A The Comprehensive L TEX Symbol List Scott Pakin <scott+clsl@pakin.

org>∗ 9 November 2009

Abstract
A This document lists 5913 symbols and the corresponding L TEX commands that produce them. Some A of these symbols are guaranteed to be available in every L TEX 2ε system; others require fonts and packages that may not accompany a given distribution and that therefore need to be installed. All of the fonts and packages used to prepare this document—as well as this document itself—are freely available from the Comprehensive TEX Archive Network (http://www.ctan.org/).

Contents
Contents 1 Introduction 1.1 Document Usage . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1.2 Frequently Requested Symbols . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Body-text symbols A Table 1: L TEX 2ε Escapable “Special” Characters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . A Table 2: Predefined L TEX 2ε Text-mode Commands . . . . . . . . . . . . . . A X 2 Commands Defined to Work in Both Math and Text Mode Table 3: L TE ε Table 4: AMS Commands Defined to Work in Both Math and Text Mode . . Table 5: Non-ASCII Letters (Excluding Accented Letters) . . . . . . . . . . . Table 6: Letters Used to Typeset African Languages . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Table 7: Letters Used to Typeset Vietnamese . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Table 8: Punctuation Marks Not Found in OT1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Table 9: pifont Decorative Punctuation Marks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Table 10: tipa Phonetic Symbols . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Table 11: tipx Phonetic Symbols . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Table 12: wsuipa Phonetic Symbols . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Table 13: wasysym Phonetic Symbols . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Table 14: phonetic Phonetic Symbols . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Table 15: t4phonet Phonetic Symbols . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Table 16: semtrans Transliteration Symbols . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Table 17: Text-mode Accents . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Table 18: tipa Text-mode Accents . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Table 19: extraipa Text-mode Accents . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Table 20: wsuipa Text-mode Accents . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Table 21: phonetic Text-mode Accents . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Table 22: metre Text-mode Accents . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Table 23: t4phonet Text-mode Accents . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Table 24: arcs Text-mode Accents . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Table 25: semtrans Accents . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Table 26: ogonek Accents . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Table 27: combelow Accents . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 8 8 8 9 9 9 9 10 10 10 10 10 10 11 12 13 13 13 14 14 14 15 16 16 16 17 17 17 17 17 17

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∗ The original version of this document was written by David Carlisle, with several additional tables provided by Alexander Holt. See Section 8.8 on page 118 for more information about who did what.

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28: 29: 30: 31: 32: 33: 34: 35: 36: 37: 38: 39: 40: 41:

wsuipa Diacritics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . textcomp Diacritics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . textcomp Currency Symbols . . . . . . . . . marvosym Currency Symbols . . . . . . . . . wasysym Currency Symbols . . . . . . . . . C in h A2e Currency Symbols . . . . . . . . . . teubner Currency Symbols . . . . . . . . . . eurosym Euro Signs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . fourier Euro Signs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . textcomp Legal Symbols . . . . . . . . . . . cclicenses Creative Commons License Icons . textcomp Old-style Numerals . . . . . . . . . Miscellaneous textcomp Symbols . . . . . . . Miscellaneous wasysym Text-mode Symbols

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18 18 18 18 18 19 19 19 19 19 19 20 20 20 21 21 21 22 22 22 23 23 23 23 24 24 24 24 25 25 25 26 26 26 26 27 28 29 30 30 30 30 31 31 31 31 31 32 32 32 33 34 35 36 36 36 36

Mathematical symbols Table 42: Math-Mode Versions of Text Symbols . . . . . Table 43: cmll Unary Operators . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Table 44: Binary Operators . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Table 45: AMS Binary Operators . . . . . . . . . . . . Table 46: stmaryrd Binary Operators . . . . . . . . . . . Table 47: wasysym Binary Operators . . . . . . . . . . . Table 48: txfonts/pxfonts Binary Operators . . . . . . . Table 49: mathabx Binary Operators . . . . . . . . . . . Table 50: MnSymbol Binary Operators . . . . . . . . . . Table 51: mathdesign Binary Operators . . . . . . . . . Table 52: cmll Binary Operators . . . . . . . . . . . . . Table 53: shuffle Binary Operators . . . . . . . . . . . . Table 54: ulsy Geometric Binary Operators . . . . . . . Table 55: mathabx Geometric Binary Operators . . . . . Table 56: MnSymbol Geometric Binary Operators . . . . Table 57: Variable-sized Math Operators . . . . . . . . Table 58: AMS Variable-sized Math Operators . . . . . Table 59: stmaryrd Variable-sized Math Operators . . . Table 60: wasysym Variable-sized Math Operators . . . Table 61: mathabx Variable-sized Math Operators . . . Table 62: txfonts/pxfonts Variable-sized Math Operators Table 63: esint Variable-sized Math Operators . . . . . . Table 64: MnSymbol Variable-sized Math Operators . . Table 65: mathdesign Variable-sized Math Operators . . Table 66: cmll Large Math Operators . . . . . . . . . . Table 67: Binary Relations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Table 68: AMS Binary Relations . . . . . . . . . . . . . Table 69: AMS Negated Binary Relations . . . . . . . . Table 70: stmaryrd Binary Relations . . . . . . . . . . . Table 71: wasysym Binary Relations . . . . . . . . . . . Table 72: txfonts/pxfonts Binary Relations . . . . . . . . Table 73: txfonts/pxfonts Negated Binary Relations . . . Table 74: mathabx Binary Relations . . . . . . . . . . . Table 75: mathabx Negated Binary Relations . . . . . . Table 76: MnSymbol Binary Relations . . . . . . . . . . Table 77: MnSymbol Negated Binary Relations . . . . . Table 78: mathtools Binary Relations . . . . . . . . . . . Table 79: turnstile Binary Relations . . . . . . . . . . . . Table 80: trsym Binary Relations . . . . . . . . . . . . . Table 81: trfsigns Binary Relations . . . . . . . . . . . . Table 82: cmll Binary Relations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Table 83: colonequals Binary Relations . . . . . . . . . . 2

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fourier Binary Relations . . . . . . . . . . . . Subset and Superset Relations . . . . . . . . . AMS Subset and Superset Relations . . . . . stmaryrd Subset and Superset Relations . . . . wasysym Subset and Superset Relations . . . . txfonts/pxfonts Subset and Superset Relations mathabx Subset and Superset Relations . . . . MnSymbol Subset and Superset Relations . . Inequalities . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . AMS Inequalities . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . wasysym Inequalities . . . . . . . . . . . . . . txfonts/pxfonts Inequalities . . . . . . . . . . . mathabx Inequalities . . . . . . . . . . . . . . MnSymbol Inequalities . . . . . . . . . . . . . AMS Triangle Relations . . . . . . . . . . . . stmaryrd Triangle Relations . . . . . . . . . . mathabx Triangle Relations . . . . . . . . . . MnSymbol Triangle Relations . . . . . . . . . Arrows . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Harpoons . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . textcomp Text-mode Arrows . . . . . . . . . . AMS Arrows . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . AMS Negated Arrows . . . . . . . . . . . . . AMS Harpoons . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . stmaryrd Arrows . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . txfonts/pxfonts Arrows . . . . . . . . . . . . . mathabx Arrows . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . mathabx Negated Arrows . . . . . . . . . . . . mathabx Harpoons . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . MnSymbol Arrows . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . MnSymbol Negated Arrows . . . . . . . . . . . MnSymbol Harpoons . . . . . . . . . . . . . . MnSymbol Negated Harpoons . . . . . . . . . harpoon Extensible Harpoons . . . . . . . . . chemarrow Arrows . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . fge Arrows . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . MnSymbol Spoons . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . MnSymbol Pitchforks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . MnSymbol Smiles and Frowns . . . . . . . . . ulsy Contradiction Symbols . . . . . . . . . . Extension Characters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . stmaryrd Extension Characters . . . . . . . . . txfonts/pxfonts Extension Characters . . . . . mathabx Extension Characters . . . . . . . . . Log-like Symbols . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . AMS Log-like Symbols . . . . . . . . . . . . . C in h A2e Number Sets . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Greek Letters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . AMS Greek Letters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . txfonts/pxfonts Upright Greek Letters . . . . . upgreek Upright Greek Letters . . . . . . . . . fourier Variant Greek Letters . . . . . . . . . . txfonts/pxfonts Variant Latin Letters . . . . . AMS Hebrew Letters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . MnSymbol Hebrew Letters . . . . . . . . . . . Letter-like Symbols . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . AMS Letter-like Symbols . . . . . . . . . . .

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36 36 36 37 37 37 37 37 37 38 38 38 38 39 39 40 40 40 41 41 41 41 41 41 42 42 42 42 43 43 44 46 46 47 47 47 47 47 48 48 48 48 48 49 49 49 49 50 50 50 51 51 51 51 51 51 52

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. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Large. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . AMS Delimiters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . nath Variable-sized Delimiters (Triple) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . undertilde Extensible Accents . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . marvosym Digits . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . extarrows Extensible Arrows . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . mathabx Letter-like Symbols . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . fge Math-mode Accents . . . nath Delimiters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . AMS Math-mode Accents . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . stmaryrd Delimiters . . . . . mathabx Extensible Accents . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . mathdots Dots . . . DotArrow Extensible Arrows . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . metre Text-mode Delimiters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . yhmath Dots . . . extpfeil Extensible Arrows . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . trfsigns Extensible Transform Symbols . . . . . . . . . . . stmaryrd Variable-sized Delimiters . . . . 52 52 52 52 52 53 53 53 53 53 53 54 54 54 54 55 55 56 56 57 57 57 57 57 58 58 58 58 59 59 59 59 60 60 60 60 61 61 61 61 62 62 62 62 63 63 63 63 63 64 64 64 64 64 64 65 65 4 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Variable-sized Delimiters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . MnSymbol Dots . . . . . . . . . . wasysym Dots . . . . . . . overrightarrow Extensible Accents . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . fourier Letter-like Symbols . . . . . . . . . AMS Extensible Accents . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . mathcomp Math Symbols . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . mathdesign Letter-like Symbols . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . AMS Variable-sized Delimiters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . nath Variable-sized Delimiters (Double) . . . . . . . . . Extensible Accents . . chemarrow Extensible Arrows . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . AMS Extensible Arrows . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . AMS Dots . . . Math-mode Accents . ushort Extensible Accents . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . textcomp Text-mode Delimiters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Table Table Table Table Table Table Table Table Table Table Table Table Table Table Table Table Table Table Table Table Table Table Table Table Table Table Table Table Table Table Table Table Table Table Table Table Table Table Table Table Table Table Table Table Table Table Table Table Table Table Table Table Table Table Table Table Table 141: 142: 143: 144: 145: 146: 147: 148: 149: 150: 151: 152: 153: 154: 155: 156: 157: 158: 159: 160: 161: 162: 163: 164: 165: 166: 167: 168: 169: 170: 171: 172: 173: 174: 175: 176: 177: 178: 179: 180: 181: 182: 183: 184: 185: 186: 187: 188: 189: 190: 191: 192: 193: 194: 195: 196: 197: txfonts/pxfonts Letter-like Symbols . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . mathtools Extensible Arrows . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . MnSymbol Extensible Accents . Variable-sized Delimiters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . fourier Variable-sized Delimiters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . teubner Dots . . . . . . . . . yhmath Extensible Accents . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . yhmath Math-mode Accents . . . . . . . . . . . . . mathtools Extensible Accents . fge Letter-like Symbols . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . esvect Extensible Accents . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . mathabx Variable-sized Delimiters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . MnSymbol Variable-sized Delimiters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . holtpolt Non-commutative Division Symbols Dots . . . . . . . . . . . MnSymbol Math-mode Accents . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . trfsigns Letter-like Symbols . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . fourier Extensible Accents . . . . . . . . . . . . . . chemarr Extensible Arrows . . . . . . . . . . . . MnSymbol Letter-like Symbols . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . mathdesign Variable-sized Delimiters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . mathabx Delimiters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

pifont Arrows . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Table 220: wasysym Astronomical Symbols . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 . . . . . . . . . . . . Table 229: marvosym Communication Symbols . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Table 219: steinmetz Extensible Phasor Symbol . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . bbding Fists . . . . Table 233: marvosym Safety-related Symbols . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . pifont Pencils and Nibs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Table 217: ar Aspect Ratio Symbol . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Table 225: marvosym Computer Hardware Symbols . . . Table 216: ifsym Pulse Diagram Symbols . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Table Table Table Table Table Table Table Table Table Table Table Table Table Table Table Table 4 198: 199: 200: 201: 202: 203: 204: 205: 206: 207: 208: 209: 210: 211: 212: 213: fge Digits . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . bbding Pencils and Nibs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Table 234: feyn Feynman Diagram Symbols . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . mathabx Mayan Digits . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Miscellaneous fge Math Symbols . . . . . . . . . . Math Alphabets . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Table 222: mathabx Astronomical Symbols . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Table 226: keystroke Computer Keys . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Table 221: marvosym Astronomical Symbols . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . bbding Xs and Check Marks pifont Xs and Check Marks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Miscellaneous AMS Math Symbols . . . . . . . . . . . Table 224: wasysym APL Modifiers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Dingbats Table 235: Table 236: Table 237: Table 238: Table 239: Table 240: Table 241: Table 242: Table 243: Table 244: Table 245: Table 246: Table 247: Table 248: Table 249: Table 250: Table 251: Mode . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Miscellaneous txfonts/pxfonts Math Symbols . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . fourier Fists . . . . . . . . . . . . . . A Miscellaneous L TEX 2ε Math Symbols . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Table 231: wasysym Biological Symbols . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . dingbat Fists . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 65 65 65 65 66 66 66 66 66 67 67 67 67 67 67 68 70 70 70 70 70 70 70 71 71 71 71 71 72 72 72 73 73 73 73 74 74 74 75 75 75 75 75 75 75 76 76 76 76 76 76 76 76 77 77 77 Science and technology symbols Table 214: gensymb Symbols Defined to Work in Both Math and Text Table 215: wasysym Electrical and Physical Symbols . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Miscellaneous mathabx Math Symbols . . . . . . . . . . . . . . marvosym Scissors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . dozenal Base-12 Digits . . . . . . . . . . 5 bbding Arrows . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Miscellaneous mathdesign Math Symbols . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . bbding Crosses and Plusses . . . . . pifont Fists . . . . . . . Miscellaneous MnSymbol Math Symbols . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Miscellaneous Internal MnSymbol Math Symbols Miscellaneous textcomp Text-mode Math Symbols Miscellaneous marvosym Math Symbols . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Table 218: textcomp Text-mode Science and Engineering Symbols . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . universal Arrows . . . . pifont Crosses and Plusses . . . . . . . . . . . Table 232: marvosym Biological Symbols . . Table 230: marvosym Engineering Symbols . . Miscellaneous arev Math Symbols . . . Table 227: ascii Control Characters (CP437) . . dingbat Pencils . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . bbding Scissors . . . . . . . . . . . pifont Scissors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Miscellaneous wasysym Math Symbols . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Table 228: milstd Logic Gates . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Table 223: wasysym APL Symbols . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Table Table Table Table Table Table Table Table Table Table Table Table Table Table Table Table Table 6

252: 253: 254: 255: 256: 257: 258: 259: 260: 261: 262: 263: 264: 265: 266: 267: 268:

wasysym Xs and Check Marks . . . . . . . universal Xs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . pifont Circled Numbers . . . . . . . . . . . wasysym Stars . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . bbding Stars, Flowers, and Similar Shapes pifont Stars, Flowers, and Similar Shapes . fourier Ornaments . . . . . . . . . . . . . . wasysym Geometric Shapes . . . . . . . . . MnSymbol Geometric Shapes . . . . . . . ifsym Geometric Shapes . . . . . . . . . . bbding Geometric Shapes . . . . . . . . . . pifont Geometric Shapes . . . . . . . . . . universa Geometric Shapes . . . . . . . . . universal Geometric Shapes . . . . . . . . . Miscellaneous dingbat Dingbats . . . . . . Miscellaneous bbding Dingbats . . . . . . . Miscellaneous pifont Dingbats . . . . . . .

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77 77 77 77 78 78 78 78 79 79 80 80 80 80 80 80 80 81 81 81 82 82 85 85 85 86 86 86 87 87 88 88 88 88 88 88 89 89 89 89 90 90 90 90 90 90 91 91 91 91 92 92 92 92 92 93

Ancient languages Table 269: phaistos Symbols from the Phaistos Disk . . . . . . Table 270: protosem Proto-Semitic Characters . . . . . . . . . Table 271: hieroglf Hieroglyphics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Table 272: linearA Linear A Script . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Table 273: linearb Linear B Basic and Optional Letters . . . . Table 274: linearb Linear B Numerals . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Table 275: linearb Linear B Weights and Measures . . . . . . . Table 276: linearb Linear B Ideograms . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Table 277: linearb Unidentified Linear B Symbols . . . . . . . Table 278: cypriot Cypriot Letters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Table 279: sarabian South Arabian Letters . . . . . . . . . . . Table 280: teubner Archaic Greek Letters and Greek Numerals Other symbols Table 281: textcomp Genealogical Symbols . Table 282: wasysym General Symbols . . . . Table 283: wasysym Circles . . . . . . . . . . Table 284: wasysym Musical Symbols . . . . Table 285: arev Musical Symbols . . . . . . . Table 286: harmony Musical Symbols . . . . Table 287: harmony Musical Accents . . . . . Table 288: manfnt Dangerous Bend Symbols Table 289: Miscellaneous manfnt Symbols . . Table 290: marvosym Navigation Symbols . . Table 291: marvosym Laundry Symbols . . . Table 292: marvosym Information Symbols . Table 293: Other marvosym Symbols . . . . . Table 294: Miscellaneous universa Symbols . Table 295: Miscellaneous universal Symbols . Table 296: Miscellaneous fourier Symbols . . Table 297: ifsym Weather Symbols . . . . . . Table 298: ifsym Alpine Symbols . . . . . . . Table 299: ifsym Clocks . . . . . . . . . . . . Table 300: Other ifsym Symbols . . . . . . . Table 301: clock Clocks . . . . . . . . . . . . Table 302: epsdice Dice . . . . . . . . . . . . Table 303: hhcount Dice . . . . . . . . . . . . Table 304: hhcount Tally Markers . . . . . . Table 305: skull Symbols . . . . . . . . . . .

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Table Table Table Table Table Table Table Table Table Table Table Table Table Table Table 8

306: 307: 308: 309: 310: 311: 312: 313: 314: 315: 316: 317: 318: 319: 320:

Non-Mathematical mathabx Symbols . . . skak Chess Informator Symbols . . . . . . skak Chess Pieces and Chessboard Squares igo Go Stones . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . metre Metrical Symbols . . . . . . . . . . metre Small and Large Metrical Symbols . teubner Metrical Symbols . . . . . . . . . . dictsym Dictionary Symbols . . . . . . . . simpsons Characters from The Simpsons . pmboxdraw Box-Drawing Symbols . . . . . staves Magical Staves . . . . . . . . . . . . pigpen Cipher Symbols . . . . . . . . . . . C in h A2e Phases of the Moon . . . . . . . . Other C in h A2e Symbols . . . . . . . . . . . recycle Recycling Symbols . . . . . . . . .

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93 93 94 94 95 95 95 96 96 97 97 98 98 98 99 100 100 100 100 112 113 114 117 118 121 122 123

Additional Information 8.1 Symbol Name Clashes . . . . . . . . 8.2 Resizing symbols . . . . . . . . . . . 8.3 Where can I find the symbol for . . . ? 8.4 Math-mode spacing . . . . . . . . . . 8.5 Bold mathematical symbols . . . . . 8.6 ASCII and Latin 1 quick reference . 8.7 Unicode characters . . . . . . . . . . 8.8 About this document . . . . . . . . . 8.9 Copyright and license . . . . . . . .

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References Index

7

1

Introduction

A A Welcome to the Comprehensive L TEX Symbol List! This document strives to be your primary source of L TEX A symbol information: font samples, L TEX commands, packages, usage details, caveats—everything needed to put thousands of different symbols at your disposal. All of the fonts covered herein meet the following criteria:

1. They are freely available from the Comprehensive TEX Archive Network (http://www.ctan.org).
A 2. All of their symbols have L TEX 2ε bindings. That is, a user should be able to access a symbol by name, not just by \char number . A These are not particularly limiting criteria; the Comprehensive L TEX Symbol List contains samples of 5913 A symbols—quite a large number. Some of these symbols are guaranteed to be available in every L TEX 2ε system; others require fonts and packages that may not accompany a given distribution and that therefore need to be installed. See http://www.tex.ac.uk/cgi-bin/texfaq2html?label=instpackages+wherefiles for help with installing new fonts and packages.

1.1

Document Usage

Each section of this document contains a number of font tables. Each table shows a set of symbols, with the A corresponding L TEX command to the right of each symbol. A table’s caption indicates what package needs to be loaded in order to access that table’s symbols. For example, the symbols in Table 39, “textcomp Old-Style Numerals”, are made available by putting “\usepackage{textcomp}” in your document’s preamble. “AMS” means to use the AMS packages, viz. amssymb and/or amsmath. Notes below a table provide additional information about some or all the symbols in that table. One note that appears a few times in this document, particularly in Section 2, indicates that certain symbols do not exist in the OT1 font encoding (Donald Knuth’s original, 7-bit font encoding, which is the A default font encoding for L TEX) and that you should use fontenc to select a different encoding, such as T1 (a common 8-bit font encoding). That means that you should put “\usepackage[ encoding ]{fontenc}” in your document’s preamble, where encoding is, e.g., T1 or LY1. To limit the change in font encoding to the current group, use “\fontencoding{ encoding }\selectfont”. Section 8 contains some additional information about the symbols in this document. It discusses how certain mathematical symbols can vary in height, shows which symbol names are not unique across packages, gives examples of how to create new symbols out of existing symbols, explains how symbols are spaced in A math mode, compares various schemes for boldfacing symbols, presents L TEX ASCII and Latin 1 tables, shows how to input and output Unicode characters, and provides some information about this document itself. A The Comprehensive L TEX Symbol List ends with an index of all the symbols in the document and various additional useful terms.

1.2

Frequently Requested Symbols

There are a number of symbols that are requested over and over again on comp.text.tex. If you’re looking for such a symbol the following list will help you find it quickly. , as in “Spaces are significant.” ´ ` ¯ ˆ etc. (versus ´ ` ¯ and ˆ ı, ı, ı, ı, ı, ı, i, ı) ¢ e ‰ ∴ ........ ........ 9 14 18 18 19 20 27 30 31 38 .. . .............................. .............. ........................ ...................... 64 67 68 68 68

°, as in “180°” or “15 ” L, F, etc.

............................... .............................. ...................... .............................. .............................. ............................... and and ......................... .........................

N, Z, R, etc.
r

©, ®, and ™

...............................

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 105 107

´, `, etc. (i.e., several accents per character) a e ¯ ˆ <, >, and | (instead of ¡, ¿, and —) ˆ and ˜ (or ∼)

. . . . . . 114

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 115

8

. the left one is the “faked” symbol that L TEX 2ε provides by default. such as punctuation marks. ∗ \^{} and \~{} can be used instead of \textasciicircum and \textasciitilde.. the left one is the “faked” symbol that L TEX 2ε provides by default.2 Body-text symbols This section lists symbols that are intended for use in running text. — – ¡ > \textasciicircum∗ \textasciitilde∗ \textasteriskcentered \textbackslash \textbar \textbraceleft† \textbraceright† \textbullet \textcopyright† \textdagger† \textdaggerdbl† \textdollar† \textellipsis† \textemdash \textendash \textexclamdown \textgreater a o r TM < ª º ¶ · ¿ “ ” ‘ ’ ® § £ ™ \textless \textordfeminine \textordmasculine \textparagraph† \textperiodcentered \textquestiondown \textquotedblleft \textquotedblright \textquoteleft \textquoteright \textregistered \textsection† \textsterling† \texttrademark \textunderscore† \textvisiblespace A Where two symbols are present. † A Table 3: L TEX 2ε Commands Defined to Work in Both Math and Text Mode $ ¶ § \$ \P \S c © † \_ \copyright \dag ‡ . A Table 1: L TEX 2ε Escapable “Special” Characters $ ∗ \$ % \% \_ ∗ } \} & \& # \# { \{ The underscore package redefines “_” to produce an underscore in text mode (i. it makes it unnecessary to escape the underscore character). and the right one is the “true” symbol that textcomp makes available. and currency symbols.e. ligatures.. £ \ddag \dots \pounds { } \{ \} A Where two symbols are present. A Table 2: Predefined L TEX 2ε Text-mode Commands c ˆ ˜ ∗ \ | { } • © † ‡ $ .. accents. It’s generally preferable to use the corresponding symbol from Table 3 because the symbols in that table work properly in both text mode and math mode. and the right one is the “true” symbol that textcomp makes available.. 9 . See the discussion of “˜” on page 115.

Table 7: Letters Used to Typeset Vietnamese Ơ \OHORN ơ \ohorn Ư \UHORN ư \uhorn These characters all need the T5 font encoding. which is provided by the vntex package. such as T1. Ð ž ‡ § · —   €  \B{D} \B{d} \B{H} \B{h} \B{t} \B{T} \m{b} \m{B} \m{C} °  ð Ð ¡ ‚ ¢ ƒ £ Table 6: Letters Used to Typeset African Languages \m{c} \m{D} \M{d} \M{D} \m{d} \m{E} \m{e} \M{E} \M{e} ¤ „ † ¦ À à ‰ © ˆ \m{f} \m{F} \m{G} \m{g} \m{I} \m{i} \m{J} \m{j} \m{K} ¨  ­ ª Š ‘ ± ¬ Œ \m{k} \m{N} \m{n} \m{o} \m{O} \m{P} \m{p} \m{s} \m{S} » › º š ® Ž  ¯ ¶ \M{t} \M{T} \m{t} \m{T} \m{u}∗ \m{U}∗ \m{Y} \m{y} \m{z} –  â Å å \m{Z} \T{E} \T{e} \T{O} \T{o} These characters all need the T4 font encoding. which is provided by the fc package. Table 8: Punctuation Marks Not Found in OT1 « » \guillemotleft \guillemotright ‹ › \guilsinglleft \guilsinglright „ ‚ \quotedblbase \quotesinglbase " \textquotedbl To get these symbols.Table 4: AMS Commands Defined to Work in Both Math and Text Mode \checkmark \circledR \maltese Table 5: Non-ASCII Letters (Excluding Accented Letters) ˚ a ˚ A Æ æ ∗ \aa \AA \AE \ae Ð ð Ð đ \DH∗ \dh∗ \DJ∗ \dj∗ L l Ŋ ŋ \L \l \NG∗ \ng∗ ø Ø Œ œ \o \O \OE \oe ß SS Þ þ \ss \SS \TH∗ \th∗ Not available in the OT1 font encoding. ∗ \m{v} and \m{V} are synonyms for \m{u} and \m{U}. such as T1. Use the fontenc package to select an alternate font encoding. Table 9: pifont Decorative Punctuation Marks — ˜ \ding{123} \ding{124} ™ d \ding{125} \ding{126} e f 10 \ding{161} \ding{162} g \ding{163} . use the fontenc package to select an alternate font encoding.

Table 10: tipa Phonetic Symbols È b c d é g Ü 1 ł 8 Ý 0 ì B ò \textbabygamma \textbarb \textbarc \textbard \textbardotlessj \textbarg \textbarglotstop \textbari \textbarl \textbaro \textbarrevglotstop \textbaru \textbeltl \textbeta \textbullseye \textceltpal \textchi \textcloseepsilon \textcloseomega \textcloserevepsilon \textcommatailz \textcorner \textcrb \textcrd \textcrg \textcrh \textcrinvglotstop \textcrlambda \textcrtwo \textctc \textctd \textctdctzlig \textctesh \textctj \textctn \textctt \textcttctclig \textctyogh \textctz \textdctzlig \textdoublebaresh \textdoublebarpipe \textdoublebarslash \textdoublepipe \textdoublevertline \textdownstep \textdyoghlig \textdzlig \textepsilon P . ż # á ê Á â ä H Ê Î Ò Ó č É Ö ß Û K Ì ń : ş ę ű Ô ¡ M ñ ë Ð Í ŋ ř _ O % F | " ij ğ 7 \ 9 3 Q ź \textglotstop \texthalflength \texthardsign \texthooktop \texthtb \texthtbardotlessj \texthtc \texthtd \texthtg \texthth \texththeng \texthtk \texthtp \texthtq \texthtrtaild \texthtscg \texthtt \texthvlig \textinvglotstop \textinvscr \textiota \textlambda \textlengthmark \textlhookt \textlhtlongi \textlhtlongy \textlonglegr \textlptr \textltailm \textltailn \textltilde \textlyoghlig \textObardotlessj \textOlyoghlig \textomega \textopencorner \textopeno \textpalhook \textphi \textpipe \textprimstress \textraiseglotstop \textraisevibyi \textramshorns \textrevapostrophe \textreve \textrevepsilon \textrevglotstop \textrevyogh ï ó ù ú ü $ À à ď å Ë @ I ĺ Ï ð Œ ś ö A g V Ú Y ž  tC Ù T þ £ 5 ŕ 4 ľ Õ W î ô õ 6 Ø 2 û L U \textrtailn \textrtailr \textrtails \textrtailt \textrtailz \textrthook \textsca \textscb \textsce \textscg \textsch \textschwa \textsci \textscj \textscl \textscn \textscoelig \textscomega \textscr \textscripta \textscriptg \textscriptv \textscu \textscy \textsecstress \textsoftsign \textstretchc \texttctclig \textteshlig \texttheta \textthorn \texttoneletterstem \texttslig \textturna \textturncelig \textturnh \textturnk \textturnlonglegr \textturnm \textturnmrleg \textturnr \textturnrrtail \textturnscripta \textturnt \textturnv \textturnw \textturny \textupsilon \textupstep Å Ñ Æ Þ ^ ă ą g è Û ň 2 C ć ćý š J ő ť ťC ÿ ý dý S } = / { Ş Ť à dz E (continued on next page) 11 .

D 2 % & @ ) H G ˇ 7 5 ’ ( ? T U V . 0 4 \textaolig \textbenttailyogh \textbktailgamma \textctinvglotstop \textctjvar \textctstretchc \textctstretchcvar \textctturnt \textdblig \textdoublebarpipevar \textdoublepipevar \textdownfullarrow \textfemale \textfrbarn \textfrhookd \textfrhookdvar \textfrhookt \textfrtailgamma \textglotstopvari \textglotstopvarii \textglotstopvariii \textgrgamma \textheng \texthmlig 3 .(continued from previous page) S R ě G Ů Ű \textesh \textfishhookr \textg \textgamma \textglobfall \textglobrise Ç Ä ~ ¿ ã í \textrhookrevepsilon \textrhookschwa \textrhoticity \textrptr \textrtaild \textrtaill Š ğ ů Z \textvertline \textvibyi \textvibyy \textwynn \textyogh tipa defines shortcut characters for many of the above. Table 11: tipx Phonetic Symbols " B . It also defines a command \tone for denoting tone letters (pitches). See the tipa documentation for more information. p ! I # < 1 > 6 9 ˆ ˜ F = ¨ ˚ v z * + : / \texthtbardotlessjvar \textinvomega \textinvsca \textinvscripta \textlfishhookrlig \textlhookfour \textlhookp \textlhti \textlooptoprevesh \textnrleg \textObullseye \textpalhooklong \textpalhookvar \textpipevar \textqplig \textrectangle \textretractingvar \textrevscl \textrevscr \textrhooka \textrhooke \textrhookepsilon \textrhookopeno \textrtailhth ´ q r s t w x y ˝ $ ˙ ¯ P Q R S E u { C A 8 ˘ \textrthooklong \textscaolig \textscdelta \textscf \textsck \textscm \textscp \textscq \textspleftarrow \textstretchcvar \textsubdoublearrow \textsubrightarrow \textthornvari \textthornvarii \textthornvariii \textthornvariv \textturnglotstop \textturnsck \textturnscu \textturnthree \textturntwo \textuncrfemale \textupfullarrow 12 .

Table 12: wsuipa Phonetic Symbols 3 ¦  9 F ` e C ˆ „ Y  ‚ c ' ¥  5 Q  x — ” @  e \babygamma \barb \bard \bari \barl \baro \barp \barsci \barscu \baru \clickb \clickc \clickt \closedniomega \closedrevepsilon \crossb \crossd \crossh \crossnilambda \curlyc \curlyesh \curlyyogh \curlyz \dlbari \dz \ejective V " w  h ˜ ¨  ) 6 7 & 4   D d 8 s S q u £ ¤  ’ 2 \eng \er \esh \eth \flapr \glotstop \hookb \hookd \hookg \hookh \hookheng \hookrevepsilon \hv \inva \invf \invglotstop \invh \invlegr \invm \invr \invscr \invscripta \invv \invw \invy \ipagamma R G T i I ¢ © ‘ $ 1 A P b g y ƒ † U d a # f % ™ 0 \labdentalnas \latfric \legm \legr \lz \nialpha \nibeta \nichi \niepsilon \nigamma \niiota \nilambda \niomega \niphi \nisigma \nitheta \niupsilon \nj \oo \openo \reve \reveject \revepsilon \revglotstop \scd \scg ! B X t ¡ ( ‰ ‡ “ §   …  r H W p v € •  f E – \schwa \sci \scn \scr \scripta \scriptg \scriptv \scu \scy \slashb \slashc \slashd \slashu \taild \tailinvr \taill \tailn \tailr \tails \tailt \tailz \tesh \thorn \tildel \yogh Table 13: wasysym Phonetic Symbols D Þ \DH \Thorn \dh \inve þ \openo \thorn Table 14: phonetic Phonetic Symbols j ¡ w n x 4 s d p \barj \barlambda \emgma \engma \enya \epsi \esh \eth \fj f c f ˜ h „ k u h \flap \glottal \hausaB \hausab \hausad \hausaD \hausak \hausaK \hookd i ¯ ™ ¯ h … ¢   m  r \ibar \openo \planck \pwedge \revD \riota \rotm \rotOmega \rotr e w y e p u u — q \rotvara \rotw \roty \schwa \thorn \ubar \udesc \vara \varg i ¨ g v ˚ h x \vari \varomega \varopeno \vod \voicedh \yogh 13 .

Not available in the OT1 font encoding. Use the fontenc package to select an alternate font encoding.{A}\.ž § ¢ ¬    ° Table 15: t4phonet Phonetic Symbols \textcrd \textcrh \textepsilon \textesh \textfjlig \texthtb \texthtc ¡ ¨ ± º à © ª \texthtd \texthtk \texthtp \texthtt \textiota \textltailn \textopeno | ð » ¡ ¬ œ ¶ \textpipe \textrtaild \textrtailt \textschwa \textscriptv \textteshlig \textyogh The idea behind the t4phonet package’s phonetic symbols is to provide an interface to some of the characters in the T4 font encoding (Table 6 on page 10) but using the same names as the tipa characters presented in Table 10 on page 11. These are useful when the accent is supposed to replace the dot in encodings that need to composite (i. Requires the T5 font encoding. such as T1. For example. “ı” and “”). Font encodings other than OT1 and newer versions of L TEX properly typeset “na\"{i}ve” as “na¨ ıve”. “na\"{\i}ve” always produces a correct “na¨ ıve”. Table 16: semtrans Transliteration Symbols \Alif \Ayn Table 17: Text-mode Accents ¨a A¨ ´a A´ ˙˙ Aa ¯a A¯ ˆa Aˆ \"{A}\"{a} \’{A}\’{a} \. provided by the fc package.. which produce dotless versions of “i” and “j” (viz.. provided by the vntex package.e. Ảả ˝a A˝ Ąą Ÿa AŸ \d{A}\d{a} \G{A}\G{a}‡ \h{A}\h{a}§ \H{A}\H{a} \k{A}\k{a}† ˚a A˚ Aa ˘a A˘ ˇa Aˇ ¼a A¼ \r{A}\r{a} \t{A}\t{a} \u{A}\u{a} \U{A}\U{a}‡ \v{A}\v{a} \newtie{A}\newtie{a}∗ \textcircled{A}\textcircled{a} Requires the textcomp package. ‡ § Also note the existence of \i and \j. while “na\"{i}ve” yields the rather odd-looking “na¨ ive” when using the OT1 font encoding and older A A versions of L TEX.{a} \={A}\={a} \^{A}\^{a} Aa ∗ † `a A` ¿a A¿ ˜a A˜ Aa ¯¯ Aa ¸¸ \‘{A}\‘{a} \|{A}\|{a}‡ \~{A}\~{a} \b{A}\b{a} \c{A}\c{a} Aa Aa .. combine) letters and accents. 14 . Requires the T4 font encoding.

Table 18: tipa Text-mode Accents ´¯ ¯a A´ ´ˇ ˇa A´ Aa ffiffi A< <a ˘a ¯˘ A¯ Ża AŻ ˆa ˙˙ Aˆ §a A§ ˙˙ ˘a A˘ ‚a A‚ İa Aİ Ža AŽ đa Ađ `a ¯¯ A` Źa AŹ Aa „„ Aa flfl Ÿa AŸ ‰a A‰ —— Aa Aa ˛˛ Aa fifi Aa fflffl ˚˚ ¯a A¯ “a A“ Aa Aa ›› Aa ““ Aa ¯¯ Aa ”” Aa ˆˆ Aa ˙˙ Aa ‹‹ Aa –– Aa ffff Aa »» Aa ˚˚ Aa «« Aa ˜˜ Aa ¨¨ \textacutemacron{A}\textacutemacron{a} \textacutewedge{A}\textacutewedge{a} \textadvancing{A}\textadvancing{a} \textbottomtiebar{A}\textbottomtiebar{a} \textbrevemacron{A}\textbrevemacron{a} \textcircumacute{A}\textcircumacute{a} \textcircumdot{A}\textcircumdot{a} \textdotacute{A}\textdotacute{a} \textdotbreve{A}\textdotbreve{a} \textdoublegrave{A}\textdoublegrave{a} \textdoublevbaraccent{A}\textdoublevbaraccent{a} \textgravecircum{A}\textgravecircum{a} \textgravedot{A}\textgravedot{a} \textgravemacron{A}\textgravemacron{a} \textgravemid{A}\textgravemid{a} \textinvsubbridge{A}\textinvsubbridge{a} \textlowering{A}\textlowering{a} \textmidacute{A}\textmidacute{a} \textovercross{A}\textovercross{a} \textoverw{A}\textoverw{a} \textpolhook{A}\textpolhook{a} \textraising{A}\textraising{a} \textretracting{A}\textretracting{a} \textringmacron{A}\textringmacron{a} \textroundcap{A}\textroundcap{a} \textseagull{A}\textseagull{a} \textsubacute{A}\textsubacute{a} \textsubarch{A}\textsubarch{a} \textsubbar{A}\textsubbar{a} \textsubbridge{A}\textsubbridge{a} \textsubcircum{A}\textsubcircum{a} \textsubdot{A}\textsubdot{a} \textsubgrave{A}\textsubgrave{a} \textsublhalfring{A}\textsublhalfring{a} \textsubplus{A}\textsubplus{a} \textsubrhalfring{A}\textsubrhalfring{a} \textsubring{A}\textsubring{a} \textsubsquare{A}\textsubsquare{a} \textsubtilde{A}\textsubtilde{a} \textsubumlaut{A}\textsubumlaut{a} (continued on next page) 15 .

. for example.(continued from previous page) Aa —— Aa ˇˇ A& &a Aa " " ˜a ˙˙ A˜ >> Aa IJa AIJ \textsubw{A}\textsubw{a} \textsubwedge{A}\textsubwedge{a} \textsuperimposetilde{A}\textsuperimposetilde{a} \textsyllabic{A}\textsyllabic{a} \texttildedot{A}\texttildedot{a} \texttoptiebar{A}\texttoptiebar{a} \textvbaraccent{A}\textvbaraccent{a} tipa defines shortcut sequences for many of the above. ˜a A˜ ˜a A˜ Aa» ˇ»ˇ Aa» » ˚˚ A–a –ˇ ˇ Aa –”–” ˚˚ Aa A– –ˇ»a» ˇ \bibridge{A}\bibridge{a} \crtilde{A}\crtilde{a} \dottedtilde{A}\dottedtilde{a} \doubletilde{A}\doubletilde{a} \finpartvoice{A}\finpartvoice{a} \finpartvoiceless{A}\finpartvoiceless{a} \inipartvoice{A}\inipartvoice{a} \inipartvoiceless{A}\inipartvoiceless{a} \overbridge{A}\overbridge{a} \partvoice{A}\partvoice{a} A– – »a» ˚˚ A¯ ¯a A˙ ˙a Aa ^^ Aa ¯¯ Aa "" "" Aa ¡¡ Aa ¿¿ Aa \partvoiceless{A}\partvoiceless{a} \sliding{A}\sliding{a} \spreadlips{A}\spreadlips{a} \subcorner{A}\subcorner{a} \subdoublebar{A}\subdoublebar{a} \subdoublevert{A}\subdoublevert{a} \sublptr{A}\sublptr{a} \subrptr{A}\subrptr{a} \whistle{A}\whistle{a} Table 20: wsuipa Text-mode Accents Aa gg Aa  \dental{A}\dental{a} \underarch{A}\underarch{a} Table 21: phonetic Text-mode Accents Aa { { \hill{A}\hill{a} \od{A}\od{a} \ohill{A}\ohill{a} Aa ©© Aa A. 16 . \acbar and \acarc compose characters with multiple accents. Lastly. \labvel joins a e two characters with an arc: \labvel{mn} → “mn”. ¯ ¯ \acbar{\’}{a} produces “´” and \acarc{\"}{e} produces “¨”. Table 19: extraipa Text-mode Accents ”” Aa ”” Ŕ Ŕ ˜a A˜ . a \rc{A}\rc{a} \syl{A}\syl{a} \td{A}\td{a} Aa ˚˚ { { Aa Aa ˜˜ \ut{A}\ut{a} The phonetic package provides a few additional macros for linguistic accents.. Contrast “p\uplett{h}’’ → “ph ” with “p\textsuperscript{h}’’ → “ph ”. See the tipa documentation for more information. .. .. \upbar is intended to go between characters as in “x\upbar{}y’’ → “x y”. \uplett behaves like \textsuperscript but uses a smaller font.

See the arcs documentation for more information. 17 . Table 26: ogonek Accents \k{A}\k{a} Table 27: combelow Accents \cb{A}\cb{a} \cb places a comma above letters with descenders. . Table 25: semtrans Accents Aa ¨¨ \D{A}\D{a} aA Aa Aa .. while “\cb{s}” produces ‘ “s”. Aa ˘˘ \U{A}\U{a} \T{A}\T{a}∗ \T is not actually an accent but a command that rotates its argument 180° using the graphicx package’s \rotatebox command. An optional macro argument alters the effective width of the accented characters. “\cb{g}” produces “g”. Hence.Table 22: metre Text-mode Accents ´´ Aa ˘˘ Aa ˜˜ Aa ¨¨ Aa `` Aa ¯¯ Aa \acutus{A}\acutus{a} \breve{A}\breve{a} \circumflexus{A}\circumflexus{a} \diaeresis{A}\diaeresis{a} \gravis{A}\gravis{a} \macron{A}\macron{a} Ÿa AŸ ¿¿ Aa ¼a A¼ Table 23: t4phonet Text-mode Accents \textdoublegrave{A}\textdoublegrave{a} \textvbaraccent{A}\textvbaraccent{a} \textdoublevbaraccent{A}\textdoublevbaraccent{a} The idea behind the t4phonet package’s text-mode accents is to provide an interface to some of the accents in the T4 font encoding (accents marked with “‡” in Table 17 on page 14) but using the same names as the tipa accents presented in Table 18 on page 15. Table 24: arcs Text-mode Accents Aa \overarc{A}\overarc{a} Aa \underarc{A}\underarc{a} The accents shown above scale only to a few characters wide.

and the marvosym digits listed in Table 197 (\EURdig). not as accents. or Garamond ( ). it does provide \diatop and \diaunder commands. Helvetica (\EURhv). \diatop[\overring|a] produces “x”. Table 32: wasysym Currency Symbols ¢ \cent ¤ 18 \currency . Times Roman (\EURtm). Table 31: marvosym Currency Symbols ¢  \Denarius \Ecommerce e d \EUR \EURcr D c \EURdig \EURhv e ¦ \EURtm \EyesDollar £ ¡ \Pfund \Shilling The different euro signs are meant to be visually compatible with different fonts— Courier (\EURcr). See the wsuipa doca a umentation for more information. For example. which are used to compose diacritics with other characters. not as accents.Table 28: wsuipa Diacritics s k u m p \ain \corner \downp \downt \halflength v n q { z \leftp \leftt \length \midtilde \open x ~ w o i \overring \polishhook \rightp \rightt \secstress h j r y | \stress \syllabic \underdots \underring \undertilde } t l \underwedge \upp \upt The wsuipa package defines all of the above as ordinary characters. The mathdesign package redefines \texteuro to be visually compatible with one of three additional fonts: Utopia ( ). Table 29: textcomp Diacritics \textacutedbl \textasciiacute \textasciibreve \textasciicaron \textasciidieresis \textasciigrave \textasciimacron \textgravedbl The textcomp package defines all of the above as ordinary characters. Table 30: textcomp Currency Symbols ¢  ₡ ¤ \textbaht \textcent \textcentoldstyle \textcolonmonetary \textcurrency ∗ $  ₫ € ƒ \textdollar∗ \textdollaroldstyle \textdong \texteuro \textflorin ₤ £ \textguarani \textlira \textnaira \textpeso \textsterling∗ ¥ \textwon \textyen It’s generally preferable to use the corresponding symbol from Table 3 on page 9 because the symbols in that table work properly in both text mode and math mode. Charter ( ). and \diaunder[\underdots|a] produces “r”. However.

Table 33: C in h A2e Currency Symbols ÿ \Euro þ \Pound Table 34: teubner Currency Symbols Ε \denarius \dracma Α \hemiobelion \stater Β \tetartemorion Table 35: eurosym Euro Signs A C \geneuro B C \geneuronarrow C C \geneurowide e \officialeuro \euro is automatically mapped to one of the above—by default. characters are generated from the current body font’s “C” character and therefore may not appear exactly as shown. \officialeuro— based on a eurosym package option.tex. . Table 38: cclicenses Creative Commons License Icons \ CC \cc ∗ BY: \ccby $ = \ccnd These symbols utilize the rotating package and therefore display improperly in some DVI viewers.g. . The \geneuro. See the eurosym documentation for more information. the left one is the “faked” symbol that L TEX 2ε provides by default. Table 36: fourier Euro Signs \eurologo \texteuro Table 37: textcomp Legal Symbols \textcircledP \textcopyleft c r © ® \textcopyright \textregistered TM ™ \textservicemark \texttrademark A Where two symbols are present.uk/cgi-bin/texfaq2html?label=tradesyms for solutions to common problems that occur when using these symbols (e.ac.. See http://www. and the right one is the “true” symbol that textcomp makes available. 19 C \ccnc∗ \ccsa∗ . getting a “ r ” when you expected to get a “®”).

commands shown above. \texttwooldstyle. Table 40: Miscellaneous textcomp Symbols ∗ ○ ¦ • † ‡ \textasteriskcentered \textbardbl \textbigcircle \textblank \textbrokenbar \textbullet \textdagger∗ \textdaggerdbl∗ \textdblhyphen \textdblhyphenchar \textdiscount \textestimated \textinterrobang \textinterrobangdown \textmusicalnote \textnumero \textopenbullet a o ª º ¶ · ‰ ' ℮ §  ♪ № ◦ \textordfeminine \textordmasculine \textparagraph∗ \textperiodcentered \textpertenthousand \textperthousand \textpilcrow \textquotesingle \textquotestraightbase \textquotestraightdblbase \textrecipe \textreferencemark \textsection∗ \textthreequartersemdash \texttildelow \texttwelveudash A Where two symbols are present.} to typeset an old-style number. and the right one is the “true” symbol that textcomp makes available.Table 39: textcomp Old-style Numerals     \textzerooldstyle \textoneoldstyle \texttwooldstyle \textthreeoldstyle     \textfouroldstyle \textfiveoldstyle \textsixoldstyle \textsevenoldstyle   \texteightoldstyle \textnineoldstyle Rather than use the bulky \textoneoldstyle. the left one is the “faked” symbol that L TEX 2ε provides by default. ∗ It’s generally preferable to use the corresponding symbol from Table 3 on page 9 because the symbols in that table work properly in both text mode and math mode. . . etc. Table 41: Miscellaneous wasysym Text-mode Symbols \permil 20 . consider using \oldstylenums{.

“⊥” (\bot). Table 43: cmll Unary Operators ! ˜ ∗ \oc∗ \shift ˆ ´ \shneg \shpos ? \wn∗ \oc and \wn differ from “!” and “?” in terms of their math-mode spacing: $A=!B$ produces “A =!B”. and possibly shorter still when used in various levels of superscripts or subscripts.. the average value of a variable x is written by some people as “x” (\overline{x}). disjoint union may be represented as “ ” (\coprod). “⊕” (\oplus). while $A=\oc B$ produces “A = !B”. and “ ” (\textreferencemark). In colonequals it’s called \colonequals. “∪” (\dotcup). “ ” (various 1 ). “⇒⇐” (\Rightarrow\Leftarrow). See also the example of \equalsfill on page 108. The moral of the story is that you should be careful always to explain your notation to avoid confusing your readers. discussions on comp. Although there have been many requests on comp. Similarly. 1 In txfonts. they yield a “Missing $ inserted” error message if not used within $. Look there first if you need a symbol for a transform. . and mathtools the symbol is called \coloneqq. of the symbols in this section are math-mode only. That is..text. and by some people as “ x” or “∅x” (\diameter x or \varnothing x). Because of the lack of notational consensus. Common candidates include “ ” (\triangleq). . shorter in in-text formulas. number set. including “©” (\blitza). the ensuing discussion invariably reveals innumerable ways to represent contradiction in a proof. Depending upon the context. Alphanumeric symbols (e.3 Mathematical symbols Most. or some other alphanumeric..text. but not all. In mathabx and MnSymbol it’s called \coloneq.tex for a contradiction symbol. “ ” (\nleftrightarrow). it is probably better to spell out “Contradiction!” than to use a symbol for this purpose. or any of a number of other symbols. or another math-mode environment. pxfonts.2 Finally.text. 2 Bob Tennent listed these and other disjoint-union symbol possibilities in a November 2007 post to comp.\]. \[. “L ” and “ ”) are usually produced using one of the math alphabets in Table 213 rather than with an explicit symbol command.tex. \mathdollar \mathellipsis ¶ § \mathparagraph \mathsection £ \mathsterling \mathunderscore It’s generally preferable to use the corresponding symbol from Table 3 on page 9 because the symbols in that table work properly in both text mode and math mode. · “ ” (\sqcup). Table 42: Math-Mode Versions of Text Symbols $ . 21 . def “≡” (\equiv). and “ =” (\stackrel{\text{\tiny def}}{=}). .tex have revealed that there are a variety of ways to indicate the mathematical notion of “is defined as”. . Operators marked as “variable-sized” are taller in displayed formulas.$. for example.g. by some people as “ x ” (\langle x \rangle).

“raising math symbols”. “AT ”. Use one of the packages latexsym. and \mathsf{T} are other popular choices: “A ”. Table 46: stmaryrd Binary Operators \baro \bbslash \binampersand \bindnasrepma \boxast \boxbar \boxbox \boxbslash \boxcircle \boxdot \boxempty \boxslash \curlyveedownarrow \curlyveeuparrow \curlywedgedownarrow \curlywedgeuparrow \fatbslash \fatsemi \fatslash \interleave \leftslice \merge \minuso \moo \nplus \obar \oblong \obslash \ogreaterthan \olessthan \ovee \owedge \rightslice \sslash \talloblong \varbigcirc \varcurlyvee \varcurlywedge 22 \varoast \varobar \varobslash \varocircle \varodot \varogreaterthan \varolessthan \varominus \varoplus \varoslash \varotimes \varovee \varowedge \vartimes \Ydown \Yleft \Yright \Yup . “AT ”. Table 45: AMS Binary Operators \barwedge \boxdot \boxminus \boxplus \boxtimes \Cap \centerdot \circledast ∗ \circledcirc \circleddash \Cup \curlyvee \curlywedge \divideontimes \dotplus \doublebarwedge \intercal∗ \leftthreetimes \ltimes \rightthreetimes \rtimes \smallsetminus \veebar Some people use a superscripted \intercal for matrix transpose: “A^\intercal” → “A ”.tex thread. amssymb. txfonts. (See the May 2009 comp.Table 44: Binary Operators ∗ \amalg \ast \bigcirc \bigtriangledown \bigtriangleup \bullet \cap \cdot \circ ∪ † ‡ ÷ \cup \dagger \ddagger \diamond \div \lhd∗ \mp \odot \ominus ⊕ ⊗ ± \ \oplus \oslash \otimes \pm \rhd∗ \setminus \sqcap \sqcup \star × \times \triangleleft \triangleright \unlhd∗ \unrhd∗ \uplus \vee \wedge \wr • ∩ · ◦ ∗ ∨ ∧ A Not predefined in L TEX 2ε . or wasysym. T. pxfonts.text. for suggestions about altering the height of the superscript.) \top (Table 139 on page 51). amsfonts.

Similarly. and \bigcoast produces a large-operator version of the \coAsterisk binary operator. \asterisk produces the same glyph as \ast. not a binary operator. \bigast produces a large-operator version of the \Asterisk binary operator. Table 50: MnSymbol Binary Operators \amalg \ast \backslashdiv \bowtie \bullet \cap \capdot \capplus \cdot \circ \doublesqcup \doublevee \doublewedge \downtherefore \downY \dtimes \fivedots \hbipropto \hdotdot \lefthalfcap \righttherefore \rightthreetimes \rightY \rtimes \slashdiv \smallprod \sqcap \sqcapdot \sqcapplus \sqcup ∗ ∩ ⋅ ○ (continued on next page) 23 . \centerdot is equivalent to \sqbullet. but as an ordinary symbol.Table 47: wasysym Binary Operators \lhd \LHD \ocircle \rhd \RHD \unlhd \unrhd Table 48: txfonts/pxfonts Binary Operators \circledbar \circledbslash \circledvee \circledwedge \invamp \medbullet \medcirc \sqcapplus \sqcupplus Table 49: mathabx Binary Operators ¦ ¦ ˆ    ˆ ¨ § §  ‰ y \ast \Asterisk \barwedge \bigstar \bigvarstar \blackdiamond \cap \circplus \coasterisk \coAsterisk \convolution \cup \curlyvee x £  ¡   ¢  ’ “  ©   \curlywedge \divdot \divideontimes \dotdiv \dotplus \dottimes \doublebarwedge \doublecap \doublecup \ltimes \pluscirc \rtimes \sqbullet ‘ ’ ” • ¥ “ ¤   • ‰ ‘ ” \sqcap \sqcup \sqdoublecap \sqdoublecup \square \squplus \udot \uplus \varstar \vee \veebar \veedoublebar \wedge Many of the above glyphs go by multiple names. and \ast is equivalent to *.

