
ovnsandlicenseslhebrands.Nearly
3OOlocalbollling¡arlners¡roduce
anddislribulelheaclual¡roducls,
vhicharesoldlhroughmillionsof
oullels:su¡ermarkels,movielhealers,
reslauranls,slreelvendors—¡relly
mucheveryvherehumanilygalhers.
Coca-Colasayslhevorldconsumes
1.7billionservingsofils¡roducls
everyday.
“TheuniquelhingaboullheCoca-
Coladislribulionsyslemisn’llhebil
fromlhebolllerlolhevholesaler,
bulfromlhevholesalersonvards,”
saysßerry.“Thal’svherealllhese
inde¡endenlmicroenler¡rises—guys
onbicycles,vomen¡ullingcraleson
buses,andsoon—lakeover.Thal’slhe
bilvevanllogelinlo.”
ThefirslColaLifelrialvilllakelhe
ßerrysbackloZambia,lhelandlocked
Africancounlryvhichfirslins¡ired
lhem.Iirsl,hovever,logelhervilh
lvoolherColaLifesu¡¡orlers,ßerry
cycledacrossanolhercounlry,Irance,
loraise£6,OOOlo¡ayforlhreelri¡slo
Zambia.Ilvascrilicallofirslengage
Coca-Cola’slocalbolller,Zambian
ßreveries,asubsidiaryofSAßMiller,a
globalbrevingandbolllingcom¡any
vilhaslrong¡ubliccommilmenl
losuslainabledevelo¡menl.The
involvemenlofSAßMillerinZambia
means“vemighlgelcrossoverof
lhe|ColaLifejideainloanolherhuge
mullinalional,”saysßerry.
ColaLife’solher¡arlnersinZambia
arelheUniledNalionsChildren’s
“The unique thing
about the Coca-
Cola distribution
system isn’t the bit
from the bottler to
the wholesaler, but
from the wholesalers
onwards. That’s where
all these independent
microenterprises—
guys on bicycles,
women putting crates
on buses, and so on—
take over. That’s the bit
we want to get into”
-S|mon Berry, founder of Co|aL|fe
vvv.develo¡menl.asia 5ODevelopmentAsia}anuary–March2O12
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READY FOR DELIVERY Ten AidPods ñt
into a standard crate.
Iund(UNICLI)andlheslale-run
¡harmaceulicaldislribulorMedical
SloresLimiled.Alocalnongovernmenl
organizalioncalledKee¡ersZambia
Ioundalionvillhandlelhesocial
markelinginlhecommunilies,says
ßerry,“locrealebuzzandavareness
andvaluearoundlhiskilve’re
goinglodislribule.”ColaLife¡lans
lodislribulealleasl2O,OOOAidIods
lomolhersandcaregiversin3O
communilies,vheremosl¡eo¡le
surviveononeorlvodollarsaday.
“Theseares¡arsely¡o¡ulaled
areasvherelhe¡rovisionofheallh
facililiesisvery,verylov,”ex¡lains
ßerry.“Thereareonly7Oregislered
¡harmaciesinlhevholeofZambia,
andlheseareinlhelargerlovns.”
Hovever,kioskssellingbasicgoods—
vashing¡ovder,cookingoil,biscuils,
cigarellesand,ofcourse,Coca-Cola—
arecommon,eveninremoleareasand
lheycouldbela¡¡edlodeliver¡ublic
heallh¡roducls.
AidIodscanbeada¡ledlocarry
arangeof¡roducls.Òneoflhem
couldbezinc.Givenlochildrenvilh
diarrhea,zincsu¡¡lemenlsreducelhe
severilyandduralionoflheillness,
andcould¡olenliallysaveu¡lo
4OO,OOOdealhsofunder-5globally¡er
year.ColaLife’s¡arlners
inZambiavanllolesllhe
ideabydeliveringasingle
¡roducl:ananli-diarrheakil
(ADK).“Wevanllogelslalislically
significanldala,”ex¡lainsßerry.“Òur
mainob|ecliveallhelrialslageis
nol¡rimarilylosavechildren’slives,
bulloleslvhelhervecanuseCoca-
Cola’sdislribulionchainlocrealea
commodilylhal¡eo¡levillhaveinor
verycloselolheirhouseholdsvhen
diarrheaslrikes.”