Table 53: shuffle Binary Operators ¢ \cshuffle ¡ \shuffle Table 54: ulsy Geometric Binary Operators ¨ \odplus 24 . \uplus as a synonym \cupplus. for for for for Table 51: mathdesign Binary Operators \dtimes \udtimes \utimes The mathdesign package additionally provides versions of each of the binary operators shown in Table 45 on page 22. and. for example. \Cap as a synonym \doublecap. Table 52: cmll Binary Operators ` ∗ \parr & \with∗ \with differs from “&” in terms of its math-mode spacing: $A \& B$ produces “A&B”. \wr as a synonym \wreath. \Join as a synonym for \bowtie. \shortmid as a synonym for \medvert. \Cup as a synonym for \doublecup. while $A \with B$ produces “A & B”.(continued from previous page) ∪ ÷ \closedcurlyvee \closedcurlywedge \cup \cupdot \cupplus \curlyvee \curlyveedot \curlywedge \curlywedgedot \ddotdot \diamonddots \div \dotmedvert \dotminus \doublecap \doublecup \doublecurlyvee \doublecurlywedge \doublesqcap − + ± \lefthalfcup \lefttherefore \leftthreetimes \leftY \ltimes \medbackslash \medcircle \medslash \medvert \medvertdot \minus \minusdot \mp \neswbipropto \nwsebipropto \plus \pm \righthalfcap \righthalfcup × ∴ ∨ ∧ \sqcupdot \sqcupplus \squaredots \times \udotdot \uptherefore \upY \utimes \vbipropto \vdotdot \vee \veedot \vertbowtie \vertdiv \wedge \wedgedot \wreath MnSymbol defines \setminus and \smallsetminus as synonyms \medbackslash.

\Diamond as a synonym for \meddiamond. \circledast as a synonym for \oast. ž Ÿ œ f n k e g ™ d h — – Table 55: mathabx Geometric Binary Operators \blacktriangledown \blacktriangleleft \blacktriangleright \blacktriangleup \boxasterisk \boxbackslash \boxbot \boxcirc \boxcoasterisk \boxdiv \boxdot \boxleft \boxminus \boxplus i m ˜ j o l f n k e g ™ d h \boxright \boxslash \boxtimes \boxtop \boxtriangleup \boxvoid \oasterisk \obackslash \obot \ocirc \ocoasterisk \odiv \odot \oleft — – i m ˜ j o l ™ š › ˜ \ominus \oplus \oright \oslash \otimes \otop \otriangleup \ovoid \smalltriangledown \smalltriangleleft \smalltriangleright \smalltriangleup Table 56: MnSymbol Geometric Binary Operators \boxbackslash \boxbox \boxdot \boxminus \boxplus \boxslash \boxtimes \boxvert \diamondbackslash \diamonddiamond \diamonddot \diamondminus \diamondplus \diamondslash \diamondtimes \diamondvert \downslice \filleddiamond \filledmedsquare \filledmedtriangledown \filledmedtriangleleft \filledmedtriangleright \filledmedtriangleup \filledsquare \filledstar \filledtriangledown \filledtriangleleft \filledtriangleright \filledtriangleup \meddiamond \medsquare \medstar \medtriangledown \medtriangleleft \medtriangleright \medtriangleup \oast \obackslash \ocirc \odot \ominus \oplus \oslash \ostar \otimes \otriangle \overt \pentagram \smalldiamond \smallsquare \smallstar \smalltriangledown \smalltriangleleft \smalltriangleright \smalltriangleup \thinstar \upslice ⊕ ⊗ MnSymbol defines \blacksquare as a synonym for \filledmedsquare. \diamond as a synonym for \smalldiamond. \circledcirc as a synonym for \ocirc. \circleddash as a synonym for \ominus. \star as a synonym for \thinstar. and. Table 57: Variable-sized Math Operators \bigcap \bigcup \bigodot \bigoplus \bigotimes \bigsqcup \biguplus \bigvee 25 \bigwedge \coprod \int \oint \prod \sum . \square and \Box as synonyms for \medsquare.

Table 58: AMS Variable-sized Math Operators \iint \iiiint ··· ··· \iiint \idotsint Table 59: stmaryrd Variable-sized Math Operators \bigbox \bigcurlyvee \bigcurlywedge \biginterleave \bignplus \bigparallel \bigsqcap \bigtriangledown \bigtriangleup Table 60: wasysym Variable-sized Math Operators \int† \varint∗ \iint \varoint∗ \iiint \oiint None of the preceding symbols are defined when wasysym is passed the nointegrals option. the default A L TEX \int glyph (as shown in Table 57) is used. ∗ † Not defined when wasysym is passed the integrals option. Otherwise. Table 61: mathabx Variable-sized Math Operators œ¬ –¦ ›« Öö \bigcurlyvee \bigsqcap \bigcurlywedge \bigboxasterisk Ýý Òò Úú ßÿ \bigboxslash \bigboxtimes \bigboxtop \bigboxtriangleup Éé Íí Êê Ïï \bigoright \bigoslash \bigotop \bigotriangleup (continued on next page) 26 . Defined only when wasysym is passed the integrals option.

(continued from previous page) Þþ Ûû Õõ ×÷ Óó Ôô Øø Ññ Ðð Ùù \bigboxbackslash \bigboxbot \bigboxcirc \bigboxcoasterisk \bigboxdiv \bigboxdot \bigboxleft \bigboxminus \bigboxplus \bigboxright Üü ’ ¢ Ææ Îî Ëë Åå Çç Ãã Èè Áá \bigboxvoid \bigcomplementop \bigoasterisk \bigobackslash \bigobot \bigocirc \bigocoasterisk \bigodiv \bigoleft \bigominus Ìì   ˜¨ ‘¡ µ½ ´ ¼ ³ » · ¿ ¶ ¾ \bigovoid \bigplus \bigsquplus \bigtimes \iiint \iint \int \oiint \oint Table 62: txfonts/pxfonts Variable-sized Math Operators \bigsqcapplus \bigsqcupplus \fint \idotsint \iiiint \iiint \ointclockwise \ointctrclockwise \sqiiint \sqiint \sqint \varoiiintclockwise (continued on next page) 27 .

(continued from previous page) \iint \oiiintclockwise \oiiintctrclockwise \oiiint \oiintclockwise \oiintctrclockwise \oiint \varoiiintctrclockwise \varoiintclockwise \varoiintctrclockwise \varointclockwise \varointctrclockwise \varprod Table 63: esint Variable-sized Math Operators ¯ ffl ˇ ˝ ˜ % # ‚ ˘ \iiiint ˚ \iiint ¨ \iint & \landdownint $ \landupint ‹ \oiint ˙ \dotsint \fint ” › ! ff fl „ \sqiint “ \sqint " \varoiint fi \varointclockwise ffi \varointctrclockwise ı  \ointclockwise ‰ \ointctrclockwise 28 .

29 .Table 64: MnSymbol Variable-sized Math Operators \bigcap \bigcapdot \bigcapplus \bigcircle \bigcup \bigcupdot \bigcupplus∗ \bigcurlyvee \bigcurlyveedot \bigcurlywedge \bigcurlywedgedot \bigdoublecurlyvee \bigdoublecurlywedge \bigdoublevee \bigdoublewedge \bigoast \bigobackslash \bigocirc \bigodot \bigominus \bigoplus \bigoslash \bigostar \bigotimes \bigotriangle \bigovert \bigplus \bigsqcap \bigsqcapdot \bigsqcapplus \bigsqcup \bigsqcupdot \bigsqcupplus \bigtimes \bigvee \bigveedot \bigwedge \bigwedgedot ∑ ∏ ∫ \complement \coprod \idotsint \iiiint \iiint \iint \int \landdownint \landupint \lcircleleftint \lcirclerightint \oiint \oint \prod \rcircleleftint \rcirclerightint \strokedint \sum \sumint ∗ MnSymbol defines \biguplus as a synonym for \bigcupplus.

of every symbol—to accompany different text fonts: Utopia ( ). Garamond ( ). mathabx. pxfonts. L TEX typesets the two with different surrounding spacing. Table 66: cmll Large Math Operators ˙ \bigparr ˘ \bigwith Table 67: Binary Relations ≈ \approx \asymp \bowtie \cong \dashv \doteq ≡ \equiv \frown \Join∗ \mid† \models \parallel ⊥ \perp \prec \preceq \propto \sim \simeq \smile \succ \succeq \vdash | |= ∝ ∼ ∗ A Not predefined in L TEX 2ε . txfonts. or wasysym. † The difference between \mid and | is that the former is a binary relation while A the latter is a math ordinal. Consequently. Contrast “P(A | B)” → “P (A|B)” with “P(A \mid B)” → “P (A | B)”.Table 65: mathdesign Variable-sized Math Operators \intclockwise \ointclockwise \oiiint \ointctrclockwise \oiint The mathdesign package provides three versions of each integral—in fact. Use one of the packages latexsym. Table 68: AMS Binary Relations \approxeq \backepsilon \backsim \backsimeq \because \between \Bumpeq \bumpeq \circeq \curlyeqprec \curlyeqsucc \doteqdot \eqcirc \fallingdotseq \multimap \pitchfork \precapprox \preccurlyeq \precsim \risingdotseq \shortmid \shortparallel \smallfrown \smallsmile 30 \succapprox \succcurlyeq \succsim \therefore \thickapprox \thicksim \varpropto \Vdash \vDash \Vvdash ∴ ≈ ∼ ∝ . and Charter ( ). amssymb. amsfonts.

a “:=” symbol can be constructed with “\mathrel{\mathop:}=”.Table 69: AMS Negated Binary Relations \ncong \nmid \nparallel \nprec \npreceq \nshortmid \nshortparallel \nsim \nsucc \nsucceq \nvDash \nvdash \nVDash \precnapprox \precnsim \succnapprox \succnsim Table 70: stmaryrd Binary Relations \inplus \niplus Table 71: wasysym Binary Relations \invneg \Join \leadsto \logof \wasypropto Table 72: txfonts/pxfonts Binary Relations \circledgtr \circledless \colonapprox \Colonapprox \coloneq \Coloneq \Coloneqq \coloneqq∗ \Colonsim \colonsim \Eqcolon \eqcolon \eqqcolon \Eqqcolon \eqsim ∗ \lJoin \lrtimes \multimap \multimapboth \multimapbothvert \multimapdot \multimapdotboth \multimapdotbothA \multimapdotbothAvert \multimapdotbothB \multimapdotbothBvert \multimapdotbothvert \multimapdotinv \multimapinv \openJoin \opentimes \Perp \preceqq \precneqq \rJoin \strictfi \strictif \strictiff \succeqq \succneqq \varparallel \varparallelinv \VvDash As an alternative to using txfonts/pxfonts. Table 73: txfonts/pxfonts Negated Binary Relations \napproxeq \nasymp \nbacksim \nbacksimeq \nbumpeq \nBumpeq \nequiv \nprecapprox \npreccurlyeq \npreceqq \nprecsim \nsimeq \nsuccapprox \nsucccurlyeq \nsucceqq \nsuccsim 31 \nthickapprox \ntwoheadleftarrow \ntwoheadrightarrow \nvarparallel \nvarparallelinv \nVdash .

Table 76: MnSymbol Binary Relations ≈ \approx \approxeq \backapprox \backapproxeq \backcong \backeqsim \backsim \backsimeq \backtriplesim \between \eqbump \eqcirc \eqdot \eqsim \equal \equalclosed \equiv \equivclosed \fallingdotseq \hateq \nwfootline \nwfree \nwmodels \nwModels \nwsecrossing \nwseline \Nwseline \nwvdash \nwVdash \prec \seVdash \shortparallel \sim \simeq \succ \succapprox \succcurlyeq \succeq \succsim \swfootline ∼ = ≡ (continued on next page) 32 . Thus. “$a \not= b$” can be made to produce either “a = b” or “a = b”.2  % # & ! ) ¶ · A A Table 74: mathabx Binary Relations \between \botdoteq \Bumpedeq \bumpedeq \circeq \coloneq \corresponds \curlyeqprec \curlyeqsucc \DashV \Dashv \dashVv #  $ ' " Ï Î Æ ¤ Ì E À \divides \dotseq \eqbumped \eqcirc \eqcolon \fallingdotseq \ggcurly \llcurly \precapprox \preccurlyeq \precdot \precsim  Ç ¥ Í Á T  @ D @ D \risingdotseq \succapprox \succcurlyeq \succdot \succsim \therefore \topdoteq \vDash \Vdash \VDash \Vvdash Table 75: mathabx Negated Binary Relations ' ) ¸ ¹ C G 9 C G $ 0 1 % \napprox \ncong \ncurlyeqprec \ncurlyeqsucc \nDashv \ndashV \ndashv \nDashV \ndashVv \neq \notasymp \notdivides \notequiv w ¢ È ¦ ª Â & ( £ É § « Ã \notperp \nprec \nprecapprox \npreccurlyeq \npreceq \nprecsim \nsim \nsimeq \nsucc \nsuccapprox \nsucccurlyeq \nsucceq \nsuccsim B B F 8 F Ê ¬ Ä Ë ­ Å \nvDash \nVDash \nVdash \nvdash \nVvash \precnapprox \precneq \precnsim \succnapprox \succneq \succnsim The \changenotsign command toggles the behavior of \not to produce either a vertical or a diagonal slash through a binary operator.

(continued from previous page) = ≅ \bumpeq \Bumpeq \circeq \closedequal \closedprec \closedsucc \coloneq \cong \curlyeqprec \curlyeqsucc \doteq \Doteq \downfootline \downfree \downmodels \downModels \downpropto \downvdash \downVdash ∝ \hcrossing \leftfootline \leftfree \leftmodels \leftModels \leftpropto \leftrightline \Leftrightline \leftslice \leftvdash \leftVdash \nefootline \nefree \nemodels \neModels \neswline \Neswline \nevdash \neVdash \precapprox \preccurlyeq \preceq \precsim \rightfootline \rightfree \rightmodels \rightModels \rightpropto \rightslice \rightvdash \rightVdash \risingdotseq \sefootline \sefree \semodels \seModels \separated \sevdash ⊥ \swfree \swmodels \swModels \swvdash \swVdash \triplesim \updownline \Updownline \upfootline \upfree \upmodels \upModels \uppropto \upvdash \upVdash \vcrossing \Vvdash MnSymbol additionally defines synonyms for some of the preceding symbols: \dashv \diagdown \diagup \divides \doteqdot \models \parallel \perp \propto \relbar \Relbar \varpropto \vDash \VDash \vdash \Vdash (same (same (same (same (same (same (same (same (same (same (same (same (same (same (same (same as as as as as as as as as as as as as as as as \leftvdash) \nwseline) \neswline) \updownline) \Doteq) \rightmodels) \Updownline) \upvdash) \leftpropto) \leftrightline) \Leftrightline) \leftpropto) \rightmodels) \rightModels) \rightvdash) \rightVdash) ⊥ ∝ ∝ Table 77: MnSymbol Negated Binary Relations \napprox \napproxeq \nbackapprox \nbackapproxeq \nbackcong \nbackeqsim \nbacksim ≠ \neqsim \nequal \nequalclosed \nequiv \nequivclosed \neswcrossing \nfallingdotseq \nnwModels \nnwseline \nNwseline \nnwvdash \nnwVdash \nprec \nprecapprox \nsucc \nsuccapprox \nsucccurlyeq \nsucceq \nsuccsim \nswfootline \nswfree (continued on next page) 33 .

which produces a colon centered on the font’s math axis: =:= “=:=” vs.(continued from previous page) \nbacksimeq \nbacktriplesim \nbumpeq \nBumpeq \ncirceq \nclosedequal \ncong \ncurlyeqprec \ncurlyeqsucc \ndoteq \nDoteq \ndownfootline \ndownfree \ndownmodels \ndownModels \ndownvdash \ndownVdash \neqbump \neqcirc \neqdot \nhateq \nleftfootline \nleftfree \nleftmodels \nleftModels \nleftrightline \nLeftrightline \nleftvdash \nleftVdash \nnefootline \nnefree \nnemodels \nneModels \nneswline \nNeswline \nnevdash \nneVdash \nnwfootline \nnwfree \nnwmodels \npreccurlyeq \npreceq \nprecsim \nrightfootline \nrightfree \nrightmodels \nrightModels \nrightvdash \nrightVdash \nrisingdotseq \nsefootline \nsefree \nsemodels \nseModels \nsevdash \nseVdash \nshortmid \nshortparallel \nsim \nsimeq \nswmodels \nswModels \nswvdash \nswVdash \ntriplesim \nupdownline \nUpdownline \nupfootline \nupfree \nupmodels \nupModels \nupvdash \nupVdash \precnapprox \precnsim \succnapprox \succnsim MnSymbol additionally defines synonyms for some of the preceding symbols: \ndashv \ndiagdown \ndiagup \ndivides \ne \neq \nmid \nmodels \nparallel \nperp \nrelbar \nRelbar \nvDash \nvdash \nVdash \nVDash (same (same (same (same (same (same (same (same (same (same (same (same (same (same (same (same as as as as as as as as as as as as as as as as \nleftvdash) \nnwseline) \nneswline) \nupdownline) \nequal) \nequal) \nupdownline) \nrightmodels) \nUpdownline) \nupvdash) \nleftrightline) \nLeftrightline) \nrightmodels) \nrightvdash) \nrightVdash) \nrightModels) ≠ ≠ Table 78: mathtools Binary Relations ::≈ :≈ := ::= ::− \Colonapprox \colonapprox \coloneqq \Coloneqq \Coloneq :− :∼ ::∼ :: −: \coloneq \colonsim \Colonsim \dblcolon \eqcolon −:: =: =:: \Eqcolon \eqqcolon \Eqqcolon Similar symbols can be defined using mathtools’s \vcentcolon. =: = “=\vcentcolon=” 34 .

Table 79: turnstile Binary Relations def abc def abc def abc def abc def abc def abc def abc def abc def abc def abc def abc def abc def abc def abc def abc def abc def abc def abc def abc def abc def abc def abc \dddtstile{abc}{def} \ddststile{abc}{def} \ddtstile{abc}{def} \ddttstile{abc}{def} \dndtstile{abc}{def} \dnststile{abc}{def} \dntstile{abc}{def} \dnttstile{abc}{def} \dsdtstile{abc}{def} \dsststile{abc}{def} \dststile{abc}{def} \dsttstile{abc}{def} \dtdtstile{abc}{def} \dtststile{abc}{def} \dttstile{abc}{def} \dtttstile{abc}{def} \nddtstile{abc}{def} \ndststile{abc}{def} \ndtstile{abc}{def} \ndttstile{abc}{def} \nndtstile{abc}{def} \nnststile{abc}{def} def abc def abc def abc def abc def abc def abc def abc def abc def abc def abc def abc def abc def abc def abc def abc def abc def abc def abc def abc def abc def abc def abc def \nntstile{abc}{def} \nnttstile{abc}{def} \nsdtstile{abc}{def} \nsststile{abc}{def} \nststile{abc}{def} \nsttstile{abc}{def} \ntdtstile{abc}{def} \ntststile{abc}{def} \nttstile{abc}{def} \ntttstile{abc}{def} \sddtstile{abc}{def} \sdststile{abc}{def} \sdtstile{abc}{def} \sdttstile{abc}{def} \sndtstile{abc}{def} \snststile{abc}{def} \sntstile{abc}{def} \snttstile{abc}{def} \ssdtstile{abc}{def} \ssststile{abc}{def} \sststile{abc}{def} \ssttstile{abc}{def} abc def abc def abc def abc def abc def abc def abc def abc def abc def abc def abc def abc def abc def abc def abc def abc def abc def abc def abc def abc \stdtstile{abc}{def} \stststile{abc}{def} \sttstile{abc}{def} \stttstile{abc}{def} \tddtstile{abc}{def} \tdststile{abc}{def} \tdtstile{abc}{def} \tdttstile{abc}{def} \tndtstile{abc}{def} \tnststile{abc}{def} \tntstile{abc}{def} \tnttstile{abc}{def} \tsdtstile{abc}{def} \tsststile{abc}{def} \tststile{abc}{def} \tsttstile{abc}{def} \ttdtstile{abc}{def} \ttststile{abc}{def} \tttstile{abc}{def} \ttttstile{abc}{def} Each of the above takes an optional argument that controls the size of the upper and lower expressions. See the turnstile documentation for more information. 35 .

amssymb. or wasysym..¡ £ Table 80: trsym Binary Relations \InversTransformHoriz \InversTransformVert \TransformHoriz \TransformVert   ¢ Table 81: trfsigns Binary Relations . Table 86: AMS Subset and Superset Relations \nsubseteq \nsupseteq \nsupseteqq \sqsubset \sqsupset \Subset \subseteqq \subsetneq \subsetneqq \Supset \supseteqq \supsetneq 36 \supsetneqq \varsubsetneq \varsubsetneqq \varsupsetneq \varsupsetneqq . \dfourier \fourier \laplace \ztransf .. . txfonts.... mathabx. . . pxfonts.. \Dfourier \Fourier \Laplace \Ztransf Table 82: cmll Binary Relations ¨ ˚ \coh \incoh ˝ ˇ \scoh \sincoh Table 83: colonequals Binary Relations ≈: ≈:: :≈ :: ::≈ ::= \approxcolon \approxcoloncolon \colonapprox \coloncolon \coloncolonapprox \coloncolonequals ::− ::∼ := :− :∼ =: \coloncolonminus \coloncolonsim \colonequals \colonminus \colonsim \equalscolon =:: −: −:: : ∼: ∼:: \equalscoloncolon \minuscolon \minuscoloncolon \ratio \simcolon \simcoloncolon Table 84: fourier Binary Relations \nparallelslant \parallelslant Table 85: Subset and Superset Relations \sqsubset∗ \sqsubseteq \sqsupset∗ ∗ ⊂ ⊆ \sqsupseteq \subset \subseteq ⊃ ⊇ \supset \supseteq A Not predefined in L TEX 2ε . ... . Use one of the packages latexsym. amsfonts. .

\varsubsetneqq as a synonym for \subsetneqq. and \varsupsetneqq as a synonym for \supsetneqq.Table 87: stmaryrd Subset and Superset Relations \subsetplus \subsetpluseq \supsetplus \supsetpluseq Table 88: wasysym Subset and Superset Relations \sqsubset \sqsupset Table 89: txfonts/pxfonts Subset and Superset Relations \nsqsubset \nsqsubseteq \nsqsupset \nsqsupseteq \nSubset \nsubseteqq \nSupset ‚ – † Ž ‚ – † Ž ƒ — ‡  Table 90: mathabx Subset and Superset Relations \nsqsubset \nsqSubset \nsqsubseteq \nsqsubseteqq \nsqsupset \nsqSupset \nsqsupseteq \nsqsupseteqq \nsubset \nSubset \nsubseteq \nsubseteqq ƒ — ‡  € ” „ Œ ˆ  •  \nsupset \nSupset \nsupseteq \nsupseteqq \sqsubset \sqSubset \sqsubseteq \sqsubseteqq \sqsubsetneq \sqsubsetneqq \sqSupset \sqsupset € ” „ Œ ˆ   • …  ‰ ‘ \sqsupseteq \sqsupseteqq \sqsupsetneq \sqsupsetneqq \subset \Subset \subseteq \subseteqq \subsetneq \subsetneqq \supset \Supset Š ’ ‹ “ Š ’ ‹ “ …  ‰ ‘ \supseteq \supseteqq \supsetneq \supsetneqq \varsqsubsetneq \varsqsubsetneqq \varsqsupsetneq \varsqsupsetneqq \varsubsetneq \varsubsetneqq \varsupsetneq \varsupsetneqq Table 91: MnSymbol Subset and Superset Relations \nSqsubset \nsqsubset \nsqsubseteq \nsqsubseteqq \nSqsupset \nsqsupset \nsqsupseteq \nsqsupseteqq \nSubset \nsubset \nsubseteq \nsubseteqq \nSupset \nsupset \nsupseteq \nsupseteqq \Sqsubset \sqsubset \sqsubseteq \sqsubseteqq \sqsubsetneq \sqsubsetneqq \Sqsupset \sqsupset \sqsupseteq \sqsupseteqq \sqsupsetneq \sqsupsetneqq \Subset \subset ⊆ \subseteq \subseteqq \subsetneq \subsetneqq \Supset \supset \supseteq \supseteqq \supsetneq \supsetneqq ⊃ ⊇ ⊄ ⊂ MnSymbol additionally defines \varsubsetneq as a synonym for \subsetneq. Table 92: Inequalities ≥ \geq \gg ≤ \leq 37 \ll \neq . \varsupsetneq as a synonym for \supsetneq.

\nleqslant as a synonym for \nleq. and \ngeqslant as a synonym for \ngeq. 38 . \geqslant and \ge as synonyms for \geq.Table 93: AMS Inequalities \eqslantgtr \eqslantless \geqq \geqslant \ggg \gnapprox \gneq \gneqq \gnsim \gtrapprox \gtrdot \gtreqless \gtreqqless \gtrless \gtrsim \gvertneqq \leqq \leqslant \lessapprox \lessdot \lesseqgtr \lesseqqgtr \lessgtr \lesssim \lll \lnapprox \lneq \lneqq \lnsim \lvertneqq \ngeq \ngeqq \ngeqslant \ngtr \nleq \nleqq \nleqslant \nless Table 94: wasysym Inequalities \apprge \apprle Table 95: txfonts/pxfonts Inequalities \ngg \ngtrapprox \ngtrless \ngtrsim \nlessapprox \nlessgtr \nlesssim \nll Table 96: mathabx Inequalities · ¶ ¥ ¯ 4 Ï Ë ­ ³ Å Ç Í \eqslantgtr \eqslantless \geq \geqq \gg \ggg \gnapprox \gneq \gneqq \gnsim \gtrapprox \gtrdot ½ ¿ » Á µ ¤ ® Æ Ì ¼ ¾ º \gtreqless \gtreqqless \gtrless \gtrsim \gvertneqq \leq \leqq \lessapprox \lessdot \lesseqgtr \lesseqqgtr \lessgtr À 3 Î Ê ¬ ² Ä ´ ¹ ¸ § ± \lesssim \ll \lll \lnapprox \lneq \lneqq \lnsim \lvertneqq \neqslantgtr \neqslantless \ngeq \ngeqq £ É Ã ¦ ° ¢ È Â « ª © ¨ \ngtr \ngtrapprox \ngtrsim \nleq \nleqq \nless \nlessapprox \nlesssim \nvargeq \nvarleq \vargeq \varleq mathabx defines \leqslant and \le as synonyms for \leq.

Table 97: MnSymbol Inequalities \eqslantgtr \eqslantless ≥ \geq \geqclosed \geqdot \geqq \geqslant \geqslantdot \gg \ggg \gnapprox \gneqq > \gnsim \gtr \gtrapprox \gtrclosed \gtrdot \gtreqless \gtreqlessslant < ≤ \gtreqqless \gtrless \gtrneqqless \gtrsim \leq \leqclosed \leqdot \leqq \leqslant \leqslantdot \less \lessapprox \lessclosed \lessdot \lesseqgtr \lesseqgtrslant \lesseqqgtr \lessgtr \lessneqqgtr \lesssim \ll \lll \lnapprox \lneqq \lnsim \neqslantgtr \neqslantless \ngeq \ngeqclosed \ngeqdot \ngeqq \ngeqslant \ngeqslantdot \ngg \nggg \ngtr \ngtrclosed \ngtrdot \ngtreqless \ngtreqlessslant \ngtreqqless \ngtrless \nleq \nleqclosed \nleqdot \nleqq \nleqslant \nleqslantdot \nless \nlessclosed \nlessdot \nlesseqgtr \nlesseqgtrslant \nlesseqqgtr \nlessgtr \nll \nlll MnSymbol additionally defines synonyms for some of the preceding symbols: \gggtr \gvertneqq \lhd \llless \lvertneqq \ntrianglelefteq \ntriangleleft \ntrianglerighteq \ntriangleright \rhd \trianglelefteq \trianglerighteq \unlhd \unrhd \vartriangleleft \vartriangleright (same (same (same (same (same (same (same (same (same (same (same (same (same (same (same (same as as as as as as as as as as as as as as as as \ggg) \gneqq) \lessclosed) \lll) \lneqq) \nleqclosed) \nlessclosed) \ngeqclosed) \ngtrclosed) \gtrclosed) \leqclosed) \geqclosed) \leqclosed) \geqclosed) \lessclosed) \gtrclosed) Table 98: AMS Triangle Relations \blacktriangleleft \blacktriangleright \ntriangleleft \ntrianglelefteq \ntriangleright \ntrianglerighteq \trianglelefteq \triangleq \trianglerighteq \vartriangleleft \vartriangleright 39 .

. 40 . \triangledown and \bigtriangledown are synonyms for \medtriangledown. \nleqclosed is a synonym for \ntrianglelefteq. and \filledmedtriangleup. \rhd and \gtrclosed are synonyms for \vartriangleright. \lhd and \lessclosed are synonyms for \vartriangleleft. \nlessclosed is a synonym for \ntriangleleft. respectively. \filledmedtriangledown. \unrhd and \geqclosed are synonyms for \trianglerighteq. \triangleright is a synonym for \medtriangleright. \triangle. \filledmedtriangleright. and \ngeqclosed is a synonym for \ntrianglerighteq. \ngtrclosed is a synonym for \ntriangleright. and \bigtriangleup are synonyms for \medtriangleup. symbols are defined as TEX “ordinary” characters (class 0) and all of the remaining characters are defined as TEX binary operators (class 2). \blacktriangleleft. \triangleleft is a synonym for \medtriangleleft. \filledmedtriangleleft.Table 99: stmaryrd Triangle Relations \trianglelefteqslant \ntrianglelefteqslant \trianglerighteqslant \ntrianglerighteqslant Table 100: mathabx Triangle Relations š ž › \ntriangleleft \ntrianglelefteq \ntriangleright Ÿ ˜ œ \ntrianglerighteq \triangleleft \trianglelefteq ™  ˜ \triangleright \trianglerighteq \vartriangleleft ™ \vartriangleright Table 101: MnSymbol Triangle Relations \filledmedtriangledown \filledmedtriangleleft \filledmedtriangleright \filledmedtriangleup \filledtriangledown \filledtriangleleft \filledtriangleright \filledtriangleup \largetriangledown \largetriangleleft \largetriangleright \largetriangleup \medtriangledown \medtriangleleft \medtriangleright \medtriangleup \ntriangleeq \ntriangleleft \ntrianglelefteq \ntriangleright \ntrianglerighteq \otriangle \smalltriangledown \smalltriangleleft \smalltriangleright \smalltriangleup \triangleeq \trianglelefteq \trianglerighteq \vartriangleleft \vartriangleright MnSymbol additionally defines synonyms for many of the preceding symbols: \triangleq is a synonym for \triangleeq. \vartriangle. The title “Triangle Relations” is a bit of a misnomer here as only \triangleeq and \ntriangleeq are defined as TEX relations (class 3 symbols). \blacktriangleright. and \blacktriangle [sic] are synonyms for. \blacktriangledown. \unlhd and \leqclosed are synonyms for \trianglelefteq. . The \largetriangle.

txfonts. amssymb. Use one of the packages latexsym.Table 102: Arrows ⇓ ↓ ← → ← ⇐ ⇔ ↔ ∗ \Downarrow \downarrow \hookleftarrow \hookrightarrow \leadsto∗ \leftarrow \Leftarrow \Leftrightarrow \leftrightarrow ←− ⇐= ←→ ⇐⇒ −→ =⇒ −→ → \longleftarrow \Longleftarrow \longleftrightarrow \Longleftrightarrow \longmapsto \Longrightarrow \longrightarrow \mapsto \nearrow† ⇒ → ↑ ⇑ \nwarrow \Rightarrow \rightarrow \searrow \swarrow \uparrow \Uparrow \updownarrow \Updownarrow A Not predefined in L TEX 2ε . † See the note beneath Table 169 for information about how to put a diagonal arrow across a mathematical expression (as in “ ·B 0 ”) . pxfonts. Table 103: Harpoons \leftharpoondown \leftharpoonup \rightharpoondown \rightharpoonup \rightleftharpoons Table 104: textcomp Text-mode Arrows ↓ ← \textdownarrow \textleftarrow → ↑ \textrightarrow \textuparrow Table 105: AMS Arrows \circlearrowleft \circlearrowright \curvearrowleft \curvearrowright \dashleftarrow \dashrightarrow \downdownarrows \leftarrowtail \leftleftarrows \leftrightarrows \leftrightsquigarrow \Lleftarrow \looparrowleft \looparrowright \Lsh \rightarrowtail \rightleftarrows \rightrightarrows \rightsquigarrow \Rsh \twoheadleftarrow \twoheadrightarrow \upuparrows Table 106: AMS Negated Arrows \nLeftarrow \nleftarrow \nLeftrightarrow \nleftrightarrow \nRightarrow \nrightarrow Table 107: AMS Harpoons \downharpoonleft \downharpoonright \leftrightharpoons \rightleftharpoons 41 \upharpoonleft \upharpoonright . or wasysym. amsfonts.

Table 108: stmaryrd Arrows \leftarrowtriangle \leftrightarroweq \leftrightarrowtriangle \lightning \Longmapsfrom \longmapsfrom \Longmapsto ⇐ ← ⇒ \Mapsfrom \mapsfrom \Mapsto \nnearrow \nnwarrow \rightarrowtriangle \shortdownarrow \shortleftarrow \shortrightarrow \shortuparrow \ssearrow \sswarrow ⇐= ←− =⇒ Table 109: txfonts/pxfonts Arrows \boxdotLeft \boxdotleft \boxdotright \boxdotRight \boxLeft \boxleft \boxright \boxRight \circleddotleft \circleddotright \circleleft \circleright \dashleftrightarrow \DiamonddotLeft \Diamonddotleft \Diamonddotright \DiamonddotRight \DiamondLeft \Diamondleft \Diamondright \DiamondRight \leftsquigarrow \Nearrow \Nwarrow \Rrightarrow \Searrow \Swarrow ö ÷ ó õ ô ð ò ñ ê Ó ÿ × ë Table 110: mathabx Arrows \circlearrowleft \circlearrowright \curvearrowbotleft \curvearrowbotleftright \curvearrowbotright \curvearrowleft \curvearrowleftright \curvearrowright \dlsh \downdownarrows \downtouparrow \downuparrows \drsh Ð Ð Ø Ô ú ø ü î ï ì í è Õ \leftarrow \leftleftarrows \leftrightarrow \leftrightarrows \leftrightsquigarrow \leftsquigarrow \lefttorightarrow \looparrowdownleft \looparrowdownright \looparrowleft \looparrowright \Lsh \nearrow Ô æ Ñ Õ Ñ ù ý é × Ö Ö þ Ò \nwarrow \restriction \rightarrow \rightleftarrows \rightrightarrows \rightsquigarrow \righttoleftarrow \Rsh \searrow \swarrow \updownarrows \uptodownarrow \upuparrows Table 111: mathabx Negated Arrows ö Ú \nLeftarrow \nleftarrow Ü ø \nleftrightarrow \nLeftrightarrow Û ÷ \nrightarrow \nRightarrow 42 .

Þ ß Û å ç ë Table 112: mathabx Harpoons \barleftharpoon \barrightharpoon \downdownharpoons \downharpoonleft \downharpoonright \downupharpoons \leftbarharpoon \leftharpoondown à Ø à è Ý ã á Ü â á \leftharpoonup \leftleftharpoons \leftrightharpoon \leftrightharpoons \rightbarharpoon \rightharpoondown \rightharpoonup \rightleftharpoon é Ù ê ä æ Ú \rightleftharpoons \rightrightharpoons \updownharpoons \upharpoonleft \upharpoonright \upupharpoons Table 113: MnSymbol Arrows \curvearrowdownup \curvearrowleftright \curvearrownesw \curvearrownwse \curvearrowrightleft \curvearrowsenw \curvearrowswne \curvearrowupdown \dasheddownarrow \dashedleftarrow \dashednearrow \dashednwarrow \dashedrightarrow \dashedsearrow \dashedswarrow \dasheduparrow \Downarrow \downarrow \downarrowtail \downdownarrows \downlsquigarrow \downmapsto \downrsquigarrow \downuparrows \lcirclearrowdown \lcirclearrowleft \lcirclearrowright \lcirclearrowup \lcurvearrowdown \lcurvearrowleft \lcurvearrowne \lcurvearrownw \lcurvearrowright \lcurvearrowse \lcurvearrowsw \lcurvearrowup \Leftarrow ← ⇐ ←→ ⇐⇒ → → ⇒ \longleftarrow \Longleftarrow \longleftrightarrow \Longleftrightarrow \longmapsto \longrightarrow \Longrightarrow \looparrowleft \looparrowright \Lsh \nearrow \Nearrow \nearrowtail \nelsquigarrow \nemapsto \nenearrows \nersquigarrow \neswarrow \Neswarrow \neswarrows \nwarrow \Nwarrow \nwarrowtail \nwlsquigarrow \nwmapsto \nwnwarrows \nwrsquigarrow \nwsearrow \Nwsearrow \nwsearrows \partialvardlcircleleftint∗ \partialvardlcirclerightint∗ \partialvardrcircleleftint∗ \partialvardrcirclerightint∗ \partialvartlcircleleftint∗ \partialvartlcirclerightint∗ \partialvartrcircleleftint∗ \rhookswarrow \rhookuparrow \rightarrow \Rightarrow \rightarrowtail \rightleftarrows \rightlsquigarrow \rightmapsto \rightrightarrows \rightrsquigarrow \Rrightarrow \Rsh \searrow \Searrow \searrowtail \selsquigarrow \semapsto \senwarrows \sersquigarrow \sesearrows \squigarrowdownup \squigarrowleftright \squigarrownesw \squigarrownwse \squigarrowrightleft \squigarrowsenw \squigarrowswne \squigarrowupdown \swarrow \Swarrow \swarrowtail \swlsquigarrow \swmapsto \swnearrows \swrsquigarrow \swswarrows \twoheaddownarrow → ⇒ ⇓ ↓ ⇐ (continued on next page) 43 .

. Table 114: MnSymbol Negated Arrows \ncurvearrowdownup \ncurvearrowleftright \ncurvearrownesw \ncurvearrownwse \ncurvearrowrightleft \ncurvearrowsenw \ncurvearrowswne \ncurvearrowupdown \nlhooknwarrow \nlhookrightarrow \nlhooksearrow \nlhookswarrow \nlhookuparrow \nLleftarrow \nnearrow \nNearrow \nrightleftarrows \nrightlsquigarrow \nrightmapsto \nrightrightarrows \nrightrsquigarrow \nRrightarrow \nSearrow \nsearrow (continued on next page) 44 .(continued from previous page) ← ↔ ⇔ \leftarrow \leftarrowtail \leftleftarrows \leftlsquigarrow \leftmapsto \leftrightarrow \Leftrightarrow \leftrightarrows \leftrsquigarrow \lhookdownarrow \lhookleftarrow \lhooknearrow \lhooknwarrow \lhookrightarrow \lhooksearrow \lhookswarrow \lhookuparrow \lightning \Lleftarrow \partialvartrcirclerightint∗ \rcirclearrowdown \rcirclearrowleft \rcirclearrowright \rcirclearrowup \rcurvearrowdown \rcurvearrowleft \rcurvearrowne \rcurvearrownw \rcurvearrowright \rcurvearrowse \rcurvearrowsw \rcurvearrowup \rhookdownarrow \rhookleftarrow \rhooknearrow \rhooknwarrow \rhookrightarrow \rhooksearrow ↑ ⇑ ↕ \twoheadleftarrow \twoheadnearrow \twoheadnwarrow \twoheadrightarrow \twoheadsearrow \twoheadswarrow \twoheaduparrow \uparrow \Uparrow \uparrowtail \updownarrow \Updownarrow \updownarrows \uplsquigarrow \upmapsto \uprsquigarrow \upuparrows MnSymbol additionally defines synonyms for some of the preceding symbols: \circlearrowleft \circlearrowright \curvearrowleft \curvearrowright \dashleftarrow \dashrightarrow \hookleftarrow \hookrightarrow \leadsto \leftrightsquigarrow \mapsto \rightsquigarrow ∗ (same (same (same (same (same (same (same (same (same (same (same (same as as as as as as as as as as as as \rcirclearrowup) \lcirclearrowup) \rcurvearrowleft) \lcurvearrowright) \dashedleftarrow) \dashedrightarrow) \rhookleftarrow) \lhookrightarrow) \rightlsquigarrow) \squigarrowleftright) \rightmapsto) \rightlsquigarrow) The \partialvar. . int macros are intended to be used internally by MnSymbol to produce various types of integrals.

(continued from previous page) \ndasheddownarrow \ndashedleftarrow \ndashednearrow \ndashednwarrow \ndashedrightarrow \ndashedsearrow \ndashedswarrow \ndasheduparrow \ndownarrow \nDownarrow \ndownarrowtail \ndowndownarrows \ndownlsquigarrow \ndownmapsto \ndownrsquigarrow \ndownuparrows \nlcirclearrowdown \nlcirclearrowleft \nlcirclearrowright \nlcirclearrowup \nlcurvearrowdown \nlcurvearrowleft \nlcurvearrowne \nlcurvearrownw \nlcurvearrowright \nlcurvearrowse \nlcurvearrowsw \nlcurvearrowup \nLeftarrow \nleftarrow \nleftarrowtail \nleftleftarrows \nleftlsquigarrow \nleftmapsto \nleftrightarrow \nLeftrightarrow \nleftrightarrows \nleftrsquigarrow \nlhookdownarrow \nlhookleftarrow \nlhooknearrow \nnearrowtail \nnelsquigarrow \nnemapsto \nnenearrows \nnersquigarrow \nNeswarrow \nneswarrow \nneswarrows \nNwarrow \nnwarrow \nnwarrowtail \nnwlsquigarrow \nnwmapsto \nnwnwarrows \nnwrsquigarrow \nnwsearrow \nNwsearrow \nnwsearrows \nrcirclearrowdown \nrcirclearrowleft \nrcirclearrowright \nrcirclearrowup \nrcurvearrowdown \nrcurvearrowleft \nrcurvearrowne \nrcurvearrownw \nrcurvearrowright \nrcurvearrowse \nrcurvearrowsw \nrcurvearrowup \nrhookdownarrow \nrhookleftarrow \nrhooknearrow \nrhooknwarrow \nrhookrightarrow \nrhooksearrow \nrhookswarrow \nrhookuparrow \nrightarrow \nRightarrow \nrightarrowtail \nsearrowtail \nselsquigarrow \nsemapsto \nsenwarrows \nsersquigarrow \nsesearrows \nsquigarrowdownup \nsquigarrowleftright \nsquigarrownesw \nsquigarrownwse \nsquigarrowrightleft \nsquigarrowsenw \nsquigarrowswne \nsquigarrowupdown \nswarrow \nSwarrow \nswarrowtail \nswlsquigarrow \nswmapsto \nswnearrows \nswrsquigarrow \nswswarrows \ntwoheaddownarrow \ntwoheadleftarrow \ntwoheadnearrow \ntwoheadnwarrow \ntwoheadrightarrow \ntwoheadsearrow \ntwoheadswarrow \ntwoheaduparrow \nuparrow \nUparrow \nuparrowtail \nupdownarrow \nUpdownarrow \nupdownarrows \nuplsquigarrow \nupmapsto \nuprsquigarrow \nupuparrows MnSymbol additionally defines synonyms for some of the preceding symbols: 45 .

\upharpooncw can be written as \restriction. (In addition.\ncirclearrowleft \ncirclearrowright \ncurvearrowleft \ncurvearrowright \ndasharrow \ndashleftarrow \ndashrightarrow \ngets \nhookleftarrow \nhookrightarrow \nleadsto \nleftrightsquigarrow \nmapsto \nrightsquigarrow \nto (same (same (same (same (same (same (same (same (same (same (same (same (same (same (same as as as as as as as as as as as as as as as \nrcirclearrowup) \nlcirclearrowup) \nrcurvearrowleft) \nlcurvearrowright) \ndashedrightarrow) \ndashedleftarrow) \ndashedrightarrow) \nleftarrow) \nrhookleftarrow) \nlhookrightarrow) \nrightlsquigarrow) \nsquigarrowleftright) \nrightmapsto) \nrightlsquigarrow) \nrightarrow) Table 115: MnSymbol Harpoons \downharpoonccw∗ \downharpooncw∗ \downupharpoons \leftharpoonccw∗ \leftharpooncw∗ \leftrightharpoondownup \leftrightharpoons \leftrightharpoonupdown \neharpoonccw \neharpooncw \neswharpoonnwse ∗ \neswharpoons \neswharpoonsenw \nwharpoonccw \nwharpooncw \nwseharpoonnesw \nwseharpoons \nwseharpoonswne \rightharpoonccw∗ \rightharpooncw∗ \rightleftharpoons \seharpoonccw \seharpooncw \senwharpoons \swharpoonccw \swharpooncw \swneharpoons \updownharpoonleftright \updownharpoonrightleft \updownharpoons \upharpoonccw∗ \upharpooncw∗ Where marked.) Table 116: MnSymbol Negated Harpoons \ndownharpoonccw \ndownharpooncw∗ \ndownupharpoons \nleftharpoonccw∗ \nleftharpooncw∗ \nleftrightharpoondownup \nleftrightharpoons \nleftrightharpoonupdown \nneharpoonccw \nneharpooncw \nneswharpoonnwse ∗ ∗ \nneswharpoons \nneswharpoonsenw \nnwharpoonccw \nnwharpooncw \nnwseharpoonnesw \nnwseharpoons \nnwseharpoonswne \nrightharpoonccw∗ \nrightharpooncw∗ \nrightleftharpoons \nseharpoonccw \nseharpooncw \nsenwharpoons \nswharpoonccw \nswharpooncw \nswneharpoons \nupdownharpoonleftright \nupdownharpoonrightleft \nupdownharpoons \nupharpoonccw∗ \nupharpooncw∗ Where marked. \nupharpooncw can be written as \nrestriction.) 46 . (In addition. the “ccw” suffix can be replaced with “up” and the “cw” suffix can be replaced with “down”. the “ccw” suffix can be replaced with “up” and the “cw” suffix can be replaced with “down”.

g. not Xdvi) can properly display these symbols. Consequently.. 47 .Table 117: harpoon Extensible Harpoons abc abc abc \overleftharp{abc} \overleftharpdown{abc} \overrightharp{abc} abc abc abc \overrightharpdown{abc} \underleftharp{abc} \underleftharpdown{abc} abc abc \underrightharp{abc} \underrightharpdown{abc} All of the harpoon symbols are implemented using the graphics package (specifically. graphics’s \resizebox command). Table 121: MnSymbol Pitchforks \downpitchfork \leftpitchfork \ndownpitchfork \nepitchfork \nleftpitchfork \nnepitchfork ∗ \nnwpitchfork \nrightpitchfork \nsepitchfork \nswpitchfork \nuppitchfork \nwpitchfork \rightpitchfork \sepitchfork \swpitchfork \uppitchfork MnSymbol defines \pitchfork as a synonym for \uppitchfork and \npitchfork as a synonym for \nuppitchfork. only TEX backends that support graphical transformations (e. Table 118: chemarrow Arrows A \chemarrow Table 119: fge Arrows ! \fgerightarrow " \fgeuparrow Table 120: MnSymbol Spoons \downfilledspoon \downspoon \leftfilledspoon \leftspoon \ndownfilledspoon \ndownspoon \nefilledspoon \nespoon \nleftfilledspoon \nleftspoon \nnefilledspoon ∗ \nnespoon \nnwfilledspoon \nnwspoon \nrightfilledspoon \nrightspoon∗ \nsefilledspoon \nsespoon \nswfilledspoon \nswspoon \nupfilledspoon \nupspoon \nwfilledspoon \nwspoon \rightfilledspoon \rightspoon∗ \sefilledspoon \sespoon \swfilledspoon \swspoon \upfilledspoon \upspoon MnSymbol defines \multimap as a synonym for \rightspoon and \nmultimap as a synonym for \nrightspoon.

\smallfrown as a synonym for \frown.Table 122: MnSymbol Smiles and Frowns \doublefrown \doublefrowneq \doublesmile \doublesmileeq \eqfrown \eqsmile \frown \frowneq \frowneqsmile \frownsmile \frownsmileeq \ndoublefrown \ndoublefrowneq \ndoublesmile \ndoublesmileeq \neqfrown \neqsmile \nfrown \nfrowneq \nfrowneqsmile \nfrownsmile \nfrownsmileeq \nsmile ∗ \nsmileeq \nsmileeqfrown \nsmilefrown \nsmilefrowneq \nsqdoublefrown \nsqdoublefrowneq \nsqdoublesmile \nsqdoublesmileeq \nsqeqfrown \nsqeqsmile \nsqfrown \nsqfrowneq \nsqfrowneqsmile \nsqfrownsmile \nsqsmile \nsqsmileeq \nsqsmileeqfrown \nsqsmilefrown \nsqtriplefrown \nsqtriplesmile \ntriplefrown \ntriplesmile \smile \smileeq \smileeqfrown \smilefrown \smilefrowneq \sqdoublefrown \sqdoublefrowneq \sqdoublesmile \sqdoublesmileeq \sqeqfrown \sqeqsmile \sqfrown \sqfrowneq \sqfrowneqsmile \sqfrownsmile \sqsmile \sqsmileeq \sqsmileeqfrown \sqsmilefrown \sqtriplefrown \sqtriplesmile \triplefrown \triplesmile MnSymbol defines \smallsmile as a synonym for \smile. and \nasymp as a synonym for \nsmilefrown. \asymp as a synonym for \smilefrown. © \blitza  Table 123: ulsy Contradiction Symbols \blitzb  \blitzc  \blitzd  \blitze Table 124: Extension Characters − \relbar = \Relbar Table 125: stmaryrd Extension Characters \Arrownot \arrownot \Mapsfromchar \mapsfromchar \Mapstochar Table 126: txfonts/pxfonts Extension Characters \Mappedfromchar \mappedfromchar \Mmappedfromchar \mmappedfromchar \Mmapstochar \mmapstochar 48 .

Table 129: AMS Log-like Symbols inj lim proj lim \injlim \projlim lim − → lim \varinjlim \varliminf lim lim ← − \varlimsup \varprojlim Load the amsmath package to get these symbols. “atomic math objects”.Table 127: mathabx Extension Characters û ß \mapsfromchar \Mapsfromchar ú Þ \mapstochar \Mapstochar Table 128: Log-like Symbols \arccos \arcsin \arctan \arg \cos \cosh \cot \coth \csc \deg \det \dim \exp \gcd \hom \inf \ker \lg \lim \liminf \limsup \ln \log \max \min \Pr \sec \sin \sinh \sup \tan \tanh Calling the above “symbols” may be a bit misleading.4 for some additional comments regarding log-like symbols. See Section 8.3 Each log-like symbol merely produces the eponymous textual equivalent. As \mod and \pod are arguably not symbols A we refer the reader to the Short Math Guide for L TEX [Dow00] for samples. As \bmod and \pmod are arguably not symbols we refer the reader to the Short Math Guide for A L TEX [Dow00] for samples. Ã » 3 Michael \Complex \COMPLEX Ú ¿ Table 130: C in h A2e Number Sets \Integer \INTEGER Î ¼ \Natural \NATURAL Ñ ½ \Rational \RATIONAL Ò ¾ \Real \REAL J. Downes prefers the more general term. 49 . but with proper surrounding spacing. See Section 8.4 for more information about log-like symbols.

Table 132: AMS Greek Letters \digamma κ \varkappa Table 133: txfonts/pxfonts Upright Greek Letters α β γ δ ε ζ η \alphaup \betaup \gammaup \deltaup \epsilonup \varepsilonup \zetaup \etaup θ ϑ ι κ λ µ ν ξ \thetaup \varthetaup \iotaup \kappaup \lambdaup \muup \nuup \xiup π ρ σ ς τ υ \piup \varpiup \rhoup \varrhoup \sigmaup \varsigmaup \tauup \upsilonup φ ϕ χ ψ ω \phiup \varphiup \chiup \psiup \omegaup 50 . The symbols in this table are intended to be used in mathematical typesetting. The symbol “M”. for instance.5 for examples of how to produce bold Greek letters. See Section 8. a font that provides the glyphs for the Greek alphabet. is used for both an uppercase “m” and an uppercase “µ”. Greek body text can be typeset using the babel package’s greek (or polutonikogreek) option—and.Table 131: Greek Letters α β γ δ ε ζ η Γ ∆ Θ \alpha \beta \gamma \delta \epsilon \varepsilon \zeta \eta \Gamma \Delta \Theta θ ϑ ι κ λ µ ν ξ Λ Ξ Π \theta \vartheta \iota \kappa \lambda \mu \nu \xi \Lambda \Xi \Pi o π ρ σ ς o \pi \varpi \rho \varrho \sigma \varsigma τ υ φ ϕ χ ψ ω \tau \upsilon \phi \varphi \chi \psi \omega Σ Υ Φ \Sigma \Upsilon \Phi Ψ Ω \Psi \Omega The remaining Greek majuscules can be produced with ordinary Latin letters. of course.

Contrast. and in every mathematical expression in your document. Table 135: fourier Variant Greek Letters π \pi \varpi \varvarpi ρ \rho \varrho \varvarrho Table 136: txfonts/pxfonts Variant Latin Letters \varg \varv \varw \vary Pass the varg option to txfonts/pxfonts to replace g. Table 137: AMS Hebrew Letters \beth \gimel \daleth \aleph (ℵ) appears in Table 201 on page 65. for example.Table 134: upgreek Upright Greek Letters α β γ δ ε ε ζ η Γ ∆ Θ \upalpha \upbeta \upgamma \updelta \upepsilon \upvarepsilon \upzeta \upeta \Upgamma \Updelta \Uptheta θ ϑ ι κ λ µ ν ξ Λ Ξ Π \uptheta \upvartheta \upiota \upkappa \uplambda \upmu \upnu \upxi \Uplambda \Upxi \Uppi π ϖ ρ ρ σ σ τ υ Σ Υ Φ \uppi \upvarpi \uprho \upvarrho \upsigma \upvarsigma \uptau \upupsilon \Upsigma \Upupsilon \Upphi φ ϕ χ ψ ω \upphi \upvarphi \upchi \uppsi \upomega Ψ Ω \Uppsi \Upomega upgreek utilizes upright Greek characters from either the PostScript Symbol font (depicted above) or Euler Roman. Table 138: MnSymbol Hebrew Letters ℵ \aleph \beth \gimel \daleth Table 139: Letter-like Symbols ⊥ ∃ \bot \ell \exists ∀ \forall \hbar \Im ı ∈  \imath \in \jmath 51 ∂ \ni \partial \Re ℘ \top \wp . v. w. “Γ∆Θαβγ” (Symbol) with “Γ∆Θαβγ” (Euler). the glyphs may appear slightly different from the above. . and y with . As a result. .

52 . \ni for \owns. and \intercal for \top.Table 140: AMS Letter-like Symbols k \Bbbk \circledR \circledS \complement \Finv \Game \hbar \hslash \nexists Table 141: txfonts/pxfonts Letter-like Symbols ¢ ∗ \mathcent £ \mathsterling∗ \notin \notni It’s generally preferable to use the corresponding symbol from Table 3 on page 9 because the symbols in that table work properly in both text mode and math mode. Table 144: trfsigns Letter-like Symbols e \e j \im Table 145: mathdesign Letter-like Symbols ∈ ∈ \in \notin \notsmallin \notsmallowns \owns \smallin \smallowns The mathdesign package additionally provides versions of each of the letter-like symbols shown in Table 140. Table 142: mathabx Letter-like Symbols † e h p q \barin \complement \exists \Finv \Game € i w ‚ ƒ \in \nexists \notbot \notin \notowner v  ‡ f g \nottop \owns \ownsbar \partial \partialslash „ … \varnotin \varnotowner Table 143: MnSymbol Letter-like Symbols ∃ ∀ ∗ \bot \exists \forall ∈ ∉ \in \nexists \nin∗ ∋ \nowns∗ \owns \powerset ℘ \top \wp MnSymbol provides synonyms \notin for \nin.

Table 147: fourier Letter-like Symbols ∂ \partial \varpartialdiff Table 148: AMS Delimiters \ulcorner \llcorner \urcorner \lrcorner Table 149: stmaryrd Delimiters \Lbag \llceil \llparenthesis \Rbag \rrceil \rrparenthesis \lbag \llfloor \rbag \rrfloor v x z Table 150: mathabx Delimiters \lcorners \ulcorner \llcorner w \rcorners \urcorner \lrcorner y { Table 151: nath Delimiters \niv \vin 53 .Table 146: fge Letter-like Symbols A c p e ∗ \fgeA \fgec \fged \fgee ı F f ” \fgeeszett \fgeF \fgef \fgelb∗ D C B s \fgeleftB \fgeleftC \fgerightB \fges U \fgeU The fge package defines \fgeeta. \fgeN. and \fgeoverU as synonyms for \fgelb.

these symbols expand to the height of the enclosed math expression.. The mathabx package. to make an internal “|” expand to the height of the surrounding \left and \right symbols.. redefines \lgroup and \rgroup so that those symbols can work without \left and \right.g. as in “|−z|”) while the \vert and \Vert symbols (Table 152) are intended to be used as operators (e. Table 155: stmaryrd Variable-sized Delimiters \llbracket 54 \rrbracket . Note that \vert is a synonym for |. for example. (This capability is commonly needed when typesetting adjacent bras and kets in Dirac notation: “ φ|ψ ”). Variable-sized Delimiters           \lgroup   \rmoustache     \Arrowvert               \bracevert         \rgroup \arrowvert These symbols must be used with \left and \right.                \lmoustache Table 153: Large.Table 152: Variable-sized Delimiters ↓   \downarrow \langle \lceil \lfloor ( / ( / ) \ ⇓ \Downarrow \rangle \rceil \rfloor ) \backslash { [ | ↑    [ | \uparrow \updownarrow \{ } ⇑ ] ] \| \Uparrow \Updownarrow \} When used with \left and \right. the preceding symbols are intended to be used as delimiters (e. Table 154: AMS Variable-sized Delimiters | \lvert \lVert | \rvert \rVert According to the amsmath documentation [AMS99].g. and \Vert is a synonym for \|. as in “p|q”). A similar effect can be achieved in A conventional L TEX using the braket package. \middle can be used. however. ε-TEX provides a \middle analogue to \left and \right.

Table 156: mathabx Variable-sized Delimiters v 1 \ldbrack w 9 \rdbrack 7 ~ 7 7 7 7    \lfilet \thickvert ? ? ? \rfilet ?   ~  \vvvert ? Table 157: MnSymbol Variable-sized Delimiters \lceil \rceil \ulcorner \urcorner \lfloor \rfloor \llcorner \lrcorner \lwavy \rwavy \langle \rangle \lWavy \rWavy \langlebar \ranglebar ( ) \lgroup \rgroup \lsem \rsem \llangle \rrangle \lmoustache \rmoustache \lbrace \rbrace / \backslash < > [ ] \ullcorner \ulrcorner | \| \bracevert \arrowvert \Arrowvert 55 .

\Vert is a synonym for \|.\vert is a synonym for |. Table 159: nath Variable-sized Delimiters (Double) \lAngle [[ \lBrack \lCeil \lFloor || ∗ \rAngle ]] \rBrack \rCeil \rFloor || \rVert∗ \lVert∗ nath redefines all of the above to include implicit \left and \right commands. Table 158: mathdesign Variable-sized Delimiters \leftwave \leftevaw \rightwave \rightevaw The definitions of these symbols include a preceding \left or \right. and \revaw. separate \lVert and \rVert commands are needed to disambiguate whether “|” is a left or right delimiter. The internal. \levaw. \mid and \mvert produce the same symbol as \vert but designated as math relations instead of ordinals. \divides produces the same symbol as \vert but designated as a binary operator instead of an ordinal. All of the symbols in Table 159 can also be expressed using the \double macro. \parallel and \mVert produce the same symbol as \Vert but designated as math relations instead of ordinals. \rwave. 56 . Hence. See the nath documentation for examples and additional information. It is therefore an error to specify \left or \right explicitly. “primitive” versions of these symbols are called \lwave.

which produce dotless versions of “i ” and “j ”. while “\hat{i}” would yield the rather odd-looking “ ˆ ”. For example. (See Table 201 on page 65. Note that \triple—and the corresponding \double—is actually a macro that takes a delimiter as an argument. Table 161: fourier Variable-sized Delimiters \llbracket \rrbracket \VERT Table 162: textcomp Text-mode Delimiters 〈 \textlangle \textlbrackdbl \textlquill 〉 \textrangle \textrbrackdbl \textrquill Table 163: metre Text-mode Delimiters } { \alad \alas \angud \angus } \Alad { \Alas \Angud \Angus † ]] [[ \crux \quadrad \quadras † ]] [[ \Crux \Quadrad \Quadras Table 164: Math-mode Accents a ´ a ¯ a ˘ \acute{a} \bar{a} \breve{a} a ˇ a ¨ a ˙ \check{a} \ddot{a} \dot{a} a ` a ˆ ˚ a \grave{a} \hat{a} \mathring{a} a ˜ a \tilde{a} \vec{a} Also note the existence of \imath and \jmath. ı i 57 .Table 160: nath Variable-sized Delimiters (Triple) \triple< [[[ ||| ∗ \triple> ]]] ||| \triple] \rtriple|∗ \triple[ \ltriple|∗ Similar to \lVert and \rVert in Table 159. “\hat{\imath}” produces a correct “ ˆ ”. \ltriple and \rtriple must be used instead of \triple to disambiguate whether “|” is a left or right delimiter.) These are useful when the accent is supposed to replace the dot.

. 58 ... \spirituslenis instead uses a crescent accent as in “ — ”.Table 165: AMS Math-mode Accents . a \dddot{a} a \ddddot{a} These accents are also provided by the mathabx and accents packages and are redefined by the mathdots package if the amsmath and amssymb packages have previously been loaded.. versions also ˙˙˙ a a function properly within subscripts and superscripts (x instead of x ) .. .. a). a Table 168: yhmath Math-mode Accents ˚ a \ring{a} A This symbol is largely obsolete. All of the variations except for the original AMS ones tighten ... the space between the dots (from a to ˙˙˙ The mathabx and mathdots. as standard L TEX 2ε has supported \mathring A since June. 1998 [L T98].. Table 166: MnSymbol Math-mode Accents a \vec{a} Table 167: fge Math-mode Accents – A– a ∗ \spirituslenis{A}\spirituslenis{a}∗ When fge is passed the crescent option.

an extensible long-division sign (“ )abc ”) can be faked by putting a “\big)” in a tabular environment with an \hline or \cline in the preceding row.. “x + −x” or “3 + 2 ”) then consider using the cancel package.Table 169: Extensible Accents › abc ← − abc abc abc √ abc \widetilde{abc}∗ \overleftarrow{abc}† \overline{abc} \overbrace{abc} \sqrt{abc}‡ ” abc − → abc abc abc \widehat{abc}∗ \overrightarrow{abc}† \underline{abc} \underbrace{abc} As demonstrated in a 1997 TUGboat article about typesetting long-division problems [Gib97].g. † ‡ Table 170: overrightarrow Extensible Accents = ⇒ abc \Overrightarrow{abc} Table 171: yhmath Extensible Accents ˆ abc ˚ ˆ abc \wideparen{abc} \widering{abc} È abc \widetriangle{abc} Table 172: AMS Extensible Accents ← → abc abc ← − \overleftrightarrow{abc} \underleftarrow{abc} abc ← → abc − → \underleftrightarrow{abc} \underrightarrow{abc} 59 .tex) that automatically solves and typesets—by putting an \overline atop “\big)” and the desired text—long-division problems. which automatically solves and typesets polynomial-division problems in a similar manner. See also the polynom package. \sqrt typesets nth roots. If you’re looking for an extensible diagonal line or arrow to be used for canceling or 5 reducing mathematical subexpressions (e. √ 3 n “\sqrt[3]{abc}” produces “ abc ” and “\sqrt[n]{abc}” produces “ abc ”. The article also presents a piece of code (uploaded to CTAN as longdiv. With an optional argument. ∗ These symbols are made more extensible by the MnSymbol package and even more extensible by the yhmath package. For√ example.

hkkikkj hkkk j abc abc Table 175: mathabx Extensible Accents \overbrace{abc} \overgroup{abc} „ abc | abc Œ abc ˚ Œ abc \widebar{abc} \widecheck{abc} \wideparen{abc} \widering{abc} abc loomoon \underbrace{abc} abc looo n ˆ abc \undergroup{abc} \widearrow{abc} The braces shown for \overbrace and \underbrace appear in their minimum size.Table 173: MnSymbol Extensible Accents abc abc abc abc abc abc \overbrace{abc} \overgroup{abc} \overlinesegment{abc} \overleftharpoon{abc} \widehat{abc} \wideparen{abc} abc abc abc abc abc \underbrace{abc} \undergroup{abc} \underlinesegment{abc} \overrightharpoon{abc} \widetilde{abc} Table 174: mathtools Extensible Accents abc abc ∗ \overbrace{abc} \overbracket{abc}∗ abc abc \underbrace{abc} \underbracket{abc}∗ \overbracket and \underbracket accept optional arguments that specify the bracket height and thickness. however. They can expand arbitrarily wide. See the mathtools documentation for more information. Table 176: fourier Extensible Accents abc abc \widearc{abc} \wideOarc{abc} abc ˚ abc \wideparen{abc} \widering{abc} 60 .

Table 180: AMS Extensible Arrows ←− − abc \xleftarrow{abc} −→ − abc \xrightarrow{abc} 61 .Table 177: esvect Extensible Accents #” abc \vv{abc} with package option a #„ abc \vv{abc} with package option b #« abc \vv{abc} with package option c #» abc \vv{abc} with package option d #– abc \vv{abc} with package option e #— abc \vv{abc} with package option f # abc \vv{abc} with package option g #‰ abc \vv{abc} with package option h esvect also defines a \vv* macro which is used to typeset arrows over vector variables with subscripts. Consider the output from the expression “\ushort{x}\ushort{y}\underline{x}\underline{y}”. Table 178: undertilde Extensible Accents abc › \utilde{abc} Because \utilde is based on \widetilde it is also made more extensible by the yhmath package. See the esvect documentation for more information. which looks like “xyxy”. The underlines produced by the ushort commands are shorter than those produced by the \underline command. Table 179: ushort Extensible Accents abc \ushortdw{abc} abc \ushortw{abc} \ushortw and \ushortdw are intended to be used with multi-character arguments (“words”) while \ushortand \ushortd are intended to be used with singlecharacter arguments.

\leftrightharpoonsfill. Table 184: extarrows Extensible Arrows ⇐⇒ = ←→ − == == ⇐= = ←− − abc abc abc abc abc \xLeftrightarrow{abc} \xleftrightarrow{abc} \xlongequal{abc} \xLongleftarrow{abc} \xlongleftarrow{abc} ⇐=⇒ = ←−→ − = =⇒ − −→ abc abc abc abc \xLongleftrightarrow{abc} \xlongleftrightarrow{abc} \xLongrightarrow{abc} \xlongrightarrow{abc} 62 . chemarrow also provides \larrowfill.Table 181: mathtools Extensible Arrows ←− − −→ − ⇐= = abc abc abc abc \xhookleftarrow{abc} \xhookrightarrow{abc} \xLeftarrow{abc} \xleftharpoondown{abc} \xleftharpoonup{abc} \xleftrightarrow{abc} \xLeftrightarrow{abc} −− −− −→ − =⇒ = − − − − abc abc abc abc abc abc \xleftrightharpoons{abc} \xmapsto{abc} \xRightarrow{abc} \xrightharpoondown{abc} \xrightharpoonup{abc} \xrightleftharpoons{abc} − − − − abc ←→ − ⇐⇒ = abc abc −− −− Table 182: chemarr Extensible Arrows −− −− abc \xrightleftharpoons{abc} Table 183: chemarrow Extensible Arrows abc DG G G G G GG def abc EG G C G GG G G G G def abc GG G G G G GA def abc GG G G G G FG G B G def \autoleftarrow{abc}{def} \autorightarrow{abc}{def} \autoleftrightharpoons{abc}{def} \autorightleftharpoons{abc}{def} In addition to the symbols shown above. and \rightleftharpoonsfill macros. \rarrowfill. Each of these takes a length argument and produces an arrow of the specified length.

Table 186: DotArrow Extensible Arrows a \dotarrow{a} The DotArrow package provides mechanisms for lengthening the arrow. .4 and the Short Math Guide for L TEX [Dow00] for more information on math-mode spacing. † 63 .. (They normally scale horizontally but not vertically..) \fixedddots A and \fixedvdots provide the original. See A Section 8.Table 185: extpfeil Extensible Arrows == == −− −− abc abc \xlongequal{abc} \xtwoheadleftarrow{abc} −→ − −− −− abc abc \xmapsto{abc} \xtwoheadrightarrow{abc} The extpfeil package also provides a \newextarrow command to help you define your own extensible arrow symbols. fixed-height functionality of L TEX 2ε ’s \ddots and \vdots macros. . \ddots† . \ldotp \ldots . \colon uses different surrounding spacing. The mathdots package redefines \ddots and \vdots to make them scale properly with font size. . and altering the arrowhead.. Table 187: trfsigns Extensible Transform Symbols a \dft{a} a \DFT{a} Table 188: holtpolt Non-commutative Division Symbols abc def \holter{abc}{def} abc def \polter{abc}{def} Table 189: Dots · ··· ∗ \cdotp \cdots : . See the extpfeil documentation for more information. \vdots† While “:” is valid in math mode. See the DotArrow documentation for more information. \colon∗ . adjusting the distance between the arrow and its symbol.

.. 64 .Table 190: AMS Dots ··· . . . . \dotsi \dotsm \dotso ∴ \therefore∗ \because and \therefore are defined as binary relations and therefore also appear in Table 68 on page 30. \. ∗ \because∗ \dotsb \dotsc ··· ··· .. \dotsc between pairs of commas. \: Table 195: teubner Dots . \adots . MnSymbol’s dots are defined as single characters instead of as composites of multiple single-dot characters.. and \dotso between other symbol pairs. \dotsi between pairs of integrals. .. .. \iddots Table 194: yhmath Dots . . All of the above except \hdots and \vdots are defined as binary operators and therefore also appear in Table 50 on page 23. Also. . unlike most of the other dot symbols in this document. \cdotp and \colon produce the same glyphs as \cdot and \vdotdot respectively but serve as TEX math punctuation (class 6 symbols) instead of TEX binary operators (class 2).. . Table 193: mathdots Dots . . \antilabe .. The AMS \dots symbols are named according to their intended usage: \dotsb between pairs of binary operators/relations. \dotsm between pairs of multiplication signs. \? . Furthermore. Table 191: wasysym Dots ∴ \wasytherefore Table 192: MnSymbol Dots ⋅ \cdot \ddotdot \ddots \diamonddots \downtherefore \fivedots \hdotdot \hdots \lefttherefore \righttherefore \squaredots \udotdot ∴ \udots \uptherefore \vdotdot \vdots MnSymbol defines \therefore as \uptherefore and \because as \downtherefore.

Table 202) to that of A L TEX’s \emptyset. Use one of the packages latexsym.D. amssymb. or wasysym.Table 196: mathcomp Math Symbols µ \tccentigrade \tcmu Ω \tcohm \tcpertenthousand ‰ \tcperthousand Table 197: marvosym Digits 0 1 \MVZero \MVOne 2 3 \MVTwo \MVThree 4 5 \MVFour \MVFive 6 7 \MVSix \MVSeven 8 9 \MVEight \MVNine Table 198: fge Digits 0 \fgestruckzero 1 \fgestruckone Table 199: dozenal Base-12 Digits X \x E \e H I Table 200: mathabx Mayan Digits \maya{0} \maya{1} P Q \maya{2} \maya{3} R S \maya{4} \maya{5} A Table 201: Miscellaneous L TEX 2ε Math Symbols ℵ \ ♣ ∗ \aleph \angle \backslash \Box∗. consider using the ntheorem package. amsfonts. that amsfonts and amssymb define \Diamond to produce the same glyph as \lozenge (“♦”). which properly juxtaposes a symbol with the end of the proof text. Note. Many people prefer the look of AMS’s \varnothing (“∅”.E. however.† \clubsuit ♦ ∅ ♥ \Diamond∗ \diamondsuit \emptyset‡ \flat \heartsuit ∞ ¬ \infty \mho∗ \nabla \natural \neg ♠ ` \prime \sharp \spadesuit \surd \triangle A Not predefined in L TEX 2ε . pxfonts.) marker. the other packages produce a squarer \Diamond as depicted above. † To use \Box—or any other symbol—as an end-of-proof (Q. ‡ 65 . txfonts.

which is the same glyph as \mho but is intended for use in text mode. \hookupminus as a synonym for \invbackneg. and.Table 202: Miscellaneous AMS Math Symbols ∠ \angle \backprime \bigstar \blacklozenge \blacksquare \blacktriangle \blacktriangledown \diagdown \diagup \eth \lozenge \measuredangle \mho \sphericalangle \square \triangledown \varnothing \vartriangle ð ♦ ∅ Table 203: Miscellaneous wasysym Math Symbols \Box ∗ \Diamond \mho∗ \varangle wasysym also defines an \agemO symbol. \lnot and \minushookdown as synonyms for \neg. Table 204: Miscellaneous txfonts/pxfonts Math Symbols \Diamondblack \Diamonddot \lambdabar \lambdaslash \varclubsuit \vardiamondsuit \varheartsuit \varspadesuit Table 205: Miscellaneous mathabx Math Symbols H å ä s \degree \diagdown \diagup \diameter R 5 V 6 \fourth \hash \infty \leftthreetimes b 8 W 7 \measuredangle \pitchfork \propto \rightthreetimes P c Q 5 \second \sphericalangle \third \varhash Table 206: Miscellaneous MnSymbol Math Symbols ∠ ⌐ ♣ \angle \backneg \backprime \checkmark \clubsuit \diameter \diamondsuit \flat \heartsuit \infty \invbackneg \invneg ∇ ¬ ′ \maltese \measuredangle \nabla \natural \neg \prime ♠ \sharp \smallint \spadesuit \sphericalangle ∞ MnSymbol defines \emptyset and \varnothing as synonyms for \diameter. \minushookup as a synonym for \invneg. \hookdownminus as a synonym for \backneg. 66 .

and even “c/o”. nicefrac (part of the units package) or the newer xfrac package can be used to construct vulgar fractions like “1/2”. Table 208: Miscellaneous textcomp Text-mode Math Symbols ° ÷ ⁄ ¬ − ∗ \textdegree∗ \textdiv \textfractionsolidus \textlnot \textminus ½ ¼ ¹ ± √ \textonehalf† \textonequarter† \textonesuperior \textpm \textsurd ¾ ³ × ² \textthreequarters† \textthreesuperior \texttimes \texttwosuperior If you prefer a larger degree symbol you might consider defining one as “\ensuremath{^\circ}” (“◦ ”). “3/4”. “1/4”.Table 207: Miscellaneous Internal MnSymbol Math Symbols \partialvardint \partialvardlanddownint \partialvardlandupint \partialvardlcircleleftint \partialvardlcirclerightint \partialvardoiint \partialvardoint \partialvardrcircleleftint \partialvardrcirclerightint \partialvardstrokedint \partialvardsumint \partialvartint \partialvartlanddownint \partialvartlandupint \partialvartlcircleleftint \partialvartlcirclerightint \partialvartoiint \partialvartoint \partialvartrcircleleftint \partialvartrcirclerightint \partialvartstrokedint \partialvartsumint These symbols are intended to be used internally by MnSymbol to construct the integrals appearing in Table 64 on page 29 but can nevertheless be used in isolation. † Table 209: Miscellaneous marvosym Math Symbols W = \Anglesign \Corresponds p ÷ \Squaredot \Vectorarrow P \Vectorarrowhigh Table 210: Miscellaneous fge Math Symbols K M O \fgebackslash \fgebaracute \fgebarcap S Q N \fgecap \fgecapbar \fgecup R P i \fgecupacute \fgecupbar \fgeinfty h L \fgelangle \fgeupbracket Table 211: Miscellaneous mathdesign Math Symbols \rightangle Table 212: Miscellaneous arev Math Symbols \steaming \varclub ♦ ♥ \vardiamond \varheart 67 \varspade .

and—if the bbgreekl option is passed to mathbbol—Greek letters. square brackets.2]callig15}{}” to set Calligra at 2. or pxfonts txfonts or pxfonts bbold or mathbbol† mbboard† bbm bbm bbm dsfont dsfont with the sans option china2e‡ eufrak yfonts¶ yfonts¶ yfonts¶ ABCdef12 ABC1 ABC1 ABCdef12 ABCdef12 ABCdef123 ABCdef123 ABCdef123 ABCdef123 ABCdef123 ABCˇf123 ∗ ÁÂà Put “\DeclareMathAlphabet{\mathpzc}{OT1}{pzc}{m}{it}” in your document’s preamble to make \mathpzc typeset its argument in Zapf Chancery. manually defined∗ amsfonts.Table 213: Math Alphabets Font sample ABCdef123 ABCdef123 ABCdef  ABC ABC or ABC or ABCdef123 ABC º»¼ Generating command \mathrm{ABCdef123} \mathit{ABCdef123} \mathnormal{ABCdef123} \mathcal{ABC} \mathscr{ABC} \mathcal{ABC} \mathcal{ABC} \mathscr{ABC} \mathpzc{ABCdef123} \mathbb{ABC} \varmathbb{ABC} \mathbb{ABCdef123} \mathbb{ABCdef123} \mathbbm{ABCdef12} \mathbbmss{ABCdef12} \mathbbmtt{ABCdef12} \mathds{ABC1} \mathds{ABC1} \symA\symB\symC \mathfrak{ABCdef123} \textfrak{ABCdef123} \textswab{ABCdef123} \textgoth{ABCdef123} Required package none none none none mathrsfs calrsfs euscript with the mathcal option euscript with the mathscr option none. For instance.2 times its design size for a better blend with typical body fonts. you can typeset the Calligra font’s script “r ” (or other calligraphic symbols) in math mode by loading the calligra package and putting “\DeclareMathAlphabet{\mathcalligra}{T1}{calligra}{m}{n}” in your document’s preamble to make \mathcalligra typeset its argument in the Calligra font. angle brackets. “<[( . As a similar trick.§ amssymb. (You may also want to specify “\DeclareFontShape{T1}{calligra}{m}{n}{<->s*[2. txfonts.) The mathbbol package defines some additional blackboard bold characters: parentheses.

and \symUE (“ ”). )]>” is produced by “\mathbb{\Langle\Lbrack\Lparen\bbalpha\bbbeta\bbgamma\Rparen \Rbrack\Rangle}”. mbboard extends the blackboard bold symbol set significantly further. various currency symbols such as \bbdollar (“$”) and \bbeuro (“û”). and the Hebrew alphabet (e. . C in h A2e provides three umlauted blackboard-bold letters: \symAE (“ ”). Note that C in h A2e does provide math-mode commands for the most common number-set symbols.g. Û Ü Ý 68 . † ‡ The \sym. \symOE (“ ”). “\bbfinalnun\bbyod\bbqof\bbpe” → “ÏÉ×Ô”).. These are presented in Table 130 on page 49. It supports not only the Greek alphabet—including “Greek-like” symbols such as \bbnabla (“š”)—but also all punctuation marks. . In addition to the 26 letters of the English alphabet. They are included in Table 213 because they resemble the blackboardbold symbols that appear in the rest of the table. commands provided by the C in h A2e package are actually text-mode commands.

prior to 1991) version of the AMS’s fonts rendered C. As of this writing. and Z. to the fonts/msym10 directory. N. S. R. N. however. names imply. They are included in Table 213 because they are frequently used in a mathematical context. . and Z as C. Berthold Horn uploaded PostScript fonts for the older blackboardbold glyphs to CTAN. the fonts provided by the yfonts package are actually text fonts. A there are no L TEX 2ε packages for utilizing the now-obsolete glyphs. § 69 . As some people prefer the older glyphs—much to the AMS’s surprise—and because those glyphs fail to build under modern versions of METAFONT. S. An older (i.¶ As their \text.e. .. R.

as would appear on an LCD: “\textifsym{-123.456}” produces “ ”. the following codes are valid: l v l L m w h r h H d h d D ` a < << b c > >> This enables one to write “\textifsym{mm<DDD>mm}” to get “ ” or “\textifsym{L|H|L|H|L}” to get “ ”. Table 214: gensymb Symbols Defined to Work in Both Math and Text Mode ° \celsius \degree µ Ω \micro \ohm ‰ \perthousand Table 215: wasysym Electrical and Physical Symbols ¬ \AC \VHF ¬¬¬¬ \photon F \HF \gluon 3 8 \FallingEdge \LongPulseHigh 9 6 m M Table 216: ifsym Pulse Diagram Symbols \LongPulseLow \PulseHigh 7 2 \PulseLow \RaisingEdge 4 5 \ShortPulseHigh \ShortPulseLow In addition. \phase works only with those TEX backends supported by pict2e. within \textifsym{. 70 . v|r|v|r|v V mm`hhhbmm Finally. Consequently.4 Science and technology symbols This section lists symbols that are employed in various branches of science and engineering. . which provides a wide variety of pulse-diagram symbols within an environment designed specifically for typesetting pulse diagrams. \textifsym supports the display of segmented digits. EIPQFRST Table 217: ar Aspect Ratio Symbol A \AR Table 218: textcomp Text-mode Science and Engineering Symbols \textcelsius \textmho µ \textmu Ω \textohm Table 219: steinmetz Extensible Phasor Symbol abc \phase{abc} The \phase command uses the pict2e package to draw a horizontally and vertically scalable Steinmetz phasor symbol. See also the timing package. See the pict2e documentation for more information. “\textifsym{b}” outputs a blank with the same width as an “ ”. .}.

and \Moon as an alias for \leftmoon. . \Pisces can also be specified with \Zodiac{1} .Table 220: wasysym Astronomical Symbols ♀ \mercury \venus \astrosun \aries \taurus \gemini \ascnode ♂ \earth \mars \fullmoon \cancer \leo \virgo \descnode \jupiter \saturn \leftmoon \libra \scorpio \sagittarius \conjunction \uranus \neptune \newmoon \aquarius \capricornus \pisces \opposition \vernal \pluto \rightmoon Table 221: marvosym Astronomical Symbols  à Á à á â \Mercury \Venus \Moon \Aries \Taurus \Gemini Ê Ä À ã ä å \Earth \Mars \Sun \Cancer \Leo \Virgo æ ç è \Libra \Scorpio \Sagittarius é ê ë \Capricorn \Aquarius \Pisces Å Æ \Jupiter \Saturn Ç È \Uranus \Neptune É \Pluto Note that \Aries . . \Zodiac{12}. . Table 223: wasysym APL Symbols \APLbox \APLcomment \APLdown \APLdownarrowbox \APLinput ÷ − \APLinv \APLleftarrowbox \APLlog \APLminus \APLrightarrowbox \APLstar \APLup \APLuparrowbox \notbackslash \notslash − \ − / Table 224: wasysym APL Modifiers ◦ \APLcirc{} ∼ \APLnot{} 71 | \APLvert{} . \boy as an alias for \Mars. e f w € \Mercury \Venus \fullmoon \Aries g h u  Table 222: mathabx Astronomical Symbols \Earth \Mars \leftmoon \Taurus i p \Jupiter \Saturn \newmoon \Gemini q r \Uranus \Neptune \rightmoon s t d \Pluto \varEarth \Sun x ‚ v mathabx also defines \girl as an alias for \Venus. .

uses the symbols \SOH through \US to depict ASCII characters 1–31 and \DEL to depict ASCII character 127. For example. The \NUL symbol. † Table 227: ascii Control Characters (CP437) \SOH \STX \ETX \EOT \ENQ \ACK \BEL \DEL \BS \HT \LF \VT \FF \CR \SO \NBSP \SI \DLE \DCa \DCb \DCc \DCd \NAK \NUL ¦ \SYN \ETB \CAN \EM \SUB \ESC \FS \splitvert \GS \RS \US Code Page 437 (CP437). 72 . which was first utilized by the original IBM PC. For example. “\keystroke{F7}” produces “ F7 ”. \NBSP. also not part of CP437. These symbols utilize the rotating package and therefore display improperly in most DVI viewers. not part of CP437.Table 225: marvosym Computer Hardware Symbols Í Ï \ComputerMouse \Keyboard Ñ Ò \ParallelPort \Printer Î Ð \SerialInterface \SerialPort Table 226: keystroke Computer Keys Alt AltGr Break →− Ctrl ↓ Del End ∗ \Alt \AltGr \Break \Ctrl∗ \DArrow \Del∗ \End ∗ ∗ Enter Esc Home Ins ← Num Page ↓ Page ↑ \Enter∗ \Esc∗ \Home \Ins∗ \LArrow \NumLock \PgDown∗ \PgUp ∗ ∗ PrtSc → ← Scroll Shift ⇑ \PrtSc∗ \RArrow \Return \Scroll∗ \Shift∗ \Spacebar \Tab† \UArrow \BSpace† →→ −− −− ↑ Changes based on the language option passed to the keystroke package. \splitvert is merely the “|” character drawn as it was on the IBM PC. The \keystroke command draws a key with an arbitrary label. represents a nonbreaking space. represents ASCII character 0. the german option makes \Del produce “ Entf ” instead of “ Del ”.

09 A X 2 package. not with the more modern \usepackage{milstd}.S. Table 231: wasysym Biological Symbols ♀ \female ♂ \male 73 . Consequently.Table 228: milstd Logic Gates ¢ £ ¡ ¤    \ANDd \BUFu § ¥ ¨     \NANDl   ©  \ORd \ANDl   " # ! $ ¦ \BusWidth \NANDr \ORl \ANDr \INVd \NANDu \ORr \ANDu \INVl \NORd \ORu \BUFd \INVr \NORl \BUFl \INVu \NORr \BUFr \NANDd \NORu The milstd package. it must be loaded into a . Table 229: marvosym Communication Symbols k z \Email \Emailct t u \fax \FAX v B \Faxmachine \Letter E H \Lightning \Mobilefone A T \Pickup \Telefon Table 230: marvosym Engineering Symbols " # › • % – \Beam \Bearing \Circpipe \Circsteel \Fixedbearing \Flatsteel ∗ l ’ & L $ ™ \Force \Hexasteel \Lefttorque \Lineload \Loosebearing \Lsteel ‘ ˜ ” ' Ÿ  \Octosteel \Rectpipe \Rectsteel \Righttorque \RoundedLsteel∗ \RoundedTsteel∗ ž — “ œ š \RoundedTTsteel \Squarepipe \Squaresteel \Tsteel \TTsteel \RoundedLsteel and \RoundedTsteel seem to be swapped. was written as a L TEX 2.tex file. at least in the 2000/05/01 version of marvosym. which provides the digital logic-gate symbols specified by the A U. not as a L TE ε document with \input milstd. Department of Defense’s MIL-STD-806 standard.

c 74 . The feyn package provides various commands for composing the preceding symbols into complete Feynman diagrams. See the feyn documentation for examples and additional information.Table 232: marvosym Biological Symbols ~  „ \Female \FEMALE \FemaleFemale … } € \FemaleMale \Hermaphrodite \HERMAPHRODITE | ƒ \MALE \Male \MaleMale { \Neutral Table 233: marvosym Safety-related Symbols h n \Biohazard \BSEfree C J \CEsign \Estatically ` a \Explosionsafe \Laserbeam j ! \Radioactivity \Stopsign Table 234: feyn Feynman Diagram Symbols { ‘ ' § — ™ f d l o k \bigbosonloop \bigbosonloopA \bigbosonloopV \gvcropped k l | ’ \hfermion \shfermion \smallbosonloop \smallbosonloopA ( d m \smallbosonloopV \wfermion \whfermion \feyn{a} \feyn{c} \feyn{f} \feyn{fd} \feyn{fl} \feyn{flS} \feyn{fs} e ˜ q g v y { \feyn{fu} \feyn{fv} \feyn{g} \feyn{g1} \feyn{gd} \feyn{gl} \feyn{glB} | z } }s u h j \feyn{glS} \feyn{glu} \feyn{gu} \feyn{gv} \feyn{gvs} \feyn{h} \feyn{hd} u i m  p € x \feyn{hs} \feyn{hu} \feyn{m} \feyn{ms} \feyn{p} \feyn{P} \feyn{x} All other arguments to the \feyn command produce a “ ” symbol.

5 Dingbats Dingbats are symbols such as stars. more generally. The consequence is that the pifont symbols can’t be listed by name in this document’s index. rather than name each of the dingbats individually. as a means to draw attention to the text that follows. pifont provides a L TEX interface to the Zapf Dingbats font (one of the standard 35 PostScript fonts). However. so be mindful of that fact when searching for a particular symbol. Among other capabilities. and geometric shapes. They are commonly used as bullets in itemized lists or. A The pifont dingbat package warrants special mention. y { Table 235: bbding Arrows \ArrowBoldDownRight \ArrowBoldRightCircled z w \ArrowBoldRightShort \ArrowBoldRightStrobe x \ArrowBoldUpRight Table 236: pifont Arrows   ¡ £ ¤ Ä ¥ À ¦ § \ding{212} \ding{213} \ding{214} \ding{215} \ding{216} \ding{217} \ding{218} \ding{219} \ding{220} ¨ © ª « ¬ ­ ¢ ® ¯ \ding{221} \ding{222} \ding{223} \ding{224} \ding{225} \ding{226} \ding{227} \ding{228} \ding{229} ° ± ² ³ Á ´ Ç µ È \ding{230} \ding{231} \ding{232} \ding{233} \ding{234} \ding{235} \ding{236} \ding{237} \ding{238} ¶ É · ¸ Å ¹ Â Æ º \ding{239} \ding{241} \ding{242} \ding{243} \ding{244} \ding{245} \ding{246} \ding{247} \ding{248} Ã » ¼ ½ ¾ ¿ \ding{249} \ding{250} \ding{251} \ding{252} \ding{253} \ding{254}  Table 237: universal Arrows \bauarrow  \bauwhitearrow Table 238: marvosym Scissors s r \Cutleft \Cutline q R \Cutright \Kutline S Q \Leftscissors \Rightscissors § ¦ ¤ £ Table 239: bbding Scissors \ScissorHollowLeft \ScissorHollowRight \ScissorLeft \ScissorLeftBrokenBottom ¥ ¡   ¢ \ScissorLeftBrokenTop \ScissorRight \ScissorRightBrokenBottom \ScissorRightBrokenTop Table 240: pifont Scissors ¡ \ding{33} ¢ \ding{34} 75 Ê \ding{35} £ \ding{36} . pifont merely provides a single \ding command. arrows. which outputs the character that lies at a given position in the font.

Table 241: dingbat Pencils

W

\largepencil

P

\smallpencil

0 ) 2 1 

Table 242: bbding Pencils and Nibs \NibLeft \NibRight \NibSolidLeft \NibSolidRight

$ ( & #

\PencilLeft \PencilLeftDown \PencilLeftUp \PencilRight

' %

\PencilRightDown \PencilRightUp

Table 243: pifont Pencils and Nibs \ding{46}  \ding{47} i \ding{48}  \ding{49}  \ding{50}

Table 244: dingbat Fists

R D U

\leftpointright \leftthumbsdown \leftthumbsup

L d u

\rightpointleft \rightthumbsdown \rightthumbsup

N

\rightpointright 

 

Table 245: bbding Fists \HandCuffLeft \HandCuffLeftUp \HandCuffRight 



\HandCuffRightUp \HandLeft \HandLeftUp

"  

\HandPencilLeft \HandRight \HandRightUp

Table 246: pifont Fists  \ding{42}  \ding{43}  \ding{44}  \ding{45}

Table 247: fourier Fists \lefthand \righthand

B E R F

Table 248: bbding Crosses and Plusses \Cross \CrossBoldOutline \CrossClowerTips \CrossMaltese

C D 9 @

\CrossOpenShadow \CrossOutline \Plus \PlusCenterOpen 76

8 A

\PlusOutline \PlusThinCenterOpen

Table 249: pifont Crosses and Plusses % & \ding{57} \ding{58} ' ( \ding{59} \ding{60} ¦ § \ding{61} \ding{62} ¨ © \ding{63} \ding{64}

3 4

Table 250: bbding Xs and Check Marks \Checkmark \CheckmarkBold

5 6

\XSolid \XSolidBold

7

\XSolidBrush

Table 251: pifont Xs and Check Marks  \ding{51} \ding{52} ! " \ding{53} \ding{54} # $ \ding{55} \ding{56}

Table 252: wasysym Xs and Check Marks \CheckedBox \Square \XBox

Table 253: universal Xs

¥

\baucross

Table 254: pifont Circled Numbers x y z { | } ~  €  \ding{172} \ding{173} \ding{174} \ding{175} \ding{176} \ding{177} \ding{178} \ding{179} \ding{180} \ding{181} ‚ ƒ „ … † ‡ ˆ ‰ Š ‹ \ding{182} \ding{183} \ding{184} \ding{185} \ding{186} \ding{187} \ding{188} \ding{189} \ding{190} \ding{191} Œ  Ž   ‘ ’ “ ” • \ding{192} \ding{193} \ding{194} \ding{195} \ding{196} \ding{197} \ding{198} \ding{199} \ding{200} \ding{201} – — ˜ ™ š › œ  ž Ÿ \ding{202} \ding{203} \ding{204} \ding{205} \ding{206} \ding{207} \ding{208} \ding{209} \ding{210} \ding{211}

pifont (part of the psnfss package) provides a dingautolist environment which resembles enumerate but uses circled numbers as bullets.4 See the psnfss documentation for more information.

Table 255: wasysym Stars \davidsstar
4 In

\hexstar

\varhexstar

fact, dingautolist can use any set of consecutive Zapf Dingbats symbols.

77

x e f ˆ g h H G  ƒ ‰ r s p i ‚

Table 256: bbding Stars, Flowers, and Similar Shapes \Asterisk \AsteriskBold \AsteriskCenterOpen \AsteriskRoundedEnds \AsteriskThin \AsteriskThinCenterOpen \DavidStar \DavidStarSolid \EightAsterisk \EightFlowerPetal \EightFlowerPetalRemoved \EightStar \EightStarBold \EightStarConvex \EightStarTaper \FiveFlowerOpen

€ V Y c U W X ` a b d I † ‡ S T

\FiveFlowerPetal \FiveStar \FiveStarCenterOpen \FiveStarConvex \FiveStarLines \FiveStarOpen \FiveStarOpenCircled \FiveStarOpenDotted \FiveStarOutline \FiveStarOutlineHeavy \FiveStarShadow \FourAsterisk \FourClowerOpen \FourClowerSolid \FourStar \FourStarOpen

P Q y … w  v ‘ q u – ” • “ ’ t

\JackStar \JackStarBold \SixFlowerAlternate \SixFlowerAltPetal \SixFlowerOpenCenter \SixFlowerPetalDotted \SixFlowerPetalRemoved \SixFlowerRemovedOpenPetal \SixStar \SixteenStarLight \Snowflake \SnowflakeChevron \SnowflakeChevronBold \Sparkle \SparkleBold \TwelweStar

Table 257: pifont Stars, Flowers, and Similar Shapes  ) 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 \ding{65} \ding{66} \ding{67} \ding{68} \ding{69} \ding{70} \ding{71} \ding{72} \ding{73} 7 8 9 @ A B C D E \ding{74} \ding{75} \ding{76} \ding{77} \ding{78} \ding{79} \ding{80} \ding{81} \ding{82} F G H I P Q R S T \ding{83} \ding{84} \ding{85} \ding{86} \ding{87} \ding{88} \ding{89} \ding{90} \ding{91} U V W X Y ` a b c \ding{92} \ding{93} \ding{94} \ding{95} \ding{96} \ding{97} \ding{98} \ding{99} \ding{100} d e f g h i p \ding{101} \ding{102} \ding{103} \ding{104} \ding{105} \ding{106} \ding{107}

Table 258: fourier Ornaments \aldine \aldineleft \aldineright \aldinesmall \decofourleft \decofourright \decoone \decosix \decothreeleft \decothreeright \decotwo \floweroneleft \floweroneright \leafleft \leafNE \leafright \starredbullet

Table 259: wasysym Geometric Shapes \hexagon \octagon \pentagon \varhexagon

78

\blacklozenge as a synonym for \filledmedlozenge. new symbols.3 for more information about constructing new symbols out of existing symbols. For example. \bigstar as a synonym for \filledlargestar. \BigCircle and \FilledSmallCircle combine to give “ ”. See Section 8. \lozenge as a synonym for \medlozenge. and. Table 261: ifsym Geometric Shapes 7  8 & • G 2 5 4 6 3 ) S  ¥ ¦ § T … † € ƒ ‚ \BigCircle \BigCross \BigDiamondshape \BigHBar \BigLowerDiamond \BigRightDiamond \BigSquare \BigTriangleDown \BigTriangleLeft \BigTriangleRight \BigTriangleUp \BigVBar \Circle \Cross \DiamondShadowA \DiamondShadowB \DiamondShadowC \Diamondshape \FilledBigCircle \FilledBigDiamondshape \FilledBigSquare \FilledBigTriangleDown \FilledBigTriangleLeft „  e ¨ © f u v p s r t q – £ ¤ ™ ˜ d — ' o c \FilledBigTriangleRight \FilledBigTriangleUp \FilledCircle \FilledDiamondShadowA \FilledDiamondShadowC \FilledDiamondshape \FilledSmallCircle \FilledSmallDiamondshape \FilledSmallSquare \FilledSmallTriangleDown \FilledSmallTriangleLeft \FilledSmallTriangleRight \FilledSmallTriangleUp \FilledSquare \FilledSquareShadowA \FilledSquareShadowC \FilledTriangleDown \FilledTriangleLeft \FilledTriangleRight \FilledTriangleUp \HBar \LowerDiamond \RightDiamond i  p (  y d g f h e 1 B A H   ¡ ¢ Q P R I 0 \SmallCircle \SmallCross \SmallDiamondshape \SmallHBar \SmallLowerDiamond \SmallRightDiamond \SmallSquare \SmallTriangleDown \SmallTriangleLeft \SmallTriangleRight \SmallTriangleUp \SmallVBar \SpinDown \SpinUp \Square \SquareShadowA \SquareShadowB \SquareShadowC \TriangleDown \TriangleLeft \TriangleRight \TriangleUp \VBar The ifsym documentation points out that one can use \rlap to combine some of the above into useful. Likewise. H  7 u 79 .Table 260: MnSymbol Geometric Shapes \filledlargestar \filledlozenge \filledmedlozenge \largecircle \largediamond \largelozenge \largepentagram \largesquare \largestar \largestarofdavid \medlozenge \medstarofdavid ◊ \smalllozenge MnSymbol defines \bigcirc as a synonym for \largecircle. \Square and \Cross combine to give “ ”.

d — p ˜ e ™ s r q r s \CircleShadow \CircleSolid \DiamondSolid \Ellipse \EllipseShadow \EllipseSolid \HalfCircleLeft \HalfCircleRight u v t f k m l h Table 262: bbding Geometric Shapes \Rectangle \RectangleBold \RectangleThin \Square \SquareCastShadowBottomRight \SquareCastShadowTopLeft \SquareCastShadowTopRight \SquareShadowBottomRight j i g o n \SquareShadowTopLeft \SquareShadowTopRight \SquareSolid \TriangleDown \TriangleUp Table 263: pifont Geometric Shapes \ding{108} \ding{109} \ding{110} t Ë u \ding{111} \ding{112} \ding{113} Ì v w \ding{114} \ding{115} \ding{116} x  ‚ \ding{117} \ding{119} \ding{120} ƒ „ \ding{121} \ding{122} ¡ ¤ ¨ Table 264: universa Geometric Shapes \baucircle   \bausquare ¢ \bautriangle Table 265: universal Geometric Shapes \baucircle \baueclipse § … \bauhole \baupunct † £ \bausquare \bautriangle O C D  q Table 266: Miscellaneous dingbat Dingbats \anchor \carriagereturn \checkmark E C I ! ¨ \eye \filledsquarewithdots \satellitedish S B Z „  \Sborder \squarewithdots \Zborder Table 267: Miscellaneous bbding Dingbats \Envelope \OrnamentDiamondSolid \Peace \Phone ©  \PhoneHandset \Plane \SunshineOpenCircled \Tape Table 268: Miscellaneous pifont Dingbats ¤ ¥ w \ding{37} \ding{38} \ding{39} v u y \ding{40} \ding{41} \ding{118} h j k \ding{164} \ding{165} \ding{166} l p n \ding{167} \ding{168} \ding{170} m o \ding{171} \ding{169} 80 .

Some of these symbols may also be useful in other typesetting contexts. single-letter shortcuts can be used within the argument to the \textproto command (e. “\textproto{Pakyn}” produces “Pakyn”).. 81 .6 Ancient languages This section presents letters and ideograms from various ancient scripts. In addition. Table 269: phaistos Symbols from the Phaistos Disk J h X R K b D S c E M W U T f \PHarrow \PHbee \PHbeehive \PHboomerang \PHbow \PHbullLeg \PHcaptive \PHcarpentryPlane \PHcat \PHchild \PHclub \PHcolumn \PHcomb \PHdolium \PHdove e o H p G a Z Q m N O n k A i \PHeagle \PHflute \PHgaunlet \PHgrater \PHhelmet \PHhide \PHhorn \PHlid \PHlily \PHmanacles \PHmattock \PHoxBack \PHpapyrus \PHpedestrian \PHplaneTree B d l P L Y V r q C I g j s F \PHplumedHead \PHram \PHrosette \PHsaw \PHshield \PHship \PHsling \PHsmallAxe \PHstrainer \PHtattooedHead \PHtiara \PHtunny \PHvine \PHwavyBand \PHwoman Table 270: protosem Proto-Semitic Characters a A b B g d D e \Aaleph \AAaleph \Abeth \AAbeth \Agimel \Adaleth \AAdaleth \Ahe E z w H h T y Y \AAhe \Azayin \Avav \Aheth \AAheth \Ateth \Ayod \AAyod k K l L m n o O \Akaph \AAkaph \Alamed \AAlamed \Amem \Anun \Aayin \AAayin s p P x X q Q r \Asamekh \Ape \AApe \Asade \AAsade \Aqoph \AAqoph \Aresh R S v V t \AAresh \Ashin \Ahelmet \AAhelmet \Atav The protosem package defines abbreviated control sequences for each of the above.g. See the protosem documentation for more information.

g.Table 271: hieroglf Hieroglyphics A a B b c C D d ¸ e E f F G g h H \HA \Ha \HB \Hb \Hc \HC \HD \Hd \Hdual \He \HE \Hf \HF \HG \Hg \Hh \HH I i ˝ ˆ ¨ ˜ J j k K L l m M ˇ ´ N \HI \Hi \Hibl \Hibp \Hibs \Hibw \HJ \Hj \Hk \HK \HL \Hl \Hm \HM \Hman \Hms \HN n O o p P ˙ + Q q ? R r s S ¯ / ˚ \Hn \HO \Ho \Hp \HP \Hplural \Hplus \HQ \Hq \Hquery \HR \Hr \Hs \HS \Hscribe \Hslash \Hsv T t ˘ U u V v | w W X x Y y z Z \HT \Ht \Htongue \HU \Hu \HV \Hv \Hvbar \Hw \HW \HX \Hx \HY \Hy \Hz \HZ | 2 \Hone \Hten 3 4 \Hhundred \Hthousand 5 6 \HXthousand \HCthousand 7 \Hmillion The hieroglf package defines alternate control sequences and single-letter shortcuts for each of the above which can be used within the argument to the \textpmhg command (e.. Table 272: linearA Linear A Script \LinearAI \LinearAII \LinearAIII \LinearAIV \LinearAV \LinearAVI \LinearAVII \LinearAVIII \LinearAIX \LinearAX \LinearAXI \LinearAXII \LinearAXIII \LinearAXCIX \LinearAC \LinearACI \LinearACII \LinearACIII \LinearACIV \LinearACV \LinearACVI \LinearACVII \LinearACVIII \LinearACIX \LinearACX \LinearACXI \LinearACXCVII \LinearACXCVIII \LinearACXCIX \LinearACC \LinearACCI \LinearACCII \LinearACCIII \LinearACCIV \LinearACCV \LinearACCVI \LinearACCVII \LinearACCVIII \LinearACCIX \LinearACCXCV \LinearACCXCVI \LinearACCXCVII \LinearACCXCVIII \LinearACCXCIX \LinearACCC \LinearACCCI \LinearACCCII \LinearACCCIII \LinearACCCIV \LinearACCCV \LinearACCCVI \LinearACCCVII (continued on next page) 82 . “\textpmhg{Pakin}” produces “Pakin”). See the hieroglf documentation for more information.

(continued from previous page) \LinearAXIV \LinearAXV \LinearAXVI \LinearAXVII \LinearAXVIII \LinearAXIX \LinearAXX \LinearAXXI \LinearAXXII \LinearAXXIII \LinearAXXIV \LinearAXXV \LinearAXXVI \LinearAXXVII \LinearAXXVIII \LinearAXXIX \LinearAXXX \LinearAXXXI \LinearAXXXII \LinearAXXXIII \LinearAXXXIV \LinearAXXXV \LinearAXXXVI \LinearAXXXVII \LinearAXXXVIII \LinearAXXXIX \LinearAXL \LinearAXLI \LinearAXLII \LinearAXLIII \LinearAXLIV \LinearAXLV \LinearAXLVI \LinearAXLVII \LinearAXLVIII \LinearAXLIX \LinearAL \LinearALI \LinearALII \LinearALIII \LinearALIV \LinearALV \LinearALVI \LinearALVII \LinearALVIII \LinearALIX \LinearALX \LinearALXI \LinearALXII \LinearALXIII \LinearALXIV \LinearALXV \LinearACXII \LinearACXIII \LinearACXIV \LinearACXV \LinearACXVI \LinearACXVII \LinearACXVIII \LinearACXIX \LinearACXX \LinearACXXI \LinearACXXII \LinearACXXIII \LinearACXXIV \LinearACXXV \LinearACXXVI \LinearACXXVII \LinearACXXVIII \LinearACXXIX \LinearACXXX \LinearACXXXI \LinearACXXXII \LinearACXXXIII \LinearACXXXIV \LinearACXXXV \LinearACXXXVI \LinearACXXXVII \LinearACXXXVIII \LinearACXXXIX \LinearACXL \LinearACXLI \LinearACXLII \LinearACXLIII \LinearACXLIV \LinearACXLV \LinearACXLVI \LinearACXLVII \LinearACXLVIII \LinearACXLIX \LinearACL \LinearACLI \LinearACLII \LinearACLIII \LinearACLIV \LinearACLV \LinearACLVI \LinearACLVII \LinearACLVIII \LinearACLIX \LinearACLX \LinearACLXI \LinearACLXII \LinearACLXIII \LinearACCX \LinearACCXI \LinearACCXII \LinearACCXIII \LinearACCXIV \LinearACCXV \LinearACCXVI \LinearACCXVII \LinearACCXVIII \LinearACCXIX \LinearACCXX \LinearACCXXI \LinearACCXXII \LinearACCXXIII \LinearACCXXIV \LinearACCXXV \LinearACCXXVI \LinearACCXXVII \LinearACCXXVIII \LinearACCXXIX \LinearACCXXX \LinearACCXXXI \LinearACCXXXII \LinearACCXXXIII \LinearACCXXXIV \LinearACCXXXV \LinearACCXXXVI \LinearACCXXXVII \LinearACCXXXVIII \LinearACCXXXIX \LinearACCXL \LinearACCXLI \LinearACCXLII \LinearACCXLIII \LinearACCXLIV \LinearACCXLV \LinearACCXLVI \LinearACCXLVII \LinearACCXLVIII \LinearACCXLIX \LinearACCL \LinearACCLI \LinearACCLII \LinearACCLIII \LinearACCLIV \LinearACCLV \LinearACCLVI \LinearACCLVII \LinearACCLVIII \LinearACCLIX \LinearACCLX \LinearACCLXI \LinearACCCVIII \LinearACCCIX \LinearACCCX \LinearACCCXI \LinearACCCXII \LinearACCCXIII \LinearACCCXIV \LinearACCCXV \LinearACCCXVI \LinearACCCXVII \LinearACCCXVIII \LinearACCCXIX \LinearACCCXX \LinearACCCXXI \LinearACCCXXII \LinearACCCXXIII \LinearACCCXXIV \LinearACCCXXV \LinearACCCXXVI \LinearACCCXXVII \LinearACCCXXVIII \LinearACCCXXIX \LinearACCCXXX \LinearACCCXXXI \LinearACCCXXXII \LinearACCCXXXIII \LinearACCCXXXIV \LinearACCCXXXV \LinearACCCXXXVI \LinearACCCXXXVII \LinearACCCXXXVIII \LinearACCCXXXIX \LinearACCCXL \LinearACCCXLI \LinearACCCXLII \LinearACCCXLIII \LinearACCCXLIV \LinearACCCXLV \LinearACCCXLVI \LinearACCCXLVII \LinearACCCXLVIII \LinearACCCXLIX \LinearACCCL \LinearACCCLI \LinearACCCLII \LinearACCCLIII \LinearACCCLIV \LinearACCCLV \LinearACCCLVI \LinearACCCLVII \LinearACCCLVIII \LinearACCCLIX (continued on next page) 83 .