Ò¡eninnovalionhasalsohel¡ed
lheAidIodevolve.Iflheyaremade
oflrans¡arenlILT(¡olyelhylene
lere¡hlhalale)¡laslic,AidIods
mighlalsobeusedforsolarvaler
disinfeclion—a¡rocessknovnby
lheabbrevialionSÒDIS.IillaILT
conlainervilhconlaminaledvaler
andleaveilinlhesunfor6hours,and
lheullraviolelradialionshouldkill
offlhe¡alhogenslhalcausediarrhea.
Iorcoslreasons,ßerryshelvedlhe
ideaof¡roducingAidIodsfromILT
¡laslic.ßullheSvissIederalInslilule
ofAqualicScienceandTechnology
recenllysenlhimsam¡lesofa
¡rololy¡eSÒDISbaglhalvouldfil
inloaslandardAidIod.
ColaLifehasraised$1.35million
lodale,vhichvillenableillorun
lhelrialvilhlocal¡arlnersbyearly
2O12.Amonglhefirsldonorsvaslhe
}ohnson&}ohnsonCor¡oraleCilizen
Trusl,vhichcarriesoulcor¡orale
socialres¡onsibililyacliviliesoflhe
}ohnson&}ohnsongrou¡inLuro¡e,
MiddleLasl,andAfrica.
Thelrial’sresullsvon’lbeke¡l
undervra¡s,bulvillbe¡ublished
onColaLife’svebsilesolhalolhers
mighlado¡landada¡llheideafor
lheirovncounlries,includinginAsia.
“Wevanl¡eo¡lelolookalvhal
ve’redoing|inAfricajandloa¡¡ly
illolocalcircumslancesinAsia,”
saysßerry.“Thereisalolofinleresl
inColaLifefromIndia,bulvedon’l
havelheca¡acilylodevelo¡lhings
lhere.Soourslralegyislomakealllhe
informalionavailable.Alllhelearning
vegeneralegoesu¡onlhevebsile.”
Knovledge-sharingis¡arlof
ano¡eninnovalion¡rocesslhal
hashel¡edlheßerrysrefinelheir
embryonicideaandallraclnev
ex¡erlise.RohilRamchandanivasa
seniorheallhadvisorallheCanadian
“Much of the world’s
mortality can be
prevented with
existing solutions....
So the problem is not
so much about what’s
needed. It’s more about
how to effectively
deliver what is needed
to those who need it
most”
-Pub||c hea|th adv|sor Roh|t
Ramchandan|
vvv.develo¡menl.asia }anuary–March2O12DevelopmentAsia51
LIFESAVER The AidPod was designed to
contain “social products,” such as zinc
supplements, oral rehydration solution,
and water puriñcation tabIets. It is a
crush-resistant, wedge-shaped canister
that ñts snugIy between the necks of the
Coca-Cola bottles.
InlernalionalDevelo¡menlAgency
vhenhefirslconlacledßerrylhrough
ColaLife’sIacebookgrou¡.Nov
sludying¡ublicheallhal}ohns
Ho¡kinsßloombergSchoolofIublic
Heallh,Ramchandaniishel¡ing
conslruclColaLife’slrialinZambia
andvilluseilsresullsaslhebasisof
hisdoclorallhesis.
“We’vereachedsomelhingofa
crossroadsin¡ublicheallh,”says
Ramchandani.“Muchoflhevorld’s
morlalilycanbe¡revenledvilh
exislingsolulions.Researchhasshovn
lhalover6O/ofchilddealhscould
be¡revenledeachyeariflhevorld’s
childrenreceivedfullaccessloalready
exisling,oflenlov-coslinlervenlions,
suchasÒRSandzinc.Solhe¡roblem
isnolsomuchaboulvhal’sneeded.
Il’smoreaboulhovloeffeclively
delivervhalisneededlolhosevho
needilmosl.”
Leveraginglhe¡rivaleseclorlo
dislribule¡ublicheallh¡roducls
isn’lnev.Inßangladesh,lhe¡rivale
seclor¡layedakeyroleinlheScaling
U¡ZincforYoungChildren(SUZY)
Iro|ecl,inilialedin2OO3bylhe
InlernalionalCenlreforDiarrhoeal
DiseaseResearch,ßangladesh
(ICDDR,ß)in¡arlnershi¡vilh
lheßangladeshMinislryofHeallh
andIamilyWelfare.Aßangladesh
conglomeralecalledACML
LaboraloriesLldmadelhezinclablels
inils¡harmaceulicalsdivisionand
dislribuledlhemlhroughilsfoodand
beveragedivision.
“Iorlhebigheallh¡roblemsnov
andinlhefulure,vecannolrelyonly
onvhallhe¡ublicheallhseclorcan
deliverinnalionslhalhavefragile
heallhsyslems,”saysTraceyIórez
Koehlmoos,headoflheHeallh&
IamilyIlanningSyslemsIrogramme
alICDDR,ßand¡rinci¡alinvesligalor
oflheSUZYIro|ecl.“Il’snolenough.
Soanyengagemenl|vilhlhe¡rivale
seclorjvouldbebeneficial,solongas
il’sdonevilhgovernmenla¡¡roval
and¡arlnershi¡.”
WilhColaLife,lheCoca-Cola
Com¡any—vhichhasaraflof
¡hilanlhro¡ic¡ro|ecls—isengaged,
ifnolquileeffusive.“Wehavebeen
inconlaclvilhColaLifeandhave
su¡¡orledlhemloidenlifyasuilable
bollling¡arlner,SAßMiller,villing
loconducla¡ilol¡ro|eclvilhlhem,”
saysSebaslianvanderVegl,grou¡
communicalionsmanager,ina
slalemenl.“Weunderslandlhallhe
¡ilolvilllake¡laceinZambiaandvill
focusondislribuling|anli-jdiarrhea
kilslohard-lo-reachareas.Welook
forvardlolearningfromlheresullsof
lhe¡ilol¡ro|eclonceil’scom¡leled.”
ColaLifesu¡¡orlersvhohail
fromheallhorhumanilarianfields
mighlnolbenaluralsu¡¡orlersofa
cor¡oralebehemolhlhalmakesfizzy
drinks.“Inlheageofchronicdisease,
bigfoodandbigbeveragesorlof
comeoffasbeinglhebadguys,”says
Koehlmoos.“Doyouvanlyourlife-
savingsolulionbeing¡ackagedvilh
vhalmighlmakelhesechildrensuffer
asadullsfromobesilyordiabeles`”
ßerryisunfazed.“Allve’redoing
isusinglhalunuseds¡aceinacrale
logellhisvilal¡roducllolhesame
¡laceslhalCoca-Colagelslo,”hesays.
Iorßerry,buildingunlikelyalliances
belveenbusinessesand¡ublicheallh
islhevhole¡oinl.“Togelher,ve
believe,vecandoil.Thereisno¡oinl
sillinginoursilos,lhrovingbricksal
oneanolher,vhenlhereissomuchal
slake.”
Andsomuchlefllodo.Òne
oflheUN’seighlMillennium
Develo¡menlGoalsisloreduce
lheunder-5morlalilyralebylvo-
lhirdsbelveen199Oand2O15.“Child
dealhsarefalling,bulnolquickly
enoughloreachlhelargel,”re¡orls
lheUN.“Revilalizingefforlsagainsl
¡neumoniaanddiarrhea,vhile
bolsleringnulrilion,couldsave
millionsofchildren.”
ßerryseesColaLifeas¡arloflhal
revilalizalion.“Ilvillbedecades
beforevegelchildmorlalilyrales
indevelo¡ingcounlrieslhalve
vouldlhinkacce¡lableinlheUniled
Kingdom,”hesays.“Ilcouldbemore
lhan175years.Weneedlocarryon
vilhincremenlalim¡rovemenls,bul
vealsoneedinnovalion.”