(continued from previous page) \LinearALXVI \LinearALXVII \LinearALXVIII \LinearALXIX \LinearALXX \LinearALXXI \LinearALXXII \LinearALXXIII \LinearALXXIV \LinearALXXV \LinearALXXVI \LinearALXXVII \LinearALXXVIII \LinearALXXIX \LinearALXXX \LinearALXXXI \LinearALXXXII \LinearALXXXIII \LinearALXXXIV \LinearALXXXV \LinearALXXXVI \LinearALXXXVII \LinearALXXXVIII \LinearALXXXIX \LinearALXXXX \LinearAXCI \LinearAXCII \LinearAXCIII \LinearAXCIV \LinearAXCV \LinearAXCVI \LinearAXCVII \LinearAXCVIII \LinearACLXIV \LinearACLXV \LinearACLXVI \LinearACLXVII \LinearACLXVIII \LinearACLXIX \LinearACLXX \LinearACLXXI \LinearACLXXII \LinearACLXXIII \LinearACLXXIV \LinearACLXXV \LinearACLXXVI \LinearACLXXVII \LinearACLXXVIII \LinearACLXXIX \LinearACLXXX \LinearACLXXXI \LinearACLXXXII \LinearACLXXXIII \LinearACLXXXIV \LinearACLXXXV \LinearACLXXXVI \LinearACLXXXVII \LinearACLXXXVIII \LinearACLXXXIX \LinearACLXXXX \LinearACXCI \LinearACXCII \LinearACXCIII \LinearACXCIV \LinearACXCV \LinearACXCVI \LinearACCLXII \LinearACCLXIII \LinearACCLXIV \LinearACCLXV \LinearACCLXVI \LinearACCLXVII \LinearACCLXVIII \LinearACCLXIX \LinearACCLXX \LinearACCLXXI \LinearACCLXXII \LinearACCLXXIII \LinearACCLXXIV \LinearACCLXXV \LinearACCLXXVI \LinearACCLXXVII \LinearACCLXXVIII \LinearACCLXXIX \LinearACCLXXX \LinearACCLXXXI \LinearACCLXXXII \LinearACCLXXXIII \LinearACCLXXXIV \LinearACCLXXXV \LinearACCLXXXVI \LinearACCLXXXVII \LinearACCLXXXVIII \LinearACCLXXXIX \LinearACCLXXXX \LinearACCXCI \LinearACCXCII \LinearACCXCIII \LinearACCXCIV \LinearACCCLX \LinearACCCLXI \LinearACCCLXII \LinearACCCLXIII \LinearACCCLXIV \LinearACCCLXV \LinearACCCLXVI \LinearACCCLXVII \LinearACCCLXVIII \LinearACCCLXIX \LinearACCCLXX \LinearACCCLXXI \LinearACCCLXXII \LinearACCCLXXIII \LinearACCCLXXIV \LinearACCCLXXV \LinearACCCLXXVI \LinearACCCLXXVII \LinearACCCLXXVIII \LinearACCCLXXIX \LinearACCCLXXX \LinearACCCLXXXI \LinearACCCLXXXII \LinearACCCLXXXIII \LinearACCCLXXXIV \LinearACCCLXXXV \LinearACCCLXXXVI \LinearACCCLXXXVII \LinearACCCLXXXVIII \LinearACCCLXXXIX 84 .

85 . for example. Table 274: linearb Linear B Numerals ´ ˆ ˜ ¨ ˝ ˚ \BNi \BNii \BNiii \BNiv \BNv \BNvi ˇ ˘ ¯ ˙ ¸ ˛ \BNvii \BNviii \BNix \BNx \BNxx \BNxxx ‚ ‹ › “ ” „ \BNxl \BNl \BNlx \BNlxx \BNlxxx \BNxc « » – — ‌ ‰ \BNc \BNcc \BNccc \BNcd \BNd \BNdc ı ȷ ff fi \BNdcc \BNdccc \BNcm \BNm These symbols must appear either within the argument to \textlinb or following the \linbfamily font-selection command within a scope. See the linearb documentation for more information. Singlecharacter shortcuts are also supported: Both “\textlinb{\Bpa\Bki\Bna}” and “\textlinb{pcn}” produce “pcn”. < = d D f g x > ? e i \Ba \Baii \Baiii \Bau \Bda \Bde \Bdi \Bdo \Bdu \Bdwe \Bdwo \Be \Bi j J b L k K c h v m M y A \Bja \Bje \Bjo \Bju \Bka \Bke \Bki \Bko \Bku \Bma \Bme \Bmi \Bmo B n N C E F @ o p [ P G H \Bmu \Bna \Bne \Bni \Bno \Bnu \Bnwa \Bo \Bpa \Bpaiii \Bpe \Bpi \Bpo ] I \ q Q X 8 r ^ _ R O U \Bpte \Bpu \Bpuii \Bqa \Bqe \Bqi \Bqo \Bra \Braii \Braiii \Bre \Bri \Bro ‘ V s S Y 1 2 { | t } T 3 \Broii \Bru \Bsa \Bse \Bsi \Bso \Bsu \Bswa \Bswi \Bta \Btaii \Bte \Bti 4 5 ~ u w W 6 7 z Z 9 \Bto \Btu \Btwo \Bu \Bwa \Bwe \Bwi \Bwo \Bza \Bze \Bzo These symbols must appear either within the argument to \textlinb or following the \linbfamily font-selection command within a scope.Table 273: linearb Linear B Basic and Optional Letters a . Table 275: linearb Linear B Weights and Measures Ď Ĺ \BPtalent \BPvola Ľ Ł \BPvolb \BPvolcd Ń Ă \BPvolcf \BPwta Ą Ć \BPwtb \BPwtc Č \BPwtd These symbols must appear either within the argument to \textlinb or following the \linbfamily font-selection command within a scope.

86 . Table 277: linearb Unidentified Linear B Symbols fl ffi ffl \BUi \BUii \BUiii ␣ ! " \BUiv \BUv \BUvi # $ % \BUvii \BUviii \BUix & ’ ­ \BUx \BUxi \BUxii ­ \Btwe These symbols must appear either within the argument to \textlinb or following the \linbfamily font-selection command within a scope. Table 278: cypriot Cypriot Letters a e g i j b k K c h \Ca \Ce \Cga \Ci \Cja \Cjo \Cka \Cke \Cki \Cko v l L d f q m M y A \Cku \Cla \Cle \Cli \Clo \Clu \Cma \Cme \Cmi \Cmo B n N C E F o p P G \Cmu \Cna \Cne \Cni \Cno \Cnu \Co \Cpa \Cpe \Cpi H I r R O U V s S Y \Cpo \Cpu \Cra \Cre \Cri \Cro \Cru \Csa \Cse \Csi 1 2 t T 3 4 5 u w W \Cso \Csu \Cta \Cte \Cti \Cto \Ctu \Cu \Cwa \Cwe 6 7 x X j b g 9 \Cwi \Cwo \Cxa \Cxe \Cya \Cyo \Cza \Czo These symbols must appear either within the argument to \textcypr or following the \cyprfamily font-selection command within a scope. Singlecharacter shortcuts are also supported: Both “\textcypr{\Cpa\Cki\Cna}” and “\textcypr{pcn}” produce “pcn”. See the cypriot documentation for more information. for example.Table 276: linearb Linear B Ideograms Ž ij Ş ť ľ Ű ň đ § ÿ \BPamphora \BParrow \BPbarley \BPbilly \BPboar \BPbronze \BPbull \BPcauldroni \BPcauldronii \BPchariot ź Ř ŋ Ÿ š ě ş Ź Ů ď \BPchassis \BPcloth \BPcow \BPcup \BPewe \BPfoal \BPgoat \BPgoblet \BPgold \BPhorse ă ț Ț ń ĺ ś ř ł ¡ ż \BPman \BPnanny \BPolive \BPox \BPpig \BPram \BPsheep \BPsow \BPspear \BPsword Š ž Ť Ż IJ İ ą Ś \BPwheat \BPwheel \BPwine \BPwineiih \BPwineiiih \BPwineivh \BPwoman \BPwool These symbols must appear either within the argument to \textlinb or following the \linbfamily font-selection command within a scope.

these symbols do not require teubner. Table 280: teubner Archaic Greek Letters and Greek Numerals Ϙ ϙ ϝ ∗ \Coppa† \coppa† \digamma∗. regardless of package-loading order.‡ Ϝ ϟ Ϡ \Digamma∗ \koppa∗ \Sampi ϡ Ϛ ϛ \sampi∗ \Stigma \stigma∗ ϛ \varstigma Technically. it is sufficient to load the babel package with the greek option (upon which teubner depends)—but use \qoppa for \koppa and \ddigamma for \digamma. See the sarabian documentation for more information. If both teubner and amssymb are loaded. for example. For compatibility with other naming conventions teubner defines \Koppa as a synonym for \Coppa and \varcoppa as a synonym for \coppa. Singlecharacter shortcuts are also supported: Both “\textsarab{\SAb\SAk\SAn}” and “\textsarab{bkn}” produce “bkn”. † ‡ 87 . teubner’s \digamma replaces amssymb’s \digamma.Table 279: sarabian South Arabian Letters a b g d h w \SAa \SAb \SAg \SAd \SAh \SAw z H T y k l \SAz \SAhd \SAtd \SAy \SAk \SAl m n s f ‘ o \SAm \SAn \SAs \SAf \SAlq \SAo x q r S t I \SAsd \SAq \SAr \SAsv \SAt \SAhu D J G Z X B \SAdb \SAtb \SAga \SAzd \SAsa \SAdd These symbols must appear either within the argument to \textsarab or following the \sarabfamily font-selection command within a scope.

Table 281: textcomp Genealogical Symbols \textborn \textdied \textdivorced \textleaf \textmarried Table 282: wasysym General Symbols \ataribox \bell \blacksmiley \Bowtie \brokenvert \checked \clock \diameter \DOWNarrow \frownie \invdiameter \kreuz \LEFTarrow \lightning \phone \pointer \recorder \RIGHTarrow ☼ ◊ \smiley \sun \UParrow \wasylozenge Table 283: wasysym Circles \CIRCLE \Circle \LEFTCIRCLE \LEFTcircle \Leftcircle \RIGHTCIRCLE \RIGHTcircle \Rightcircle \leftturn \rightturn Table 284: wasysym Musical Symbols \eighthnote \halfnote \twonotes \fullnote \quarternote See also \flat.g.. others represent motley assortments of whatever the font designer felt like drawing. Table 285: arev Musical Symbols \quarternote ♪ \eighthnote \sixteenthnote See also \flat. \sharp. musical notes). \sharp.7 Other symbols The following are all the symbols that didn’t fit neatly or unambiguously into any of the previous sections. and \natural (Table 201 on page 65). (Do weather symbols belong under “Science and technology”? Should dice be considered “mathematics”?) While some of the tables contain clearly related groups of symbols (e. and \natural (Table 201 on page 65). 88 .

Aa \Ferli{A}\Ferli{a}∗ . “\Takt{12}{8}” produces “ 12 ”.X.. Aa \Fermi{A}\Fermi{a} ll \Kr{A}\Kr{a} A a ∗ // Aa A a \Ohne{A}\Ohne{a}∗ \Umd{A}\Umd{a}∗ These symbols take an optional argument which shifts the accent either horizontally or vertically (depending on the command) by the given distance. For example.c..d. correspondingly. In addition to the accents shown above. As 8 two special cases.. and \textreversedvideodbend. \Takt takes two arguments and composes them into a musical time signature. “\Takt{c}{0}” produces “S ” and “\Takt{c}{1}” produces “R ”. Table 288: manfnt Dangerous Bend Symbols \dbend \lhdbend \reversedvideodbend Note that these symbols descend far beneath the baseline. \HH is a special accent command which accepts five period-separated characters and typesets them such that b c “\HH.X...a. \textlhdbend. manfnt also defines nondescending versions.” produces “X”. Table 289: Miscellaneous manfnt Symbols \manboldkidney \manconcentriccircles \manconcentricdiamond \mancone \mancube \manerrarrow \manfilledquartercircle \manhpennib \manimpossiblecube \mankidney \manlhpenkidney 89 \manpenkidney \manquadrifolium \manquartercircle \manrotatedquadrifolium \manrotatedquartercircle \manstar \mantiltpennib \mantriangledown \mantriangleright \mantriangleup \manvpennib . which it calls.Table 286: harmony Musical Symbols = = ˇ “ˇ “ ˇ=“ =( ˇ “= = ˇ“ ? D D \AAcht \Acht \AchtBL \AchtBR \AcPa \DD D / D \DDohne \Dohne \Ds \DS \Ganz \GaPa / D s s S S ˘“ < ‰ ˇ=“ =) “ =ˇ=“ ˇ= \Halb \HaPa \Pu \Sech \SechBL \SechBl = = ˇ“ = = ˇ “= @ < \SechBR \SechBr \SePa \UB \Vier \ViPa > \VM \Zwdr \ZwPa ˇ “* A ¯ < ˇ“ > The musixtex package must be installed to use harmony.. \textdbend.” produces “Xd”.b. Table 287: harmony Musical Accents . All arguments except the first can be omita ted: “\HH. The musixtex package must be installed to use harmony.

Table 290: marvosym Navigation Symbols · ¸ ¹ \Forward \ForwardToEnd \ForwardToIndex » º ¶ \MoveDown \MoveUp \Rewind ´ µ ½ \RewindToIndex \RewindToStart \ToBottom ¼ \ToTop Table 291: marvosym Laundry Symbols Ø Ó Õ Ë « ¾ ¿ ¬ Ý \AtForty \AtNinetyFive \AtSixty \Bleech \CleaningA \CleaningF \CleaningFF \CleaningP \CleaningPP \Dontwash Ü ¯ ° ± Ì ¨ ²  × Ù \Handwash \IroningI \IroningII \IroningIII \NoBleech \NoChemicalCleaning \NoIroning \NoTumbler \ShortFifty \ShortForty Ô Ö Û Ú  ‰ Š ‹ \ShortNinetyFive \ShortSixty \ShortThirty \SpecialForty \Tumbler \WashCotton \WashSynthetics \WashWool Table 292: marvosym Information Symbols ® V U K X \Bicycle \Checkedbox \Clocklogo \Coffeecup \Crossedbox o x I i y \Football \Gentsroom \Industry \Info \Ladiesroom Z w b \Pointinghand \Wheelchair \Writinghand Table 293: Other marvosym Symbols ˆ ý ¥ ‡ ª \Ankh \Bat \Bouquet \Celtcross \CircledA † F f § Ž \Cross \FHBOlogo \FHBOLOGO \Frowny \FullFHBO Œ ÿ m @ : \Heart \MartinVogel \Mundus \MVAt \MVRightarrow © þ Y \Smiley \Womanface \Yinyang Table 294: Miscellaneous universa Symbols ¤ \bauforms £ \bauhead ¡ ¢  Table 295: Miscellaneous universal Symbols \baudash \bauequal \bauface „    \bauforms \bauhead \bauplus ©  ¦ \bauquarter \bauquestion \bauwindow ƒ \varQ 90 .

\Thermo{6} produce thermometers that are between 0/6 and 6/6 full of mercury: ¥ ¦ § ¨ ©   Similarly. “\showclock{5}{40}” produces “ ”. a given angle (in degrees). \showclock{ hours }{ minutes } outputs a clock displaying the corresponding time.Table 296: Miscellaneous fourier Symbols \bomb \danger ∗ \grimace \noway \textthing∗ \textxswdown∗ \textxswup∗ fourier defines math-mode aliases for a few of the preceding symbols: \thething (“ ”). and a given strength in km/h (0– 100). and \wind{4}{0}{100} produces “¤ X ”. and \xswordsdown (“ ”). For instance. For example. . hours must be an integer from 0 to 11. Table 297: ifsym Weather Symbols ' 2 3 5 4  \Cloud \FilledCloud \FilledRainCloud \FilledSunCloud \FilledWeakRainCloud \Fog #  &  ! ( \Hail \HalfSun \Lightning \NoSun \Rain \RainCloud $ % 1  0 \Sleet \Snow \SnowCloud \Sun \SunCloud \ThinFog " ) 6 \WeakRain \WeakRainCloud \FilledSnowCloud In addition. \wind{2}{0}{0} produces “¢ H ”. \Thermo{0}. and minutes must be an integer multiple of 5 from 0 to 55. \wind{ sun }{ angle }{ strength } will draw wind symbols with a given amount of sun (0–4).       ™ ˜ Table 298: ifsym Alpine Symbols \SummitSign \StoneMan \Hut \FilledHut \Village ! " # $ \Summit \Mountain \IceMountain \VarMountain \VarIceMountain % & ' ) ( \SurveySign \Joch \Flag \VarFlag \Tent 1 0 \HalfFilledHut \VarSummit \Interval \StopWatchEnd — – Table 299: ifsym Clocks \StopWatchStart \Taschenuhr › ” \VarClock \VarTaschenuhr š \Wecker ifsym also exports a \showclock macro. \xswordsup (“ ”). . \wind{0}{0}{0} produces “  H ”. D 91 .

92 For example. Clock symbols are composed from a font of clock-face fragments using one of four values for \ClockStyle and either \ClockFrametrue or \ClockFrametrue as illustrated above. For example. the clocks in the above table were produced with \clock{15}{41}. Table 302: epsdice Dice \epsdice{1} \epsdice{2} \epsdice{3} \epsdice{4} \epsdice{5} \epsdice{6} Table 303: hhcount Dice \fcdice{1} \fcdice{2} \fcdice{3} \fcdice{4} \fcdice{5} \fcdice{6} The \fcdice command accepts values larger than 6. . “\fcdice{47}” produces “ ”. See the clock documentation for more information. For example. Table 304: hhcount Tally Markers \fcscore{1} \fcscore{2} \fcscore{3} \fcscore{4} \fcscore{5} The \fcscore command accepts values larger than 5.¢   ¥ ¦ X X Table 300: Other ifsym Symbols \FilledSectioningDiamond \Fire \Irritant \Cube{1} \Cube{2} \StrokeOne \StrokeTwo   ¤ £ § ¨ XX XX \Letter \PaperLandscape \PaperPortrait \Cube{3} \Cube{4} \StrokeThree \StrokeFour  ¡ @ ©  Y \Radiation \SectioningDiamond \Telephone \Cube{5} \Cube{6} \StrokeFive Table 301: clock Clocks \ClockStyle 0 1 2 3 \ClockFramefalse i ’ 1 i ’ 2 i ’ 3 i ’ \ClockFrametrue 0 i ’ 0 1 i ’ 0 2 i ’ 0 3 i ’ The clock package provides a \clock command to typeset an arbitrary time on an analog clock (and \clocktime to typeset the document’s build time). “\fcscore{47}” produces “ ”.

Table 305: skull Symbols A \skull Table 306: Non-Mathematical mathabx Symbols y \rip Table 307: skak Chess Informator Symbols g i b a e X O I + RR P l n V t G \bbetter \bdecisive \betteris \bishoppair \bupperhand \capturesymbol \castlingchar \castlinghyphen \centre \checksymbol \chesscomment \chessetc \chesssee \compensation \counterplay \devadvantage \diagonal d L j H O O-O-O x y m S U N F o r M s \doublepawns \ending \equal \file \kside \longcastling \markera \markerb \mate \morepawns \moreroom \novelty \onlymove \opposbishops \passedpawn \qside \samebishops q O-O T k u R f h J v A E C w c D \seppawns \shortcastling \timelimit \unclear \unitedpawns \various \wbetter \wdecisive \weakpt \with \withattack \withidea \withinit \without \wupperhand \zugzwang 93 .

. 94 . See the skak documentation for more information. ¡¢£ ™ ¡¢£ The igo package is intended to typeset Go boards (goban). . . . respectively.Table 308: skak Chess Pieces and Chessboard Squares a b Z j k m n o p l q \BlackBishopOnBlack \BlackBishopOnWhite \BlackEmptySquare \BlackKingOnBlack \BlackKingOnWhite \BlackKnightOnBlack \BlackKnightOnWhite \BlackPawnOnBlack \BlackPawnOnWhite \BlackQueenOnBlack \BlackQueenOnWhite s r B K N p Q R \BlackRookOnBlack \BlackRookOnWhite \symbishop \symking \symknight \sympawn \symqueen \symrook \WhiteBishopOnBlack \WhiteBishopOnWhite \WhiteEmptySquare A B 0 J K M N O P L Q S R \WhiteKingOnBlack \WhiteKingOnWhite \WhiteKnightOnBlack \WhiteKnightOnWhite \WhitePawnOnBlack \WhitePawnOnWhite \WhiteQueenOnBlack \WhiteQueenOnWhite \WhiteRookOnBlack \WhiteRookOnWhite The skak package also provides commands for drawing complete chessboards. . . } |   ~  ™ Table 309: igo Go Stones \blackstone[\igocircle] \blackstone[\igocross] \blackstone[\igonone] \blackstone[\igosquare] \blackstone[\igotriangle] } |   ~  \whitestone[\igocircle] \whitestone[\igocross] \whitestone[\igonone] \whitestone[\igosquare] \whitestone[\igotriangle] In addition to the symbols shown above. and . See the igo documentation for more information. . . . . . igo’s \blackstone and \whitestone commands accept numbers from 1 to 99 and display them circled as .

For example. and a \dBar into “λθλθλ||λββλββλ”.Table 310: metre Metrical Symbols × ´ ˘ ˘ ´ ˘ ˘ ´ ˘ ˘ ˘ ˘ ´ ˘ ˘ ˘ ˘ ˘ ˘ ˘ ´ ˘ ˘ ¯ ¯ × \a \B \b \Bb \BB \bb \bB \bba \bbb \BBm ˘ ˘ ¯´ ¯ ˘ ˘ ¯ ¯ ´ ˘ ˘ ¯ ¯ ˘ ˘ ¯ ¯ ˘ ¯ ˘˘ ˘ ¯¯ ¯ ˘ ¯ ´ ˘ ¯ \bBm \bbm \Bbm \bbmb \bbmx \bm \Bm \c \C \Cc ¯ ´ ¯ ¯ ´ ¯ ˘ ¯ ˘ ´ ¯ ¯ ˘ ˘ ¯´ ¯ ˘ ˘ ¯ ¯ ˘ ˘ × \cc \Ccc \m \M \ma \Mb \mb \mBb \mbB \mbb ´ ¯ ¯ ˘ ˘ ¯¯ ¯ ˘˘ ˘ ¯ ◦◦ ˙ ˙ ¯ ˙ ˙ ˙ ˙ ˙˙ ¯˙ ˙ ˙˙ ˙ ˙ \Mbb \mbbx \oo \p \pm \pp \Pp \ppm \ppp \Ppp ˙ ˙˙ ˙ ˙ ˙˙ ˙ ˙ ˙ ˙ ˙ ˙ ∼ ∼ ⊗ \Pppp \pppp \Ppppp \ppppp \ps \pxp \Pxp \R \r \T ⊗ ˙ ¯ ˙ ¯ ˙˙ ˙˙ \t \tsbm \tsmb \tsmm \vppm \vpppm \x The preceding symbols are valid only within the argument to the metre command. four \brevises. Table 311: metre Small and Large Metrical Symbols ÷ < · < · ⊃ × ··· · ∧ > · > · · · ∼ ⊗ ⊕ \anaclasis \antidiple \antidiple* \antisigma \asteriscus \catalexis \diple \diple* \obelus \obelus* \respondens \terminus \terminus* ÷ < · < · × ··· · ∧ ⊃ > · > · · · ∼ ⊗ ⊕ \Anaclasis \Antidiple \Antidiple* \Antisigma \Asteriscus \Catalexis \Diple \Diple* \Obelus \Obelus* \Respondens \Terminus \Terminus* Table 312: teubner Metrical Symbols Ι Θ Κ Ξ Ζ Ψ θ \aeolicbii \aeolicbiii \aeolicbiv \anceps \ancepsdbrevis \banceps \barbbrevis ι ς β γ \barbrevis \bbrevis \brevis \catal \corona \coronainv \hiatus η λ ε δ φ κ \ipercatal \longa \ubarbbrevis \ubarbrevis \ubarsbrevis \ubrevislonga H The teubner package provides a \newmetrics command that helps users combine the preceding symbols as well as other teubner symbols. See the teubner documentation for more information. 95 . the predefined \pentam symbol uses \newmetrics to juxtapose six \longas. two \barbbrevises.

See A METAFONT of ‘Simpsons’ characters [Che97] for more information. each of the above can be prefixed with \Left to make the character face left instead of right:    § \Left\Bart 96 . Also.Table 313: dictsym Dictionary Symbols a G A B C \dsaeronautical \dsagricultural \dsarchitectural \dsbiological \dschemical c H J L M \dscommercial \dsheraldical \dsjuridical \dsliterary \dsmathematical m X R T \dsmedical \dsmilitary \dsrailways \dstechnical Table 314: simpsons Characters from The Simpsons    ¦     \Bart    ¤    ¢ \Homer        ¨ \Maggie ¡ \SNPP \Burns \Lisa \Marge The location of the characters’ pupils can be controlled with the \Goofy command.

contains the set of box-drawing symbols (sides.Table 315: pmboxdraw Box-Drawing Symbols \textblock \textdkshade \textdnblock \textlfblock \textltshade \textrtblock \textSFi \textSFii \textSFiii \textSFiv \textSFix \textSFl \textSFli \textSFlii \textSFliii \textSFliv \textSFv \textSFvi \textSFvii \textSFviii \textSFx \textSFxi \textSFxix \textSFxl \textSFxli \textSFxlii \textSFxliii \textSFxliv \textSFxlix \textSFxlv \textSFxlvi \textSFxlvii \textSFxlviii \textSFxx \textSFxxi \textSFxxii \textSFxxiii \textSFxxiv \textSFxxv \textSFxxvi \textSFxxvii \textSFxxviii \textSFxxxix \textSFxxxvi \textSFxxxvii \textSFxxxviii \textshade \textupblock Code Page 437 (CP437). These symbols also appear in the Unicode Box Drawing and Block Element tables. The pmboxdraw package draws the CP437 box-drawing symbols using TEX rules (specifically. and intersections of single. corners.and double-ruled boxes) shown above in character positions 176–223. See the pmboxdraw documentation for more information. Table 316: staves Magical Staves \staveI \staveII \staveIII \staveIV \staveV \staveVI \staveVII \staveVIII \staveIX \staveX \staveXI \staveXXIV \staveXXV \staveXXVI \staveXXVII \staveXXVIII \staveXXIX \staveXXX \staveXXXI \staveXXXII \staveXXXIII \staveXXXIV \staveXLVII \staveXLVIII \staveXLIX \staveL \staveLI \staveLII \staveLIII \staveLIV \staveLV \staveLVI \staveLVII (continued on next page) 97 . which was first utilized by the original IBM PC. \vrule) instead of with a font and thereby provides the ability to alter both rule width and the separation between rules.

com/25979m).(continued from previous page) \staveXII \staveXIII \staveXIV \staveXV \staveXVI \staveXVII \staveXVIII \staveXIX \staveXX \staveXXI \staveXXII \staveXXIII \staveXXXV \staveXXXVI \staveXXXVII \staveXXXVIII \staveXXXIX \staveXL \staveXLI \staveXLII \staveXLIII \staveXLIV \staveXLV \staveXLVI \staveLVIII \staveLIX \staveLX \staveLXI \staveLXII \staveLXIII \staveLXIV \staveLXV \staveLXVI \staveLXVII \staveLXVIII The meanings of these symbols are described on the Web site for the Museum of Icelandic Sorcery and Witchcraft at http://www. \staveL (“ ”) is intended to ward off ghosts and evil spirits.is/ index. Table 317: pigpen Cipher Symbols A B C D E F G H I {\pigpenfont {\pigpenfont {\pigpenfont {\pigpenfont {\pigpenfont {\pigpenfont {\pigpenfont {\pigpenfont {\pigpenfont A} B} C} D} E} F} G} H} I} J K L M N O P Q R {\pigpenfont {\pigpenfont {\pigpenfont {\pigpenfont {\pigpenfont {\pigpenfont {\pigpenfont {\pigpenfont {\pigpenfont J} K} L} M} N} O} P} Q} R} S T U V W X Y Z {\pigpenfont {\pigpenfont {\pigpenfont {\pigpenfont {\pigpenfont {\pigpenfont {\pigpenfont {\pigpenfont S} T} U} V} W} X} Y} Z} { Table 318: C in h A2e Phases of the Moon \MoonPha{1} | \MoonPha{2} } \MoonPha{3} ~ \MoonPha{4}  < Table 319: Other C in h A2e Symbols \Greenpoint \Info # > \Postbox \Request 98 @ \Telephone . For example.php?option=com content&task=category&sectionid=5&id=18&Itemid= 60 (TinyURL: http://tinyurl.galdrasyning.

in the words of its author. if you tell METAFONT to proceed past those errors (e..g.The METAFONT code that implements the recycling symbols shown above is. “awful code [that] doesn’t even put the logo in a box (properly)”. The commands listed above should be used within a group (e. Fortunately.. A A \recycle 99 Table 320: recycle Recycling Symbols A \Recycle \RECYCLE . Expect to receive “Inconsistent equation (off by number )” errors from METAFONT.g. by pressing Enter after each one or by specifying “-interaction=nonstopmode” on the METAFONT command line) it should produce a valid font. “{\recycle}”) because they exhibit the side effect of changing the font to the recycle font.

all of the symbols defined by latexsym. it draws attention to symbol names used by multiple packages. However.3 Where can I find the symbol for .g. and L TEX 2ε itself. it lists some statistics about this document itself. rename the conflicting symbols. 8. merely reset the default font families back to their original values after loading one of those packages: \renewcommand\rmdefault{cmr} \renewcommand\sfdefault{cmss} \renewcommand\ttdefault{cmtt} 8. pxfonts. it comments on the spacing surrounding symbols in math mode.tfm file) in terms of up to five segments. two symbols made to overlap by backspacing a fixed distance) but do not work with every TEX backend and will produce jagged symbols when scaling a bitmapped font.8 Additional Information Unlike the previous sections of this document. as evidenced by the existence of Table 321.1 Symbol Name Clashes Unfortunately. After that. Rather. Using multiple symbols with the same name in the same document—or even merely loading conflicting symbol packages—can be tricky but. The txfonts. Because the symbols shown belong to the Computer Modern family. and then load the second package. middle. Table 322 on page 102 illustrates what “compatible” means in this context. Then. and—for A contrast—in a large size achieved by changing the font size using L TEX 2ε ’s \fontsize command. txfonts and pxfonts redefine a huge number of symbols—essentially. L TEX will either output an error message or replace an earlier-defined symbol with a later-defined symbol. in an even larger size achieved using \left/\right. they appear in more than one package. And finally. Depending A on how the symbols are defined in each package. showing how to enter all of A the standard ASCII/Latin 1 symbols in L TEX. All variable-sized delimiters are defined (by the corresponding . it provides some guidelines for finding symbols and gives some examples regarding how to construct missing symbols out of existing ones. and mathabx conflicts are not listed in Table 321 because they are designed to be compatible with the symbols they replace. and \Bigg sizes. Also. Next. the type1cm package needs to be loaded to support font sizes larger than 24. The top-middle and middle-bottom segments (which are constrained to be the same character) are repeated as many times as necessary to achieve the desired height. a number of symbol names are not unique. Section 8 does not contain new symbol tables. ? If you can’t find some symbol you’re looking for in this document. A Examine the L TEX source for this document (symbols. The general procedure is to load the first package. To use the new txfonts/pxfonts symbols without altering the document’s main font.88 pt. Similarly. not impossible. \scalebox and \resizebox are more robust to poorly composed symbols (e. \bigg. (The graphicx package’s \scalebox or \resizebox commands would produce a similar effect. unlike the symbols enlarged using \big et al. Each variable-sized symbol comes in one or more basic sizes plus a variation comprising both stretchable and nonstretchable segments. \Big. Note that symbols.2 Resizing symbols Mathematical symbols listed in this document as “variable-sized” are designed to stretch vertically. and bottom segments are of a fixed size. . \fontsize is not limited to mathematical delimiters.tex’s \savesymbol and \restoresymbol macros have been extracted into the savesym package. 8.tex) for examples of this and other techniques for handling symbol conflicts. it presents an ASCII and Latin 1 quick-reference guide. A textcomp. as illustrated by Figure 1 on page 102. the various AMS symbol sets. Table 321 on the following page presents a selection of name clashes that appear in this document. which can be downloaded from CTAN. in their \big.) Also. mathabx redefines a vast number of math symbols in an attempt to improve their look.. The top. First. Table 323 on page 102 presents the symbols \} and \uparrow in their default size. it provides A additional help in using the Comprehensive L TEX Symbol List. . or \left/\right. Note how \fontsize makes the symbol wider and thicker. the \fontsize-enlarged symbol is vertically centered relative to correspondingly large text. there are a few possible explanations: 100 . which all use the same math axis regardless of symbol size.

Table 321: Symbol Name Clashes A L TEX 2ε Symbol AMS stmaryrd wasysym mathabx marvosym bbding ifsym dingbat wsuipa ` D S    † Ï B 101 B E Î & \baro \bigtriangledown \bigtriangleup \checkmark \Circle \Cross \ggg \Letter \lightning \Lightning \lll \Square \Sun \TriangleDown \TriangleUp d À f o n H  Q I .

Table 322: Example of a Benign Name Clash Symbol R \textrecipe Default (Computer Modern) txfonts (Times Roman) R R Table 323: Sample resized delimiters Symbol Default size \big \Big \bigg \Bigg \left / \right \fontsize ™ \} }                  \uparrow ↑                       } ↑                                            −→  top top-middle (extensible) middle   middle-bottom (extensible) bottom Figure 1: Implementation of variable-sized delimiters 102 .

but there is no L TEX binding for it. For example. With some simple pattern-matching. The L TEX 2ε source file fontdef. then \textit{\riota} will yield a backend-independent “  ”. For instance. the character can often be entered symbolically. which may be useful for representing a carriage return. 5 pifont ι For example. one can easily define a backward \models sign (“=|”): \def\ismodeledby{=\joinrel\mathrel|} In general. In fact. While a sha can be defined numerically as “{\fontencoding{OT2}\selectfont\char88}” it may be more intuitive to use the OT2 font encoding’s “SH” ligature: “{\fontencoding{OT2}\selectfont SH}”. horizontal lines (“=”. For example. please send me e-mail at the address listed on the title page.org/wiki/Irony mark). Of course. and lightning bolts in fonts designed by German speakers may have “blitz” in their names as in the ulsy package. these effects can be achieved with the graphicx (or graphics) package’s \reflectbox and \rotatebox macros. • The symbol is defined by some package that I overlooked (or deemed unimportant).t. 6 As an example. For example. \def is the TEX primitive upon A which L TEX’s \newcommand is based. \models (see Table 67 on page 30) is defined in that file with: \def\models{\mathrel|\joinrel=} where \mathrel and \joinrel are used to control the horizontal spacing. Xdvi ignores both \reflectbox and \rotatebox. The disadvantage of the graphicx/graphics approach is that not every TEX backend handles graphical transformations. As a few examples. all is not lost. “\Pisymbol{psy}{191}” produces “↵”. To produce an A A unnamed symbol. L TEX defines \hbar (“ ”) as a “¯” character (\mathchar’26) followed by a backspace of 9 math units (\mkern-9mu). \char is not strictly necesssary.”. the symbol for an impulse train or Tate-Shafarevich group (“ ”) is actually an uppercase sha in the Cyrillic alphabet. As a last resort.wikipedia. For instance. a plus sign with a circle around it (“exclusive or” to computer engineers) is “\oplus”. 7 More common symbols for representing “such that” include “|”. (Cyrillic is supported by the OT2 font encoding. tipa’s \textrevepsilon (“3”) or wsuipa’s \revepsilon (“%”) may be used to express the mathematical notion of “such that” in a cleaner manner than with \reflectbox or \rotatebox.6 Far better is to find a suitable font that contains the desired symbol in the correct orientation. For example. the PostScript Symbol font contains a “↵” symbol. if the phonetic package is available. http://en. a symbol exists in a font. but there is no package (as far as I know) for accessing that symbol.tex is for a reversed or rotated version of an existing symbol. arrows/harpoons. and “s. X Reflecting and rotating existing symbols A common request on comp. and “\Relbar”). the ifsym command to draw dice is “\Cube”.text. “:”. A Even in the last case. you need to switch to the font explicitly with L TEX 2ε ’s low-level font commands [L T00] 5 and use TEX’s primitive \char command [Knu86a] to request a specific character number in the font.7 Joining and overlapping existing symbols A Symbols that do not exist in any font can sometimes be fabricated out of existing symbols. 103 . “\relbar”. “-”. followed by the letter “h”: \def\hbar{{\mathchar’26\mkern-9muh}} defines a convenient \Pisymbol command for accessing symbols in PostScript fonts by number. Sometimes. and the various mathextension characters can be combined creatively with miscellaneous other characters to produce a variety of A new symbols. The moral of the story is to be creative with synonyms when searching the index. If there’s some A symbol package that you think should be included in the Comprehensive L TEX Symbol List. \textsuperscript{\reflectbox{?}} produces an irony mark (“ ? ”. for instance). • The symbol isn’t defined in any package whatsoever. new symbols can be composed from any set of existing characters.• The symbol isn’t intuitively named. See The TEXbook [Knu86a] for more information on all three of those commands. Similarly.dtx contains a number of such definitions. cf. and \rotatebox[origin=c]{180}{$\iota$} produces the definite-description operator (“ ”).

tex post by Donald Arseneau: ◦ \makeatletter \providecommand\barcirc{\mathpalette\@barred\circ} \def\@barred#1#2{\ooalign{\hfil$#1-$\hfil\cr\hfil$#1#2$\hfil\cr}} \newcommand\stst{^{\protect\barcirc}} \makeatother EX’s \stackrel command is similar but is limited to placing a symbol above a binary relation.text. \barcirc illustrates how to combine symbols using \ooalign.text. ∼ A A related L TEX command.text. \overset{G}{\sim}8 produces “∼” (sometimes used for “equidecomposable with respect to G”). is rendered as “∼”. That is. indivisible symbol.35ex\hbox{$\sim$}}}} The \threesim symbol. There is a TEX primitive called \mathaccent that centers one mathematical symbol atop another. Another TEX primitive that is useful for composing symbols is \vcenter. borrowed from Plain TEX. ]) is made negative to squeeze the asterisks closer together. Without ∼ it. \ooalign vertically overlaps symbols and works both within and outside of math mode. . a macro that defines a standard-state symbol (\stst. which vertically centers three \sim (“∼”) symbols with 0. (Many operators. \threesim would have a full line of vertical spacing between each \sim. it creates a single-column tabular environment with zero vertical distance between rows. Also.) \bbar and \dbar define “¯” and “¯ respectively. Because of \vcenter. The ◦ following example of \ooalign. one can define \dotcup (“∪”)—the composition of a \cup and a \cdot—as follows: \newcommand{\dotcup}{\ensuremath{\mathaccent\cdot\cup}} The catch is that \mathaccent requires the accent to be a “math character”. because it is based directly on TEX’s \ialign primitive. Essentially.tex by * Peter Flynn: \newcommand{\asterism}{\smash{% \raisebox{-. \vcenter is conceptually similar A to “\begin{tabular}{l}” in L TEX but takes a list of vertical material instead of \\-separated rows. However. \offinterlineskip is a macro that disables implicit interline spacing. Note that \dbar requires a greater backward math kern than \bbar. \threesim ∼ aligns properly with other math operators: a ÷ b ∼ c × d. See The TEXbook [Knu86a] for more information. it must be a character in a math font as opposed to a symbol defined in terms of other symbols. a −9 mu kern would have produced the less-attractive “¯” glyph. it vertically centers the result on the math axis.) Enrico Gregorio posted the following symbol definition to comp.5pt}% \begin{tabular}{@{}cc@{}}% \multicolumn2c*\\[-2ex]*&*% \end{tabular}}}} Note how the space between columns (\tabcolsep) and rows (\\[.. “−”). “− ”) as a superscripted 9 Plimsoll line (\barcirc. d The amsmath package provides \overset and \underset commands for placing one symbol respectively G above or below another. such as “+” and “−” are also vertically centered on the math axis. For example.35 x-heights of space between ∼ them. Sometimes an ordinary tabular environment can be co-opted into juxtaposing existing symbols into a new symbol. For · example. with \cr as the row terminator instead of \\). A \ooalign uses TEX’s tabular syntax instead of L TEX’s (i.tex in March 2004 in response to a query about an alternate way to denote equivalence: \newcommand*{\threesim}{% \mathrel{\vcenter{\offinterlineskip \hbox{$\sim$}\vskip-. 9 While 8L T A 104 . .e.We can just as easily define other barred letters: \def\bbar{{\mathchar’26\mkern-9mu b}} \def\dbar{{\mathchar’26\mkern-12mu d}} (The space after the “mu” is optional but is added for clarity. Consider the following definition of \asterism (“**”) from a June 2007 post to comp. b d”. is due to an October 2007 comp.5ex}{% \setlength{\tabcolsep}{-. the stmaryrd package’s \minuso command (Table 46 on page 22) provides a similar glyph (“ ”) as a single. is \ooalign.35ex\hbox{$\sim$}\vskip-.

which. script. etc. as will be discussed in Section 8.4). In addition. the symbol for reduced quadrupole moment (“I”). See slashed’s documentation (located in slashed. However. like \not. For example.sty itself) for a detailed usage description of the \slashed and \declareslashed commands. which is an integral sign with a line through it. This can be declared as follows: \newcommand{\rqm}{{% \declareslashed{}{\text{-}}{0. you may need to use TEX’s \mathchoice primitive. centernot provides a single command.) For example.. \centernot centers the slash over its argument. and the character to be overlapped. punctuation. Somewhat simpler than slashed is the centernot package. relation. the \declareslashed command provides the flexibility to specify the mathematical context of the composite character (operator. As another example of \ooalign. \centernot.5pt$-$}}} The slashed package. or scriptscript. the overlapping symbol. in fact facilitates the production of arbitrary overlapped symbols. \mathchoice evaluates one of four expressions. note the \ooalign call’s use of \hfil to horizontally center a minus sign (“−”) and a \circ (“◦”). \slashed{D} produces “D”. instead of putting the slash at a fixed location. horizontal and vertical adjustments in symbol-relative units. for example.text. on the infrequently used “3” symbol for “such that”discussed on page 103: \newcommand{\suchthat}{% \mathrel{\ooalign{$\ni$\cr\kern-1pt$-$\kern-6. \centernot might be used.tex) that overlaps a \ni (“ ”) and two minus signs (“− to produce “− an obscure variation −”) −”. the following L TEX code—posted to comp.tex by Torsten Bronger—composes a sub/superscriptable “⊥” symbol out of \top and \bot (“ ” and “⊥”): \def\topbotatom#1{\hbox{\hbox to 0pt{$#1\bot$\hss}$#1\top$}} \newcommand*{\topbot}{\mathrel{\mathchoice{\topbotatom\displaystyle} {\topbotatom\textstyle} {\topbotatom\scriptstyle} {\topbotatom\scriptscriptstyle}}} The following is another example that uses \mathchoice to construct symbols in different math modes. puts a slash over the subsequent mathematical symbol. Making new symbols work in superscripts and subscripts To make composite symbols work properly within subscripts and superscripts.04}{0}{I}\slashed{I}}} \declareslashed{·}{·}{·}{·}{I} affects the meaning of all subsequent \slashed{I} commands in the same scope. \def\Xint#1{\mathchoice {\XXint\displaystyle\textstyle{#1}}% {\XXint\textstyle\scriptstyle{#1}}% {\XXint\scriptstyle\scriptscriptstyle{#1}}% {\XXint\scriptscriptstyle\scriptscriptstyle{#1}}% 105 . to create a “does not imply” symbol: =⇒ =⇒ \not\Longrightarrow vs. However.text. for example.In the preceding code. consider the following code (due to Enrico Gregorio in a June 2007 post to comp. \centernot\Longrightarrow See the centernot documentation for more information. although originally designed for producing Feynman slashed-character notation. The preceding definition of \rqm therefore uses an extra set of curly braces to limit that scope to a single \slashed{I}. based on whether the current math style is display. The default behavior is to overwrite a given / character with “/”. The code defines a principal value integral symbol. text. (See The TEXbook [Knu86a] for a more complete descripA tion. Consider. \rqm uses amstext’s \text macro (described on the next page) to make \declareslashed use a text-mode hyphen (“-”) instead of a math-mode minus sign (“−”) and to ensure that the hyphen scales properly in size in subscripts and superscripts.

. In March 2002. \mathpalette invokes the first argument.2 times the \sqrt height at the right of the \sqrt. “ √ √ expressions like “ 3x ” from those like “ 3x”. which enables text overlap. “\textstyle”. .text. as in the following definitions of \neswarrow (“ ”) and \nwsearrow (“ ”):10 \newcommand{\neswarrow}{\mathrel{\text{$\nearrow$\llap{$\swarrow$}}}} \newcommand{\nwsearrow}{\mathrel{\text{$\nwarrow$\llap{$\searrow$}}}} A \text resembles L TEX’s \mbox command but shrinks its argument appropriately when used within a subscript or superscript. passing it one of “\displaystyle”.g.tex. However. \llap outputs its argument to the left of the current position. “A\llap{B}” and “\rlap{A}B” each produce “A”. to set it explicitly within an \mbox). Y 106 .uk/ faq. The \Xint macro defined above can also be used to generate a wealth of new integrals: “ ” (\Xint\circlearrowright). however. Sometimes.}$}\dimen0=\ht0 \advance\dimen0-0. In a June 2002 post to comp.5\wd0}} \def\ddashint{\Xint=} \def\dashint{\Xint-} (The preceding code was taken verbatim from the UK TEX Users’ Group FAQ at http://www.2\ht0 \setbox2=\hbox{\vrule height\ht0 depth -\dimen0}% {\box0\lower0. while \ddashint produces a double-dashed one (“=”). √ ”) as this helps visually distinguish Some people like their square-root signs with a trailing “hook” (i. Donald Arseneau posted the following \mathpalette-based definition of a probabilistic-independence symbol (“⊥ to comp. \rlap overlaps whatever text would normally appear to the right of its argument. and the result of the latter is the width of “B”—\llap{. . and so forth. moves two math units to the right.tex: \def\hksqrt{\mathpalette\DHLhksqrt} \def\DHLhksqrt#1#2{\setbox0=\hbox{$#1\sqrt{#2\.e. “⊂” (\Xint\subset). again in the current math style.tex in June 2000: ⊥”) \newcommand\independent{\protect\mathpalette{\protect\independenT}{\perp}} \def\independenT#1#2{\mathrel{\rlap{$#1#2$}\mkern2mu{#1#2}}} The \independent macro uses \mathpalette to pass the \independenT helper macro both the current math style and the \perp symbol.. “ ” (\Xint\circlearrowleft). . \mathpalette is useful when a symbol macro must know which math style is currently in use (e.) \dashint produces a single-dashed integral sign (“−”). overlapping whatever text is already there. amstext’s \text macro is all that is necessary to make composite symbols appear correctly in subscripts and superscripts. . appear frequently when creating composite characters.4pt\box2}} Notice how \DHLhksqrt uses \mathpalette to recover the outer math style (argument #1) from within an \hbox.ac. the result of the B former is the width of “A”. followed by the second argument. The rest of the code is simply using TEX primitives to position a hook of height 0. \independenT typesets \perp in the current math style. \llap (“left overlap”) and its counterpart. or “\scriptscriptstyle”.text.text. \rlap (“right overlap”). “\scriptstyle”. For example. Similarly. is described later on this page.tex. The macro is called \mathpalette and it takes two arguments. Donald Arseneau presented a general macro for aligning an arbitrary number of symbols on their horizontal centers and vertical baselines: 10 Note that if your goal is to typeset commutative diagrams or pushout/pullback diagrams. \rlap. See The TEXbook [Knu86a] for more understanding of TEX “boxes” and “dimens”. and finally typesets a second—overlapping—copy of \perp.\!\int} \def\XXint#1#2#3{{\setbox0=\hbox{$#1{#2#3}{\int}$} \vcenter{\hbox{$#2#3$}}\kern-. then you should probably be using X -pic. Dan Luecking posted a \mathpalette-based definition of a hooked square-root symbol to comp. } and \rlap{. “∞” (\Xint\infty). } take up zero space. A L TEX 2ε provides a simple wrapper for \mathchoice that sometimes helps produce terser symbol definitions.

\raise4\p@. Its \accentset command enables any character to be used as an accent.. 4 pt.}\mkern1mu}} \makeatother \revddots is essentially identical to the mathdots package’s \iddots command or the yhmath package’s \adots command. some applications. respectively: \def\ddots{\mathinner{\mkern1mu\raise7\p@ \vbox{\kern7\p@\hbox{. such as transliterations from non-Latin alphabets. A Modifying L TEX-generated symbols A Oftentimes. require multiple accents per character. which produces “V ”.. \underaccent does the same thing.. see the documentation for more information. See The TEXbook [Knu86a] for explanations of the TEX primitives used by \moverlay. While various tables in this document show how to add an accent to an existing symbol. This causes every row to be typeset at the same vertical position. To draw a version of \ddots with the dots going along the opposite diagonal.}\mkern1mu}} A \p@ is a L TEX 2ε shortcut for “pt” or “1. For example. \diaunder[{\diatop[\’|\=]}|\textsubdot{r}] produces “´”. as in “H\‘an a ˆ e a Th\’{\^e} Th\‘anh” (albeit not in the OT1 font encoding). The dblaccnt package enables L TEX to stack accents.0pt”. raised 7 pt. The following code defines an equals sign that extends as far to the right as possible.tex post by Donald Arseneau (June 2003). In addition.text. but places the accent beneath the character.}\mkern2mu\raise7\p@\hbox{. fontdef. we merely have to reorder the \raise7\p@. Creating extensible symbols A relatively simple example of creating extensible symbols stems from a comp. the \topbot command defined on page 105 could have been expressed as “\moverlay{\top\cr\bot}” and the \neswarrow command defined on the previous page could have been expressed as “\moverlay{\nearrow\cr\swarrow}”.}}\mkern2mu \raise4\p@\hbox{.\makeatletter \def\moverlay{\mathpalette\mov@rlay} \def\mov@rlay#1#2{\leavevmode\vtop{% \baselineskip\z@skip \lineskiplimit-\maxdimen \ialign{\hfil$#1##$\hfil\cr#2\crcr}}} \makeatother A The \makeatletter and \makeatother commands are needed to coerce L TEX into accepting “@” as part of a macro name. For example. and \raise\p@: \makeatletter \def\revddots{\mathinner{\mkern1mu\raise\p@ \vbox{\kern7\p@\hbox{. The remaining commands are defined in The TEXbook [Knu86a]. \moverlay takes a list of symbols separated by \cr (TEX’s equivalent of A L TEX’s \\). For example. \accentset{\star}{f} produces “f ” and e \accentset{e}{X} produces “X”. For instance. the creator of pdfTEX A writes his name as “H`n Th´ Th`nh”.}}\mkern2mu \raise4\p@\hbox{. The accents package facilitates the fabrication of accents in math mode. See the wsuipa documentation for r ¯ ˙ more information. A just like L TEX’s \hrulefill command: 107 . the wsuipa package defines \diatop and \diaunder macros for putting one or more diacritics or accents above or below a given character. The basic concept behind \moverlay’s implementation is that \moverlay typesets the given symbols in a table that utilizes a zero \baselineskip. accents provides ˜ other accent-related features as well. symbols composed in the L TEX 2ε source code can be modified with minimal effort to produce useful variations. For instance.}\mkern2mu\raise\p@\hbox{. Producing complex accents Accents are a special case of combining existing symbols to make new symbols.dtx composes the \ddots symbol (see Table 189 on page 63) out of three periods. This enables constructs like \underaccent{\tilde}{V}. and 1 pt.

taken from a May 2002 comp.7\p@}}$} \def\downbracketfill{$\m@th \makesm@sh{\llap{\vrule\@height.text..text.tex post by Donald Arseneau: \makeatletter \def\overbracket#1{\mathop{\vbox{\ialign{##\crcr\noalign{\kern3\p@} \downbracketfill\crcr\noalign{\kern3\p@\nointerlineskip} $\hfil\displaystyle{#1}\hfil$\crcr}}}\limits} \def\underbracket#1{\mathop{\vtop{\ialign{##\crcr $\hfil\displaystyle{#1}\hfil$\crcr\noalign{\kern3\p@\nointerlineskip} \upbracketfill\crcr\noalign{\kern3\p@}}}}\limits} \def\overparenthesis#1{\mathop{\vbox{\ialign{##\crcr\noalign{\kern3\p@} \downparenthfill\crcr\noalign{\kern3\p@\nointerlineskip} $\hfil\displaystyle{#1}\hfil$\crcr}}}\limits} \def\underparenthesis#1{\mathop{\vtop{\ialign{##\crcr $\hfil\displaystyle{#1}\hfil$\crcr\noalign{\kern3\p@\nointerlineskip} \upparenthfill\crcr\noalign{\kern3\p@}}}}\limits} \def\downparenthfill{$\m@th\braceld\leaders\vrule\hfill\bracerd$} \def\upparenthfill{$\m@th\bracelu\leaders\vrule\hfill\braceru$} \def\upbracketfill{$\m@th\makesm@sh{\llap{\vrule\@height3\p@\@width. Consider the following code (due to a February 1999 comp.\makeatletter \def\equalsfill{$\m@th\mathord=\mkern-7mu \cleaders\hbox{$\!\mathord=\!$}\hfill \mkern-7mu\mathord=$} \makeatother TEX’s \cleaders and \hfill primitives are the key to understanding \equalsfill’s extensibility.7\p@\hfill \makesm@sh{\rlap{\vrule\@height3\p@\@width.7\p@\@depth2. “\stackrel{a}{\rightarrow}” produces “→” and “X \stackrel{\text{definition}}{\hbox{\equalsfill}} Y” produces “X = = = = Y ”.7\p@}}% \leaders\vrule\@height. Essentially.7\p@\@depth2.5pt}% \setlength\arrayrulewidth{0. Hence.7\p@\hfill \makesm@sh{\rlap{\vrule\@height.25pt]{0pt}{\ht0}% #1 & #2% \end{array}% } Using the preceding definition.g. \overparenthesis.7\p@}}% \leaders\vrule\@height.tex post by Donald Arseneau and subsequent modifications by Billy Yu and Scott Pakin) for typesetting annuity and life-insurance symbols: \DeclareRobustCommand{\actuarial}[2][]{% \def\arraystretch{0}% \setlength\arraycolsep{0.7\p@}}$} \makeatother a definition 108 . \underbracket.5pt}% \setbox0=\hbox{$\scriptstyle#1#2$}% \begin{array}[b]{*2{@{}>{\scriptstyle}c}|} \cline{2-2}% \rule[1. one can type. \equalsfill is intended to be used with L TEX’s \stackrel command. \equalsfill repeats a box containing “=” plus some negative space until it fills the maximum availA able horizontal space. which stacks one mathematical expression (slightly reduced in size) atop another. === If all that needs to extend are horizontal and vertical lines—as opposed to repeated symbols such as the A “=” in the previous example—L TEX’s array or tabular environments may suffice.3\p@\@width. and \underparenthesis symbols.3\p@\@width. e. “$a_{\actuarial{n}}$” to produce “an ” and “$a_{\actuarial[x:]{n}}$” to produce “ax:n ” A more complex example of composing accents is the following definition of extensible \overbracket.

thereby constraining the width of the horizontal rules. a horizontal rule that stretches as wide as possible. It is common to separate the font into two files: a size-dependent file. 30 pt.. small-caps. and a size-independent file. The METAFONTbook is essential reading. the Berry font-naming scheme is largely irrelevant for symbol fonts.mf. slanted.mf” do not follow the Berry font-naming scheme [Ber01]. It enables. which draws characters in the given size.Table 324 showcases these accents. “\acontraction{}{A}{B}{C}\acontraction[2ex]{A}{B}{C}{D}\bcontraction{}{A}{BC}{D}ABCD” produces ABCD See the simplewick documentation for more information. A vs.mf file does not exist for a given size size . if not all.mf. Table 324: Manually Composed Extensible Accents abc abc \overbracket{abc} \underbracket{abc} abc abc \overparenthesis{abc} \underparenthesis{abc} Note that the simplewick package provides mechanisms for typesetting Wick contractions. and \upbracketfill do all of the work. thicker symbol: . The basic idea is that \downparenthfill. If you plan to design your own symbols with METAFONT. which specifies the design size and various font-specific parameters that are a function of the design size. Fortunately. 20 pt. and a right symbol (e. Again. and other such variants. taller. they output a left symbol (e. Note that the the filenames “lightbulb10. drawing lines and curves. which generally lack bold. Developing new symbols from scratch Sometimes is it simply not possible to define a new symbol in terms of existing symbols. and preparing to debug or fine-tune the output.mf. A A vs. you’ll have to pretend that “A” looks like a light bulb. The A following is an extremely brief tutorial on how to create a new L TEX symbol using METAFONT. 109 . shown in Figure 3. italic. vs.mf files for a variety of size s. most.11 The first step is to draw this in METAFONT. \overparenthesis. You may also want to read the freely available METAFONT primer located at http://metafont. light bulb then loads lightbulb. 60 pt. the computer mechanically produces a wider. vs. which looks much nicer than the alternative—and default—“mechanical scaling”.and \underbracket-like brackets of variable width and height (or depth). The METAFONTbook [Knu86b] is the authoritative text on METAFONT. and \underparenthesis merely create a table whose width is determined by the given text.mf specifies various parameters that produce a 10 pt. \downbracketfill.. TEX distributions are shipped with a tool called METAFONT which is designed specifically for creating fonts to be used with TEX. defining points. The TEXbook [Knu86a] or another book on TEX primitives is indispensible for understanding how the preceding code works.mf” and “lightbulb.g.fr/. lightbulb10. Suppose we need a symbol to represent a light bulb (“A”). \bracerd [“ ”] for \downparenthfill). Figure 2 shows the METAFONT code for lightbulb10. A 10 pt. 11 I’m A 70 pt. 50 pt.g. \overbracket. A vs. one should produce lightbulb size . which utilize \overbracket. \upparenthfill.mf. A 40 pt.free. draws a light bulb using the parameters defined in lightbulb10. For example. The METAFONTbook [Knu86b] is the definitive reference on METAFONT programming. not a very good artist. lightbulb. Its primary A X-specific operations not mentioned in The METAFONTbook and to demonstrate purpose is to cover the L TE that symbol-font creation is not necessarily a difficult task. \braceld [“ ”] for \downparenthfill). vs. This is called “optical scaling”.tutorial. for example. the lines that make up the light bulb to retain the same thickness at different font sizes. The code in Figures Figure 2 and Figure 3 is heavily commented and should demonstrate some of the basic concepts behind METAFONT usage: declaring variables. \underbracket. Ideally. When a lightbulb size .

h + o). . % z7 is at the bottom. makegrid(0. 6. end Figure 3: Sample METAFONT size-independent file (lightbulb. w − sb − o)). w/2. beginchar("A". rt z2 = (w + sb + o − x4 . Figure 2: Sample METAFONT size-specific file (lightbulb10. height cap#. % z67 lies halfway between z6 and z7 but a jot lower. z5 = point 2 − 1/3 of bulb. cycle. 7. % Target a given printer. % Leave this much space on the side of each character. pen bot − o − 1/8pt). 1/2em#. z7 = (x8 . 0). % z6 is at the bottom. −1pt. draw bulb.z6 . z7 . circular tip. z3 . 3. % Amount that curves overshoot borders. y3 ]). % z4 is on the left of the circle. y2 . cap#. 5. endchar. z2 . font size 10pt#. y4 ). x7 ]. define corrected pixels(o). % z5 lies on the bulb. % z8 lies on the bulb. % Load the file that draws the actual glyph. z8 = point 2 + 1/3 of bulb. directly under z8 . % Use a pen with a small. %% Draw the bulb and the base. 1pt#). 0). % Label control points for debugging. . and depth 1pt#. sb# := 1/4pt#. %% Display key positions and points to help us debug. bot z3 = (z1 − (0. % z3 is at the bottom of the circle. 4. cap# := 7pt#. input lightbulb % Name the font. %% Define the points we need. z6 = (x5 . sb). % Define a path for the bulb itself. bot z67 = ( 1/2[x6 . o# := 1/16pt#. penlabels(1. define pixels(em. . % Convert to device-specific units. draw z5 .. % “M” width is 10 points. % Label “interesting” x and y coordinates. z67 . z4 . a little to the left of z3 . % Draw the bulb proper. cap. a little to the right of z3 . em# := 10pt#.font identifier := "LightBulb10". . % Draw the base of the bulb. but add a device-specific fudge factor.mf) 110 . 67.. h). 1/2[y1 .mf) mode setup. % z2 is at the same height as z4 but the opposite side. directly under z5 . % z1 is at the top of a circle. 2. pickup pencircle scaled 1/2pt. sb. % Capital letter height is 7 points above the baseline. 8). % The bulb is a closed path. %% Define a light bulb at the character position for “A” %% with width 1/2em#. bulb = z1 . % Same. .z8 . "A light bulb". . path bulb. % Specify the design size. lft z4 = (sb − o. top z1 = (w/2. w − sb)(0.

2602gf Produces lightbulb10. if not all.dvi You can then view lightbulb10. The document “L TEX 2ε Font Selection” [L T00] describes \DeclareFontFamily and \DeclareFontShape in detail. Transcript written on testfont.dvi (1 page. labeled versions that showcase the logical structure of each character.mf—is 41 in hexadecimal (base 16) and 101 in octal (base 8).fd. Observe how the grid defined with makegrid at the bottom of Figure 3 draws vertical lines at positions 0. Figure 6 lists A A the contents of ubulb. The filename for a font-description file important. First. which lightbulb. For LightBulb10.tex which is useful for testing new fonts in a variety of ways. To produce a proof of lightbulb10. .mf prompt > gftodvi lightbulb10. . sb.dvi and illustrated in Figure 5. where encoding is the lowercase version of the encoding name (typically “u” for symbol fonts) and family is the name of the font family. One useful routine produces a table of all of the characters in the font: prompt > tex testfont This is TeX. Version 3.fd is first to declare a U-encoded version of the bulb A font family and then to specify that a L TEX 2ε request for a U-encoded version of bulb with a (m)edium font 111 . . The resulting table. For symbol fonts.3.mf Most.mf defines to lie between z6 and z7 . L TEX 2ε . however. proof mode is METAFONT’s default mode. stored in testfont.2602gf ⇐ ⇐ Produces lightbulb10.dvi with any DVI viewer. 1516 bytes). and h. 1 4 2 8 3 5 7 67 6 Figure 4: Proof diagram of lightbulb10. Similarly. needs more information before documents A can use the font. issue the following commands at the operating-system prompt: prompt > mf lightbulb10.tex Name of the font to test = lightbulb10 Now type a test command (\help for help):) *\table *\bye [1] Output written on testfont. A The LightBulb10 font is now usable by TEX. this mapping is fairly simple. Symbol fonts almost always use the “U” (“Unknown”) font encoding and frequently occur in only one variant: normal weight and non-italicized. To understand how to read the table. w/2. observe how the penlabels command labels all of the important coordinates: z1 . −1pt. it must be of the form “ encoding family . note that the character code for “A”—the only character defined by lightbulb10. let’s call this “bulb”.METAFONT can produce “proofs” of fonts—large. TEX distributions include a Plain TEX file called testfont. and w − sb and horizontal lines at positions 0.mf. In fact. shows every character in the font. z2 .fd”.1) (/usr/share/texmf/tex/plain/base/testfont. but the gist of ubulb. we create a font-description file that tells L TEX 2ε how to map fonts in a given font family and encoding to a particular font in a particular font size. The result is shown in Figure 4. .log. y2 .14159 (Web2C 7. z8 and z67 .

In addition to spacing.uk/cgi-bin/texfaq2html?label=textrace for pointers to tools that can produce Type 1 fonts from METAFONT. and \mathpunct. lightbulb. “\char"41”. decimal. Contrast ˙ ˙ “$A \dot{\cup} B$” (“A∪B”) with “$A \mathbin{\dot{\cup}} B$” (“A ∪B”). one-character symbol font such as LightBulb10 it would be reasonable to merge ubulb. or “\char’101” (respectively. Similarly.0) and of being more memory-efficient when handled by a PostScript interpreter. See http://www. In either case. a document need only include “\usepackage{lightbulb}” to make the \lightbulb symbol available. A The final step is to write a L TEX 2ε style file that defines a name for each symbol in the font. \mathclose. and “punctuation” in Section 3 primarily regard the surrounding A spacing. \newcommand{\lightbulb}{{\usefont{U}{bulb}{m}{n}A}} A Figure 7: L TEX 2ε style file (lightbulb. 8. Table 325 on the following page contrasts the output of the log-like symbols with various. it is also possible. you can use the TEX commands \mathord. \mathop. “\max_{p \in P}” produces “maxp∈P ” in text. is rather trivial. to produce PostScript Type 1 fonts. the log-like symbols also handle ıve subscripts properly. For example. (See the Short Math Guide for L TEX [Dow00] for a nice exposition on the subject. to create a dotted-union symbol (“∪”) that spaces like the ordinary set-union symbol (\cup) it must be defined with \mathbin. e.) To use a symbol for a different purpose. However. just as \cup is. if you want to use \downarrow as a variable (an “ordinary” symbol) instead of a delimiter.sty) METAFONT normally produces bitmapped fonts.fd into lightbulb. Note that instead of typesetting “A” we could have had \lightbulb typeset “\char65”.Test of lightbulb10 on March 11. \mathopen. italic) should translate into a TEX request for lightbulb10.g. e. “relations”. \mathbin. The purpose of the “log-like symbols” in Table 128 and Table 129 is to provide the correct amount of spacing around and within multiletter function names. na¨ alternatives. For a simple. For example.tfm mechanically scaled to the current font size. 2003 at 1127 ´0 ´10x ´11x ˝8 ´1 A ˝9 ´2 ´3 ´4 ´5 ´6 ´7 ˝4x ˝A ˝B ˝C ˝D ˝E ˝F Figure 5: Font table produced by testfont.sty (Figure 7).. bold) and a (n)ormal font shape (as opposed to.sty instead of maintaining two separate files.4 Math-mode spacing Terms such as “binary operators”. you can write “$3 x + \mathord{\downarrow}$” to get the properly spaced ˙ “3x + ↓” rather than the awkward-looking “3x+ ↓”.g. \mathrel.fd) series (as opposed to. These have the advantages of rendering better in Adobe® Acrobat® (at least in versions prior to 6.tex \DeclareFontFamily{U}{bulb}{} \DeclareFontShape{U}{bulb}{m}{n}{<-> lightbulb10}{} A Figure 6: L TEX 2ε font-description file (ubulb.ac. hexadecimal. See The TEXbook [Knu86a] for the definitive description of math-mode spacing. with the help of some external tools. The amsmath package makes it straightforward to define new log-like symbols: \DeclareMathOperator{\atan}{atan} \DeclareMathOperator*{\lcm}{lcm} 112 . and octal character offsets into the font). but “max” as part of a p∈P displayed formula..tex. Because we have only one symbol our style file.

\]).uk/ cgi-bin/texfaq2html?label=boldgreek can be used to produce bold mathematical symbols. formatting of Greek letters (bold vs. \log and \cos). .max}”. This is useful for limit operators (e. and all of the log-like symbols shown in Table 129 utilize this spacing convention. italic).g. As the table illustrates. normal).. In contrast. . \liminf. \lim) and functions that tend to map over a set (e. \limsup.Table 325: Spacing Around/Within Log-like Symbols A L TEX expression Output r sin θ rsinθ rsinθ rsinθ (best) $r $r $r $r \sin \theta$ sin \theta$ \mbox{sin} \theta$ \mathrm{sin} \theta$ The difference between \DeclareMathOperator and \DeclareMathOperator* involves the handling of subscripts.$) and display style (\[.$ and \textstyle can be used to force text style within \[. \min).tex. . With \DeclareMathOperator*. Table 326 contrasts symbols declared with \DeclareMathOperator and \DeclareMathOperator* in both text style ($.g. Table 327 contrasts the output produced by these various techniques.\]. . 8. normal).12 Table 326: Defining new log-like symbols Declaration function \DeclareMathOperator \DeclareMathOperator* $\newlogsym {p \in P}$ newlogsymp∈P newlogsymp∈P \[ \newlogsym {p \in P} \] newlogsymp∈P newlogsym p∈P It is common to use a thin space (\. and spacing. bold symbols are occasionally needed. formatting of operators and relations (bold vs. . . subscripts are written beneath log-like symbols in display style and to the right in text style. . as is common for functions that take a single parameter (e. these techniques exhibit variation in their formatting of Latin letters (upright vs. \DeclareMathOperator tells TEX that subscripts should always be displayed to the right of the operator.) between the words of a multiword operators. for example when naming vectors.5 Bold mathematical symbols A L TEX does not normally use bold symbols when typesetting mathematics. 113 ... as in “\DeclareMathOperator*{\argmax}{arg\. However.g. . Table 327: Producing bold mathematical symbols Package none none none amsbsy amsbsy bm fixmath Code $\alpha + b = \Gamma \div D$ $\mathbf{\alpha + b = \Gamma \div D}$ \boldmath$\alpha + b = \Gamma \div D$ $\pmb{\alpha + b = \Gamma \div D}$ $\boldsymbol{\alpha + b = \Gamma \div D}$ $\bm{\alpha + b = \Gamma \div D}$ $\mathbold{\alpha + b = \Gamma \div D}$ Output α+b=Γ÷D α+b=Γ÷D α+b=Γ÷D α+b=Γ÷D α+b=Γ÷D α+b=Γ÷D α+b=Γ ÷D (no bold) (faked bold) 12 Note that \displaystyle can be used to force display style within $. Any of the approaches described at http://www.ac.

.. $>$. 39 3A 3B 3C 3D Char ! " # $ % & ’ ( ) * + . Z [ \char‘\\ ] \^{} \char‘\_ ‘ a b c . . . “>”. Z [ \textbackslash ] \^{} \_ ‘ a b c . \textless = \texttt ! " \# \$ \% \& ’ ( ) * + . The fourth column lists the L TEX 2ε command to typeset the character as a text A character. \textless. and \textbar. “ filename ” instead of “<filename>”. Note that for typesetting metavariables many people prefer \textlangle and \textrangle to \textless and \textgreater. 13 Donald Knuth didn’t think such symbols were important outside of mathematics so he omitted them from his text fonts. A straight quote can be typeset using \textquotesingle (cf. . 122 123 124 125 126 Hex 3E 3F 40 41 42 43 . 5A 5B 5C 5D 5E 5F 60 61 62 63 . . . . z \{ \textbar \} \~{} \texttt > ? @ A B C ..e. Z [ \ ] ˆ ‘ a b c . z \char‘\{ | \char‘\} \~{} The following are some additional notes about the contents of Table 328: • “"” is not available in the OT1 font encoding. . . • The characters “<”. . . . viz. computer keyboard. The third column shows A what the character looks like. The first two columns list the character’s ASCII code in decimal and hexadecimal. Table 40). i. \textgreater. “>”. .e. . “¿”. 9 : . when \ttfamily is in effect).S. 9 : .6 ASCII and Latin 1 quick reference Table 328 amalgamates data from various other tables in this document into a convenient reference for A L TEX 2ε typesetting of ASCII characters. . . . . . although they produce. and “—” in text mode when using the OT1 font encoding. 9 : . . 7A 7B 7C 7D 7E Char > ? @ A B C . . “¡”. . . 90 91 92 93 94 95 96 97 98 99 . < = Dec 62 63 64 65 66 67 . And the fourth column lists the L TEX 2ε command to typeset the character within a \texttt{. A Table 328: L TEX 2ε ASCII Table Dec 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 . – Enter the symbols in math mode instead of text mode. . / 0 1 2 . and “|”: – Specify a document font encoding other than OT1 (as described on page 8). 57 58 59 60 61 Hex 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 2A 2B 2C 2D 2E 2F 30 31 32 . . . . • Table 328 shows a close quote for character 39 for consistency with the open quote shown for character 96. more generally. the characters available on a typical U. . / 0 1 2 .13 The following are some alternatives for typesetting “<”. . . . . i. respectively. . $<$. 114 .. / 0 1 2 .} command (or. and $|$.8. . z { | } ˜ Body text \textgreater ? @ A B C . . i.e. – Use the appropriate symbol commands from Table 2 on page 9. < = Body text ! \textquotedbl \# \$ \% \& ’ ( ) * + . and “|” do work as expected in math mode.

A • Although “/” does not require any special treatment, L TEX additionally defines a \slash command which outputs the same glyph but permits a line break afterwards. That is, “increase/decrease” is always typeset as a single entity while “increase\slash{}decrease” may be typeset with “increase/” on one line and “decrease” on the next.

• \textasciicircum can be used instead of \^{}, and \textasciitilde can be used instead of \~{}. Note that \textasciitilde and \~{} produce raised, diacritic tildes. “Text” (i.e., vertically centered) tildes can be generated with either the math-mode \sim command (shown in Table 67 on page 30), which produces a somewhat wide “∼”, or the textcomp package’s \texttildelow (shown in Table 40 on page 20), which produces a vertically centered “~” in most fonts but a baseline-oriented “ ” in Computer Modern, txfonts, pxfonts, and various other fonts originating from the TEX world. If your goal is to typeset tildes in URLs or Unix filenames, your best bet is to use the url package, which has a number of nice features such as proper line-breaking of such names. • The various \char commands within \texttt are necessary only in the OT1 font encoding. In other encodings (e.g., T1), commands such as \{, \}, \_, and \textbackslash all work properly. • The code page 437 (IBM PC) version of ASCII characters 1 to 31 can be typeset using the ascii package. See Table 227 on page 72. • To replace “‘” and “’” with the more computer-like (and more visibly distinct) “`” and “'” within a verbatim environment, use the upquote package. Outside of verbatim, you can use \char18 and \char13 to get the modified quote characters. (The former is actually a grave accent.) Similar to Table 328, Table 329 on the next page is an amalgamation of data from other tables in this document. While Table 328 shows how to typeset the 7-bit ASCII character set, Table 329 shows the Latin 1 (Western European) character set, also known as ISO-8859-1. The following are some additional notes about the contents of Table 329: • A “(tc)” after a symbol name means that the textcomp package must be loaded to access that symbol. A “(T1)” means that the symbol requires the T1 font encoding. The fontenc package can change the font encoding document-wide. • Many of the \text. . . accents can also be produced using the accent commands shown in Table 17 on page 14 plus an empty argument. For instance, \={} is essentially the same as \textasciimacron.
A • The commands in the “L TEX 2ε ” columns work both in body text and within a \texttt{. . .} command (or, more generally, when \ttfamily is in effect).

• The “£” and “$” glyphs occupy the same slot (36) of the OT1 font encoding, with “£” appearing in italic A fonts and “$” appearing in roman fonts. A problem with L TEX’s default handling of this double-mapping is that “{\sffamily\slshape\pounds}” produces “$”, not “£”. Other font encodings use separate slots for the two characters and are therefore robust to the problem of “£”/”$” conflicts. Authors who use \pounds should select a font encoding other than OT1 (as explained on page 8) or use the textcomp package, which redefines \pounds to use the TS1 font encoding. • Character 173, \-, is shown as “-” but is actually a discretionary hyphen; it appears only at the end of a line. Microsoft® Windows® normally uses a superset of Latin 1 called “Code Page 1252” or “CP1252” for short. CP1252 introduces symbols in the Latin 1 “invalid” range (characters 128–159). Table 330 presents the characters with which CP1252 augments the standard Latin 1 table. The following are some additional notes about the contents of Table 330: • As in Table 329, a “(tc)” after a symbol name means that the textcomp package must be loaded to access that symbol. A “(T1)” means that the symbol requires the T1 font encoding. The fontenc package can change the font encoding document-wide. • Not all characters in the 128–159 range are defined. • Look up “euro signs” in the index for alternatives to \texteuro.

115

A Table 329: L TEX 2ε Latin 1 Table

Dec 161 162 163 164 165 166 167 168 169 170 171 172 173 174 175 176 177 178 179 180 181 182 183 184 185 186 187 188 189 190 191 192 193 194 195 196 197 198 199 200 201 202 203 204 205 206 207 208

Hex A1 A2 A3 A4 A5 A6 A7 A8 A9 AA AB AC AD AE AF B0 B1 B2 B3 B4 B5 B6 B7 B8 B9 BA BB BC BD BE BF C0 C1 C2 C3 C4 C5 C6 C7 C8 C9 CA CB CC CD CE CF D0

Char ¡ ¢ £ ¤ ¥ ¦ § © ª « ¬ ® ° ± ² ³ µ ¶ · ¸ ¹ º » ¼ ½ ¾ ¿ ` A ´ A ˆ A ˜ A ¨ A ˚ A Æ C ¸ ` E ´ E ˆ E ¨ E ` I ´ I ˆ I ¨ I Ð

A L TEX 2ε

Dec (tc) (tc) (tc) (tc) (tc) 209 210 211 212 213 214 215 216 217 218 219 220 221 222 223 224 225 226 227 228 229 230 231 232 233 234 235 236 237 238 239 240 241 242 243 244 245 246 247 248 249 250 251 252 253 254 255

Hex D1 D2 D3 D4 D5 D6 D7 D8 D9 DA DB DC DD DE DF E0 E1 E2 E3 E4 E5 E6 E7 E8 E9 EA EB EC ED EE EF F0 F1 F2 F3 F4 F5 F6 F7 F8 F9 FA FB FC FD FE FF

Char ˜ N ` O ´ O ˆ O ˜ O ¨ O × Ø ` U ´ U ˆ U ¨ U ´ Y Þ ß a ` a ´ a ˆ a ˜ a ¨ ˚ a æ ¸ c ` e ´ e ˆ e ¨ e ` ı ´ ı ˆ ı ¨ ı ð n ˜ o ` o ´ o ˆ o ˜ o ¨ ÷ ø u ` u ´ u ˆ u ¨ y ´ þ y ¨

A L TEX 2ε

!‘ \textcent \pounds \textcurrency \textyen \textbrokenbar \S \textasciidieresis \textcopyright \textordfeminine \guillemotleft \textlnot \\textregistered \textasciimacron \textdegree \textpm \texttwosuperior \textthreesuperior \textasciiacute \textmu \P \textperiodcentered \c{} \textonesuperior \textordmasculine \guillemotright \textonequarter \textonehalf \textthreequarters ?‘ \‘{A} \’{A} \^{A} \~{A} \"{A} \AA \AE \c{C} \‘{E} \’{E} \^{E} \"{E} \‘{I} \’{I} \^{I} \"{I} \DH

(T1) (tc)

(tc) (tc) (tc) (tc) (tc) (tc) (tc)

(tc) (T1) (tc) (tc) (tc)

\~{N} \‘{O} \’{O} \^{O} \~{O} \"{O} \texttimes \O \‘{U} \’{U} \^{U} \"{U} \’{Y} \TH \ss \‘{a} \’{a} \^{a} \~{a} \"{a} \aa \ae \c{c} \‘{e} \’{e} \^{e} \"{e} \‘{ı} \’{ı} \^{ı} \"{ı} \dh \~{n} \‘{o} \’{o} \^{o} \~{o} \"{o} \textdiv \o \‘{u} \’{u} \^{u} \"{u} \’{y} \th \"{y}

(tc)

(T1)

(T1)

(tc)

(T1)

(T1)

116

A Table 330: L TEX 2ε Code Page 1252 Table

Dec 128 130 131 132 133 134 135 136 137 138 139 140 142

Hex 80 82 83 84 85 86 87 88 89 8A 8B 8C 8E

Char € ‚ f „ ... † ‡ ˆ ‰ ˇ S ‹ Œ ˇ Z

A L TEX 2ε

Dec (tc) (T1) (T1) 145 146 147 148 149 150 151 152 153 154 155 156 158 159

Hex 91 92 93 94 95 96 97 98 99 9A 9B 9C 9E 9F

Char ‘ ’ “ ” • – — ˜ ™ ˇ s › œ ˇ z ¨ Y

A L TEX 2ε

\texteuro \quotesinglbase \textit{f} \quotedblbase \dots \dag \ddag \textasciicircum \textperthousand \v{S} \guilsinglleft \OE \v{Z}

(tc) (T1)

‘ ’ ‘‘ ’’ \textbullet ---\textasciitilde \texttrademark \v{s} \guilsinglright \oe \v{z} \"{Y}

(T1)

While too large to incorporate into this document, a listing of ISO 8879:1986 SGML/XML character entities A and their L TEX equivalents is available from http://www.bitjungle.com/~isoent/. Some of the characters A presented there make use of isoent, a L TEX 2ε package (available from the same URL) that fakes some of the A missing ISO glyphs using the L TEX picture environment.14

8.7

Unicode characters

Unicode is a “universal character set”—a standard for encoding (i.e., assigning unique numbers to) the symbols appearing in many of the world’s languages. While ASCII can represent 128 symbols and Latin 1 can represent 256 symbols, Unicode can represent an astonishing 1,114,112 symbols. A Because TEX and L TEX predate the Unicode standard and Unicode fonts by almost a decade, support for A A Unicode has had to be added to the base TEX and L TEX systems. Note first that L TEX distinguishes between input encoding—the characters used in the .tex file—and output encoding—the characters that appear in the generated .dvi, .pdf, etc. file. Inputting Unicode characters To include Unicode characters in a .tex file, load the ucs package and load the inputenc package with the utf8x A A (“UTF-8 extended”) option.15 These packages enable L TEX to translate UTF-8 sequences to L TEX commands, which are subsequently processed as normal. For example, the UTF-8 text “Copyright © 2009”—“©” is not an ASCII character and therefore cannot be input directly without packages such as ucs/inputenc—is converted internally by inputenc to “Copyright \textcopyright{} 2009” and therefore typeset as “Copyright © 2009”. The ucs/inputenc combination supports only a tiny subset of Unicode’s million-plus symbols. Additional symbols can be added manually using the \DeclareUnicodeCharacter command. A \DeclareUnicodeCharacter takes two arguments: a Unicode number and a L TEX command to execute when the corresponding Unicode character is encountered in the input. For example, the Unicode character “degree celsius” (“ ”) appears at character position U+2103.16 However, “ ” is not one of the characters that ucs and inputenc recognize. The following document shows how to use \DeclareUnicodeCharacter to A tell L TEX that the “ ” character should be treated as a synonym for \textcelsius: \documentclass{article} \usepackage{ucs} \usepackage[utf8x]{inputenc}
14 isoent is not featured in this document, because it is not available from CTAN and because the faked symbols are not “true” characters; they exist in only one size, regardless of the body text’s font size. 15 UTF-8 is the 8-bit Unicode Transformation Format, a popular mechanism for representing Unicode symbol numbers as sequences of one to four bytes. 16 The Unicode convention is to express character positions as “U+ hexadecimal number ”.

117

In January. Alexander Holt provided the stmaryrd tables (Table 46. Table 106. 2001. Table 108. \end{document} which produces It was a balmy 21 . Scott Pakin took responsibility for maintaining the symbol list and has since implemented A a complete overhaul of the document. Even the table captions and the order of the symbols within each table matched! The AMS symbols (Table 45. A a XEL TEX document can either include that character directly as UTF-8 text or use TEX’s \char primitive. Table 128. We therefore need to install a font that contains those characters at their proper positions. and a few tables that have since been reorganized) and was designed to be nearly identical to the tables in Chapter 3 of Leslie Lamport’s book [Lam86]. Suppose we want to output the symbols for versicle (“ ”) and response (“ ”) in a document. One such font that is freely available from CTAN is Junicode Regular (Junicode-Regular. Table 164. \documentclass{article} \usepackage{fontspec} \newcommand{\textjuni}[1]{{\fontspec{Junicode-Regular}#1}} \begin{document} We use ‘‘\textjuni{\char"2123}’’ for a versicle and ‘‘\textjuni{\char"211F}’’ for a response.\usepackage{textcomp} \DeclareUnicodeCharacter{"2103}{\textcelsius} \begin{document} It was a balmy 21 . 1994. Later.fd. Table 68. Table 105. To output a Unicode character. By far the easiest approach is to use XEL TEX instead of A A X or ordinary L T X. includes the following new features: 118 . Outputting Unicode characters A Orthogonal to the ability to include Unicode characters in a L TEX input file is the ability to include a given A Unicode character in the corresponding output file. Table 152. X L T X handles Unicode input and output natively and can utilize system fonts A pdfL TE E E E directly without having to expose them via . A which XEL TEX extends to accept numbers larger than 255. Table 169. See the ucs documentation for more information and for descriptions of the various options that control ucs’s behavior.ttf) from the junicode package. and Table 202) and an initial Math Alphabets table (Table 213) were added thereafter. and other such files. “The Comprehensive L TEX Symbol List”. Table 67. now called.) Note how the preceding example uses \char to specify a Unicode character by number. Table 70. Table 148. . Table 125. Table 137. Table 102. Table 59. Table 201. It originally contained A all of the native L TEX symbols (Table 44. Table 57. See the fontspec documentation for more information regarding font selection. and Table 149). The following example defines a \textjuni command that uses fontspec to typeset its argument in Junicode Regular: % Enable direct input of U+2103. Table 131.8 About this document History David Carlisle wrote the first version of this document in October. 8. Table 153. The result. Table 69. The double quotes before the number indicate that the number is represented in hexadecimal instead of decimal.tfm. The Unicode charts list “versicle” at position U+2123 and “response” at position U+211F. (Typesetting the entire document in Junicode Regular would be even easier. The fontspec package makes it easy A for a XEL TEX document to utilize a system font. \end{document} which produces We use “ ” for a versicle and “ ” for a response. Table 132.

Build characteristics Table 331 lists some of this document’s build characteristics. but that symbols. and thousands of new symbols • the categorization of the symbol tables into body-text symbols.org/ or one of its many mirror sites) in the directory tex-archive/info/symbols/comprehensive. Complete. and a frequently-requested symbol list.ctan. hyperlinks. Table 331: Document Characteristics Characteristic Source file: Build date: Symbols documented: Packages included: Value symbols. the internal structure of the document has been completely altered from David Carlisle’s original version. Packages are not listed in any particular order in either Table 331 or Table 332. Most important is the list A of packages that L TEX couldn’t find. Table 332 shows the package date (specified in the .tex November 9.• the addition of a handful of new math alphabets. table of contents.tex otherwise would have been able to take advantage of. mathematical symbols. dingbats. dozens of new font tables. science and technology symbols. to help users quickly locate symbols • symbol tables rewritten to list the symbols in alphabetical order A • appendices providing additional information relevant to using symbols in L TEX • tables showing how to typeset all of the characters in the ASCII and Latin 1 font encodings Furthermore.sty file with \ProvidesPackage) for each package that was used to build this document and that specifies a package date. 2009 5913 textcomp latexsym amssymb stmaryrd euscript wasysym pifont manfnt bbding undertilde ifsym tipa tipx extraipa wsuipa phonetic ulsy ar metre txfonts mathabx fclfont skak ascii dingbat skull eurosym esvect yfonts yhmath esint mathdots trsym universa upgreek overrightarrow chemarr chemarrow nath trfsigns mathtools phaistos arcs vietnam t4phonet holtpolt semtrans dictsym extarrows protosem harmony hieroglf cclicenses mathdesign arev MnSymbol cmll extpfeil keystroke fge turnstile simpsons epsdice feyn universal staves igo colonequals shuffle fourier dozenal pmboxdraw pigpen clock teubner linearA linearb cypriot sarabian china2e harpoon steinmetz milstd recycle DotArrow ushort hhcount ogonek combelow accents nicefrac bm mathrsfs chancery calligra bbold mbboard dsfont bbm none Packages omitted: Table 332: Package versions used in the preparation of this document Name textcomp latexsym Date 2005/09/27 1998/08/17 (continued on next page) 119 . to provide a more user-friendly document structure • an index. modify. prebuilt versions of this document are available from CTAN (http://www. ancient languages. and reformat. and other symbols. Most of the changes are geared towards making the document easier to extend.

(continued from previous page) Name amssymb stmaryrd euscript wasysym pifont manfnt bbding undertilde ifsym tipa tipx wsuipa metre txfonts mathabx skak ascii dingbat skull eurosym yfonts mathdots trsym universa upgreek chemarr mathtools phaistos arcs t4phonet semtrans dictsym extarrows protosem harmony hieroglf cclicenses arev MnSymbol extpfeil keystroke fge turnstile epsdice feyn universal colonequals shuffle pmboxdraw pigpen clock teubner Date 2002/01/22 1994/03/03 2001/10/01 2003/10/30 2005/04/12 1999/07/01 1999/04/15 2000/08/08 2000/04/18 2002/08/08 2003/01/01 1994/07/16 2001/12/05 2008/01/22 2003/07/29 2008/10/09 2006/05/30 2001/04/27 2002/01/23 1998/08/06 2003/01/08 2006/03/16 2000/06/25 98/08/01 2003/02/12 2006/02/20 2008/08/01 2004/04/23 2004/05/09 2004/06/01 1998/02/10 2004/07/26 2008/05/15 2005/03/18 2007/05/03 2000/09/23 2005/05/20 2005/06/14 2007/01/21 2006/07/27 2003/08/15 2007/06/03 2007/06/23 2007/02/15 2008/02/29 97/12/24 2006/08/01 2008/10/27 2006/05/03 2008/12/07 2001/04/10 2008/02/10 (continued on next page) 120 .

(continued from previous page) Name linearA linearb cypriot sarabian china2e harpoon steinmetz DotArrow ushort hhcount ogonek combelow accents nicefrac bm calligra Date 2006/03/13 2005/06/22 1999/06/20 2005/11/12 1997/06/01 1994/11/02 2009/06/14 2007/02/12 2001/06/13 1995/03/31 95/07/17 2009/08/23 2006/05/12 1998/08/04 2004/02/26 1996/07/18 8. either version 1.txt A and version 1.latex-project.org/lppl.3c or later is part of all distributions of L TEX version 2006/05/20 or later. The current maintainer of this work is Scott Pakin.3c of this license or (at your option) any later version. The latest version of this license is in http://www. This work has the LPPL maintenance status “maintained”. Scott Pakin A This work may be distributed and/or modified under the conditions of the L TEX Project Public License. 121 .9 Copyright and license A The Comprehensive L TEX Symbol List Copyright © 2009.

MA. Addison-Wesley. Reading. June 2001. ISSN 1354-5930.pdf. A [Dow00] Michael Downes. MA. The TEXbook. 1986. Baskerville. 1986. User’s Guide for the amsmath Package (Version 2. Available from http:// www. Reading. A METAFONT of ‘Simpsons’ characters. USA.ps (also included in many TEX distributions). Short math guide for L TEX. USA.pdf (also included in many TEX distributions).ctan. Version 1.pdf. December 13. USA. 2000. [Gib97] Jeremy Gibbons.org/ tex-archive/info/fontname.org/tex-archive/macros/latex/doc/fntguide.ctan. Available from ftp://ftp. 18(2):75–78. Available from http://www. MA. A A L TEX3 Project Team. 1999. Addison-Wesley. June 1997. Reading. Hey—it works! TUGboat. Addison-Wesley.org/tex-archive/macros/latex/doc/ltnews09.07. L TEX 2ε font selection. L TEX: A document preparation system.ctan. A new math accent. 4(4):19.ctan. July 19. Available from http:// www. A [Lam86] Leslie Lamport. Available from http:// www. 1986. Knuth. Fontname: Filenames for TEX fonts. A [L T00] 122 . A [L T98] A A L TEX3 Project Team.html.ps.org/pub/tex/doc/amsmath/amsldoc. [Knu86b] Donald E.org/TUGboat/Articles/tb18-2/tb55works. Available from http://www. volume C of Computers and Typesetting. [Knu86a] Donald E. The METAFONTbook. [Ber01] [Che97] Karl Berry. Raymond Chen.ams.org/usergrps/uktug/baskervi/4 4/ bask4 4.0). volume A of Computers and Typesetting. September 1997. June 1998. Available from http://tug. L TEX News. January 30. 2000.References [AMS99] American Mathematical Society.tug.ams.org/tex/short-math-guide. Knuth. Issue 9.

Index
If you’re having trouble locating a symbol, try looking under “T” for “\text. . .”. Many text-mode commands begin with that prefix. Also, accents are shown over/under a gray box (e.g., “ a ” for “\’”). ´ Some symbol entries appear to be listed repeatedly. This happens when multiple packages define identical (or nearly identical) glyphs with the same symbol name.17 Symbols ........ ........ ........ ........ ........ ........ ........ \AAaleph (A) . . . . . . . . . . . 81 \AAayin (O) . . . . . . . . . . . . 81 \AAbeth (B) . . . . . . . . . . . . 81 \AAcht (ˇ “ ˇ “ ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 89 \AAdaleth (D) . . . . . . . . . . . 81 \AAhe (E) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 81 \AAhelmet (V) . . . . . . . . . . 81 \AAheth (h) . . . . . . . . . . . . 81 \AAkaph (K) . . . . . . . . . . . . 81 \AAlamed (L) . . . . . . . . . . . 81 \Aaleph (a) . . . . . . . . . . . . 81 \AApe (P) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 81 \AAqoph (Q) . . . . . . . . . . . . 81 \AAresh (R) . . . . . . . . . . . . 81 \AAsade (X) . . . . . . . . . . . . 81 \Aayin (o) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 81 \AAyod (Y) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 81 \Abeth (b) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 81 absolute value . see \lvert and \rvert abz¨glich . . see \textdiscount u \AC (¬) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 70 \acarc . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16 \acbar . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16 accents . . 14–18, 57–61, 71, 89, 107–109 acute (´) . . . . . . 14–18, 57 a any character as . . . . . 107 arc (a) . . . . . 14–17, 59, 60 breve (˘) . . . . . . 14–18, 57 a caron (ˇ) . . . 14, 18, 57, 60 a cedilla (¸) . . . . . . . . . . 14 circumflex (ˆ) 14–16, 57, 59, a 60 comma-below (a) . . . . . 17 , diæresis (¨) a 14, 17, 18, 57, 68 dot (a or . ) . . . . 14–16, 57 ˙ double acute (˝) . . . 14, 18 a extensible . . . . 59–61, 63, 108–109 grave (`) . . . . . . 14–18, 57 a h´ˇek . . see accents, caron ac hook (ả) . . . . . . . . . . . 14 Hungarian umlaut . . . see accents, double acute krouˇek . . see accents, ring z macron (¯) . 14, 17, 18, 57, a 59, 60 multiple per character 15–16, 107 ogonek ( ˛) . . . . . . . 14–17 ring (˚ . 14–16, 18, 57, 58 a) Romanian comma-belo accent . . . . . . . see accents, comma-below trema see accents, diæresis umlaut see accents, diæresis accents (package) . 58, 107, 119, 121 \accentset . . . . . . . . . . . . 107 \AchtBL ( ˇ “ ) . . . . . . . . . . . . 89 = = \Acht (ˇ “( )= . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 89 =

\" (¨) a \# (#) \$ ($) \% (%) \& (&) \’ (´) a ( (() .

.. . .. . . .. ..

. . . . . . .

. . . . . . .

. . . . . . .

. . . . . . .

. . . 14 9, 114 9, 114 9, 114 9, 114 . . . 14 . . . 54

= =

( ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 55 ) ()) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 54 ) ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 55 * (*) . \, . . . \- (-) \. (a) ˙ / (/) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23 . . . 113 115, 116 . . . . 14 . . . . 54

/ ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 55 \: \; ( . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 64 .) . ( . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 64 .)

< ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 55 . . .) \? ( . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 64 [ ([) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 54 [ ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 55 \\ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 104 ] (]) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 54 ]( ) .. \^ (ˆ) . . a \^{} (ˆ) \| ( ) . . \| ( ) . . \| (a) . . ¿ \= (¯) . . a \={} (¯) |( ) .. | (|) . . . \_ ( ) . . \{ ({) . . \} (}) . . \‘ (`) . . a \~ (˜) . . a \~{} (˜) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 55 . . . 14 9, 115 . . . 54 54, 56 . . . 14 . . . 14 . . 115

. . . . . . . . 55 30, 54, 56, 57 . . . . . 9, 115 . . . 9, 54, 115 . . . 9, 54, 115 . . . . . . . . 14 . . . . . . . . 14 . . . . . 9, 115

A a (esvect package option) \a (×) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . \AA (˚ . . . . . . . . . . . . . A) \aa (˚ . . . . . . . . . . . . . a)
17 This

. . . .

. . . .

. . . .

61 95 10 10

\AchtBR ( ˇ “ ) . . . . . . . . . . . . 89 \ACK ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 72 \acontraction . . . . . . . . . 109 \AcPa (? ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 89 \actuarial ( ) . . . . . . . . . 108 actuarial symbols . . . . . . . 108 \acute (´) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 57 acute (´) . . . . . . . . see accents a \acutus (a) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17 ´ \Adaleth (d) . . . . . . . . . . . 81 adeles (A) . see alphabets, math adjoint (†) . . . . . . . . . see \dag Adobe Acrobat . . . . . . . . . 112 . \adots ( . . ) . . . . . . . . 64, 107 advancing . see \textadvancing \AE (Æ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10 \ae (æ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10 \aeolicbii (Ι) . . . . . . . . . . 95 \aeolicbiii (Θ) . . . . . . . . 95 \aeolicbiv (Κ) . . . . . . . . 95 \agemO ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 66 \Agimel (g) . . . . . . . . . . . . 81 \Ahe (e) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 81 \Ahelmet (v) . . . . . . . . . . . 81 \Aheth (H) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 81 \ain (s) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18 \Akaph (k) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 81 \Alad (}) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 57 \alad (}) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 57 \Alamed (l) . . . . . . . . . . . . 81 \Alas ({) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 57 \alas ({) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 57 \aldine ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . 78 \aldineleft ( ) . . . . . . . . . 78 \aldineright ( ) . . . . . . . . 78 \aldinesmall ( ) . . . . . . . . 78 \aleph (ℵ) . . . . . . . . . . 51, 65 \aleph (ℵ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 51 \Alif ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14 \alpha (α) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 50 alphabets African . . . . . . . . . . . . 10

occurs frequently between amssymb and mathabx, for example.

123

Cypriot . . . . . . . . . . . . 86 Cyrillic . . . . . . . . . . . 103 Greek . . . . . 50, 51, 68, 87 Hebrew . . . . . . . . . 51, 68 hieroglyphic . . . . . . . . . 82 Linear A . . . . . . . . . . . 82 Linear B . . . . . . . . . . . 85 math . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 68 phonetic . . . . . . . . 11–14 proto-Semitic . . . . . . . . 81 South Arabian . . . . . . . 87 Vietnamese . . . . . . . . . 10 \alphaup (α) . . . . . . . . . . . . 50 alpine symbols . . . . . . . . . . . 91 \Alt ( Alt ) . . . . . . . . . . . . 72 alternative denial . see \uparrow and | \AltGr ( AltGr ) . . . . . . . . . 72 \amalg ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22 \amalg ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23 \Amem (m) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 81 ampersand . . . . . . . . . . see \& AMS . 8, 10, 22, 26, 30, 31, 36, 38, 39, 41, 49–54, 58, 59, 61, 64–66, 69, 100, 118 amsbsy (package) . . . . . . . . 113 amsfonts (package) 22, 30, 36, 41, 65, 68 amsmath (package) . . 8, 49, 58, 104, 112 amssymb (package) 8, 22, 30, 36, 41, 58, 65, 68, 87, 119, 120, 123 amstext (package) . . . . 105, 106 \Anaclasis (÷) . . . . . . . . . . 95 \anaclasis (÷) . . . . . . . . . . 95 \anceps (Ξ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 95 \ancepsdbrevis (Ζ) . . . . . . . 95 \anchor ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . 80 ancient-language symbols 81–87 and . . . . . . . . . . . . . see \wedge AND gates . . . . . . . . . . . . . 73 \ANDd (¢) . . . . . . . . . . . 73 \ANDl (£) . . . . . . . . . . 73 \ANDr (¡) . . . . . . . . . . 73 \ANDu (¤) . \angle (∠) . . . \angle ( ) . . . \angle (∠) . . . angle notation . angles . . . . . . . \Anglesign (W) ˚ Angstr¨m unit o math mode text mode . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 73 . . 66 . . 65 . . 66 . . 70 65–67 . . . 67

O

see \mathring . . . . . . see \AA

\Angud ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 57 \angud ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 57 angular minutes . . . . see \prime angular seconds . . . see \second \Angus ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 57 \angus ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 57 animals . . . . . . . . . . . 81, 82, 86 \Ankh (ˆ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 90 annuity symbols . . . . . . . . 108 \Antidiple (<) . . . . . . . . . . 95 \antidiple (<) . . . . . . . . . . 95 · \Antidiple* (<) . . . . . . . . . 95 · · ) . . . . . . . . . 95 \antidiple* (< · \antilabe (. . ) . . . . . . . . . . 64 .. \Antisigma (⊃) . . . . . . . . . . 95 \antisigma (⊃) . . . . . . . . . . 95 \Anun (n) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 81 \Ape (p) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 81 APL modifiers . . . . . . . . . . . 71 symbols . . . . . . . . . . . . 71 \APLbox ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . 71 \APLcirc (◦) . . . . . . . . . . . . 71 \APLcomment ( ) . . . . . . . . . 71 \APLdown ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . 71 \APLdownarrowbox ( ) . . . . 71 \APLinput ( ) . . . . . . . . . . 71 \APLinv (÷) . . . . . . . . . . . . 71 \APLleftarrowbox ( ) . . . . 71 \APLlog ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . 71 \APLminus (−) . . . . . . . . . . 71 \APLnot (∼) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 71 \APLrightarrowbox ( ) . . . . 71 \APLstar ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . 71 \APLup ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 71 \APLuparrowbox ( ) . . . . . . 71 \APLvert ( | ) . . . . . . . . . . . . 71 \apprge ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . 38 \apprle ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . 38 \approx (≈) . . . . . . . . . . . . 30 \approx (≈) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 32 \approxcolon (≈:) . . . . . . . 36 \approxcoloncolon (≈::) . . . 36 \approxeq ( ) . . . . . . . . . . 30 \approxeq ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . 32 \Aqoph (q) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 81 \Aquarius (ê) . . . . . . . . . . 71 \aquarius ( ) . . . . . . . . . . 71 \AR ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 70 ar (package) . . . . . . . . 70, 119 arc (a) . . . . . . . . . see accents \arccos (arccos) . . . . . . . . . 49 arcminutes . . . . . . . see \prime arcs (package) . . . . 17, 119, 120 arcseconds . . . . . . . see \second \arcsin (arcsin) . . . . . . . . . 49 \arctan (arctan) . . . . . . . . . 49 \Aresh (r) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 81 arev (package) . 67, 88, 119, 120 \arg (arg) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 49 \Aries (€) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 71 \Aries (à) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 71 \aries ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 71

\ArrowBoldDownRight ( ) . 75 \ArrowBoldRightCircled ( ) 75 \ArrowBoldRightShort ( ) . . 75 \ArrowBoldRightStrobe ( ) 75 \ArrowBoldUpRight ( ) . . . 75 \Arrownot () . . . . . . . . . . . . 48 \arrownot () . . . . . . . . . . . . 48 arrows 41–43, 47, 61–63, 72, 75, 81, 86, 90, 103 diagonal, for reducing subexpressions . . . . . . . . . . 59 dotted . . . . . . . . . . . . . 63 double-headed, diagonal 106 extensible . . . . . . . 59–63 fletched . . . . . . . . . 47, 75 negated . . . . . . . 41, 42, 44 \Arrowvert ( ) . . . . . . . . . 54 \Arrowvert ( ) . . . . . . . . . 55 \arrowvert () . . . . . . . . . . 54 \arrowvert ( ) . . . . . . . . . . 55 Arseneau, Donald 104, 106–108 \Asade (x) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 81 \Asamekh (s) . . . . . . . . . . . 81 ASCII . . 8, 10, 72, 100, 114–115, 117, 119 table . . . . . . . . . . . . . 114 ascii (package) 72, 115, 119, 120 \ascnode ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . 71 \Ashin (S) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 81 aspect ratio . . . . . . . . . . . . . 70 \ast (¦) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23 \ast (∗) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22 \ast (∗) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23 \Asteriscus (×) . . . . . . . . . 95 ··· · \asteriscus (×) . . . . . . . . . 95 ··· · \Asterisk (¦) . . . . . . . . . . 23 \Asterisk ( ) . . . . . . . . . . 78 \asterisk (¦) . . . . . . . . . . . 23 \AsteriskBold ( ) . . . . . . . 78 \AsteriskCenterOpen ( ) . . 78 \AsteriskRoundedEnds ( ) . 78 asterisks . . . . . . . . . . . . 23, 78 \AsteriskThin ( ) . . . . . . . 78 \AsteriskThinCenterOpen ( ) . . . . . . . . . 78 \asterism (**) . . . . . . . . . 104 * astrological symbols . . . . . . . 71 astronomical symbols . . . 71, 98 \astrosun ( ) . . . . . . . . . . 71 \asymp ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30 \asymp ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 48 \atan (atan) . . . . . . . . . . . 113 \ataribox ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . 88 \Atav (t) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 81 \Ateth (T) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 81 \AtForty (Ø) . . . . . . . . . . 90 \AtNinetyFive (Ó) . . . . . . 90 atomic math objects . . 49, 113 \AtSixty (Õ) . . . . . . . . . . 90

y { z w x

x

e g

f ˆ

A

h

124

\autoleftarrow (DG G G GG) . . . 62 \autoleftrightharpoons (EG C) GG GG G G . . . . . . . . . . . 62 . . 62

\autorightarrow (GG G G GA) \autorightleftharpoons GG GG G G (FG B) \Avav (w) . . average . . . . \Ayn ( ) . . . \Ayod (y) . . \Azayin (z) . . . . .

\baro (`) . . . . . . . . . . \barp (e) . . . . . . . . . . barred letters . . . . . . . \barrightharpoon (ß) \barsci (C) . . . . . . . . . \barscu (ˆ) . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . 62 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 81 21 14 81 81

   \Bart (¦)

. . . . . .

. . . . . .

. . . . . .

. 13 . 13 104 . 43 . 13 . 13

B \B . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . \B (´) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ˘ b (esvect package option) \b (a) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ¯ \b ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ˘ \Ba (a) . . . . . . . . . . . . babel (package) . . . . . . . \babygamma (3) . . . . . . . \backapprox ( ) . . . . . . \backapproxeq ( ) . . . . \backcong ( ) . . . . . . . . \backepsilon ( ) . . . . . \backeqsim ( ) . . . . . . . \backneg (⌐) . . . . . . . . . \backprime ( ) . . . . . . . \backprime ( ) . . . . . . . \backsim ( ) . . . . . . . . \backsim ( ) . . . . . . . . . \backsimeq ( ) . . . . . . \backsimeq ( ) . . . . . . . \backslash (\) . . . . . . . \backslash ( )

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

.. .. .. .. .. .. 50, .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. 54,

10 95 61 14 95 85 87 13 32 32 32 30 32 66 66 66 30 32 30 32 65

\baru („) . . . . . \barwedge (ˆ) . \barwedge ( ) . . base-twelve digits \Bat (ý) . . . . . . \Bau (=) . . . . . \bauarrow ( ) . \baucircle ( ) . \baucircle ( ) \baucross ( ) . \baudash ( ) . . \baueclipse ( ) \bauequal ( ) . \bauface ( ) . . \bauforms ( ) .

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 

¤ ¡ ¥ ¡ ¨ ¢  „ 

\bauforms ( ) . . . . . . . . . 90 \bauhead ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . 90 \bauhead ( ) . . . . . . . . . . 90 \bauhole ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . 80 \bauplus ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . 90 \baupunct ( ) . . . . . . . . . . 80 \bauquarter ( ) . . . . . . . . . 90 \bauquestion ( ) . . . . . . . . 90 \bausquare ( ) . . . . . . . . . . 80 \bausquare ( ) . . . . . . . . . 80 \bautriangle ( ) . . . . . . . . 80 \bautriangle ( ) . . . . . . . . 80 \bauwhitearrow ( ) . . . . . . 75 \bauwindow ( ) . . . . . . . . . . 90 \BB ( ´) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 95 ˘ ˘ \Bb (´ ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 95 ˘ ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 95 ˘ \bB ( ´ ˘ ˘ \bb ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 95 ˘ × ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 95 ˘ \bba (˘ ˘ \bbalpha ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . 68 \bbar (¯) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 104 b \bbb (˘ ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 95 ˘ ˘ \bbbeta (

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 73 \Bearing (#) . . 95 ˘ ˘ ¯ \Bbm (¯ ) . . . . . . . 13 \barin (†) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 95 \bar (¯) . . . . . . . . . 68 \bbetter (g) . . . × \bigboxcoasterisk ( ) Ó \bigboxdiv (Ô) . . . . . . 68 bbgreekl (mathbbol package option) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 85 \Bdwe (>) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 68 \bbgamma ( ) . . . . . . . 52 \barj (j) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ) \bigboxleft ( Ñ . . . . . . . 50 \beth ( ) . . . 93 \Bdi (f) . . 68. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 74 . . . . . . . . 85 banana brackets . . . . . . . . . 16 ” biconditional . . . . Û \bigboxbot ( Õ . . 88 Berry. . . . 30 \between ( ) . . . ) \bigboxminus Ð ) . . . . . . . . . . . 125 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 68 \bcontraction . . . . . . 102 big O (O) . 119 ¤ . . . . . . . . . 96 13 23 22 65 90 85 75 80 80 77 90 80 90 90 90 £ §   … ©  †   £ ¦ ¢ . . . . . . . . . . 13 \barl (F) . . . . . math \bigast (¦) . 100. . . . . . . . . . . 101 \bbm ( ) . . . . . 120 \bbdollar ($) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 32 \Bi (i) . . . . . . . . . . 55  \backslashdiv ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 64 \BEL ( ) . . . . . . . . . . .”. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 57 \barb (¦) . . . 85 \Bdu (x) . . . . . . . . . 93 \bbeuro (û) . . . . . . . 68 \Bbbk (k) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 95 \bbslash ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 74 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ) \bigboxbackslash ( ) . . . . . . . . . 95 \barbrevis (ι) . . . . . . 85 \Bde (D) . . 85 \Baiii (<) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 52 bbding (package) 75–78. . 13 \bari (9) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13 \barbbrevis (θ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 122 \beta (β) . 85 \Bdo (g) . Karl . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . see \llparenthesis and \rrparenthesis \banceps (Ψ) . . . . . . . . . . . 51 \betteris (b) . . 50 \betaup (β) . . . . . . . . . .) . . . . . . . . . . . . see alphabets. . . . . . . . . . 68 \bbrevis (ς) . . . . . . 95 ˘˘ ˘ ¯¯ ¯ \bbnabla (š) . . . . . 68 \bbqof (×) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 109 \Bda (d) . . . . . . . ) \bigboxcirc ( ) . . . . . . . 104 ◦ \bard () . . . . 51 \beth ( ) . . . . . . . . . 13 \barlambda (¡) . . . . . . . 95 (˘ ˘ ¯ ˘ \bbmx ( ¯ ) . . . 100. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 93 \between (2) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 90 \Big . . . . . . . . . . 74 26 26 27 27 27 27 27 27 27 27 27 \bigbosonloopV () . . . . . . . 22 \baro ( vs. . . . . . . . . . 23 \bigbosonloop () { \bigbosonloopA () ‘ ' . . . . . . . . . 22 \bbyod (É) . . . . . . . . . 32 \Baii (. . . 32 \between ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 64 \because ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . 85 \bibridge (a) . . . . . . 72 \bell ( ) . . . . . ( \bigboxplus ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . 73 \because ( ) . . 101. 102 \big . . 85 \Beam (") . . . . . . . .) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 95 \bBm ( ¯ ˘ ˘ ¯´ ¯ bbm (package) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 85 \bdecisive (i) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 68. . . . . . . . . . . 85 \Be (e) . .Ö. . 43 \baro ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . \bigboxasterisk ( Þ . . . . . . . . 80. . . 30. . . . . . . 23 \backtriplesim ( ) . . . . \bigbox ( ) . . . . 95 \barcirc (−) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 68 bbold (package) . . . . 68 \BBm ( ´ ) . . `) . . . . . . see \leftrightarrow and \equiv \Bicycle (®) . . . . . . . . . . . . 85 \Bdwo (?) . . . . . . . . . . . . 95 ˘ ˘ ¯ \bbmb ¯¯ ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . \bigboxdot ( Ø . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 119 \bbpe (Ô) . . . . . 68 \bbfinalnun (Ï) . . . . . . . . . 13 \barleftharpoon (Þ) . . . . . . . 119. . . . . . . . . . . . 95 ´ ˘ ˘ ¯ ) . . . . .