Islherelhe¡ossibililylhalColaLife
mighlnolvork`“Yu¡,”admils
ßerryha¡¡ily,exudinghislrademark
o¡limism.“ßulve’regoinglogel
caughllrying.”Ramchandani,lhe
¡ublicheallhex¡erl,¡ulsilmore
cauliously.“Therealilyislhallhere
isalolofgreal|heallhjinlervenlions
lhaldon’ldemonslraleslalislically
slrongresulls,andarelhereforenever
shared.Thal’svhyilissoim¡orlanl
loincor¡oraleevalualioninlolhe
researchdesignearlyon,andshare
lessonslearnedalonglhevay—
somelhinglhalColaLifeisdoing
exlremelyvell.”
“Wherevillha¡¡inessslrikenexl`”
asksaCoca-Colaslogan.Thequeslion
novis:WherevillColaLifeslrike
nexl`Q
52DevelopmentAsia}anuary–March2O12 vvv.develo¡menl.asia
“I would like to reiterate that we face daunting challenges. Asia’s
growth has brought significant benefits to the region. But it is an
unfinished agenda, with the majority of the world’s poor still in
Asia. The region is at a critical crossroads. We must continue to be
proactive.”
—AsianDeve|opmentBankPresidentHaruhikoKuroda,speakingattheEminent
Persons’ForuminNewDe|hi,IndiainOctober2011
65;/,9,*69+
“We must connect the dots between
climate change, water scarcity,
energy shortages, global health, food
security and women’s empowerment.
Solutions to one problem must be
solutions for all.”
—UnitedNationsSecretary-Genera|Ban
Ki-moon,addressingtheUnitedNations
Genera|Assemb|yinSeptember2011
“Socialissuesarefarmorecom¡lex
lodealvilhlhanbusiness¡roblems,
andil’sveryhardlochangelhings.Il
needslenacilyandhumilily.Andvhile
individuallyilmaybehardloseevhal
differencevecanmake,ifveslicklo
lhelaskvilhlenacilyforasuslained
aclion,ilvillsurelyvork.”
—AzimPrem[i,chairmanofWipro,who
donated$2bi||iontohiseducation
foundation,the|argestcharitab|e
contributioninIndia’smodernhistory
“Thelo¡1¡ercenlhavelhebeslhouses,
lhebesleducalions,lhebesldoclors,and
lhebesllifeslyles,bullhereisonelhing
lhalmoneydoesn’lseemlohaveboughl:
anunderslandinglhallheirfaleisbound
u¡vilhhovlheolher99¡ercenllive.
Throughoulhislory,lhisissomelhinglhal
lhelo¡1¡ercenlevenluallydolearn.Too
lale.”
—EconomistandNobe||aureateJosephE.Stig|itz,
writingfor=HUP[`-HPYinMay2011
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“In 10 years, you’re not
going to have 700 million
cars driven every day on the
planet; you’re going to have
2 billion. If you already
have an emissions problem
with 700 million cars, what
problems are you going to
have with 2 billion?”
—NissanChiefExecutiveOfficer
Car|osGhosninaninterviewwith
-HZ[*VTWHU`in2011,wherehe
ta|ksaboutwhythemarketis
readyforana||-e|ectriccar
“Global warming is real. Perhaps our results will help
cool this portion of the climate debate.”
—RichardMu||er,aprominentphysicistandskepticofg|oba|warming,writesin
the>HSS:[YLL[1V\YUHS in October 2011 after his study conñrmed the rapid rise in
theEarth’ssurfacetemperatures
Asia and the Pacific.
The only development bank dedicated to Asia and the Pacific
is hiring individuals dedicated to development.
Work for
Women are encouraged to apply.
For more details, visit www.adb.org/Employment/International
ADB seeks highly qualified individuals for the following vacancies:
(QHUJ\‡7UDQVSRUW‡6DIHJXDUGV‡3ULYDWH6HFWRU)LQDQFH‡5LVN0DQDJHPHQW‡,QIRUPDWLRQ7HFKQRORJ\

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