\BlackQueenOnBlack (l) \BlackQueenOnWhite (q) \BlackRookOnBlack (s) . . \blacksquare ( ) . . . . . . . . 26 \bigotriangle ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 66 \blacklozenge ( ) . . 27 \bigocirc ( ) . . . . . . . . . 79 \BigCircle ( ) . . . . . . . . 79 \bigdoublecurlyvee ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . \blacktriangleleft (ž) . 29 \bigcoast (§) . . . . . . . . 27 \bigparallel ( ) . . \BlackRookOnWhite (r) . . . . . . . . . . . . 26 \bigcurlyvee ( ) . . . \blacktriangleleft ( ) . 26 ß \bigboxtriangleup ( ) . . . 126 . . . 29 \bigsqcapdot ( ) . . . . . . 27 \bigstar () . . 27 \BigCross ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29 ˘ \bigwith ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26 \bigcurlywedge ( ) . . . . 29 \bigcupplus ( ) . . . .’. . . . 26 \bigoast ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22 \bigtriangledown ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . \BlackPawnOnBlack ( \blacksmiley ( ) . . . \blacktriangleright (Ÿ) \blacktriangleright ( ) \blacktriangleright ( ) \blacktriangleup (œ) . . . . . . . . . . \Bju (L) . . . . . . . . . . . . . \Bjo (b) . . . . . . . . . . 26 \bigsqcap ( ) . 26 \bigoslash ( ) . Æ . 26 \bigovert (Ì . 27 \bigsqcupplus ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . \Bku (v) . 29 \bigdoublevee ( ) . . . . 94 94 94 94 94 \blacklozenge ( ) . . . . . . 29 \BigDiamondshape ( ) . 27 \bigodot ( ) . . . .\bigboxright (Ý) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29 \bigoplus ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . \BlackKingOnWhite (k) . . . . 27 \bigcap ( ) . . . . . \BlackKnightOnBlack (m) \BlackKnightOnWhite (n) o) . . . . . . . . . . . 79 – \bigsqcap ( ) . . . . . . . 29 \bigsqcapplus ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 100. . . . 26 \bigoslash ( ) . 79 94 94 94 94 94 94 88 66 25 94 66 40 25 66 40 25 39 40 25 39 40 25 3 4 6 ) . . . . \Bki (c) . . . . . . . \blacktriangledown () . . . . . 29 \bigcupdot ( ) . . . 27 \bigobackslash ( ) . . . . . . . 29 Ë \bigobot ( Å . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29 \bigsqcupplus ( ) . \blacktriangledown ( ) . . . . . . 27 ) \bigominus ( ) . . . . . . \BlackPawnOnWhite (p) . . . 25 \biguplus ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . 22 binary operators . . . . 22 \Biohazard (h) . . . . . . . . 22 \bigtriangleup ( ) . . . . . . . . 29 . . . . \Bje (J) . . . . . . . . . . . . . \blacktriangledown ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 79 \bignplus ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . 29 \bigcurlyveedot › ) . 29 \bigcirc ( ) . 29 \bigwedge ( ) . . . . 29 \bigsqcupdot ( ) . 26 ˙ \bigparr () . . . . . . . . 22 \bigcirc ( ) . . . . . . . . . . 29 \bigwedgedot ( ) . . . . . . . 100. . 29 \bigvarstar () . 102 \BigHBar ( ) . 29 Ù 7  8 & • \bigotimes ( ) . . . . . . . \Bke (K) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26 Ú \bigboxtop ( ) . . . 74 biological symbols . . . . . . 26 \bigsqcap ( ) . . . . . . . . . 25 \bigoplus ( É . . . . 29 ) \bigcurlyvee ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . 79 \bigtriangleup ( ) . ) 101 \bigtriangleup ( ) . 29 \bigcapplus ( ) . . . . . 29 \bigdoublewedge ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26 \bigtriangledown ( vs. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29 \bigostar ( ) . . . . . . . 26 \bigcurlyvee ( ) . . . . . math \blackdiamond () . \blacktriangle ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . \BlackKingOnBlack (j) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29 \bigcapdot ( ) . 29 \bigsqcup ( ) . . 27 \bigominus ( ) . . . 27 \bigtimes ( ) . 25 \bigvee ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 48 negated . . . . . . . 23 \bigstar ( ) . . . . . . . . . 25 \bigodot ( È . . . . . . 40 \biguplus ( ) . 40 \BigTriangleLeft ( ) . . . . . . \bigoasterisk ( Î . . . . . . . 26 \bigboxtimes ( ) . . . . 79 ) \bigtimes ( ) . . . . . . . 47. . . . . . . . . . . . . 25 \bigotimes ( ) . 29 Ê \bigotop ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 27 \bigplus ( ) . . . . . . 27 \bigsqcapplus ( ) . . . 22–25 binary relations . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29 . 29 \bigcupplus ( œ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . \blacktriangle ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29 ) \bigoleft ( Á . . . . . . .Ç. . . 25 \bigwedge ( ) . . . . . . \bigocoasterisk ( ) . . . . 79 \bigcircle ( ) . . . . . 29 \bigcurlywedgedot ( ) . . . . . . . . . 26 Ü \bigboxvoid ( ) . . . 79 \bigtriangledown ( ) . . . . . . . 27 ) \bigocirc ( ) . . . . . . \blacksquare ( ) . . . 31–33 \bindnasrepma ( ) . . . . 30 \binampersand ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29 \BigTriangleDown ( ) . . \blacktriangleleft ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . 29 ( \bigcurlywedge ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . bishop . . . 74 G birds . . . . . . . . . . . ) 101 \bigtriangledown ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . 29 \BigSquare ( ˜ . . . . . . . . . . . 82 94 93 85 85 85 85 85 85 85 85 85 94 \BlackBishopOnBlack ( a) \BlackBishopOnWhite (b) \BlackEmptySquare ( 94 blackboard bold see alphabets. . . . . . . 26 \BigLowerDiamond ( ) . . . 29 \BigRightDiamond ( ) . . . . . . 79 \bigvee ( ) . . . . . . . 29 \bigveedot ( ) . 27 \bigboxslash (Ò) . . 66 \bigstar ( ‘ . . . . . . . . . 23 2 5 Z) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30–32. . 29 ) \bigovoid ( ) . . . 102 \bigg . . \Bko (h) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26 \bigtriangleup ( vs. . . . 29 \bigdoublecurlywedge ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25 \bigsqcup ( ) . . \Bka (k) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29 ) \bigoright (Í) . . . 27 ) \bigobackslash ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . \blackstone . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25 \bigcap ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 79 ) \bigsquplus ( ) . . 26 \bigcurlywedge ( ) . . . . 79 \biginterleave ( ) . . . . . . . 27 à \bigodiv ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . 79 \bigcup ( ) . . . . 79 \BigTriangleRight ( ) . . 79 \BigTriangleUp ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 34–39. . . . . 29 \Bigg . . . . . 23 \bigcomplementop ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23 \BigVBar ( ) . . 30 \bigplus ( ) . . . 25 \bigcup ( ) . . \bishoppair (a) \Bja (j) . . . . 29 Ï \bigotriangleup ( ) .

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 85 body-text symbols . . . . . . . . see \textblank \Bleech (Ë) . . . . 85 \Bo (o) . . 25 \boxminus ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 85 \BNxc („) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25 \boxbslash ( ) . . . \BPvolb (Ľ) . . . . . . . . . 85 \Bmo (A) . . . . . . 25 \boxRight ( ) . . . . . . . . 22 \boxminus ( ) . 48 \blitzb ( ) . . \BPspear (¡) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 85 \BNiii (˜) . . . 25 \boxright ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . \BPwoman (ą) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 85 \BNvi (˚) . . . . . . . . . \BPox (ń) . . 113 \boldmath . . . . 95 ˘ ¯ bm (package) . . . . . . . . . . . 85 \Bni (C) . 85 \BNx (˙) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22 \boxplus ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 85 \BNccc (–) . . . . \BParrow (ij) . . . 25 \boxtimes ( ) . . . . . . \BPbilly (ť) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22 \boxbot (k) . . . . . . . . . . . \BPcauldroni (đ) \BPcauldronii (§) \BPchariot (ÿ) . . . . . . . . . . . \BPhorse (ď) . . . . . . . 25 \boxleft ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 74 \bot (⊥) . . . . . . \BPcup (Ÿ) . . 42 \boxminus (—) . . . . . . . . 32 \Bouquet (¥) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . \BPnanny (ț) . 85 \BNv (˝) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . \BPbarley (Ş) . . . . . . . . . . . \BPsheep (ř) . . . . . . . . . . . \BPboar (ľ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . \BPfoal (ě) . . \BPwheel (ž) . . . . . . . . 113. 66 \Box ( ) . . . . . . . . 85 \BNvii (ˇ) . . . \BPbull (ň) . . . . . . . . . . . . 22 \boxasterisk (f) . . . . . . \BPman (ă) . 85 \BNlx (›) . . . . . . 121 \bm . . . . . . . . . . 30 \bowtie ( ) . . . 22 \boxLeft ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 42 \boxleft (h) . 9–20 ©     bold symbols . 25 \boxbox ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . 85 \BNcm (ff) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 42 \boxempty ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . \Bpuii (\) . . . \Bpo (H) . . . . 48 block-element symbols . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 97 \Bm (´) . . . . . . 85 \BNd (‌) . . . . . . . . \BPolive (Ț) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 91 Boolean domain (B) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 95 ˘ ¯ \Bma (m) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 85 \BNdccc (ȷ) . . \BPwheat (Š) . . 85 \Bnu (F) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25 \boxdiv (™) . . . . . \Bpte (]) . 85 \BNlxx (“) . . . . . . . 25 \boxvoid (l) . . 25 \boxplus (–) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 85 \BNxxx (˛) . . . . . . . . 85 \Bme (M) . . . . 85 \BNdc (‰) . . . . 42 \boxdotleft ( ) . . . . . . . . \BPtalent (Ď) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22 \boxslash ( ) . . . . 25 \boxbar ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 113 \bomb ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . \Bpa (p) . . \BPwineivh (İ) . . . . . . . 25 \boxtimes (˜) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25 \boxtriangleup (o) . . . . . . . . . . . 21. 85 \BNii (ˆ) . . . . . . . . . . . . 85 \Bmi (y) . . . . . . . . . . . . 85 \BNi (´) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . \BPcloth (Ř) . . . . . . . . . . 48 \blitzd ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25 box-drawing symbols . . . . . . \BPchassis (ź) . . . . \Bpaiii ([) . . . . . . 25 \boy (h) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25 \boxcircle ( ) . . . . . . . . . 113 \boldsymbol . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22 \boxdot ( ) . \Bpi (G) . . . . . . . . \BPwine (Ť) . . . . \BPsow (ł) . . . . . . math Boolean logic gates . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . \BPwineiih (Ż) . . . . 85 \BNviii (˘) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 85 \BNm (fi) . . . . . . . 85 \bmod . . . . . \Bpu (I) . . . . . . . . . . . 85 \BNlxxx (”) . . . . . . . . . . . . \BPvola (Ĺ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25 \boxplus ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 48 \blitze ( ) . \Bpe (P) . . . . . . . . . . 42 \boxright (i) . . 65 \Box ( ) . . . . . 25 \boxbackslash (n) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25 \boxdotLeft ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 49 \Bmu (B) . . \BPewe (š) . . . . . . . . . . . . \BPwool (Ś) . . 85 \BNix (¯) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 85 \Bne (N) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . \BPwineiiih (IJ) . . . . . 25 \boxdot ( ) . 105 \bot ( ) . . . . . . . . . 90 \Bowtie ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . 119. see \textborn bosons . . . \BPamphora (Ž) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 52 \botdoteq () . 71 85 85 86 86 86 86 86 86 86 86 86 86 86 86 86 86 85 86 86 86 86 86 86 85 86 86 85 86 86 86 86 86 86 86 86 85 85 85 85 85 85 85 85 86 86 86 86 86 86 86 86 127 . . . . . . \BPram (ś) . 48 \blitzc ( ) . . . 85 \BNl (‹) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . \BPvolcf (Ń) . 113 \bm ( ) . . . . . . 85 \BNxx (¸) . . . . . . . . . . . \BPgoblet (Ź) . . . . . . \BPgold (Ů) . . . . . . . . . . . 73 born . . . . \BPbronze (Ű) . . . . . . . . . 85 \BNxl (‚) . . . . . . 22 \boxcirc (e) . . . . . . . . . 24 \Box ( ) . . . . . . . . . . 85 \BNdcc (ı) . . . . . . 90 \blitza ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . \BPgoat (ş) . . . . . 88 \bowtie ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . 25 \boxvert ( ) . . . . . 42 \boxdotright ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . \BPpig (ĺ) . . . . . . . . . . 42 \boxslash (m) . . . . . . . . . . . . . see alphabets. . . . . . . . . . 85 \Bna (n) . . . . . . . . . . 85 \BNiv (¨) . . . . . . . . . . . . . \BPsword (ż) . 85 \BNc («) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 85 \Bnwa (@) . . . . . . . . . 25 \boxslash ( ) . . . . . . . 85 \Bno (E) . . . 22 \boxbox ( ) . . . . . . . 22 \boxtimes ( ) . . . . 25 \boxtop (j) . . . . . . . . 85 \BNcd (—) . . 25 \boxbackslash ( ) . 42 \boxdotRight ( ) . . 22 \boxcoasterisk (g) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 85 \BNcc (») . . . . . . . . . . . . .blank . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . \BPvolcd (Ł) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 97 \boxast ( ) . . . . . \BPcow (ŋ) . . . . . . . . . . . . 21. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 51. . 25 \boxdot (d) . . . .

. . . . 88. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . David . . . . . . . . . . 86 \BUii (ffi) . . . 72 \Bsa (s) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . \BUvi (") . . . . 72 cancel (package) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 71 \cancer ( ) . . . . . . . 95 cclicenses (package) 19. . . . . . . . . . . 70 \Celtcross (‡) . . . . . \Bwa (w) . . . 94 \castlingchar (O) . . . . 32 \bumpedeq (#) . . \Bzo (9) . \breve (a) . . . .\BPwta (Ă) . .. . . 85 \BPwtb (Ą) . 85 \Bro (U) . . . . . . . . . . . . 71. . . . . . 121 Calligra (font) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 71 128 C \BusWidth ( ) \BUv (!) . . . . 85 \BS ( ) . . . . . . . . 22 centernot (package) . . 85 \Btwe (­) . . . . . . . . . . . . .. 33 \bumpeq ( ) . . . 88 \CheckedBox ( ) . 80 cardinality . . 14. . . . . . . . . . . . 118 Charter (font) . . . 90 \cent (¢) . . . . . . . . . 80. . 85 \Bta (t) . . . 85 \brokenvert ( ) . . . . 105 \centernot . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22 \Cap ( ) . . . . 93 \castlinghyphen (-) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 85 \BPwtc (Ć) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 80. see \llparenthesis and \rrparenthesis \cb (a) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . \Bwe (W) . 64 \cdots (· · · ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 77 \Checkedbox (V) . . . . . . . . . . . 85 braket (package) . . . . . . . . . . . . . see \textcelsius \centre (I) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23 \cap (∩) . . . . . . . . . . 32 \Bumpeq ( ) . . . . . . . . . 73 \BUi (fl) . . . 85 \Bse (S) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 80 Cartesian product . . . . . . . . . . . . . 57 . . . . . . . . . . 118. . . . . . . . . 85 \BSEfree (n) . . 73 C \C ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 68. . . . . . . . . 33 \bupperhand (e) . . . 54 \Bre (R) . . . . . . . 112. . . 85 \Bqi (X) . . . . . . . . . 23 \capdot ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 65–67. see delimiters \Braii (^) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8. . 95 \cc ( CC ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 54 109 109 . . . . 30 \bumpeq ( ) . . . . . . . . 23 bullseye . .. . 120 \ccnc ( $ ) . . . . . .. 77 C \ 3 . . . . . . . . 88 Bronger. . . . . . . .. . 23 \Capricorn (é) . . . . . . . . . . . . 85 \Bqo (8) . . . . . . . . . . ˘ breve (˘) . . 90. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 116 a \c ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . 72 . see \textcolonmonetary cedilla (¸) . . . . . . . . .. . . . 30 \Bumpeq ( ) . 55 brackets . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 85 \Btu (5) . . . . . . . . . . . . . \bracerd ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . 95 catamorphism . . . . . . 86 chancery (package) . . bra . \BUxii (­) . . . . . . . . . . 119 caron (ˇ) . . . . . . . . . . 64 \cdotp (·) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 85 \Bto (4) . . . 30 \check (ˇ) . . 77. . . . . \Cc ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . 73 \bracevert ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . 104 \cdot (⋅) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 85 \Bte (T) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Torsten . . . . . . . . . . . 98 \celsius ( ) . 86 Cedi . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . \BUxi (’) . . . . .. \BUviii ($) \BUx (&) . . . . 23 \capplus ( ) . . . . . 61 \c (¸) . . 22 \cap (∩) . a \brevis (β) . . . 86 \BUix (%) . see \times castle . . . see accents a carriage return . . . . . . . . . 72. . . . . . 32 \char . . . 18 \centerdot () . . . . 103. . . . . . . . 68 calrsfs (package) . . . . . . . . . 105 centigrade . . . . . \Bza (z) . . . . . . . . 85 \BUFd () . . . . . . 105 \Bru (V) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . \Bwi (6) . . . 96 73 86 86 86 86 86 86 86 85 85 85 85 85 85 85 \capricornus ( ) . . 85 \Bso (1) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . \BUvii (#) . . . . 86 \bullet (•) . . 24 \cap (ˆ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . see \^ Carlisle. . . . 19 \cc ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19 \cdot (·) . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . 86 \Btwo (~) \Bu (u) . 72 \Bsu (2) . . 119 \changenotsign . . . . . . . . 103 \carriagereturn ( ) . . . \Break ( Break \breve (˘) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . 95 c (esvect package option) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 68 \CAN ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 95 \Catalexis (∧) . . . . . . . 22 \bullet ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . 18. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 85 . . . . . . . . . 86 \BUiii (ffl) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23. . . 101 \checked ( ) . . . . . . . 85 \Bswi (|) \Btaii (}) . . .    \Burns () . 17 accents . . . . . 85 \Bti (3) . . . . . . . see \aleph care of (c/o) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 95 \BUFu ( ) . . . . . . see \textcent \CEsign (C) . . . . . 115. . . . . . . . . . . 57 check marks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 85 \Bqe (Q) . . . . see . . . . . . . . . 19 \ccsa ( ) . 86 \BUiv (␣) . . . . . . . . 1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 85 \Bqa (q) . . . . . . . . . 85 . . .. . . . . 17 . . . 93 \Bri (O) . . . . . . . 90 \Checkmark ( ) . . . . . . . . . 85 \BPwtd (Č) . . . . . . \braceld ( ) . .. . . . . 95 \Ca (a) . 93 card suits . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . 85 .. . . . . . . . . . 67 caret . . . . . 119. . . 95 \catalexis (∧) . . 95 \ccby ( BY: ) . 85 \Braiii (_) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 54 \BUFr () . . 86 calligra (package) . . 23 \centerdot ( ) . . 85 \Broii (‘) . 74 \Cga (g) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 85 . . . . . . . . . . . . . 59 \Cancer (ã) . . . 19 \ccnd ( = ) . . . . . . . \Bwo (7) . . . . . 85 \Bra (r) . . . . . .   \bracevert ()  . . . . . . . . . . 66. . . . . . . . 63 \cdotp (⋅) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10. . . . . . . . . . . . 74 \Bsi (Y) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 93 \catal (γ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . see \textbullseye \Bumpedeq (%) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . see accents celestial bodies . 119. . . . . 71 \Cap ( ) . . . . . . 93 cents . . . 85 \BSpace ( →− ) . 71 \capturesymbol (X) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . 63 \Ce (e) .. 73 \BUFl () . 19 \Ccc ( ) . . . . . . . . . . 85 \Bswa ({) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . \Bze (Z) . . . . . . . . . 22. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ) . . . 73 buffers . . . . . .

. . . . . see accents a \circumflexus (a) . . . . 22 \circledcirc ( ) . . . . . . . . . . 105 \circ (○) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25 \circledbar ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 119. . . . . . . . . 36 \Colonsim ( ) . . 90 \CleaningP (¬) . . . . . . 94 \chesscomment (RR) . . . . . 97. . . 119. . . . . . . 98. . . . . 88 clock symbols . . . . 67. . . . . . 86 \Cmi (y) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 93 chemarr (package) . . . . . . 90 \CleaningF (¾) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 42 \circledgtr ( ) . . . . . 34 \colonapprox ( ) . . . . . . . . . . 92 \clock ( ) . . . 88. . 30 \circeq ( ) . 36. . . . 36 \colonsim (:∼) . . . . . . . . 92 \ClockFrametrue . . 42 \circlearrowleft ( ) . . . 23 \circledcirc ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . see \odot \circleddotleft ( ) . 33 \Coloneqq ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 34 \coloneq (!) . . . . . . 73 circumflex (ˆ) . . . . . . . . . . . . 86 cmll (package) 21. 8. 50 \Ci (i) . . . . . . . . . . . . 34 \coloneqq (:=) . . . . . see \otimes \circledvee ( ) . . . . 22 \circledast ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 62. . . . . . . . 33 \CIRCLE ( ) . . . . . . . . . . Raymond . . . . . . . . . ) . . . 13 \closedprec ( ) . . . . 119. . . . . . 120 d — \clock ( ) . . . . . . . 31 \coloncolon (::) . 94 \CircleShadow ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . 34 \colonsim ( ) . . . . . 36. . . . 86 \Cki (c) . . . . . . . 31 \Coloneqq (::=) . . . 86 \Cmu (B) . . . . . . . . . . . . 34 \coloneqq ( ) . . . . 34 \coloneq ( ) . . 42 circles . . . . . . . . . 23 \circleleft ( ) . . . accents communication symbols . . . . . . 122 chess symbols . . . . . . . . . . . . see \ominus \circledotleft . 86 \Cla (l) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 66 \checkmark ( vs. . . . 23 \circeq (&) . . . . . 44 \circlearrowright (÷) . . . . . . . . . . . . 73 comma-below accent (a) . . . . . . . see \oplus \circledR ( ) . . see \oslash \circledtimes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21. 24. . . . . . 86 \Cka (k) . . . . . . . 23 \Circsteel (•) . 49 » à ¢ 129 . . . 120 chemarrow (package) 47. . . . . . 68. . . . . . . . . . . . . 34 \colonsim (:∼) . . . . . . 86 \Cle (L) . . . 30. .text. . . . . 93 \complement (e) . 119. . . . . . . 52 \complement ( ) . . . . . 31 \Coloneq (::−) . 91 clovers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22. 88. . . . . . . . . . . 65 \clubsuit (♣) . . . . 47 Chen. . 31 \circledless ( ) . . . . . . . . . 33 \Cloud ( ) . . . . . 90 \coh (¨) . . . . . . 86 \Cni (C) . . . 21. . . . 52 \complement ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 90 \ClockStyle . . . . . 101 \checkmark ( ) . . . . . . . 103–108 \compensation (n) . . . 33 \closedniomega (c) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 36 \coloncolonapprox (::≈) . . . . 80 \CircleSolid ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 80 \Circpipe (›) . 117 code page 437 . . . . . . . . 92 \clocktime . . . . 86 \Cku (v) . . . . . . . . . . 101 \Circle ( ) . . . . . . 80 \CheckmarkBold ( ) . 13 \closedsucc ( ) . . 90 \circledast ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 90 \Cli (d) . 31 \coloneq ( =) . . . . . . . . . 25 \circleddot . . . . . . . . . . . . 33 \closedrevepsilon (') . . . . 66 \Cma (m) . 86 \Cno (E) . 79 \Circle ( vs. 44 circled numbers . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19 \colon . . . . 86 \CleaningA («) . . 32 \circeq ( ) . . . . . . 79–80. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 86 1 i ’  \Cna (n) . . . . . . 72. . . . . . . . 90–92 \ClockFramefalse . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22. . . . . . . . 22 \circleddash ( ) . 13 \clickt (‚) . . . . . . . 94 \CircledA (ª) . . . . 77 \checksymbol (+) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 42 \circleddotright ( ) . . . 115 \Coffeecup (K) . 115 table . . . . . . . . 78 \Clu (q) . . . . . . see \circleddotleft \circledotright . . .\checkmark ( ) . 36 \coloncolonsim (::∼) . . . . 34 \colonapprox (:≈) . . . . 31 \Colonsim (::∼) . . . . . . . . 86 \coAsterisk (§) . 86 clock (package) . . 63 \colon ( : ) . . . . 42 \circleright ( ) . . 31 colonequals (package) 21. 49 \Complex ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . 106 comp. . . . .tex (newsgroup) . . . . . 86 \Cko (h) . . . . . . . . . 90 \CleaningFF (¿) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 32 \coloneq (:−) . . . . . . . . . 21. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 92 \closedcurlyvee ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . 86 \Cne (N) . . . . 21. . . . 13 \Clo (f) . . 23 \circledbslash ( ) . 25 \circleddash ( ) . . . . . . . 36 \Coloneq ( ) . . . . 31 combelow (package) 17. . . . 23 code page 1252 . . . . 63 \colon ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 36 coins. . . 88 \circlearrowleft (ö) . . . . . . . . 49. . . . . . . 80 \clubsuit (♣) . . . . . . . . . . . 119 \Cmo (A) . . . . . 119 \chemarrow (A) . . . . . . . . . . 86 cipher symbols . . . . 36 \coloncolonequals (::=) . . . . 93 \chi (χ) . . . . . . . 50 china2e (package) 19. 86 \Cme (M) . . 93 \chessetc (P) . . . . . . . . . 24 \closedcurlywedge ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . 121 \chiup (χ) . . 93 \chesssee (l) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13 \clickc () . . . . 36 \colonapprox (:≈) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17 ˜ \Cja (j) . . . . . 31 \circledminus . . 52 \circledS ( ) . 86 \Co (o) . . . . . . . . . . 119. . . . . ancient . . 88 \Circle ( ) . . see . . . . . . . . 41 \circlearrowleft ( ) . . . . . . 36 \coloncolonminus (::−) . . . . . 73 commutative diagrams . 41 \circlearrowright ( ) . 86 clubs (suit) . 77. . 23 \coasterisk (§) . . . . . . . . . . 92. . . . . . . . 65–67. . . . 86 \Cjo (b) . . . . . . 29 complete shuffle product ( ) 24 \COMPLEX ( ) . . . . . . . . . 64 \Colonapprox ( ) . . . . 10 \checkmark ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 93. . . . . . . . . see \circleddotright \circledplus . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10. . . 86 \clickb (Y) . . . 92 \Clocklogo (U) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 52 \circledslash . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ) . . 86 \Cnu (F) . . . . 120 \colonequals (:=) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 98 \circ (◦) . 62. . . . . . . 121 combinatorial logic gates . . . . . . . . . . . . 42 \circlearrowright ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23 D D 4 S S \circledwedge ( ) . . . . . . . . 73 \circplus (¨) . . 90 \CleaningPP ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 36 \colonminus (:−) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24 \closedequal ( ) . . . . . . . . . . 31 \Colonapprox (::≈) . . . . 86 \Cke (K) . . . . .

. . . . 33 congruent . . . 86 \Cta (t) . . . . 22 \curlywedge ( ) . ) . . vs. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . \dashrightarrow \dasheddownarrow ( ) . . . . . . 25 \coprod ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . 59. . . . . . . 86 \Czo (9) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 76. . . . . . . . . . . . 77. . . \daleth ( ) . . 75 \Cwa (w) . . . . . . 117–119 computer hardware symbols . 86 \Cpi (G) . 72 B E R F D C ¢  B  \Ctu (5) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19 crescent (fge package option) 58 \Cri (O) . . 43 \curvearrownwse ( ) . . . . . 43 \Cutleft (s) . . . . 44 \curvearrowleftright (ò) . 86 \Cyo (b) . . . . 86 \Cti (3) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 86 D \D (a) . . . . . . . . . 13 \Crossedbox (X) . . . . . . . . . 30 \cong (≅) . . . . . . . . . . . . . see \sqrt \Cup ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 95 \coronainv ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . 57 \Csa (s) . . . . . see code page 1252 CP437 . . . . . 22. . . . . . . . . 86 \Cpe (P) . 86 \Cro (U) . . . 24 \curlywedgedownarrow ( ) . . . 121 \Cza (g) . . . . . . math composited accents . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 87 \coppa (ϙ) . . . . . 18. . . 24 \cup (‰) . . . . . 23 \curlyvee ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 79 \Cross († vs. . . . see \wedge and \& consequence relations . . . . . see code page 437 \Cpa (p) . . . . . . 75 \Cutline (r) . . . 49 \coth (coth) . . . . . . 86. 86 \Cwe (W) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 86 cypriot (package) . . . 19. . 69. . . . . . . . . . . . 86 Cypriot . . . 86 \Cwi (6) . . . . . . . . . 42 \curvearrowright ( ) . \dasharrow . . . . . . . . . . 32 \curlyeqsucc ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21. . . . . . . 17 . . . . . . . . . 119. . . ¨ d (esvect package option) \d (a) . . . . . . 116 \copyright (©) . . 86 \CR ( ) . . 22 \curlywedgeuparrow ( ) . . 76 \Cross (†) . . . . . see \leftarrow and \subset converse nonimplication . . . . . . . . . . . . 43 130 . . . . . . . 72 \cr . 77. . . . 113 \cosh (cosh) . . . . . . . . 49 \counterplay (V) . . . 86 \Cu (u) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 112 \cup (∪) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 90 \Crux (†) . . . . . . . . 29 copyright . . . 103 cube root . . . . 18 corners. . . . . . 49. . . . . . . . . . . . . 75 cutoff subtraction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18 CP1252 . . . . . . . . . . 22 ¥¦§¨© \curlywedge (x) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14 9. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22 \curlyyogh (—) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 86 \csc (csc) . . . . . . . . . . . 86 \cyprfamily . . . . . . . . . . 86 \Cross ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 71 conjunction. . . . . . . . . . 30 \curlyeqprec ( ) . 72 Computer Modern (font) . . 61 . . . . 76 \crossnilambda (Q) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 86 \Csu (2) . . . . . . . . . . 9 \corner (k) . . . . . . . . 24 \cupplus ( ) . . . . . 24 \Csi (Y) . . . . . 102. . . . . . . . . 8. . . . . 22 \curlyvee ( ) . . . . . 43 \curvearrowupdown ( ) . . 32 \cos (cos) . . . . . . . . 72 . . . . see . 23 \cup (∪) . . . . . . . . 9. . . 13 \curlyvee (y) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 35 contradiction symbols . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 117 . . . . . . . . . . . . . 42 \curvearrowleftright ( ) . . . 13 \curlyeqprec (¶) . . . . . . . 48 control characters . . . . . . . . . . 16 a \Cru (V) . . 42 \curvearrowbotleftright (õ) . . 51 . . 43 \curvearrowswne ( ) . . 49 \cot (cot) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13 \CrossOpenShadow ( ) . . . . 94 \crossh (5) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 72 converse implication . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13 \curlyz (”) . . . . . . . . . 24 \cupdot ( ) . . . . . . 22 \Cup ( ) . . . . . . . 76 \crossd () . box . . . . . . 23 \curlywedge ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24 \curlywedgedot ( ) . . . . . . . .complex numbers (C) . . . . . . . . . . . 86 \Cpo (H) . 86 \Cwo (7) . . 95 \Corresponds (=) . . . . . . . . . . . . see \nleftarrow and \nsubset \convolution () . . . . . . . . . 51 . . . . . . . . . 86 \Cto (4) . . 57 \crux (†) . . . . 72 computer keys . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22 . 22 \curlyveeuparrow ( ) . . . . . . . . 30 \curlyeqsucc ( ) . . . 76 crotchet . . . . . 44 \curvearrowrightleft ( ) . . . . . 86 CTAN see Comprehensive TEX Archive Network \Cte (T) . . . . . . 42 \curvearrowdownup ( ) . . . 32 \curlyeqprec ( ) . 42 \curvearrowbotright (ô) . . 41 \curvearrowright ( ) . 90 crosses . . . . . 13 \CrossBoldOutline ( ) . . . . . . 86 \cshuffle ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . see musical symbols Ŕ \crtilde (˜) . . . . . . . 24 \curlyc () . . . . . . . . . 24 \curlyveedot ( ) . . . . . . logical . . . . . . 18 currency symbols . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 87 \coprod ( ) . . . . . . . . . . \dagger (†) . . . . . . . . . 76 \CrossClowerTips ( ) . . . . . . . . . 93 Courier (font) . . 24 \curlyveedownarrow ( ) . 101 \Cross ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 91 . . . . . . \daleth ( ) . . . 104 \Cra (r) . . . . . . . . see \dotdiv \Cutright (q) . . . . . . . . . 104. . . . 21. 76. 14 Comprehensive TEX Archive Network . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 89 . . . 72 \cong ( ) . 76 \CrossOutline ( ) . . . . . . . . 86 \Cya (j) . . . . . . . . . 13 \CrossMaltese ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 67 \corresponds ()) . . . . . 42 \curvearrowleft ( ) . . . . . . 68 \curvearrowbotleft (ó) . . . \danger ( ) . . . . . . 97 \corona ( ) . . 33 \curlyesh (x) . . 100. . . 19. . . . . \dag (†) . . . 86 crucifixes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 115 \ComputerMouse (Í) . 86 \Ctrl ( Ctrl ) . . . . . 90 cross ratio . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 86 \Cre (R) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . see \textrecipe \crossb (¥) . . . . . . . . . 100. . 33 \curlyeqsucc (·) . . . . . 86 \Cpu (I) . . . 43 \curvearrowright (ñ) . 13 \currency (¤) . . . . . . . dangerous bend symbols \DArrow ( ↓ ) . . . . . . . . . . . see \equiv \conjunction ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . 86 \Cxe (X) . . 43 \curvearrownesw ( ) . 86 \Cxa (x) . . . . . . . . . 90. . . . . . . 86 \Cube ( ) 92. . . . see alphabets. . . . 43 \curvearrowleft (ð) . . . . . . . . 86 \Cso (1) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 86 Creative Commons licenses . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23 \Coppa (Ϙ) . . . . . 49 \Cse (S) . . . . . . . . . 41 \curvearrowleft ( ) . 43 \curvearrowsenw ( ) . . . .

. . .. . 87 \digamma ( ) .. . . . . . . . . 66 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 42 diamonds . . . . . . . . 87 \digamma (ϝ) . . . . . . . . \ddagger (‡) . . . 16 g derivitive. . . \dbar (¯ . . . . \dblcolon (::) . . 103 definition symbols . . 21. . . . . . . . . 54–57 wavy-line . . . . 43 . . 44 . . . . . 78 . . . . . \diamond ( ) . . 22 \div (÷) . . . . . . . . 43 . .. . . . . . ) .. . ¨ diæresis (¨) . . . . . 50. .. 70 \dim (dim) . 13 10. . .. . 33 . 78 . . . . . . . . . . . . . \Diamond ( ) . . . . . . . . 72 . .. . . 22 \divides (#) . . . . . . . . 104 . . . . 20 segmented . . . \ddashint (= ) . . . 49 \degree (H) . . . . . .. . . . . \decothreeright ( ) . . . 24. . . . \decosix ( ) . . 79 \DiamondShadowB ( ) . .. .. . . . . . . . 95 · · \diple* (>) . 34 . 78 . .. . 36 . . ... . . \dBar (||) . . . . \diamondbackslash ( ) . .. . . \dashednwarrow ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 79 \diamondslash ( ) . . . 64 ) . . . ) . \DH (Ð) . 18. . . . . 19 \dental (a) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . \dasheduparrow ( ) . . \DiamonddotRight ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 66 . . . . . . . .. . \DCa ( ) . . . . . . . . 23 \divideontimes ( ) . . . . 72 \Del ( Del ) . . . . . . 115 disjoint union . . . . . . . .. . . . \DeclareMathOperator . . . . . . . . . . . . . \Dashv (A) . . . 59 non-commutative . . 25 . . . . . . . . . .. 66 \diamondtimes ( ) . 50 \delta (δ) . . . . . . . .. . . 33 . . .. . 73 digits . . .. 95 \diple (>) .. . . . . \DeclareFontFamily . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 108. . 106. . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . 53–57 text-mode . . . . . . . .. . . 66 . . . . . . . . 24 \divdot (£) . . . . 49 \ding . . . . . partial . . 107 . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11–14. . . . . . . . . . . 75–78. .. 78 . 66 . . . . . . . . . . . 43 . 25 . . . . . . . . .. . . \dashleftarrow ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 89 9. \diagdown ( ) . . . . . . . . . . 72 . . . . . \diameter ( ) . \davidsstar ( ) . . . 42 \Diamondleft ( ) . . 63 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 87 digital logic gates . . . \DeclareMathOperator* . . 25 \DiamondRight ( ) . 80 \diamondsuit (♦) . . . 105. . . \dh ( ) . . . 22 . . . . . 88 . 66 \degree (°) . . 25 \DiamondSolid ( ) . . . .. . . 43 . . . . . . .. 43 . . . . .. \dashleftrightarrow ( \dashrightarrow ( ) . . . . \DavidStarSolid ( ) . .. . . . . . . . . . . . \dashrightarrow ( ) . . \dashVv (E) . 21 disjunction . . . . . 77 dingbat (package) .. diacritics . . . 63. . . 93 . . . . . . . \diamonddot ( ) . . . 66 . \dh (ð) . . . . . . . 33 . 22. . . . 77 . \Diamonddotright ( ) . . . 54 discount . 32 \divides ( ) . 66 . . . . . . . \DashV (A) . . . . see musical symbols \Denarius (¢) . . . . .. . 25 \diamondplus ( ) . . . . . 89 .. see \textdegree \DEL ( ) . . 50 \deltaup (δ) . . . . 25 . . . 55. . . . . .. . . . . 119. . . . . . . . . . . . . 21 . . . . . .. . 79–80 diamonds (suit) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 42 \Diamondright ( ) . . 106 . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . 25 . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . 50 demisemiquaver . . 119. . .. . . . . . . . . . . . \DH (D) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . see \textdiscount discretionary hyphen . . . ) . . . . . . . . . . 116 . . . 65 . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30 . . . . . . 35 87 89 57 64 . . . \DeclareFontShape . 78 \ddttstile ( ) . . . . .. . \dashleftarrow ( ) . . . see \dbar \Digamma (Ϝ) . .. . . . . . . . \diameter (s) . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . see \textquotedbl \div (÷) . . . . . .. \dashint (− ) . . . . . see \Denarius delimiters . 131 ι \dashedleftarrow ( ) \dashednearrow ( ) . . see \diaeresis (a) . . . . \Diamond ( ) . . . . . 42 . inexact . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . \diagup (ä) . .. \DCd ( ) . . . . . 18 \denarius (Ε) . . 58 definite-description operator ( ) . \diagonal (G) . 108 \deg (deg) . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . \diameter ( ) . . . 76. 78 . . . . . . . . . \decoone ( ) . . . . . . . . 71 \det (det) . . . . . . d) \dbend ( ) . 106 . . . . . . . . \ddddot ( ) . . .. . \diamond ( ) . . . 66 . . . . . . 63 \dddtstile ( \ddigamma (ϝ) \DDohne (D ) . . . 79 \Diamondshape ( ) . 78 . . 18. . . .. . . . . 56 \Delta (∆) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . \DavidStar ( ) . . . . . . .H G \Dfourier ( \dfourier ( \DFT ( . . . . . . . .. . 80 \DiamondShadowA ( ) .. . . . . . . 63 T ¥ ¦ § p . . . 80. \diamonddiamond ( ) . . 25 . . . . . . . 13 10. . . . 120 died . . . . .. 92. . . 70 Mayan . . . . 32 . . . \diagup ( ) . 79 \DiamondShadowC ( ) . . . . 101. . . . . \DiamonddotLeft ( ) . . . \ddotdot ( ) . . . 66 . . \Diamondblack ( ) . . . . . 107 \diaunder . . . . . . 80 dingautolist . . . see \textdied differential. . . . . . . . . . . . . \dashedrightarrow ( ) \dashedsearrow ( ) . 35 . . . . . \dashv ( ) . see a \diagdown (å) . \diagup ( ) . see \vee \displaystyle . . . . . / D \ddot (¨) . . 25 \diamondvert ( ) . .. .. . . . . . . . . . 64 \DiamondLeft ( ) . \ddststile ( \ddtstile ( . . . . . . . . 36 . . . . 117 . . 43 . . . . . . . \Diamonddot ( ) . . 72 \Deleatur . \dddot ( ) . 75–80 \Diple (>) . . . . . . . . 32 . . 93 \diamonddots ( ) . . . 41 . . . . 35 ) . . 95 · Dirac notation . 95 . . 120 dingbat symbols . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 33 division . . . . . . . . . . . . 41 . . . . . . . . see \partial \descnode ( ) . D \ddag (‡) . . . 22 . . . . . . . . 42 ) . . . . . 42 . . . . . .. . . ) ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . 78 . . . . 65 old-style . . . 23 \divideontimes () . 107 . 42 \diamondminus ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . 58 . . 24. . . . . . . . . 25 \diatop . . . \decothreeleft ( ) . . \ddots ( . \decofourright ( ) . 96 dictsym (package) . . . . . . . . . . . . 10. . . . . . \dashv ( ) . . 65–67. . . . . . . . . . . \Diamond ( ) . 65 \diamondsuit ( ) . . . . . . . . . . 107 dice . . \diagdown ( ) . . 113 ditto marks . . . \DCb ( ) . 66 . .. . \DD (D ) . . . . . . .. . . . 49 \devadvantage (t) . . . 42 . . . . . 44 . . . . . . . . . . . . \ddots ( ) . 17 accents . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 72 . . .. . \Diamonddotleft ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . \dashedswarrow ( ) . . . . . . . 42 . 72 . . dblaccnt (package) . . . . . .. \diameter ( ) . . . . . . . .. . \decotwo ( ) . . . . . . \DeclareUnicodeCharacter \decofourleft ( ) . . . \declareslashed . . . . . . . 35 111 111 113 113 105 117 . . \DCc ( ) . . . . . . . . . 116 accents . . . . . . \dft ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 70 degrees . 32 . . . . 57 variable-sized . . . . . . . 78 . . . . . . . . . . . 43 .. . . 96. . . . . . . . 95 · \Diple* (>) . . . .. . . 65 LCD . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 103 dictionary symbols .

. 46 . 122 . . . . . see \Cap . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 33 . . . . ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . \doublecap (’) . . . . . . . . 43 . . . . . . . . . 35 \dnttstile ( do not enter . . . 35 68. . . . . \doublesmileeq ( ) . . . 23 \double . . . . . . 64 \dotso (. . . . . . . . 48 . . . . . . .) . \doubletilde (˜) . \downModels ( ) . . 14 dotless j () math mode . . . . . . . \downtherefore ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 42 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24 . . . . . . 57 double acute (˝) . . 43 . . . 119 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23 . s) \dsaeronautical (a) \dsagricultural (G) \dsarchitectural (A) \dsbiological (B) . . . . . . . . . . . 64 ) \dotsint ( ) . . . . . . . . 93 . . . . . . . \downarrow (↓) . . . . . . . . 109 . . . . . . . . . . . . 117 dots (ellipses) . S \Ds (s . . . . . . . . 119. . . . 64. . . . . . . . . . . . 23 . . . . . . . . . . 24 \dotminus ( ) . see \textdivorced \DJ (Ð) . 18 . . . . . . 109 . . . \downslice ( ) . . . . 96 . . . . . . \downt (m) . . . . . . . . . . 13 E e (esvect package option) . 43 . . . 16 . . . . . 21. . . \doublecup ( ) . . . 57 dot accent (a or . . . . . 65 \dracma ( ) . . 64 \dotsc (. . . . . . . . . . \doublepawns (d) . 9. . . see \in  ƒ ‰ r s p i 132 . . . . . . . . \doublecup (“) . . . . . . . . . . \downharpoonleft ( ) . . \downharpoonleft (å) . . . . 54 \Earth (g) . . 65 DVI . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23 . . 30 \doteqdot ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 64 \dotseq () . . 23 . \dsheraldical (H) . . . . . . . 63. . . . . . . \downuparrows (×) . . . . . . . . . 96 \dsststile ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . math element of . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 107 DotArrow (package) 63. . \downfootline ( ) . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . 119 . . . \dsliterary (L) . . . . . . . . . . . . \downfilledspoon ( ) . . . . . . . . . . \downuparrows ( ) . . . . . 43 . . . . . . 24 see \Cup . . 47 . . . . . 22 \dots (. . . . . . 72 \dlsh (ê) . . . . . . 33 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . \downmapsto ( ) . 96 . \DOWNarrow ( ) . . . . \downmodels ( ) . . . 43 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19 42 89 89 96 96 96 96 96 96 . . . . . 13 electrical symbols . . . . 46 . . . . . . . . \downparenthfill . . . . . . Michael J. . . 72. . . . . . . . . 63 ˙ dotted union (∪) . 16 a \dottimes (¢) . dozenal (package) . . . . . . . \doublesqcup ( ) . . . 35 ) . . . . . 63–65. . . \dsmilitary (X) . . . \downdownarrows (Ó) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . \downrsquigarrow ( ) . . see \divideontimes divorced . . . . . . . . \downdownarrows ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 89 / dollar . . . 43 . . 47 . . . . . . . . . . . . \downtouparrow (ÿ) . . . . . . . . . \dsdtstile ( ) . . . . . . . 41 . . . . . . . . . . . 35 ) . . . . \downbracketfill . . . \downupharpoons ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . 88 \eighthnote ( ) . . . \downharpoonright (ç) \downharpoonright ( ) \downlsquigarrow ( ) . . . 121 ) . \doublecurlywedge ( ) \doublefrown ( ) . 71 \Earth (Ê) . \downarrowtail ( ) . . . . . \downY ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24 . . . . . . 24 . . . . . . \dottedtilde (˜) . . . . \dscommercial (c) . . . . . . . . 19. . . . . . . . . 111 \dz () . . . . . . . 56. . . . . . . . . . . 48 . . . \downdownharpoons (Û) Downes. . . . . 64 dotted arrows . . . . . . 24 \dotplus ( ) . \downarrow (↓) . . see \$ \Dontwash (Ý) . . see \noway does not divide . . . . . . 65 \dotmedvert ( ) . . . . . . . 23 . . . . . . \downpitchfork ( ) . . . . 35 \dstechnical (T) . . . . . 23 \Doteq . . . 10 \dj (đ) . . 13 \DLE ( ) . . . . 42 \dndtstile ( ) . . . . . . . . 23 \dtststile ( \dttstile ( \dtttstile ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . \doublecup . 33 . . . . 35 \dtimes ( ) . . . . . . . \downdownarrows ( ) . . \doublecurlyvee ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22 \doublecap . . . . . . . . . 78 \EightStarConvex ( ) . \downspoon ( ) . . . . . . . . 57. . . . . . . . . 78 \EightStarBold ( ) . 9. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 112 . . . . . 43 . . . . . 78 \ejective (e) . . . . . . . . 41 . . . \dsrailways (R) . . . . see accents ˙ dot symbols . . . . . 35 ) . . . . 47 . . . 42 . . . . . 78 \EightFlowerPetalRemoved ( ) . 78 \EightFlowerPetal ( ) . . 28 \dotsm (· · · ) . . . . . . . . . . . . 71 \earth ( ) . . \dsmathematical (M) \dsmedical (m) . . . . . . 54 . 96 \dststile ( \dsttstile ( \dtdtstile ( ) . \downp (u) . . . . \downfree ( ) . . . \downharpooncw ( ) . . 64 . . . . . . . . . 33 . . \doublewedge ( ) . . . . . . see alphabets. . . . . 70 electromotive force (E) . . . . . 14 dotless i (ı) math mode . \doublesmile ( ) . . . . . . . . 23 \dotplus ( ) . . 33 dotless j () text mode . \downharpoonccw ( ) . . . . . . . .) . 35 \dntstile ( ) . . . . . . 90 \dot ( ˙ ) . . . . \downVdash ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 33 . 9. . 41. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 43 49. . . . 107 \dotsb (· · · ) . 33 . . . . . . . . . . . 32 \dotsi (· · ·¯ . . \DS (S ) . . . . . . . . see accents a \doublebarwedge () . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 65 text mode . . . 43 . . . . . see \textdollar dollar sign . 33 \doteq ( ) . . . \Downarrow (⇓) . .division times . . . . \doublecap ( ) . . . . . . . 33 . . . . . . . . 24 \dtimes ( ) . . . . . . \downvdash ( ) . 105 \Dohne (D) . 96 . . . . . . . . 35 duodecimal (base-12) digits . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . 65 ε-TEX . . . . . . 41. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . dozenal digits . . 48 . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18 . . . . . . 41 . . . . 25 . . 88 . . . . \dschemical (C) . . ) . . . . . . dsfont (package) . . . . 10 \dlbari (@) . . . . . . . . . . 78 \EightStarTaper ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . 88 \EightStar ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . \drsh (ë) . . 43 . a \doublevee ( ) . . . . . 96 . . . . . . . 35 ) . . 57. . 43 . . . . . \Downarrow (⇓) . . . . . \doublesqcap ( ) . 23 \doublebarwedge ( ) . . . . . 35 \dnststile ( ) . . \downupharpoons (ë) . . . . . 24 . . . 46 . . . . . . . \doublefrowneq ( ) . see \doteqdot \Doteq ( ) . . . . . see \nmid does not exist . . . 23 65. 18 \EightAsterisk ( ) . . . . 96 . . . . . . . . . . 96 . 30 \doteq ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 78 eighth note see musical symbols \eighthnote (♪) . \downpropto ( ) . . . . .. . . 48 . . 112 . . . . . . . . 33 \doteqdot ( ) . . . . . . . 35 ) . . . . . . . . . 43 . . . 52 \e (E) . 23. 42 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 61 \e (e ) . . . see \nexists does not imply . . . 104 \dotdiv (¡) . . .. . . . 63 \dotarrow ( · \dotcup (∪) . 54 . . . . . . . . . . \downarrow . . . . . . . . . 71 \Ecommerce () . . . . . . . . \dsjuridical (J) .

32 \eqcolon (−:) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 32 \eqcirc (') . . . 119 ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 89 . . \feyn{hd} (j) . . . . . . 72 escapable characters . . . . . . . . . . . . }s \feyn{gv} () . . . . 72 entails . . . . . . . 74 \feyn{c} ( ) . . . . . . . 92. . . . . . . . . creating 107– 109 extensible tildes . . . . . . . . . . . . . 74 \feyn{gd} ( ) . . . . . . . 36 \equalsfill . 74 female . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 73 \Emailct (z) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 90. . . . . 19 euro signs . . . . . 74 \Female (~) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 74 feyn (package) . . . . . . . . . . . . 10. . 80 ellipses (dots) . . . . . . 119 \eta (η) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 63. . . see \models \Enter ( Enter ) . . . 52 \exp (exp) . . . . . . . . 120 Feynman slashed character notation . . 21. 108–109 extensible arrows . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 68 Euler Roman . . 59. . . . . 48 \equal (=) . . . . . . . . 98 exclusive disjunction . . 51 \Ellipse ( ) . . 120 \EURtm (e) . . . . . . . . 104  equilibrium . . . 9. . . 70 \fatbslash ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . and \oplus exclusive or . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 81. . . . . 18 \EURhv (c) . . . . . . . . . . see \equiv. . . . . . . . . . 66 \End ( End ) . . 32 \eqfrown ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . 38 \eqslantless ( ) . . . . . 98 \fallingdotseq ( ) . . . . . . 120 ) . . . 16. . . . . . 30 \equiv (≡) . . . . . . . . . . . see \ss \ESC ( ) . . . 73 \fax (t) . . . . . . . . . . 119 \Estatically (J) . 107 ellipses (ovals) . . 61 extension characters . . . . . 19 blackboard bold . 119. . . . 68 \eurologo ( ) . . . . . 59–61. . 18 euscript (package) . 63–65. . . . . . . . 32 \equal (j) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 49 extpfeil (package) . . . . . . . . . . . — 74 74 74 74 74 74 74 74 74 74 74 74 74 74 74 133 . . . . . . . | \feyn{glu} () . . . . . . . . 63. . . . see \rightleftharpoons \equiv (≡) . . . . . 32 \eqbumped ($) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . \feyn{gvs} () . . . . . . . . . \feyn{hu} (i) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22 \fatslash ( ) . . . 73 \engma (n) . . . . . 80 envelopes . . . . . 65 \ending (L) . . . . 13 es-zet . 31 \eqdot ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 38 \eqslantgtr ( ) . . . . . . . . \feyn{P} (€) . . 89 fermions . 50 \etaup (η) . 74 \feyn{fu} ( ) . . . 34 \eqqcolon (=:) . . 50 \ETB ( ) . . 48 \Eqqcolon ( ) . . 73 \Faxmachine (v) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 74 \female (♀) . . . . . . . 74 \feyn{a} () . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19 eurosym (package) . . 34 \eqcolon ( ) . . . . . 32 \fallingdotseq ( ) . . . 32 \Eqcolon ( ) . . . . . see \textestimated esvect (package) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22 \FAX (u) . . 50 \eqbump ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 98 \enya (x) . 68. 13 \epsilon ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13 \eth (d) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 32 \FallingEdge ( ) . . . . 74. . 119. 19 \euro . . . . . . . . . 92 \epsdice ( \epsi (4) . . . . . . . . . . . 13 \ENQ ( ) . . . . . . . . . . \Fermi (a) . . . . . 38 \eqslantless ( ) . . . . . . . 120 extensible accents . . . 73 \FemaleFemale („) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 74 estimated . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 74 \feyn{fl} () . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31 \Eqqcolon (=::) . . . . . . 80 \EM ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 74 extarrows (package) 62. . . . 72 \Esc ( Esc ) . . . 13 \EOT ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . { \feyn{glS} () . . 73 fc (package) . . . 30 \eqcirc ( ) . 80 \EllipseShadow ( ) . . . . 80 \EllipseSolid ( ) . . . . . 120 extraipa (package) . . . . . . . . . \feyn{m} (m) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 74 \feyn{f} ( ) . 18 \EURdig (D) . . . . . . . \leftrightarrow. 49 \Explosionsafe (`) . . . . 93 \equalclosed ( ) . . . . . . 74 \feyn{fs} ( ) . . . . . 39 \eqslantless (¶) . . . . . . 36 \equalscoloncolon (=::) . . . 96. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 91. . 119. 13 \emptyset (∅) . . . . 120 evaluated at . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 119. . . 18. . . . . . . . . . . . \Ferli (a) . . . 51 \exists (∃) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 73. . . . . . . . . . . \feyn{ms} () . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 34 \eqqcolon ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . 119. 59–63 extensible symbols. . . 50 \epsilonup ( ) . . . . 93 \eng (V) . . . . . . . . 70. . 9 \esh (w) . . . . . 72 \eth (ð) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 65 \emptyset ( ) . . . } \feyn{g} (g) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 72. . . . . 32 \eqslantgtr (·) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19. . . 32 \eqcirc ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 73 \emgma (w) . . . . . . . . 31 \Eqcolon (−::) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . y \feyn{gu} (u) . . . . . . . . . . . 72 eufrak (package) . . . . . . . 74 \feyn{flS} () . . . . . . . . . . . 28. . . . . . . . . . . . . 22 \fatsemi ( ) . 74 \feyn{g1} () . . . . . . . . 31 \eqsim ( ) . . . . . . . . 88. . 32 \equalscolon (=:) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 80. . . . . 13 esint (package) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 32 \er (") . . 39 \eqsmile ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 92 fclfont (package) . . 74 \feyn{fd} ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 72 epsdice (package) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . \feyn{h} (h) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 119. . . 74 \feyn{fv} () . . . . . . . . 34 \eqcolon (") . . . . . . 30 \fallingdotseq ( ) . . 21. . . . . . . . . . . . 72 end of proof . . . . . 51 \EUR (e ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . see \nleftrightarrow \nequiv. 74 3 ÿ E ™ d o l k e ˜ f q v \feyn{glB} () . . \feyn{hs} (u) . . . . . . . z \feyn{gl} () . . . . . . . . . 74 \FemaleMale (…) . . . . . . . . . and \threesim \equivclosed ( ) . . . . 31 \eqsim ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13 \esh (s) . . 66 \eth () . . . . . . 13 engineering symbols . . . . . . 38 \eqslantgtr ( ) . . . . . . . 32 equivalence . . . . . . . . . . . . 108 equidecomposable . . . . . . . . . 71. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 74 . . . . . . . . . . 61. . . 119 \eye ( ) . see \prime and \textquotesingle \FEMALE () . . . . . . . . . 18 F f (esvect package option) . 18 \Euro ( ) . . . . . . . . . 103 \exists (h) . . . . . . . . . . 61 faces . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14 \fcdice ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . 105 Feynman-diagram symbols . .\ell ( ) . 92 \fcscore ( feet . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 80 \EyesDollar (¦) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12. . . . . . . . . . . see \vert evil spirits . . . . . 52 \exists (∃) . . . . . 18 \EURcr (d) . 72 ˜ e ™ \Envelope ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 48. . 72 \Email (k) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13 \ETX ( ) . . . . . . . . .

. 13 \Flag ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8. . . 91 \FilledSectioningDiamond ( ) . . . . 75 fleurons . . . 115 OT2 . . 67 \fgebarcap (O) . . . . . . . 114. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 79 \FilledSmallTriangleDown ( ) . . . . . . 78 \FiveStarOpen ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 53 \fgelb (”) . . . . 47. . . . . 78 \FiveStarOutlineHeavy ( ) 78 \FiveStarShadow ( ) . . . . 53 \fgeleftC (C) . . . 79 \FilledBigTriangleDown ( ) 79 \FilledBigTriangleLeft ( ) 79 \FilledBigTriangleRight ( ) . . . . . . . . . 79 \filledmedlozenge ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 72 fge (package) . 66 \Flatsteel (–) . . . . 91 font encodings Latin 1 . . . . . . . . 88 \flat ( ) . . . . . . . . 67 \FHBOLOGO (f) . . . . . 79 \FilledCircle ( ) . . . 40 \FilledTriangleUp ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30 Helvetica . . . . . . 47 \fgeupbracket (L) . 18. . 8 OT1 8. . . 40 \FilledRainCloud ( ) . . . . 103 Times Roman . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 104 \Fog ( ) . 90 \FHBOlogo (F) . . . \fixedddots ( . . Peter . . . . . . . . . . 80 florin . . . . . . . . . . 102. . . . . . . . . . 67 \fgecup (N) . . . 10. . . . . . pointing . . 93 \FilledBigCircle ( ) . . . . . . . . . 119 font encodings . . . . . . . . 79 \filledlozenge ( ) . . 91 \flap (f) . . 10. . 78 Flynn. . . . . . . . . . . . . 77 c U W X ` a b d '  134 . . . . . 53 \fgebackslash (K) . . 67 \fgec (c) . . . . 119. . . . . 53. . . 79 \FilledBigDiamondshape ( ) 79 \FilledBigSquare ( ) . . . 115 fontdef. 78 # C ™ ˜ d — "  V ‚ € Y \FiveStarConvex ( ) . . 53 \fgeleftB (D) . . . . . 68 Zapf Dingbats . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 79 \filledtriangledown ( ) 25. . . . 14. . . . 58. . . . 103 T1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 53 \fgeinfty (i) . . . 68 Charter . . . 53 \fgee (e) . . . . . . . . . . \fixedvdots (. 8 ASCII . 53 \fgecap (S) . . 53 \fgeuparrow (") . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 115 T4 . see \textflorin \floweroneleft ( ) . . . . . . . . 67 \fged (p) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 40 \filledmedtriangleup ( ) 25. . . . . . 53 \fgerightarrow (!) . . . . . . 65 \fgeU (U) . . . . . 91 \filleddiamond ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 79 \FilledSmallDiamondshape ( ) . . 79 \filledtriangleleft ( ) 25. . . 8 LY1 . 53 \fgeeta (”) . . . 51. . . . 27 ffl \fint ( ) . . . . . 64 \FiveFlowerOpen ( ) . . . . . . 79 \filledtriangleup ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . 114. . 79 \FilledCloud ( ) . 8 8-bit . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30 Computer Modern 100. . . . . . .\feyn{p} ( ) . . . . . . . 79 p x \filledmedsquare ( ) . 79 \FilledHut ( ) . . . . 40 \filledmedtriangleleft ( ) 25. . . . 10. . . 10. . . . . . . . . . 103. . . . . . 53 \fges (s) . . . . . . 67 \fgecapbar (Q) . . . . . . . . . 91 \FilledTriangleDown ( ) . . . . . . . . . 18 Garamond . . ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 79 \FilledSmallTriangleUp ( ) 79 \FilledSnowCloud ( ) . . . 53 \fgestruckone (1) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 47. . 79 ! ¢ v s r u p t – $ q £ ¤ … € † ƒ ‚ „ e   f ¨ © \filledsquarewithdots ( ) 80 \filledstar ( ) . . . . . . . 14. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25 \FilledSquareShadowA ( ) . . . . . . . . . 115 \fontencoding . . . . . . . . . . . . 78 \FiveFlowerPetal ( ) . . . 25. . . . . 73 fletched arrows . . . 90 field (F) . . . . . . . . 73 . 8. . . . . . . 107. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25 \filledmedtriangledown ( ) 25. 67 \fgelb . . . . . . . 120 fge-digits . . . . . 78 \FiveStarOutline ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 107 fontenc (package) . . . 75. . . . . . 78 flowers . . see alphabets. . 65 \fgestruckzero (0) . . 18. . . . . . . . 10. . . . math \finpartvoice (a») . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 67 \fgecupacute (R) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 119 document . . . . . . 28 \Finv (p) . . . 91 \FilledSquare ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18. 63 . 65. . . . . . . . . . . . 79 \FilledSmallSquare ( ) . . . . . 78 \floweroneright ( ) . . 25 \FilledDiamondShadowA ( ) 79 \FilledDiamondShadowC ( ) 79 \FilledDiamondshape ( ) . 78 \FiveStar ( ) . . . . 78 \FiveStarOpenDotted ( ) . 13 \flapr (h) . . see \strictif fists . . . . . . . . . . . . 79 \FilledSmallTriangleRight ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 47 \fgerightB (B) . . . . 76 \fivedots ( ) . . . . . . . . 102 Type 1 . . . 78 \FiveStarLines ( ) . . . 67 \fgecupbar (P) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 40 \FilledTriangleLeft ( ) . . . . 30 Zapf Chancery . . . . . 78 \FiveStarOpenCircled ( ) . 63 . . . . . . . . 65. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 67 \fgebaracute (M) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 92 fish hook . . . . . . . 79 \FilledSquareShadowC ( ) . .dtx (file) . . . . 53 \fgeN (”) . . . . . 91 \filledlargestar ( ) . . . . . . . 52 \Fire ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16 ˚ \fint ( ) . . 115 Courier . . . . . . . . . . 14. . 17 T5 . 65 \fgeA (A) . . . . . . . . 18. . . . . 91 finger. . . . . 8 fonts Calligra . . . . 25 \FilledSunCloud ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 79 \filledtriangleright ( ) 25. . . . . . . . . . . 13 \flat ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . 53 \fgeoverU (”) . . . . . . 115 7-bit . . . . . . . . . . . . 74 \FF ( ) . 92 \FilledSmallCircle ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25. . . . . . . . . . . . .) fixmath (package) . . . . . . . . . . . 16 ˇ \finpartvoiceless (a») . . 74 \feyn{x} () . . . . . 14. 113 \fj (p) . . . . . . . . . 79 \FilledSmallTriangleLeft ( ) . 78. . . . . . . . math \file (H) . . . . 53 \fgef (f) . . . . . . . . 52 \Finv ( ) . 78 \Fixedbearing (%) . . . . . . . . . 18 Symbol . see fists finite field (F) . . . . . 40 \filledmedtriangleright ( ) . . 79 \FilledBigTriangleUp ( ) . . . 53 \fgeeszett (ı) . 67. 79 \filledsquare ( ) . 115 limiting scope of . . . . 53 \fgeF (F) . . . . . . . . . 67 \fgelangle (h) . . . . . . . . . . see alphabets. . . . . 23. . . . . 40 \FilledWeakRainCloud ( ) . 40 \FilledTriangleRight ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14 TS1 . 112 Utopia . . . . . . 78 \FiveStarCenterOpen ( ) . . . . . .

. . . . . . . 70 \Gentsroom (x) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 48 \frowneqsmile ( ) . . . . . . . . . 40 \gtrdot (Í) . . 38 \gtreqqless ( ) \gtrless (») . . . . . 39 \gtrsim (Á) . . . 90 . . . . 51 greek (babel package option) 50. . . . . . . . \forall (∀) . . . . 91 \Halb (˘ “ ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 94 goban . . . . . . 14 61 14 82 \Ha (a) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 38 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . \guillemotright (») \guilsinglleft (‹) . 38 \geq (≥) . . . . 94 \geq (¥) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 38 \geq (≥) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 72 \gets . . 39 german (keystroke package option) . . . . . . 38  \gtreqqless ( ) . . . . . . . . . 38 \gg ( ) . . 38 \gtrapprox ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . \Football (o) . 78 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 49 \ge . . . see \geq \Gemini (‚) . 30 \gcd (gcd) . . . . . . . . . . . 117 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 48 \frownie ( ) . 76  s 1 r    135 . . . . . . 71 \Gemini (â) . . . . . \gtrsim ( ) . \forall (∀) . . . 103 graphicx (package) . . . . . . . 38 \gtreqless ( ) . . . 48 \frownsmileeq ( ) . . . . \guilsinglright (›) \gvcropped ( ) . . . . 38 \geqq ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . \ForwardToEnd (¸) . . . . . . . . 72 \gtr (>) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 78–80. . . . . . 30 \frown ( ) . . . . . . . . 39 10. 96 graphics (package) . . 38 \gtrdot ( ) . . 17. 73 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 90 \fullmoon (w) . . . . . 78 \fourth (R) . . . see alphabets. . . . . . 48 frown symbols . . 113 polytonic . . . . . . . . . . . . . 36 Fourier transform (F) . 117 10. . 65. . . . . . . 51 blackboard bold . . . 98 Frege logic symbols 47. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 74 . . . . . . . . . . . 38 . . see accents ac a \Hail ( ) . . see accents a \gravis (a) . . 71 \fullmoon ( ) . 40 \geqdot ( ) . see \leftarrow \gg (4) . . . 76. . . . . . . 122 \gimel ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 50 \Ganz (¯ ) . . . . . . . . . . . 39 ghosts . . . . . . . . . . 68 bold . . . . . . 67 fraktur . . . . . . . . . . . 76 \HandCuffLeftUp ( ) . . . . 39 \gggtr . . . . . . . 91 Hamiltonian (H) see alphabets. 50. . . . . . 52 \Gamma (Γ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 39 \geqslantdot ( ) . . 78 . 50. . . . . . . . . . . 80 \HalfCircleRight ( ) . . . . . . 51 \girl (f) . . . . 78 \FourStarOpen ( ) . 39 \gtreqqless (¿) . . . . . . . . . . . 39. . . . . . . . . 39 \gneq (­) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 48 \Frowny (§) . . . 38 \gneq ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 38 \gtreqless ( ) . . . . . . . see inequalities greatest lower bound see \sqcap Greek . . . 88 \HalfSun ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . 66 fractions . . . . . . 89 half note . . . Ï) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . \Force (l) . . . . . . . . . . . . math Freemason’s cipher . . . . . 70 gluons . . see \ggg \gggtr ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 116 10. 19 C \geneurowide (C ) . . . . 91 \FS ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18 \halfnote ( ) . . . . . 39 38 38 39 \gtrneqqless ( ) . . . . . 116 10. . . . . 80 \HalfFilledHut ( ) . . . . . 39 \gtreqless (½) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 39. . . . . 71 \gemini ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13 \glottal (c) . 78 \Fourier ( ) . . . . . 94 \Goofy . 89 \GaPa (<) . . . . . . . . math \FourStar ( ) . 36. 82 h´ˇek (ˇ) . . . 38 \geqq ( ) . . . 90 . . . . . . . . 51. . . . . . . \gvertneqq (µ) . . . 38 \gnsim ( ) . 36 fourier (package) 19. . . 67 \frown ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 72 \FullFHBO (Ž) . . . . . . \gtrless ( ) . . . 60. . . . . . . . . 103 \grave (`) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 105 \grimace ( ) . . . . 51 \gimel ( ) . . . 47. . 88 S T G \G (a) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 104. 39 \gtrapprox (Ç) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 50 \gammaup (γ) . . 87 Greek coins . . 94 Go stones . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 39 Go boards . . 39 \ggcurly (Ï) . \FourClowerSolid ( ) I † ‡ 100. . 18. . . . . . . . . . . . 38 \gnsim ( ) . . . . see musical symbols \HalfCircleLeft ( ) . 102 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . \gvertneqq ( ) . . 39 \geqslant ( ) . 90. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 71 globe . . . . . . . . . 13 \gluon ( ) . . . . . . . . 98 Gregorio. 57 grave (`) . . . 39 \geqq (¯) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . a h (esvect package option) \h (ả) . . . . . . 39 \gtreqlessslant ( ) . . 19 \Greenpoint ( ) . . \HA (A) . . . . . . 118 . . . . . . . . . 38 \gnapprox ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 38 \geqslant ( ) . . 39 \gtrclosed ( ) . . . . . . . 90 \glotstop (˜) . 38 . . . . 52 . . . 39 \geqclosed ( ) . . . . . . . . . . 50. . . . . 119 \fourier ( ) . . . . . 90 . . 39 \gnsim (Å) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . math \HandCuffLeft ( ) . 38 \gneqq ( ) . . . . 38 \gtrapprox ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 88 \frownsmile ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 50 \gamma (γ) . . . . . . . . . . . 48 \frowneq ( ) . . . . . . . 17 ` greater-than signs . . . . . 14 Ÿ g (esvect package option) . . . . . \gtrless ( ) . . . . . . . 19 C \geneuronarrow (B ) . . . 91 \GS ( ) . . . . . . . . \ForwardToIndex (¹) \FourAsterisk ( ) . . . . 90 . . . 52 \Game ( ) . . . 38 \gneqq ( ) . . . . . fontspec (package) . . . . . . . . . . 88 \geneuro (A ) . . . . . . . 78. 61 \Game (q) . 19 C gensymb (package) . . . . . 100. . . . . . . . . . 37 \gg ( ) . . . 91. . . . . . . . 72. . 71 genealogical symbols . 32 \ggg (Ï) . . . . \gtrsim ( ) .\fontsize . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 98 Gibbons. . . . 38 \ggg ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 101 \ggg ( ) . 38 \gtrdot ( ) . . . 37. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 88. . . . . . 91 \halflength (p) . . . . . . . . . . Jeremy . Enrico . . . . . . . . . . . 89 Garamond (font) . . . . 71 \fullnote ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 90 frowny faces . . . . . 74 \gnapprox (Ë) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 51 . . . . . . . . 38 \ggg ( vs. . . . . . . . . . 90 geometric shapes . \Forward (·) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 53. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 38 \gneqq (³) . . . . . . . . . \gvertneqq ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 57. . . 39 § H \H (˝) . . . . . . \guillemotleft («) . . . see alphabets. . . . . . . . . 50 upright . . 38 . . . . . . . . . 38 \gnapprox ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 53. . . . . . . \FourClowerOpen ( ) .

\heartsuit ( ) . . 82 holtpolt (package) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 91 \Hm (m) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 43. 82 . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . 13 \HB (B) . . . . hearts (suit) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 66 I ¨ . . . . 65 . \hdots ( ) . . . . . . 82 82 82 82  \Hc (c) . 57 \hateq ( ) . . . see \# \hat (ˆ) . . . . Helvetica (font) . . . . . . . . . . . 105 . . . \Hthousand (4) . . . . . . . . . . . 82 \Hz (z) . 119 \hom (hom) . 14 i \i (ı) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 82 \Hmillion (7) . . . . . . . . . . 82    " \HH . . . . . 82 . \hookheng (7) . . . . \hdotdot ( ) . . . . . . . \Hexasteel (’) . .. . . . . \Hk (k) √. . 46. . . . . . . . . . . \He (e) . 41 . . . . . . . . . . \HF (F) .. . . . . . . . 96 . . . . . 13 \hausaK (u) . . . . . . 70 .. . . 119. . . . . .. . . \Hvbar (|) \HW (W) . . . . . . . . . . \HV (V) . .\HandCuffRight ( ) . . . . . . .. . . . . . 76 \HandCuffRightUp ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . 97 \IceMountain ( ) . . . 13 i IBM PC . . . . . . . . 49 \Home ( Home ) . . 82 82 13 82 82 \Ho (o) . . . .. . . . . 66 . . . . . . . 82 \HXthousand (5) . . . . . . 74 . . . . . \hookd (h) . . . . . . 82 \Hx (x) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . \HS (S) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . \Hp (p) . . . . . 115 Icelandic staves . . . . . . . 82 \Hy (y) . . .. 13 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 90 \HaPa (<) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . \HT ( ) . . . 32 \hausaB (f) . . . . . . . . .. . . . 13 . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . 82 . 82 \HD (D) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 82 see alphabets. . . . . . . 82 \hcrossing ( ) . . . . 74 . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . \heartsuit (♥) . . . . 82 \Hi (i) . . . . 82 \Hq (q) . . . . 82 \Hu (u) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. 29 \iff . . . 89. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . \hemiobelion (Α) . . . . . . . . . .. .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 82 . . 69 82 82 82   \HI (I) . . . . . . . \Hone (|) . . . 106. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13 . . . . . . . . heads . . 82 \Hd (d) . . . . hieroglf (package) hieroglyphics . . . .. . .. . . . . 76 \HandRight ( ) . . . . 82 \HQ (Q) . . . . . . . . . . . . Hebrew . . \Hten (2) . . . . 51. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 41 . . . . . . . see \hookb (¨) . 82 Hungarian umlaut (˝) see accents a \Hut ( ) . 82 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14 \ialign . . . . . \Hv (v) . . . . . . . . . 76 \HandPencilLeft ( ) . . . . . . . . . . 78 . . . . . .. . . . . . . . Berthold \HP (P) . . ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1. 119. . . 13 \hausaD („) . . . 13 . . . 66 hash mark . . 13 . ' . . . 82 \HU (U) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . \hv (4) . . . . . . 27 " \idotsint ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 82 accents . . 18 . . . . . . . . . . . . 120 . . . . . . . . . . 64 . . . . . . . . . . . . 95 \Hibl (˝) . . . . . . . 19 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 74 . . . 13 . . . . 104. . . . . . . . 82 \Hscribe (¯) .    \Homer (¤) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . \HE (E) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 118 \holter ( ) . . . 47. ) . . . . . . 82 82 82 82 106 . . 72. . . \Hl (l) . . . 82 . . . . 76 \HandLeft ( ) . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . 73 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . \hookupminus ( ) . . . 66 . . . 82 hyphen. . . 119. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . discretionary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 82 \Hibs (¨) . . . . 82 92. . . 119. . 82. . . . see fists \Handwash (Ü) . . . . 82 Horn. . . . . . . . . . 97. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . \hfil . . . . . . .. . . \hookleftarrow ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 115 \HZ (Z) . . . . . \Hplural (˙) . \HT (T) . . . . 23. . . . . . . . 82 . . . . . . \Ht (t) . . . \hfermion ( ) . . . 79 51. . \Hg (g) . . . . . \hookrevepsilon (&) . . 82 \Hibp (ˆ) . 80 . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . \HERMAPHRODITE (€) \Hermaphrodite (}) \hexagon ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Alexander . . . . . . . . . 82 . . . . . . \Hj (j) . . . . \hookd () . . . . . . . . . . 82 \HX (X) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 82 . . . . 82 Holt. .. . . . . . . . . . .. \Hr (r) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . \hexstar ( ) . 89 \HH (H) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . \hbar ( ) . . . . . . 82 . . . . . 76 \HandLeftUp ( ) . . \Hh (h) . . . . 13 . . . . . . . . . . \hookg ()) . . 82 see faces . . 13 \hausab (˜) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 103 . \HG (G) . . . . . . . . . . . . . { \Hplus (+) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 120 harpoon (package) . . . . 41. . . . . . 82 \hiatus (H ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . 82 \Hquery (?) \HR (R) . . . . . 68 . . . . . . . . . . . 63 \Hw (w) . . . . . . . . . . . 82 \HJ (J) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . Hilbert space (H) math \hill (a) . . 76 hands . . . \HK (K) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 44 . . . . . . . . \Heart (Œ) . . . \iddots ( . . . . . . . 107 \idotsint ( ··· ) . . . . \HM (M) . . \hookleftarrow (← ) .. . . . . . . . 82 . \HBar ( ) . . . . . . . 121 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 72 k . 108 \ibar (¯) . . . 90 65–67. . \hookrightarrow ( ) . . \hbipropto ( \HC (C) . . . . . . . . . . . \hksqrt ( \HL (L) . 82 82 82 82 \Hs (s) . 82 \Hslash (/) \hslash ( ) \Hsv (˚) . . . 52. . . 64 . . . . . .. . . . \hookrightarrow ( →) . . 13 \hausad (h) . . . . . . . . . .. . . .. 82 \Htongue (˘) . . . 64 \iddots () . . . . 63. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 89 harmony (package) . . . see \Longleftrightarrow 136 . . . . . . \hookh (6) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 77 . . 82 \Hms (´) \HN (N) \Hn (n) \HO (O) . 82 \HY (Y) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 33 \HCthousand (6) . . 16 . . . . . 82 \Hibw (˜) . . 82 \Hman (ˇ) . 47 \hash (5) .. . . . . ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . \Hb (b) . . . . . . . . . 82 .. . \HF (F) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . \Hdual (¸) . 13 \hausak (k) . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 44 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . hhcount (package) \Hhundred (3) . . 91 . . . . 76 \HandRightUp ( ) . . . . . . . \Hf (f) . . . . . . . . . . 121 harpoons . . . . . 82 . . . . . . . . . . \hookdownminus (⌐) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . hook accent (ả) . . . . . . . . 82 52 82 82 72 82 82 . . . . . . . . . . . . 26 \idotsint ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 119. . . . 66. . . . . . . . . . . . 26 \iiiint ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 120 igo (package) . . . \invbackneg ( )   ¿ Ú ™ . . . \ker (ker) . . . . . . . . . . \invneg ( ) \invneg ( ) . . 22 \intercal ( ) . . . . math \Irritant ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 51. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 51 \in (∈) . . . . 71 \Jupiter (Å) . . 91. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 49 . . 29 ( \iint ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . \inplus ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ket . . . . 13 \invh (8) . . . . 73 \invdiameter ( ) . . . 90 . . . . . . see \infty \Info ( ) . . \iota (ι) . . . . . . . . . 89 . . . . 10 \l (l) . . . . . see \dbar \inf (inf) . . . . math \Lambda (Λ) . . . . 90 103 K \k (a) . . . . . . . ) \kreuz ( ) . . . . . keystroke (package) \keystroke ( ) king . . . . . . . . . . 106 ⊥) \Industry (I) . . . . . . . 52 \interleave ( ) . . \Keyboard (Ï) . . 94 \igonone ( ) . . . . . \invy (’) . . . . . . . 26 irrational numbers (J) alphabets. . . . 57 \Joch ( ) . 13 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28 \iiint ´ ) . . . . . . 94 \iiiint ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . see \bot \independent (⊥ . . 26. . . . . . . . 118 Junicode-Regular. 94 \igotriangle ( ) . . . . 119 \igocircle ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 94 \igonone ( ) . . . . . . 66 137 . . . 52 inches . . . . 93 \infty (V) . . . . . 27 ˇ \iiiint ( ) . . . 90 . . 13 inverse limit . . . 30. . . . . 72 . . . . . . . . . 91 13 23 66 J \j () . ³ \int ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29 \intclockwise ( ) . . . . . . . Kronecker product Kronecker sum . . 88 \inve ( ) . . . . . upside-down \iotaup (ι) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 90 informator symbols . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 73 13 13 31 66 73 13 13 13 ¡ £ \INVr (!) . . . . . 31 \Join ( ) . . 49 \Integer ( ) . . . . . . . 54 . . . . 13 \labvel . . . 57 \impliedby see \Longleftarrow \implies see \Longrightarrow and \vdash impulse train . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . \invw () . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 94 \igosquare ( ) . . 50 . . . \invamp ( ) . . . . . . .. . 90 information symbols . . . 77. . . 16 \Ladiesroom (y) . . . . . . . . . 50 . . . \kappa (κ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . \Kutline (R) . . . 78 Jewish star . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 106 statistical . . . . . . . 92. . . . . . . 9. . . . . . . 26 . . . . . . . . 106 stochastic . . . 101. . . . . . . . 71 P Q & \INVd (") . \int ( ) . . . . . . . . symbols by . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .ttf (file) 118 \Jupiter (i) . . see \oplus see accents . . . . . . . . \invscr (u) . . 94 \igocircle ( ) . . 122 . . . . 66 \infty (∞) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 75 L \L (L) . . . 13 \INVl (#) \invlegr (s) \invm (S) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . see \second and \textquotedbl \incoh (˚) . . . . . . . 29 \Im ( ) . . . . . 22 intersection . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 94 \igocross ( ) . . . 79. . . 94. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26 \intercal ( ) . . . . 94 . 92 103 117 117  \int (∫) . 14 \JackStar ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 88 see \otimes . . . . . . . . \Kr ( l . . . 51 \im (j) . . . . . . . . . . 72 72. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26. . . . . . . . . . 52 \in (∈) . . . . . . . . 114. . . . . . \invscripta (£) \INVu ($) . 78 \jmath () . . . . . . . . 28 \iiiint µ ) . 10 \labdentalnas (R) .ifsym (package) . . . . . . . . . . Donald E. . . 17 . . 94 \igocross ( ) . . . 98 \Info (i) . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. 72 . . . . . 29 ( \iiint ( ) . . . 91 \Join ( ) . . . . . . 65 \infty (∞) . . . . . \ismodeledby (=|) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . \invv (¤) . . . . . . . . . . . . see \downarrow junicode (package) . . . . . . 31 . . . . see alphabets. . . ISO character entities isoent (package) . . . . . . . . . . . . 27 ˝ \iiint ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 87 . . . . . . . . . . \IroningI (¯) . . 16 –ˇ \inipartvoiceless (a) . . . . . . . . 14 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 117 . inputenc (package) \Ins ( Ins ) . . . . . \int ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 72 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16 – ˚ } } | |     ~ ~ \injlim (inj lim) . . . . 94 \igosquare ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 50 \lambdabar ( ) . . . 120 . . . . 87 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . see \varprojlim \InversTransformHoriz ( ) 36 \InversTransformVert ( ) . . . . . . . . 103. . 72 . . . . . . . z a) \kside (O) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . knight . . . . . . 13 \invglotstop (d) . . . . . . 90 inequalities . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 52 \imath (ı) . . . . . . . . . . . . 71 \jupiter ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . iota. . . . . . . . 26 \iiint ( ) . . . . . . 28 \iint ( ) . . . . . . . . . . \k ( ˛) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 93 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 49 infimum . . 50 \lambda (λ) . math integrals . . . 66 \inipartvoice (a) . . 27 \iiint ( ) . . . . . . . . \ipagamma (2) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 119. . . . . . 52 \in (∈) . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . 26 \iint ( ) . . . . . . 27 \iint ( ) . . . . . . . 17. 51. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 103 joint denial . . . . 50 . . . . 30 \INTEGER ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . \kappaup (κ) . . see . . . . < 73 13 13 13 50 103 . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24 \joinrel . . . . . 28 ˜ \iint ( ) . . . . . 8. . . . \inva ( ) . . . 70. 105–106 integrals (wasysym package option) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 27 25. . . . . . . krouˇek (˚ . . . . \ipercatal (η) . . . . . . . . . . . see \cap \Interval ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . see sha \in (€) . . \koppa (ϟ) . . . 73 \invf (D) . 49 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Knuth. . . . . . . . . 103 inverters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 95 . . . . . . . . . . . 25–30. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 66 \lambdaslash ( ) . . \Koppa (Ϙ) . . . \IroningII (°) \IroningIII (±) irony mark (? ) . . . . . . . . . . 89 . . . . . . . . . 49 integers (Z) see alphabets. . . . . . 36 inverted symbols 11–13. 94 . \invr (q) . . . . . computer . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . see \inf and \sqcap infinity (∞) . . . 37–39 inexact differential . . . . . keyboard symbols keys. . . 94 \igotriangle ( ) . . . . . . . 36 independence probabilistic . 78 \JackStarBold ( ) . . . . . . 90 Lagrangian (L) . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . . . 13 Latin 1 . . math \Left . . . 53 \lcurvearrowdown ( ) . . . . . . . . . 75 \leftslice ( ) . . . 43 \lcurvearrowright ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 80 Lefschetz motive (L) . 13 . . . . . . . 79 \largelozenge ( ) . . 42 \leftrightharpoon (à) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 40 \largetriangleright ( ) . . . 41 \leftrightarrow (↔) . . 29 . . . . 44 \leftrightarrow (Ø) . . \Langle (<) . 50 . . . . . 43 \LEFTCIRCLE ( ) . . 42 \leftrightarrows (Ô) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 54 \langle ( ) . 47 \leftsquigarrow (ø) . . 41 \leadsto ( ) . 73. 41 \Leftarrow (⇐) . . . \leftharpoondown (â) \leftharpoondown ( ) \leftharpoonup (à) . . . . 68 . . . . . . . . . legal symbols \legm (T) .\lambdaup (λ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 63. . . . . . . . . 122 latexsym (package) 22. . 79 \largepencil ( W) . 8. . . . 41 \leftrightharpoons ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 62 \Laserbeam (a) . . LCD digits . . . . . 100. . . . . . \landdownint ( ) \landdownint ( ) # \landupint ( ) . 41. . . . . 112. . . . . . . . . \legr (i) . . . 54. . . . . 24 9. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Lamport. 55 68 56 70 56 54 \lceil ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 101. . . . . . 22 \leftthreetimes ( ) . . . 43 \leftlsquigarrow ( ) . . . . . . . . . . 79 \largestar ( ) . . . . . . . . . 116 laundry symbols . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24. 63 \le . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 43 \lcurvearrowne ( ) . . 102 \LEFTarrow ( ) . 115. . math Laplacian (∆) . \lceil ( ) . . . . 44 \leftModels ( ) . 43 \lcurvearrowup ( ) . . . . 44 \leftarrowtriangle ( ) . . . . . 33 \leftspoon ( ) . . 90 \Lbag ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . \langle ( ) . 1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 33 \leftmodels ( ) . . . . . . 43 \lcurvearrownw ( ) . . . . \lAngle ( ) . 73. 40 \LArrow ( ← ) . . . \leftfilledspoon ( ) \leftfootline ( ) . Leslie . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 36. . . 63. . . . 69. . . . 44 \leftarrowtail ( ) . . 44 \leftrightarrowtriangle ( ) . . . . . 122 A L TEX 2ε . 74 A L TEX . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 54. . . 75. . . . . . . . . see \wedge . . 8. . 41 \leftarrow (←) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28 . . . . 9. . . . . . 53 \lbrace ( ) \Lbrack ([) . . \lCeil ( ) . . . 47 \leftpointright ( ) . . . . . . 66 \leftthreetimes ( ) . . . 42 \leftt (n) . . . . 20. . . . . . . . . . 41 \leftrightarrows ( ) . . . . . . . see \textleaf \leafleft ( ) . . . 118. . . . 29 . 76 \leftthumbsup ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . 58. . . 56 . 100. . . . . . . 44 \leftrightarroweq ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 88 \leftevaw ( ) . . . . . . \landupint ( ) . . . . . 44 \Leftscissors (S) . . . . . . . . . 42 \leftrightarrow (↔) . 28 . . . . . . . . . . . . 63 \ldots (. . 111. . . . . . . . . . . . . 55 \lcirclearrowdown ( ) . . . 76 \lefttorightarrow (ü) . . . . 26. . . . . . . 21. . . . . . . . . see \leq \leadsto ( ) . . 33 R D U \leftwave ( ) \leftY ( ) . 53 \lbag ( ) . 76 \largepentagram ( ) . . . . . . \lefthalfcap ( ) . 43 \leftrightharpoondownup ( ) . . 43 \ldbrack (v) . 13 138 . . . . . 78. . . 43 \lcurvearrowse ( ) . . 113 \lcorners (v) . \leftleftarrows ( ) . . 117–119. . . 56 . 62 \leftrightharpoonupdown ( ) . 31. . . 121. \leftleftarrows (Ð) . . . . . . . 100. . 71 \leftmoon ( ) . . . . . . 42 \leftsquigarrow ( ) . . . . . . 33 \leftvdash ( ) . . . . . 44 \leftrsquigarrow ( ) . . 43 \lcirclearrowup ( ) . . . . . . . . . . see \nabla \largecircle ( ) . . 64 \leftthreetimes (6) . . . . 40 \largetriangleup ( ) . . . 112. . 56 . . . . see \Delta Laplacian ( 2 ) . . . . . \lBrack ([[) . . 113. . . . . . 79 \largestarofdavid ( ) . 33 \leftrightline ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 119 table . 72 \larrowfill . . . . . 103–109. . . . . 36. . . 114–117. 8. . . . . . . . . . . . \leftharpoonup ( ) . . . . . . . . . . 96 \left . . 22 \leftslice ( ) . 43 \lcirclearrowleft ( ) . . . . . . 29 \lcm (lcm) . . . . \leftharpoonccw ( ) . . 29 \lcirclerightint ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 43 \lcirclearrowright ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 122 . \leftharpooncw ( ) . . . . . . . 55 \ldotp (. 56. .) . 30. . . . . . 19. . 78 leaves . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 100. . . . . 44 \leftmapsto ( ) . . . . . . . . . 33 \leftmoon (u) . 79 \largetriangledown ( ) . . . . . . . 65. . . . . . . . 44 leaf . . . . 55 \Laplace ( ) . 65. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 42 \Lefttorque (&) . . . . . . . . . 65. . . . . . 43 \leftarrow (Ð) . 41. . . . . . 73 \leftturn ( ) . \lefthalfcup ( ) . . . . . . . . . 22. . . . 42 \leftbarharpoon (Ü) . . . . 47 33 33 23 24 76 46 46 43 41 43 41 42 41 . . . 79 \largediamond ( ) . . . . 106. . . . 88 \Leftcircle ( ) . . . . . 88 \leftVdash ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 107. . . . . . . 18 \leftpitchfork ( ) . . . . 43 \lcurvearrowsw ( ) . . 43 \lcircleleftint ( ) . . . . . . . . . 79 \largesquare ( ) . 42 \leftrightarrows ( ) . . . . 76 \leftpropto (∝) . . 71 \leftp (v) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 119 \latfric (G) . see alphabets. . . 19. 116 . . . . . . . 33 \leftrightsquigarrow (ú) 42 \leftrightsquigarrow ( ) 41 \leftrightsquigarrow ( ) . . . . 49. . . . . . . . . . 24 \leftthumbsdown ( ) . . . . . 46 \leftrightharpoonsfill . . . . . . . . 46 \leftrightharpoons (è) . . . . . . see alphabets. \land . . . . . . . . . . . . . 41 \Leftrightarrow (⇔) . 30. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 55 \langlebar ( ) . . . . 46 \Leftrightline ( ) . . . . . . . 1. 43 \leftrightharpoons ( ) . . . . 103. . . . . . 30. . . . . % . . . . . . 33 \Leftrightarrow (⇔) . 78 \leafNE ( ) . . . 41 \leftarrowtail ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 43 \lcurvearrowleft ( ) . . . . . . 44 \leftleftharpoons (Ø) . . . 42 \leftarrow (←) . . 36 Laplace transform (L) . . . . . . . . . 88 \LEFTcircle ( ) .) . . . . . . . . . 36 \laplace ( ) . . . \leftfree ( ) . . . . . . 88 \Leftarrow (⇐) . . . . . 21. . . . . . . . . . 18 \lefttherefore ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 115. . 14. \lefthand ( ) . 78 \leafright ( ) . . . . . . . 40 \largetriangleleft ( ) . . . . . \leftleftarrows ( ) . . .

2602gf (file) . . . . . 39 \lesssim (À) . . . . 51     \levaw ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . \LinearACCCXXVIII ( ) . .sty (file) . . . . . . . . 44 \lhooknearrow ( ) . . . . . \LinearACCCLXXIII ( ) . . . . . . . . 82 \LinearACCCIX ( ) . . . . . . \LinearACCCLXXXVII ( ) . 54 \lfloor ( ) . . . . 55 \LHD ( ) . . . . . . . . \LinearACCCVI ( ) . \LinearACCCXIV ( ) . . . . . . \leqq (®) . . 10 . . . . . . 83 \LinearACCCLVIII ( ) . 52 linearA (package) . . 55 \lg (lg) . . . . . . . 44 \lhookuparrow ( ) . . . \LinearACCCXVIII ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 82 \LinearACCC ( ) . . . . . . . \leqclosed ( ) . . . . . \LinearACCCXX ( ) . . non-ASCII . . . . . . . . . 23 \lhd ( ) . . 82. . . . . . . . . . . 113 \linbfamily . . . \LinearACCCX ( ) . . . . . 39 . . . . \LinearACCCLXXIV ( ) . 84 \LinearACCCLXI ( ) . . . . . . . . . \leqdot ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . \LinearACCCXXV ( ) . . . . . 85. . 112 lightbulb. . . . . . . 89 \lhookdownarrow ( ) . .dvi (file) . \LinearACCCXXIX ( ) . 109–111 lightbulb10. . . . . . 73 \lightning ( ) . . . . . . . . . 38 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . \leq (¤) . . 39 . \lesseqgtr ( ) . . . 119. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . \Leo (ä) . . . . . . 83 \LinearACCCLII ( ) . . . . . 83 \LinearACCCLI ( ) . 7. . . . . . . . . . . \lessdot ( ) . . . 39 . . . . . . . . 56 \lfloor ( ) . . . . 39 . . \LinearACCCVIII ( ) . . . . . . slashed . \lesseqgtr (¼) . . \lessapprox ( ) . . . \LinearACCCLXXXI ( ) . . 49 \limsup (lim sup) . . . . . . . . . . see \lessapprox (Æ) . . . . \lessdot ( ) . . 83 \LinearACCCLVII ( ) . 38 . . 101 . . . \LinearACCCLXIV ( ) . 83 \LinearACCCLV ( ) . . . . \LinearACCCXLIV ( ) . . \lessgtr ( ) . . . . . 38 . . . . \lesssim ( ) . . . . . . . . . ) . . . . 84 84 84 84 84 84 84 84 84 84 84 84 84 84 84 84 84 84 84 84 84 84 84 84 84 84 84 82 82 82 83 83 83 83 83 83 83 83 83 83 83 83 83 83 83 83 83 83 83 83 83 83 83 83 83 83 83 83 83 83 83 83 83 139 . 71 \libra ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . 84 \LinearACCCLXII ( ) . . . . . . . \LinearACCCXLVI ( ) . 40 . . . . . . . . 82 \LinearACCCI ( ) . . . . . letter-like symbols letters . . . . . . \leqq ( ) . . . ) . . . . . . . . . \LinearACCCLXXI ( ) . . . . . . . . . . 83 \LinearACCCL ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 82 Linear B . . . . 21–23. . 108 \lightbulb (A) . . . 38 . . . 112 lightbulb10. . . . . 84   \LinearACCCLXIII ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . \LinearACCCXXVI ( ) . 38 . . . . . . . . . . . \LinearACCCXVI ( ) . 25. 101 \lightning ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . \LinearACCCXV ( ) . . . \lessgtr ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . \leqslantdot ( ) . . . . . \LinearACCCXL ( ) . . . . . \LinearACCCLXXX ( ) . . . . . . . 85. . . . . . \less (<) . . . . \lgroup () . 38 . . . . . . . \LinearACCCXLVIII ( ) . . 39 . . . . . . . . . . 91 \Lightning (E) . . . . 38 \lessneqqgtr ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 82 \LinearACCCIV ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . \LinearACCCXLIX ( ) . . . . . . 37. . . . . \LinearACCCLXXVI ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . \leqq ( ) . . . . 42 \lightning ( vs. \LinearACCCXLII ( ) . . . . . . . 44 \lhookrightarrow ( ) . . . . . 56 \LF ( ) . . \LinearACCCLXXIX ( ) . 83 \LinearACCCLX ( ) . . . 44 \Libra (æ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .\length (q) . . \LinearACCCXIII ( ) . . \LinearACCCLXXV ( ) . . 71 Lie derivative (L) see alphabets. ) \Letter (B) . 18 . . . . 36. 38 . . . . 44 \lhookleftarrow ( ) . . . . . . . . less-than signs . . . . . 39 . . . . 39 inequalities . . . . . . . . . . . 82 \LinearACCCIII ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 38 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 71 . . . . . . . . . . \LinearACCCXXI ( ) . . . . \LinearACCCLXXXVIII ( ) \LinearACCCV ( ) . . . . barred . . 49. . . . 38 . . . . . 39. \LinearACCCLXXII ( ) . 39 . . . .tfm (file) . . . . . . . 39. . . \LinearACCCXXVII ( ) . . \leqslant ( ) . . . . . . . . . 86 Linear A . 44 \lhooksearrow ( ) . . . . . . . . 104 . . . . . . . . . . . \LinearACCCXLV ( ) . . . . . . . . . . .mf (file) . . 111 lightbulb10. . . 38 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 83 \LinearACCCLIV ( ) . . . \LinearACCCXXII ( ) . . . . . . . . . \lesseqgtrslant ( ) \lesseqqgtr (¾) . . . . . 112 \Lightning (E vs. . . . \Letter ( ) . . . . . . . . 82 \LinearACCCII ( ) . . 73 . . . 72 \lfilet (7) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 39 . \LinearACCCLXXXIII ( ) . . 113 limits . . 109–111 lightbulb. . . . . . . . . . . 49 . \LinearACCCLXXVII ( ) . . . . . . . . . \LinearACCCXXIV ( ) . \lesseqqgtr ( ) \lessgtr (º) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . \LinearACCCXIX ( ) . . . . . . \LinearACCCVII ( ) . . . \LinearACCCLXVIII ( ) . \LinearACCCLXXXIV ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . 121 \LinearAC ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 38 . \lesseqgtr ( ) . . . . . . . \LinearACCCLXV ( ) . . 88 \lim (lim) . 71 . \LinearACCCLXVII ( ) . . . . . 49. . . \LinearACCCLXIX ( ) . \lesssim ( ) . . . . . . . . . 83 \LinearACCCLVI ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . \LinearACCCXXX ( ) . . . . \leq (≤) . . . . . . . 38 . . . . . . . . 105 . 39 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . \leqslant ( ) . . . . . . \leq (≤) . . . . \LinearACCCXXIII ( ) . . . . . . 82 \LinearACC ( ) . 83 \LinearACCCLIII ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22. . . . . . variant Latin . . . . . . . \LinearACCCXLI ( ) . . . . . . . . . 38 . . . . . . . . . \lessapprox ( ) . . . . . . . . 40 . . . \LinearACCCLXVI ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 55 7 \lFloor ( ) . . . 44 \lightning ( ) . . . . . . . . 29–30. . . . . . \lessclosed ( ) . . . . \LinearACCCXLVII ( ) . 92 . . . . . . . . . \LinearACCCXLIII ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . \LinearACCCLXXVIII ( ) . . . 49. . . . . . . . 39 . . . . 51. . . . . . 39. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 113 \liminf (lim inf) . . 86 linear implication see \multimap linear logic symbols . . . . math life-insurance symbols . . 23 7 \lhd ( ) . . . . \leo ( ) . . . . . \LinearACCCXII ( ) . . . . . . . . . 39 38 38 39 \lesseqqgtr ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 44 \lhooknwarrow ( ) . . 111 lightbulb10. \LinearACCCLXXXIX ( ) . . 101 \Lightning ( ) . . .mf (file) . . \LinearACCCLXXXVI ( ) . . . . \LinearACCCXXXI ( ) . . . . 40 \lhdbend ( ) . . . . . . . \Letter (B vs. . . 51–53 see alphabets . . . . . . 38 . . . . . \LinearACCCLXXXII ( ) . 54 \lgroup ( ) . 44 \lhookswarrow ( ) . . \LinearACCCXVII ( ) . . . . . . 83 \LinearACCCLIX ( ) . . . . . . \LinearACCCLXXXV ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . \LinearACCCLXX ( ) . \LinearACCCXI ( ) . . . . . . . . . \lessdot (Ì) . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . \LinearACIII ( ) . . . . . . . . . \LinearACCIX ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . \LinearACXLIII ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . \LinearACX ( ) . . . . . \LinearACCXLVII ( ) . . . . . \LinearACCCXXXIX ( ) . . . . . . . . . . \LinearACXVII ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . \LinearACCLXX ( ) . . . . \LinearACLXXXVI ( ) . . \LinearACLXVI ( ) . . \LinearACCLXXXIII ( ) . . . . . . . . \LinearACXVIII ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . \LinearACCLXIV ( ) . \LinearACLXXIV ( ) . \LinearACXLII ( ) . . . \LinearACCXVII ( ) . . . \LinearACVI ( ) . . . . . . . \LinearACCXXXII ( ) . . . . . \LinearACCXXIX ( ) . . . . . . . . \LinearACCLXXXV ( ) . . . . . . . . \LinearACLVIII ( ) . . . . . \LinearACXIX ( ) . . \LinearACCLXVIII ( ) . . \LinearACLV ( ) . . . . . . . \LinearACLXX ( ) . . . . . . . \LinearACXLIX ( ) . . . \LinearACCLXV ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . \LinearACCLXXXVII ( ) . . \LinearACCVI ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . \LinearACCVIII ( ) . . \LinearACLXXXIII ( ) . . . . . . . . \LinearACCLXXI ( ) . . \LinearACCLVII ( ) . . . \LinearACLXXXIX ( ) . . \LinearACCLVI ( ) . . . \LinearACCLXXIII ( ) . . . . . . . . . \LinearACLI ( ) . . . . \LinearACCXIII ( ) . . . . \LinearACLXXXI ( ) . . \LinearACLXXIX ( ) . . . . . \LinearACCLXIX ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . \LinearACCXXVI ( ) . \LinearACLXXVII ( ) . . . . \LinearACCII ( ) . . . . . \LinearACXCIV ( ) . . \LinearACCLXXVI ( ) . . . . . . . \LinearACCLXXVII ( ) . . . . . . . . . \LinearACCCXXXV ( ) . . \LinearACLXXVI ( ) . . . . . . . . 83 84 84 84 84 84 84 84 84 84 84 84 84 84 84 84 84 84 84 84 84 84 84 84 84 84 84 84 82 82 82 82 82 84 84 84 84 82 84 84 82 82 82 83 83 83 83 83 83 83 83 83 83 83 83 83 83 83 83 83 83 83 140 . . . . . . . . . . . . . \LinearACCXXVII ( ) . \LinearACCXCVI ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . \LinearACLXII ( ) . . \LinearACCLII ( ) . . . . . . . \LinearACCLXXIV ( ) . \LinearACCCXXXVII ( ) \LinearACCCXXXVIII ( ) \LinearACCI ( ) . . . \LinearACVII ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . \LinearACCLXVII ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . \LinearACXCV ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . \LinearACLXXX ( ) . . . . \LinearACCLXXXII ( ) . . \LinearACCLIII ( ) . . . . . . \LinearACCXXXIII ( ) . . . \LinearACXLVI ( ) . . . . . . \LinearACXLVIII ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 83 83 83 83 83 83 83 83 82 82 82 82 82 83 83 83 83 83 83 83 83 83 83 83 83 84 84 84 84 84 84 84 84 84 84 84 84 84 84 84 84 84 84 84 84 84 84 84 84 84 84 84 84 84 82 82 82 82 83 84 84 84 84 \LinearACCXCIX ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . \LinearACXIII ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . \LinearACXIV ( ) . . \LinearACXV ( ) . . . \LinearACCLXXIX ( ) . . . \LinearACCXXVIII ( ) \LinearACCXXX ( ) . . . . \LinearACLXVIII ( ) . . . \LinearACCXIV ( ) . . . . . . . . . . \LinearACCLIV ( ) . . . \LinearACCXCIV ( ) . . . . . \LinearACLVI ( ) . . \LinearACCXLIII ( ) . . . . . . . . \LinearACCLXXXIX ( ) . . . . . . . . . \LinearACXCI ( ) . . . . . . . . . . \LinearACCXVI ( ) . . \LinearACCXCVIII ( ) \LinearACCXI ( ) . . . . . \LinearACLXXXVII ( ) . . . . . \LinearACCXXII ( ) . . . . . . . \LinearACLIII ( ) . . \LinearACXCIX ( ) . . . . \LinearACLXXXVIII ( ) \LinearACLXXXX ( ) . . . . . . . \LinearACLXXII ( ) . . . . . . . \LinearACCLXXXVIII ( ) \LinearACCLXXXX ( ) . . . . . \LinearACLIV ( ) . . . \LinearACCLIX ( ) . \LinearACLXXI ( ) . \LinearACCV ( ) . . . . . . . \LinearACCXXXI ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . \LinearACCLXXX ( ) . . . \LinearACCIII ( ) . . . . \LinearACCXXXVI ( ) . . . \LinearACCLXXV ( ) . . . . \LinearACCLXXII ( ) . . \LinearACCIV ( ) . . . . . \LinearACXVI ( ) . . . \LinearACCLVIII ( ) . . . \LinearACVIII ( ) . . \LinearACCXCII ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . \LinearACCXCVII ( ) . \LinearACLXXV ( ) . . . . . . \LinearACCXII ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . \LinearACIX ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . \LinearACCXCI ( ) . . \LinearACLXXIII ( ) . \LinearACLIX ( ) . . . . . . . . \LinearACLXI ( ) . . . . \LinearACLXXXV ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . \LinearACXCVIII ( ) . . . . \LinearACCLXXXVI ( ) . \LinearACXLI ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . \LinearACCXLVIII ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . \LinearACCXXIII ( ) . . . . . . . . \LinearACCLXIII ( ) . \LinearACV ( ) . . \LinearACCLXXXIV ( ) . . . . \LinearACXII ( ) . . . . . . . . \LinearACIV ( ) . . . . \LinearACCXXI ( ) . . . . . . . . . . \LinearACCXLVI ( ) . . . . \LinearACLXXVIII ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . \LinearACCX ( ) . . . . . \LinearACCLXXVIII ( ) . . . . . . . . . \LinearACXCII ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . \LinearACCLXII ( ) . . . . . . \LinearACXCVI ( ) . . . . . \LinearACCLXI ( ) . . . . . . . \LinearACCLXXXI ( ) . . . . . . \LinearACCXV ( ) . . . . . . . . \LinearACCLI ( ) . . . . . \LinearACCXXXIV ( ) . . . . . \LinearACCXCIII ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . \LinearACII ( ) . \LinearACCXXIV ( ) . . . . . . \LinearACCXXXVII ( ) \LinearACCXXXVIII ( ) \LinearACI ( ) . . . . . . \LinearACXLV ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . \LinearACCXXV ( ) . . . . . . . . \LinearACLXV ( ) . . . . . . . . . \LinearACLXIV ( ) . . . . \LinearACCXLII ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . \LinearACCLX ( ) . . \LinearACCCXXXIV ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . \LinearACCCXXXVI ( ) . . . . . . . . . \LinearACXCIII ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .\LinearACCCXXXII ( ) . \LinearACCL ( ) . . . 82 82 82 82 82 83 83 83 83 83 83 83 83 83 83 83 83 83 83 83 83 83 83 83 83 83 83 83 83 83 83 83 83 83 83 83 83 83 83 83 83 83 83 83 82 82 82 82 82 83 83 83 83 83 83 83 83 83 83 83 83 83 \LinearACLXIII ( ) . \LinearACCXIX ( ) . \LinearACCXXXV ( ) . \LinearACXI ( ) . . . . . \LinearACLX ( ) . . \LinearACLVII ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . \LinearACCXLIX ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . \LinearACLXVII ( ) . \LinearACXX ( ) . \LinearACCXXXIX ( ) . . . . \LinearACLXIX ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . \LinearACCCXXXIII ( ) . . . . . . . \LinearACCVII ( ) . . . \LinearACCXLIV ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . \LinearACLXXXIV ( ) . . . . \LinearACXLIV ( ) . . . . . . . . \LinearACCXLV ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . \LinearACL ( ) . \LinearACCLV ( ) . . . . . \LinearACCLXVI ( ) . . . . . . . . . . \LinearACCXX ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . \LinearACCXCV ( ) . . . . \LinearACXCVII ( ) . . . . \LinearACCXL ( ) . . \LinearACXLVII ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . \LinearACCXVIII ( ) . . . . . . . . . \LinearACLXXXII ( ) . . . . \LinearACCXLI ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . \LinearACLII ( ) . . \LinearACXL ( ) . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . \LinearALII ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . \LinearALXXIII ( ) . . . . . . . . . 84 \LinearAXCIV ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . \LinearACXXXI ( ) . \lll ( ) . . . . 49. 39 local ring (O) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 83 \LinearAXL ( ) . . \LinearACXXVII ( ) . 83 \LinearAXIX ( ) . . . . . . . . . . see \multimap long division . . . . . . . . . . . \LinearALIX ( ) . . . 83 \LinearAXLIV ( ) . . . . . . . 38 \lneqq (²) . 82 \LinearAXCI ( ) . . 83 linearb (package) 85. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 83 \LinearAXX ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . \LinearALXVI ( ) . . . \LinearACXXXIII ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 82 \LinearAX ( ) . . . . . \LinearALXXII ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 83 \LinearAXLII ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . \ll ( ) . . . .. . . . \LinearACXXVIII ( ) \LinearACXXX ( ) . . . . . . . . . . \LinearALVIII ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . \LinearACXXXVII ( ) . \LinearACXXII ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . \llfloor ( ) . . . 83 \LinearAXXXIV ( ) . . . . 49 \lnapprox (Ê) . . see \vee \logof ( ) . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . see \wedge not . 53 \llcorner ( ) . . 83 \LinearAXLIII ( ) . . . . . . \LinearALXIX ( ) . 53 \llcorner (z) . . . . . . 83 \LinearAXXXVIII ( ) . . . . see \neg \lnot (¬) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . \Lleftarrow ( ) . \llless . . . . 49. . \LinearACXXXII ( ) . . \LinearALXXIX ( ) . 39 \lnot . 55 \ln (ln) . \lll ( vs. . . . 95 \longcastling (O-O-O) . . 84 \LinearAXCIX ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 83 \LinearAXXVI ( ) . . . . . \LinearACXXXVIII ( ) \LinearAI ( ) . . . . 31 lollipop . . . . . see alphabets. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 82 \LinearAVII ( ) . 84 \LinearALXXXVII ( ) . . . . 57 \llceil ( ) . 82 \LinearAXIII ( ) . . . 83 \LinearAXVI ( ) . \LinearAIII ( ) . . . . . . 84 \LinearAXCVII ( ) . . . . . . . \LinearALXXVII ( ) . . . . . . . \LinearALXX ( ) . . \LinearACXXIII ( ) . . 55 \llap . . . . . . . math \log (log) . . . . . . . 83 \LinearAXXXVII ( ) . . . . . . . . 41 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 113 log-like symbols . . . . .. . . . \LinearALXXXIX ( ) . . . . . . . . \ll ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 83 \LinearAXLVI ( ) . . . . 53 . 59 \longa (λ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . \LinearAL ( ) . . . . . . . 11–14 \Lisa ( \lJoin ( ) \ll (3) . . . . . . . .\LinearACXXI ( ) . . . . . . . . . . \lll ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . \LinearALXV ( ) . . . 83 \LinearAXXX ( ) . . . 39 . . . . . . 84 \LinearALXXXVIII ( ) . . 113 logic gates . . . . . . . . . . . 53 . . . . 82 \LinearAXCV ( ) . . . . . . . 83 \LinearAXLI ( ) . . . . \LinearALXXXIV ( ) . . 73 logical operators and . . 39 see \lll . . \LinearALIII ( ) . 83 83 83 83 83 83 83 83 83 83 83 83 83 83 83 83 83 83 83 82 82 82 82 82 83 83 83 83 83 83 83 83 83 83 83 83 83 83 83 84 83 84 84 84 84 84 84 84 84 84 84 84 84 84 84 84 84 84 84 84 \LinearALXXXV ( ) . . . . . . . . . . 106 \llbracket ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . \LinearALXXI ( ) . . 83 \LinearAXLVIII ( ) . \LinearACXXXIX ( ) . . . . 84 \LinearAXCVI ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . \LinearALV ( ) . 83 \LinearAXXV ( ) . . . . . . . . . 82 \LinearAXII ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 96 31 38 37 39 \llangle ( ) . . . . \lll (Î) . . . . . . . 83 \LinearAXXVII ( ) . . 83 \LinearAXXI ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . see \neg and \sim or . 86. . . . . . . . \LinearALXXX ( ) . . . . . . 83 \LinearAXXXVI ( ) . . . 55 \llcurly (Î) . . . . . . . . 38 \lneqq ( ) . . 38 \lnsim ( ) . . . . . . . . \LinearALI ( ) . . . . . . . 83 \LinearAXXIV ( ) . . . . 83 \LinearAXXIII ( ) . . . . . . . . 39 \lneq (¬) . . . . \LinearALXXIV ( ) . \LinearACXXV ( ) . . . 83 \LinearAXXXIII ( ) . . . . . . 83 \LinearAXXVIII ( ) . . . . . . . . . \LinearACXXXIV ( ) . . 83 \LinearAXXII ( ) . . 38 \lnapprox ( ) . . . . \llparenthesis ( )  \lmoustache () . . . . . . . . . . . . . 38 \lnsim ( ) . . . . . . 38 \lneqq ( ) . 93 longdiv (package) . . 83 \LinearAXLIX ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 38 . \LinearAII ( ) . . \LinearACXXIV ( ) . . . . . . . . \LinearALXXV ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . \LinearALXII ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . \LinearALXVII ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . \LinearALXXXII ( ) . . 83 \LinearAXVII ( ) . \LinearACXXXV ( ) . . . . . . . \LinearALIV ( ) . . . 119. . . . . . . 82 \LinearAVIII ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . \LinearAIX ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . 59 141 . . . . . . 84 \LinearAXCIII ( ) . \LinearALXVIII ( ) . . . . . \LinearALVII ( ) . . . . 82 \LinearAVI ( ) . 84 \LinearALXXXVI ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . \LinearALXI ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . Î) . . . 83 \LinearAXXIX ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 83 \LinearAXXXII ( ) . . . 53 \llcorner ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . 54 \lmoustache ( ) . . . . . . . . \LinearACXXIX ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . \LinearACXXXVI ( ) . . . . . \LinearALVI ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . 84 \LinearAXCII ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 38 \lnapprox ( ) . 83 \LinearAXLVII ( ) . . . . . . . . 83 \LinearAXXXI ( ) . . . 84 \LinearAV ( ) . . . . . . . . . . \LinearALXIV ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 54 \llbracket ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . 84 \LinearALXXXX ( ) . . . . . . . . . 38 . . . \LinearALXXVIII ( ) . . . . . . . . . . 83 \LinearAXLV ( ) . . \llless ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . \LinearACXXVI ( ) . . . . . . . . \LinearALXXVI ( ) . . . . . . . . \Lleftarrow ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . \LinearAIV ( ) . . . . . . . . . 38 \lneq ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 73 linguistic symbols . . . . . 83 \LinearAXV ( ) . . . . . . 83 \LinearAXXXIX ( ) . . \LinearALXXXI ( ) . . . . . . . 82 \LinearAXIV ( ) . . . . . . . . . 83 \LinearAXXXV ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 44 . . . . . . . \LinearALX ( ) . . . . 32 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 84 \LinearAXI ( ) . . . . . . . 121 \Lineload (L) . . .. . . . . . . 84 \LinearAXCVIII ( ) . . . 66 \lnsim (Ä) . . . . . \LinearALXXXIII ( ) . . . 101 . . . . . . . . .    ¢) . . . . . . . 83 \LinearAXVIII ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . \LinearALXIII ( ) . . . . .

. . . . . 96 \markera (x) . \lVert (||) . . . . . . . 73. . . . 41 \Longleftrightarrow (⇐⇒) 41 \Longleftrightarrow (⇐⇒) 43 \longleftrightarrow (←→) . . . . . . 89 \mankidney ( ) . . . . 23. . . . 58. . . . . . . . .) . . . 100. . . . . . 43 . . . . 71 \Mars (Ä) . 43 \longleftarrow (←−) . . . . . . . . . \ltriple . . . . . 42 \mapsto (→) . 48 \mapstochar (Þ) . . . . . 93. . . . 93 married . . 113 \mathbin . . . . 67. .. 38 . . . . 89 \manimpossiblecube ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 60. 21–69 \mathfrak . . . . . 73 . . . . . . . . . . . . 97 majuscules . . . . . . . . . . . 74 \maltese ( ) . . . . . . . 49 \M . . . . 112 mathcomp (package) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . see . . . . . . 90. . . . . . 105. . 71. . . 95 . . 43 \longmapsto (−→) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . see \textlowering \lozenge (♦) . . . . . . . see \Join \lrtimes ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . 48 \mapsfromchar (ß) . 42 \longmapsfrom (←−) . . . . . . 41 . . . .. . . 89 \manfilledquartercircle ( ) 89 manfnt (package) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13 M . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . 41 \Longleftarrow (⇐ ) . . . 71 \MartinVogel (ÿ) . . . . 96 magical signs . . 43. . . . . . 30. . 55 \lz (I) . . . 63. . 106 \mathclose . . . . . . 49 \Mapsfromchar () . . . . . . . . . 73 \MaleMale (ƒ) . . . 10 .. . . . . . . . . .. . . . . 123 \mathaccent . 90 marvosym (package) . . . 89 \manquadrifolium ( ) . . . 65. . . . . . .. .. \Lsteel (™) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 42 \looparrowright ( ) . . . . . . 119 \mathdollar ($) . . . . . . . . . . . 48 \Mapsto (⇒) . . . . \lvert (|) . . 10 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 42 \mapsfrom (←) . . . . 48 \mappedfromchar () . . 54 . . . . . . . . . . . . 98 \mate (m) . . . . . . 43 \longleftarrow (← ) . . . \m . . . . . . 42 \looparrowdownright (ï) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 93 \markerb (y) . . . . . . 68 \mathellipsis (. . . . . . . . . 65 mathdesign (package) 18. . . . 68 \lrcorner ({) . . . . \Lsh (è) . . . 89 \manvpennib ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 95 . . . . see \vee \LowerDiamond ( ) . . . . . 58. 67. . . . \m ( ) . . . . . 89 \mancube ( ) . . \Lsh ( ) . 64. . . . . . . . 71–75. . . . . . . \lVert ( ) . . . . \ma ¯¯) . . . . 41 \looparrowleft ( ) . . . . . 68 \mathcal . . . . 89 \manrotatedquartercircle ( ) . . . . . . . . 106 . .. . . . . . 89 \manstar ( ) . .¯ . 49. . . 10 \maltese ( ) . . . . . . . . . 70 \LongPulseLow ( ) . . . . . . 57 . . 41 \LongPulseHigh ( ) . . . . 68 \mathbbm . . . . . . . . . 112 \mathbold . . . Dan . . . . . . . . 65. 41 \mapsto ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . 89 \mantriangleup ( ) . 55 see \ldbrack . . . . . . . . .. . . \ltimes ( ) . . . . . . . . 101 masonic cipher . . . . . . . . 104 \mathbb . . 89 \manconcentriccircles ( ) 89 \manconcentricdiamond ( ) 89 \mancone ( ) . . 41 \looparrowdownleft (î) . . . 56 \lWavy ( ) . . . . . 71. . . .. 89 \manrotatedquadrifolium ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . 42 \Longmapsto (=⇒) . . . . . . . . . 79 \Lparen (() . . . . . . . . . . . 30. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . see \rightarrow and \supset material equivalence . . . . . (× \macron (a) ¯ macron (¯) a 8 9 o \lrcorner ( ) . . . . . \M (´) . 89 \mantiltpennib ( ) . .. . 17 accents \lwave ( ) . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . 43 \looparrowright (í) . . . . . 52–55. . . . 66 man . . . . . . . . . . . . . 48 \Mapsfrom (⇐) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 49 \Mapstochar () . . . . 24. . . . 93 material biconditional . . . . . . . 89 \manlhpenkidney ( ) . . . . . .. . . . . 89 \manquartercircle ( ) . . . . . . 54 . . . 68 \mathcent (¢) . . . . . . . 49 \mapsfromchar () . 42 . . . . . . . 31 \lsem ( ) . 68 mathbbol (package) . . . see \textmarried \Mars (h) . 89 \manerrarrow ( ) . 74 male . . . . .. . . . . . see \leftrightarrow and \equiv material conditional . . . . . . . . . . 41 \looparrowright ( ) . . . . . see \leftrightarrow and \equiv material implication . . . . 24 . . . . . 26. . . . . . . . . . . . . 21 mathdots (package) . . . . . . . . \ltimes ( ) . . . . 119. . . . . . . 23 . . . . . . . . . 42 \longmapsto ( →) . . . . . . . . . . . . 119. . . . . . . . . . . . 95 . . . . .\Longleftarrow (⇐=) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 81. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 113 mathcal (euscript package option) . . 32. 119. . . . . . .. . . . . 89 \mantriangledown ( ) . . . . 107 \makeatother . . . . 52. . . . . . . . . . . \Mapstochar (ú) . 68 \mathbbmtt . . . . . . . . . . . . 120. . . . . . . . . . . . . 56 . . 43 \longrightarrow (−→) . . Luecking. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 89 \mantriangleright ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . 68 mathabx (package) 21. . 56. . . . . 107. . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . .. . . . . . 43 \Loosebearing ($) . . . . . \ltimes () . . . 36–38. . . 52 \mathchoice . . . . . . . . . 50 \makeatletter . . . 74 \Male (|) . . . . . . . 120 \mathds . . . . . 21 mathematical symbols . . . . . . . . 55 \lrJoin . 68 \mathbbmss . . . . . . . . . . 55 . 89 \manpenkidney ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . 53 \lrcorner ( ) . . . . \lsemantic . . . . 43 \longleftrightarrow (←→) 41 \Longmapsfrom (⇐=) . . . . . . . . . . 44     . . . . . . . . . . . 79 lowering . . . . . . . . . 90 \manboldkidney ( ) . . . . . 66 \lozenge ( ) . 70 \Longrightarrow (=⇒) . . 89. . . . . . . . . . 68 \mathbf . 42 \Mapsfromchar (û) . . . . . . . . . . . . \lvertneqq (´) \lvertneqq ( ) \lvertneqq ( ) . . . . 65. . 68    \Marge (¨) 142 . . . . 40. . \Lsh ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 43 \longrightarrow ( →) . . . . 42. 89 \Mappedfromchar () . . . . . 39 \Maggie ( ) . . . . . . . . 120 \manhpennib ( ) . . . . . . .. . . 25. . . . . . . . . . 18. . . . 22 . . . . 41 \Longrightarrow ( ⇒) . . . 53 \lwavy ( ) . . . 107 \MALE ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 74 \male (♂) . . . . . . . . . 42 \looparrowleft (ì) . . . . . 73 \lor . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 71 \mars (♂) . . 38 . . . . . . . 42 \looparrowleft ( ) . . . . 101. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 66. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . see \nrightarrow and \nsupset math alphabets . see \rightarrow and \supset material nonimplication . .

. . . . . . 112 \mathord . . 31 \multimapdotbothBvert ( ) . . . 32 . 71 \Moon (Á) . . . . . . . . . 31 \multimapdotbothAvert ( ) . 73. . . . . . . and \parr \Mundus (m) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 49 \models (|=) . . . . . . . . 95 ¯ ˘ \mb (¯) . 18 MIL-STD-806 . . . . . \nabla ( ) . . . 120 \Mobilefone (H) . . . . . 55. . . . 24 \minuscolon (−:) . . . . 24 membership . . . . . 103 \models ( ) . . . . . . . . . \Natural ( ) . . . . . . . . . 25 \medstar ( ) . . . . . . 98 \morepawns (S) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 69. 29. 31 \multimapdot ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . .˘ ˘ ¯ \mbox . . . . . . . 19. . . . . . 53. 21. . . . . . 33 . . . 25. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 40 \medtriangleleft ( ) . 89 musixtex (package) . . . . 21 \mathsterling (£) . . . . . . 43–48. . . . . . . 56 \middle . . 65 \MVOne (1) . . . 64. \NATURAL ( ) . 70 Microsoft® Windows® . . . . . . . . . see musical symbols minus . . . . . . . . . . . 65 \MVNine (9) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 95 \mho ( ) . . 119 mathscr (euscript package option) . 24 \mu (µ) . 30. . . 49 . . . . . .¯ . . . . . . . . . . . . \nabla (∇) . . . . 106 \mathparagraph (¶) . . . . . . 119 ˘ mbboard \mbbx (¯ ) . . . . . 21 \mathpunct . . . . 95 ´ ¯ ˘ ) . 56. . . . . 30. . . . . 73 ! ¼ Î . . . . . . . . . . . 51. . . . 68 mathrsfs (package) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 91 mouse . . 24 \medsquare ( ) . . \natural ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 90 \moverlay . . . . . . . . 65 \Mb (´) . . . . . . . . . . . . 23 \medcirc ( ) . . 60. 48 MnSymbol (package) . . . . . . . . . . . 25. 107 \MoveUp (º) . . . . . . 49 . . . . . 66 \minushookup ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 66 mechanical scaling . 112 \mathpalette . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31 \multimapdotbothA ( ) . . . 21. . . . . . . . see \dotdiv \moo ( ) . . . 52. . . 22. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 47 \multimapboth ( ) . . . . . 36 \minuscoloncolon (−::) . . . . . . . . . 93 \moreroom (U) . . . . . . 68 \mathsection (§) . . . 89 \muup (µ) . . . . 93 \Mountain ( ) . 22 METAFONT . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21 \Mmappedfromchar ( ) . . 112 \mathpzc . . . . 113 minim . . . . . 33 moduli space . . 31 \multimapdotbothvert ( ) . . 103. . . . . 49. NAND gates . . . . . . . . .. . . . 88 . . . . . 73 . . . . . . . . . . . . 31 \multimapdotboth ( ) . . . . . see \bindnasrepma. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 68. 50 \multimap ( ) . 40 \medtriangleup ( ) . . . . . . 65 N . . . . . . . natural numbers alphabets. 80. . 65. . . 22 \mp ( ) . . . . . . . . 58 \mathrm . 90 \MVSeven (7) . . . . . . . . 66 \minuso ( ) . 31 multiple accents per character 107 multiplicative disjunction . . . . 79. . . . . . . . . . . . . . \NAK ( ) . . . . . . . 104 minutes. . 49 Maxwell-Stefan diffusion coefficient . . 95. . . . . . . . . . . 95 ¯ ˘ . 24 \minushookdown (¬) . . . . see \textmu \micro (µ) . . . . . . . . . . . . angular . . . . . . . 31 \multimapdotinv ( ) . see \in \Mercury (e) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22 \Moon (u) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . see \textperthousand milstd (package) . . 65 \MVTwo (2) . . . . . . 54 \midtilde ({) . . . . . . . . . 23 \medcircle ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 89 metre (package) . . . . nath (package) . . 50 \MVAt (@) . . . . . . 95 metrical symbols . . . . . . 73 \mod . . 24 \meddiamond ( ) . . . . see math 143 . . . . . . . 68 \mathscr . . . . . 48 \mmapstochar ( ) . . . . . 88. . . . . . . . . . see \prime miscellaneous symbols 65–67. . . 90 Museum of Icelandic Sorcery and Witchcraft . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 95 ˘ ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25 \medlozenge ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 68 monus . . . . 37. . . . . . . . 68 \mathop . . 73 millesimal sign . . . 112 \mathopen . . . 48 . . . . . . . 66 \measuredangle ( ) . . . . . . . . . 65 \MVFive (5) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 65 \MVSix (6) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 65 \MVRightarrow (:) . . 98 musical symbols 20. . . . . . . 71 \merge ( ) . . . . . . 66. . . . . . . . 119 \min (min) . 31 . 25. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 66 micro . 40 \medvert ( ) . . . 48 \Mmapstochar ( ) . . . . . . . 36 \minusdot ( ) . . . . 65 66 72 73 \NANDd (¦) . . . . . . . 112 \medbackslash ( ) . . . 112 \mathring (˚) . . 25 \medstarofdavid ( ) . . . . . 32–34. . . . . . .. . . . . . . 57. . . . . . 34. . . . . . . . . . . 33 . . . . . . . . . 57. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 95 ˘ \mbb (¯ ¯ ˘ (package) . . . \nasymp ( ) . . . . . 109–112 METAFONTbook symbols . 65 \MVZero (0) . 88–99 “Missing $ inserted” . . . 66 \measuredangle ( ) . . . . . 115 \mid (|) . . 65. . . . . . . .. 39. 90 \MVEight (8) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 65 \MVThree (3) . . . . . . 71 \mercury ( ) . . . . . . 23–25. 95 \Mbb (¯ ´ ¯ ˘ ˘ \mBb (¯ ) . .\mathit . . . . . . . . . . . \natural ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 68 \mathrel . . . . . . . . . 73 \NANDl (§) \NANDr (¥) \NANDu (¨) \napprox (') . . . . . . 30. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . see alphabets. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21 mathtools (package) . . . . . 31 . . . . 66 (N) . . 67. . 119. . . . 73 . . 40 \medtriangleright ( ) . . . . . . 17. . . . . . . . 119. . . . . . . . . . 66. \napproxeq ( ) \napproxeq ( ) \nasymp ( ) . . 109. . . . . 62. . . . \napprox ( ) . . . . . . 24 \medvertdot ( ) . . 31 \multimapinv ( ) . . . 119. 71 \MoonPha . . . . . . . . . . . . 31 \multimapdotbothB ( ) . 57. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 40. 65. . . . . math monetary symbols . . . . . . . . . . . . . 58–60. . . . . . . . 79 \medslash ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21 \max (max) . . . . . 79 \medtriangledown ( ) . . . . . . . 65 \MVFour (4) . . see \textminus \minus (−) . . . . . . . . . . . . . \invamp. . . 71 \Mercury (Â) . 90 \mp ( ) . 68 \mathnormal . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31 \multimap ( ) . 18. . . 120 \mathunderscore ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 68. . . . . . . . . 24 \medbullet ( ) . . . . . . 119 . . . . . see \DH \maya . 120 metre . . . . . 25. . . . . . .. . . . . . 52 \mathsterling (£) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31 \multimapbothvert ( ) . . . . 95 ˘ \mbB (¯ ¯ ˘´) . . . . . . . 106 \measuredangle (b) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . see \ComputerMouse \MoveDown (») . 48 \mmappedfromchar ( ) . . . . . . .

. . . . . . 71 \neptune ( ) . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 47 \nefootline ( ) . . . . . . 43 \nearrowtail ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . 48 . . . . . . . 10 . \ndowndownarrows ( ) . . . . . . 39. . . . see \neg and \sim \neharpoonccw ( ) . . . . 43 \neModels ( ) . . . .. . 33 . . . . \nfallingdotseq ( ) . 38 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . \nDashv (C) . . . . \ncurlyeqsucc ( ) . . . . . \nbacktriplesim ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . \nersquigarrow ( ) . . 42 \Nearrow ( ) . . 46 . . . . . . . . 48 . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . \ndownvdash ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . \ngeqq (±) . . . . . . . . . 46 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . \neswharpoonnwse ( ) \neswharpoons ( ) . . . . . . . . . . \ndownarrow ( ) . . . . . . . \neVdash ( ) . . . . . . . . . . \ndashednwarrow ( ) . \ndownrsquigarrow ( ) \ndownspoon ( ) . . . \ngtrclosed ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . \nfrown ( ) . . 33 . \nDoteq ( ) . . . . . . . . . 52 . . 33 . . . . . . 43 \nefilledspoon ( ) . . . . . . . . 33 \neqslantgtr (¹) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 39 144 . . . 107 . . . . . \ngeqq ( ) . . . . . . . . . \nexists ( ) . . . . . . . . . 107 \nearrow ( ) . . 71 . . . . . \ndivides ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . \ng (ŋ) . .. . . . . . . . . \nexists (i) . . . \nequivclosed ( ) . . . . . . . . . . \nbacksim ( ) . . . . . . 33 . . . . \ngtrapprox ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . \nfrowneq ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . \ncurvearrowleft ( ) . . . \NG (Ŋ) . . . 106. . . . . . . . . \ncurvearrownwse ( ) . . . . \ndownuparrows ( ) . . . . . . . \ndasheduparrow ( ) . . . 66 negation . . . . . . . . \ndownlsquigarrow ( ) \ndownmapsto ( ) . . . . . . . . . . 48 45 45 45 45 47 34 34 46 46 45 45 34 34 47 45 47 45 46 34 34 ) . . . . . . . . . . . 48 . . . \ngeqslant ( ) . . . . . \newextarrow . \neswarrows ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . \ndownfilledspoon ( ) \ndownfootline ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . 33 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . \ngg ( ) . . . \nBumpeq ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . \neswarrow ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . \ndashedsearrow ( ) . . . . 33 \neg (¬) . . . . 52 . . . . .. . . \ndownModels ( ) . . . . . . . . . \nddtstile ( ) . . . \nexists ( ) . . 43 106. . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . \ngeqq ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . \ngeq ( ) . . . . . . 33 . . . . 38 \neqslantgtr ( ) . . . . . . . 33 \nenearrows ( ) . . . . . . . . . . \ngtr (£) . . . . . . . . \nequiv ( ) . . . . . . . 71 . . . . 71 \neq ($) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 34 \Nearrow ( ) . . . . . . . . . \nbackeqsim ( ) . \nbacksimeq ( ) . 39 \neqsmile ( ) . . . . . . . . 24 . . . . \ngtr ( ) . . \ndownharpoonccw ( ) . . . . . . . . . . 40 . . . . . . 34 \neqfrown ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 34 \neqcirc ( ) . 74 . . 35 \ne . \ngeqclosed ( ) . . . . . \neswharpoonsenw ( ) \Neswline ( ) . \ndownarrowtail ( ) . . . . . . \ndiagdown ( ) . 48 . . . . . . . . 52 . . . . . . \nDownarrow ( ) . . . .. . . . 43 . . . . . . . . . . . . . \ncurlyeqsucc (¹) . . . . . . . . . . . \ndownpitchfork ( ) . 33 . . . . . . . . \nbumpeq ( ) . . \nfrowneqsmile ( ) . 38 . \ngeqslantdot ( ) \ngets ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . \ncurlyeqprec (¸) . . 39 . . . . . . . . \ngeq (§) . . \nbackapproxeq ( ) . \nbackapprox ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . \nggg ( ) . . . . . 33 \nemodels ( ) . . . . . . 43 . . . . . . . . 38 \neqslantless ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . \nfrownsmileeq ( ) . . 39. . . 37 \neq (≠) . . . . . \nbacksim ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . \nevdash ( ) . . . . . \ndiagup ( ) . . \nbacksimeq ( ) . . . . \ncurvearrowdownup ( ) . \nclosedequal ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . \ndashedrightarrow ( ) . . . . . . . . . . \ndownfree ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31 . . 43 \nearrow (Õ) . . \ndownupharpoons ( ) . . . . . . . 38 . . . . . 43 \nemapsto ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . \nbackcong ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 35 \ndttstile ( ) .. 90 33 33 33 33 31 33 31 34 34 72 31 34 31 34 34 46 46 34 32 31 34 32 34 32 34 44 46 44 44 44 46 44 44 44 44 46 45 45 45 45 45 45 45 45 46 46 32 32 32 32 34 32 35 34 34 34 34 34 48 48 48 \ndoublesmileeq ( ) . . . \ncurvearrowrightleft ( ) \ncurvearrowsenw ( ) . . . . . . 46 \nelsquigarrow ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . \newtie (a) . . . . 47 . \ncirclearrowright ( ) . . . . . . . 71 \Neptune (È) . . 46 \neharpooncw ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . \neswbipropto ( ) . . . . . \ndasharrow ( ) . . . . . . . . . see \neq \ne (≠) . . . . . 43 . . .. . \ndoteq ( ) . . 35 \ndtstile ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . \ndashVv (G) . . . . . . . . . . 10 . . . . . . \ncurlyeqprec ( ) . . . . . 39 . . . . . . . \NBSP ( ) . . . . . 42 \nearrow ( ) . . . . \neswarrow ( ) . . \ngeqdot ( ) . . \ndashrightarrow ( ) . . . . . . . . \ncurvearrowswne ( ) . \ndasheddownarrow ( ) . . . 33 \nefree ( ) . . . . . . . . . . 33 . . . . . . . . \nfrownsmile ( ) . . . . . .. . . 63 . . . . \ndashedleftarrow ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .navigation symbols . . . 48 \neqsim ( ) . . . . . . . \ngtrapprox (É) . . . . . . 14 . . . . . . . \nBumpeq ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 43 \nepitchfork ( ) . . \ncurvearrowleftright ( ) \ncurvearrownesw ( ) . . . . . . . . 95 . . . . . . . . \nequal (≠) . . . . . . \ncong ( ) . . . . . . . . 33 . . . . . . . . . \ncurvearrowright ( ) . \newmoon ( ) . . . . \ndashedswarrow ( ) . . . . . . . . \Neswarrow ( ) . . . \ncirceq ( ) . . . . . . . . . . \neswline ( ) . . .. . . . . \ndownVdash ( ) . \newmetrics . . . . . . . . . . . . \ngeq ( ) . . . . \nbumpeq ( ) . . \ngg ( ) . 32 \neq ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 41. . . . . . . \ndoublefrown ( ) \ndoublefrowneq ( \ndoublesmile ( ) . . . . . . . . . . \nequalclosed ( ) . . . . . \ncong ( ) . .. . . . . ) . . . . . . . . . \ncurvearrowupdown ( ) . . . . \ndashleftarrow ( ) . . . . . . .. . \ndashV (G) . . . . . \neswcrossing ( ) . . . \ncong ()) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . \ndownharpooncw ( ) . . . . . . \ndownmodels ( ) . . . . . \nDashV (C) . . . . \nequiv ( ) . . . . . . . \ndashednearrow ( ) . . . . \nespoon ( ) . . . . 39 \neqslantless (¸) . . \ngtrdot ( ) . . 46 . . . . . . . . . . . 34 \neqdot ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 48 . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . \ngtr ( ) . . . . 34 \neqbump ( ) . 33 . . . . . . . . . . \ndststile ( . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . \ndashv ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . \ncirclearrowleft ( ) . . . . . . . 65 \neg (¬) . . . . . . . \ngeqslant ( ) . \newmoon (x) . . . . . . . . . \ndashv (9) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 47 \Neptune (r) . . 38 39 38 39 39 46 38 39 39 38 38 39 38 38 40 39 \ngtreqless ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . \Neutral ({) . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 48 .

. . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . \nntstile ( ) . . . . . . 47 \nleftfootline ( ) . . . . . . . . \nless ( ) . . . 45 \nleftarrow (Ú) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 45 \nlcirclearrowright ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . 13 \niepsilon ($) . . . . 38 \nleq ( ) . . 13 \niv ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 38 \nleq ( ) . . . . . . . 38 \nleqq ( ) . . . . . . . . . . 39 \ngtrless ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 45 \nlcurvearrownw ( ) . .. . . . \nlhookdownarrow ( ) . . . . . . . \nleqslant ( ) . 45 \nleadsto ( ) . . . . . . . . \nnenearrows ( ) . . . . . . \nneModels ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 76 \NibSolidLeft ( ) . . . 38 \nhateq ( ) . . . . . \nlhooknwarrow ( ) . . . 31 \nisigma (y) . . . . . . \nlesssim (Â) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . \nnwfilledspoon ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 76 nicefrac (package) . . . . . . . . . . . \nnersquigarrow ( ) . . . . 53 \nj (U) . . . . . . . . . . 76 \NibSolidRight ( ) . . . . \nneswarrow ( ) . \nnelsquigarrow ( ) . \nmultimap ( ) . 41 \nleftrightarrow ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 41 \nleftarrow ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 45 \nleftarrowtail ( ) . . . . . . . 41 \nLeftarrow ( ) . 13 \nibar . . . . . . . . . . . . . 34 \nleftvdash ( ) . . \nNeswarrow ( ) . . . . . . . \nnwpitchfork ( ) . . . 13 \niiota (A) . . . . . . 76 \NibRight ( ) . . . \nnwseline ( ) . . . . . . . . . . 105 \ni (∋) . . . . . . . \nnefree ( ) . . 38 39 38 38 45 45 45 44 44 44 44 44 38 39 44 39 \nmapsto ( ) . . . . . . . . \nnwVdash ( ) . . . . . . \nnefootline ( ) . . . . . 45 0 ) 2 1 \nleftmapsto ( ) . . \nnearrow ( ) . . . . . 76 nibs . . . . . . . . 46 \nhookrightarrow ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . \nnearrowtail ( ) . . . . . 46 \ni ( ) . . . . . 13 \nilambda (P) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 34 \nleftfree ( ) . . 34 \nleq (¦) . . . . . . . . . . \nleqslantdot ( ) \nless (¢) . . \nlhookswarrow ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 39. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13 \niphi (g) . . . \nlll ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 46 \nLeftrightline ( ) . . . . . . 39. 39 \ngtreqqless ( ) . 13 \nlcirclearrowdown ( ) . . . 34 \nleftrightline ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 45 \nlcirclearrowup ( ) . 21. . . . see \ownsbar \nibeta (©) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . \nlesssim ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 39 \nleqq (°) . . . . 45 \nlcurvearrowse ( ) . 34 \nleftrightsquigarrow ( ) 46 \nleftrsquigarrow ( ) . . . . . . . \nneharpoonccw ( ) . . . . . . . . . 52 \nialpha (¢) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 51. . . . . . \nnwharpoonccw ( ) . . . . 40 \nleqdot ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . \nlhookrightarrow ( ) \nlhooksearrow ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . \nmodels ( ) . . 42 \nleftrightarrow ( ) . . . 45 \nlcurvearrowsw ( ) . . . . . . . . 46 31 34 34 47 35 44 42 44 45 47 34 34 46 46 45 45 34 34 45 47 45 47 45 45 45 46 46 46 34 34 34 34 35 35 35 45 42 45 45 47 34 34 46 46 45 45 33 34 45 47 45 45 45 45 46 46 46 33 33 47 33 145 . . \nnttstile ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . \nNwsearrow ( ) . . . . . . \nneswline ( ) . \nll ( ) . . . . . . 45 \nleftlsquigarrow ( ) . .. . . . 46 \nleftrightharpoons ( ) . . . . . . 42 \nLeftrightarrow ( ) . . . . . 45 \nleftrightarrows ( ) . . . . . 13 \nigamma (1) . . 13 \NibLeft ( ) . \nnwarrow ( ) . . . 45 \nlcirclearrowleft ( ) . . . . . . . . .. . .. . . \nnwfootline ( ) . . \nleqq ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . \nNwarrow ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . \nnwseharpoonnesw ( ) \nnwseharpoons ( ) . 39 \ngtrsim (Ã) . \nneswharpoonsenw ( ) \nNeswline ( ) . . . . . . . . . \nnemapsto ( ) . . . . \nless ( ) . 45 \nleftModels ( ) . \nnefilledspoon ( ) . . . 38 39 38 39 39 38 38 39 38 38 40 39 \nlesseqgtr ( ) . . . . . 46 \nleftleftarrows ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . 47 \nleftVdash ( ) . . . . . . . . 45 \nlcurvearrowright ( ) . . 42 \nLeftarrow ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . 39 \nleqclosed ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . \nnwmapsto ( ) . 45 \nlcurvearrowup ( ) . . \nmid ( ) . 45 \nleftrightharpoondownup ( ) . . . . . . . 34 \nhookleftarrow ( ) . . 13 \nin (∉) . . . . \nnwModels ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 45 \nleftspoon ( ) . . 121 \nichi (‘) . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . \nndtstile ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . \nlessapprox (È) \nlessapprox ( ) \nlessclosed ( ) \nlessdot ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 67. . . \nlhookuparrow ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . \nmid ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . \nnwharpooncw ( ) . . 47 \nLeftrightarrow (ø) . . . . . . . . . . . 38 \ngtrless ( ) . . . . . . . \nleqslant ( ) . . . . \nneharpooncw ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 34 \nleftpitchfork ( ) . . . . .. . . . . . . .. . . . . 34 \nleftmodels ( ) . . . . . \nnststile ( ) . 119. . . . . . . . . . \nll ( ) . . . . 13 \niupsilon (†) . . \nnwspoon ( ) . . . . . . 45 \nlcurvearrowdown ( ) . . . \nnwmodels ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . \nnespoon ( ) . . . . . 46 \nleftharpooncw ( ) . . . . . . . . . 13 \niplus ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . \nNearrow ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . 39 \nlesseqqgtr ( ) . . . . . . . \nnwsearrows ( ) . . . . . . . .. \nnwarrow ( ) . . . . 38 \ngtrsim ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . \nneswarrows ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . \nnemodels ( ) . \nnwseharpoonswne ( ) \nNwseline ( ) . 45 \nlcurvearrowne ( ) . . . . . . 42 \nleftarrow ( ) . . . . . . . . 39 \nlesseqgtrslant ( ) . . . . . . . 39 \nlessgtr ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. \nnearrow ( ) . . . . . \nneVdash ( ) . . . . \nlessgtr ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . \nlhookleftarrow ( ) \nlhooknearrow ( ) . . . . . . . \nneswharpoonnwse ( ) \nneswharpoons ( ) . . . . 45 \nleftrightarrow (Ü) . 45 \nleftfilledspoon ( ) . . . . . . . .\ngtreqlessslant ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 41 \nLeftrightarrow ( ) . . . . \nLleftarrow ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . \nnwarrowtail ( ) . . . . 45 \nlcurvearrowleft ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 46 \nleftrightharpoonupdown ( ) . . . . . . . . . \nnevdash ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . .. \nnwlsquigarrow ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . \nnwfree ( ) . 46 \nLeftarrow (ö) . . . . . . . . . . . \nnwrsquigarrow ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . \nnwnwarrows ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . \nnwsearrow ( ) . . . . . . \nnepitchfork ( ) . 13 \nitheta (ƒ) . . 52 \niomega (b) . . . . . 34 \nleftharpoonccw ( ) . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . . 52 \nparallel ( ) . . . . \nrightleftharpoons ( ) \nrightlsquigarrow ( ) . . 71 \ \notbot (w) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 34 \nparallelslant ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31 \nprecapprox ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . \nsqsubseteq ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . \nRightarrow (÷) . . . \nsqdoublefrowneq ( ) \nsqdoublesmile ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26 \NoIroning (²) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . \nsqsupset (ƒ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . \nrightarrow (Û) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . \nsefree ( ) . . . . . \nrightsquigarrow ( ) . . . . . . \nsqfrowneqsmile ( ) . . . . . . \nrestriction ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . \nseVdash ( ) . . . . . . . \nrisingdotseq ( ) . . . . . . . . . \nrhookleftarrow ( ) . \nseModels ( ) . \nsqsubset ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . \nrcurvearrownw ( ) . . \nsepitchfork ( ) . . . . . . . . . \nsimeq ( ) . . 90 \novelty (N) . . . . . . 52 \notowns . \nsqsubset (‚) . \nrightmapsto ( ) . \nrightvdash ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 33 \npreccurlyeq (¦) . . . . . . . . . \nRrightarrow ( ) . . . . \nrightharpooncw ( ) . . \nrhookdownarrow ( ) . . 32 \npreccurlyeq ( ) . . . . 105 not equal (= vs. . . . . . . . . . \nsearrow ( ) . . . . 91 not . 31 \npreccurlyeq ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . \nsqsupseteq ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . \nrhooknearrow ( ) . . . . . . . . . \nrightarrowtail ( ) . . . \nrhookrightarrow ( ) . . . . . . \nsqsupset ( ) . . . . . . . \nprecsim ( ) . . \nRightarrow ( ) . 90 \NoChemicalCleaning (¨) . . . . \nSqsubset ( ) . . \nsesearrows ( ) . . \npreceq ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . 32. . . . 32 \nprecapprox ( ) . . . . . . . \nsmileeq ( ) . . . . \nrightfilledspoon ( ) \nrightfootline ( ) . \nsqsupseteq (‡) . . . . . . \nsersquigarrow ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . \nsqsubset ( ) . . \nrightfree ( ) . . . . . \nrightModels ( ) . 32 \notbackslash (−) . . . . . . . . . . . . . \nseharpoonccw ( ) . . . 73 \NoSun ( ) . . . . \nsdtstile ( ) . \nrcurvearrowdown ( ) . . . 52 \notin ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . 90 nointegrals (wasysym package option) . \nsqsupset ( ) . . . . . . \nsqfrownsmile ( ) . . 32 \notin (‚) . . . . . . . . . . . . 34  \npreceq (ª) . . . . \nsmile ( ) . \nsqsmileeq ( ) . . . . \nrcurvearrowse ( ) . . . . . . . . . . \nrightrightarrows ( ) . . . . \nrightspoon ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . 71 / \notsmallin ( ) . . . . . . 52 \nottop (v) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . \nsqsmile ( ) . \nrhookswarrow ( ) . . . . . \nsmileeqfrown ( ) . . . . . . . . \nrcurvearrowright ( ) . . . . . . 91 \nowns ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . \nsimeq (() . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . \nRightarrow ( ) . . . . . . . . \nRelbar ( ) . . . . \nprecsim ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 73 \NORd () . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . \nrcurvearrowup ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . \nsqfrown ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . \nsqSubset (–) . . . . . . . . . \npreceqq ( ) . . \nsenwarrows ( ) . . . . . . . . \nsqsubseteqq (Ž) . . . 52 \notowner (ƒ) . \nrightpitchfork ( ) . . . . . . . . . 52 \notin (∈) . \nSqsupset ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . \nsemodels ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . \nsqfrowneq ( ) . . . . . see \notowner and \notni \notperp (w) . . . . . . \nsemapsto ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 47 \nplus ( ) . . .. . . . . . . . \nshortparallel ( ) . . . \nsqsubseteqq ( ) . . . . \nprecsim (Â) . . . . . . 93 \noway ( ) . =) . . . . . \nshortmid ( ) . . \nrhookuparrow ( ) . . . . \nsenwharpoons ( ) . . . . . . . . . \nsevdash ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . \nsim (&) . . .\nnwvdash ( ) . . . . . 63 nonbreaking space . \nrightharpoonccw ( ) . . . . . . . see \noway \NoBleech (Ì) . . \nsimeq ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22 \nprec (¢) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . \nsqsmileeqfrown ( ) . . . . \nshortparallel ( ) . . 34 \npitchfork ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . see \lVert and \rVert \NORr () . . . \nsqsupseteq ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . \nsmilefrowneq ( ) . . . . . . 73 \NORl () . . . . . 31 \nparallel ( ) . . . . . . . \nsqdoublesmileeq ( ) \nsqeqfrown ( ) . . . \nseharpooncw ( ) . . . . . 33 \nprecapprox (È) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . \nsqsubseteq (†) . . . . . . . \nsqSupset (—) . \nSearrow ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . \nsearrowtail ( ) \nsefilledspoon ( . . . . . . 73 norm . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 52 \notin (∉) . . . . \nrcurvearrowsw ( ) . . . . . 34 34 46 46 45 45 34 34 45 46 47 45 45 47 34 34 31 34 31 34 32 31 34 32 31 34 48 48 48 48 48 48 48 48 48 48 48 48 48 48 48 48 48 48 48 37 37 37 37 37 37 37 37 37 37 37 37 37 37 37 37 37 37 146 . . . . . . . . . . 32 \notequiv (%) . . . . . 32 \notasymp (0) . . . . 72 NOR gates . . . . . . \nrelbar ( ) . . 32 31 34 31 32 31 34 45 45 45 45 45 45 45 45 45 45 45 45 34 34 46 45 45 45 45 45 45 45 45 42 41 45 42 41 45 45 47 34 34 46 46 44 46 44 44 34 34 47 44 44 47 46 34 34 34 44 35 44 44 45 47 \nsefootline ( ) . 90 non-commutative division . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 32 \nprec ( ) . . . . . . . . \nrhooknwarrow ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . \nrightVdash ( ) . \nsim ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . \nrightrsquigarrow ( ) . . . . . . . . . . 73 \NORu () . \nrcirclearrowdown ( ) \nrcirclearrowleft ( ) \nrcirclearrowright ( ) \nrcirclearrowup ( ) . . . . . . . . . . \nsmilefrown ( ) . . . 52 \NoTumbler () . . . 52 \notni ( ) . . . . . . \nrightmodels ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . \nrightarrow ( ) . . . . . . \npreceq ( ) . . \nsqsubseteq ( ) . . . . . . \nrcurvearrowne ( ) . . . see \neg \not . . . ) . . . . . . \nrcurvearrowleft ( ) . . . . . . \nrightleftarrows ( ) . \nrightarrow ( ) . . . . . . . . 52 \notdivides (1) . . \nrhooksearrow ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 36 \nperp ( ) . . . . . . . . . . 31 \nprec ( ) . \nshortmid ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . \nsqeqsmile ( ) . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . 52 \notsmallowns ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 32 \notslash (−) . . . \nsespoon ( ) . . . . . . . . . . \nselsquigarrow ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 33 no entry . . . . . . . .. . . . \nsqsmilefrown ( ) . . . . . \nsqdoublefrown ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . \nsim ( ) . .

. . . 34 \nupharpoonccw ( ) . 45 \ntwoheadnearrow ( ) . \nsuccapprox ( ) . . \ntrianglelefteq ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31 \nVDash ( ) . . . . . . . \nswrsquigarrow ( ) \nswspoon ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 94 numerals Linear B . . 45 \nuparrowtail ( ) . . . . 45 45 34 34 45 46 47 45 47 45 34 34 65 31 46 40 40 39 40 40 39 40 40 40 39 40 40 39 40 40 48 34 48 ) . . 35 . . \ntrianglerighteqslant ( ) \ntriplefrown ( ) . . . . . \nsquigarrowrightleft ( \nsquigarrowsenw ( ) . . . . . . . . 32 \nVDash ( ) . . 43 \nwfilledspoon ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . \ntrianglelefteqslant ( ) \ntriangleright (›) . .. 46 \nuplsquigarrow ( ) . . see \SNPP \NUL ( ) . \nswvdash ( ) . . . . . . 65. . . . . . . \nswfree ( ) . . . . . . . . . \nsubset (⊄) . . . . . . . \nsuccsim ( ) . 46 \nwlsquigarrow ( ) . . . 32 \nVdash ( ) . . . . 46 \nwharpooncw ( ) . \nsupset (ƒ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 35 \nststile ( ) . . . \nsubseteq ( ) . . . . 47 \nupuparrows ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 45 \nupModels ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . \nswVdash ( ) . 45 \ntwoheaduparrow ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 32 \nwharpoonccw ( ) . . 47 147 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . \nswfilledspoon ( ) \nswfootline ( ) . . . . 37 37 48 48 45 45 45 45 45 45 45 45 \nswlsquigarrow ( ) \nswmapsto ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . \ntrianglerighteq ( ) . \nswnearrows ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . 45 \nupdownarrow ( ) . . . . . . . . . \nswmodels ( ) . . 45 \ntwoheadleftarrow ( ) . . . . . . 45 \nupmapsto ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31 \nVDash (B) . . . . \nsuccapprox ( ) . \nsststile ( . . . 50 nuclear power plant . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 43 \nwpitchfork ( ) . . . 45 \nupdownarrows ( ) . . . 35 \nttstile ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31 \nvarparallelinv ( ) . . . . 77. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . \ntriplesmile ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . 46 \nupharpooncw ( ) . . . 34 \nVdash (F) . . . . \nsubseteq (†) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 34 \nupdownline ( ) . .\nsqsupseteqq () . . . . . . . \nsubseteqq ( ) . . . . . . . math null set . . . . . . . 34 \nuppitchfork ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . \nsupset ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 45 \nupVdash ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 106 \nwarrow ( ) . . . . . . . . . 31 \nvdash ( ) . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . \ntrianglelefteq ( ) . . 47 \nuprsquigarrow ( ) . . . . . \nsquigarrowdownup ( ) \nsquigarrowleftright ( \nsquigarrownesw ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 45 \nupdownharpoonleftright ( ) . . . . . . 34 \nupfree ( ) . . . . 45 \ntwoheadrightarrow ( ) . \ntststile ( ) . . . . . . \nSubset (–) . . . . . . . . . \nsubseteq ( ) . . . . . . . . . 31 \nvDash ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . \nswharpooncw ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . 32 \nvdash ( ) . . . \nSupset (—) . . . . . . 31 \ntwoheadrightarrow ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 45 \nupspoon ( ) . . . \nsupseteqq () . . . . . . . . 20 \NumLock ( Num ) . 32 \nwmodels ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 45 \ntwoheadnwarrow ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 39. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 72 \nUparrow ( ) . . \nsucccurlyeq ( ) . . . . . . . . \nsupseteq (‡) . . . . 45 \nu (ν) . . 39. . . . . 34 \nupvdash ( ) . \nto ( ) . . . . . . 42 \Nwarrow ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . \nsquigarrownwse ( ) . . . . . 47 \nwfootline ( ) . . \nsuccapprox (É) . . . \nSwarrow ( ) . . . \nswpitchfork ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . \nsucceqq ( ) . . . . . . . . \nsqsupseteqq ( ) . . . 34 \nvDash (B) . . . . . . . \nsupseteqq ( ) . . . . . \nsucceq ( ) . . . . . \nsquigarrowupdown ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 32 \nwfree ( ) . . 35 \ntwoheaddownarrow ( ) . . . . 85 old style . . . . . . . . . . \nswharpoonccw ( ) . . . . . . . . . . ) . . . 43 \nwmapsto ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 34 \nvdash (8) . . . . . \nsucceq («) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . \nsucccurlyeq (§) . . 32 \nvDash ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . \nsucc ( ) . . . . . . . . . \nsucccurlyeq ( ) . . . . . . . . \nthickapprox ( ) . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 35 \ntttstile ( ) . . . . . . . . . \nswarrow ( ) . .. . . . . . . \ntriangleright ( ) .. 39. . . . . . . . . . \ntrianglerighteq (Ÿ) . . . . . 35 37 37 37 37 37 37 36 37 37 37 37 32 31 33 32 31 33 32 31 33 32 31 33 31 32 31 33 37 37 37 37 37 37 36 37 37 36 37 45 45 45 47 33 33 46 46 ) . . . . . . \ntriangleeq ( ) . . . . . \nsucceq ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . \ntriangleleft (š) . . . . \nsucc ( ) . \nSupset ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . \nsucc (£) . . . \nSubset ( ) . \ntrianglerighteq ( ) . . . . . . . . . . 43 \nwarrowtail ( ) . . \nswModels ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . \nswarrowtail ( ) . . . . . . . . 45 \ntwoheadsearrow ( ) . . . . . . . 46 \nupdownharpoons ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . \nsuccsim (Ã) . . \nsquigarrowswne ( ) . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 41. . . \ntrianglelefteq (ž) . 72 null infinity see alphabets. 34 \nVvash (F) . . . . . . . . . . . . 34 \nuup (ν) . \ntriangleright ( ) . . . \nSubset ( ) . . 42 \nwarrow ( ) . 47 \nupfootline ( ) . 31 \nVdash ( ) . 43 \nwModels ( ) . . . . . . . .. 38 \nvarparallel ( ) . . . . 38 \nvarleq (ª) . . . . ntheorem (package) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 32 \nwnwarrows ( ) . . . . . . . . . . \nswswarrows ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 43 \nwarrow (Ô) . . . . . . 66 number sets see alphabets. . . . \nsupseteqq ( ) . . . . . . . . \ntriangleleft ( ) . . . . . . \nsupseteq ( ) . . . \ntriplesim ( ) . \nsupseteq ( ) . . . . . \ntdtstile ( .. . . . . \nsubseteqq ( ) . 45 \nuparrow ( ) . . . . . 34 \nupmodels ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . \ntriangleleft ( ) . 46 \nUpdownline ( ) . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . \nsuccsim ( ) . . . math number sign . . . . . 34 \nupfilledspoon ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . \nSupset ( ) . . . . . 32 \Nwarrow ( ) . . . . . . 45 \ntwoheadswarrow ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . \nsqtriplesmile ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . 50 \nvargeq («) . . . . . see \textnumero numbers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . see digits circled . \nsubseteqq (Ž) . . . 35 \nsttstile ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . \nsqtriplefrown ( ) . . . . . . \nsubset (‚) . . . . . 31 \ntwoheadleftarrow ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 39. \nswneharpoons ( ) . . . . . 46 \nupdownharpoonrightleft ( ) . . . . 45 \nUpdownarrow ( ) . . . . .

\nwseharpoonnesw ( ) \nwseharpoons ( ) . . . . . . . . 19 \offinterlineskip . . . \otriangle ( ) . hk ik j k k q O \O (Ø) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 119. . . . . . . . . . 30 \ointctrclockwise ( ) . . . 117 \officialeuro (e) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . \overparenthesis ( ) ⇒ \Overrightarrow (= ) . . . . . . . . . 24 . . . . . 60 \overbracket ” ) . . . . . . . . . . \ownsbar (‡) . . . . . . . . . → \overleftrightarrow (← ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 73 orthogonal to . \overlinesegment ( ) . . . . . . 16 hk k j k \overgroup ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 27 ı \ointclockwise ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . \overleftharpoon ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21 \oplus (–) . . . . . 29 \oiintclockwise ( ) . 95 \obelus ( ) . . . . . . . . . \otimes (˜) . . . . . . . . 23 \ocoasterisk (g) .. . . . . 50 \omega (ω) . . . . . . . 24 \OE (Œ) . . . . . . . . 95 \p@ ˙ . \otop (j) . . . . . . . . . . 25 \ominus ( ) .. . . . . . . . . 27 \ointctrclockwise ( ) . . . . . . . . 16 ˚ \odiv (™) . . 22 \obot (k) . . . . 73 \ORd () . \overleftharpdown ( ) . . . 22 \oc () . 32 . 107 148 . . 105 \open (z) . . 28 \oiintctrclockwise ( ) . − \overleftarrow (←) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25 \onlymove (F) . . 21. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 95 · \oblong ( ) . . . 73 \od (a) . 50 \omegaup (ω) . . . . . 109 . 59 59. . . . . . . . . . . 73 \oright (i) . . . . . . . . . . . 9. . . 47 . 46 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . \overrightharp ( ) . \Nwsearrow ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . 117 \oe (œ) . 89 / \OHORN (Ơ) . .. . . . 21 \ocirc (e) . . . . . . . . . 95 \oo (d) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 109 options . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . \overrightharpdown ( ) \overrightharpoon ( ) \overring (x) . . . . . . 10 \o (ø) . . . . . . 31 \openo (a) . . . . . . . . 28 \ointclockwise ( ) . . . . . . . . see set operators unary . 22 \Obelus ( ) . . 22 \Omega (Ω) . . . . . 47 . . . .. . . . . \overset . . . . \nwvdash ( ) . . . \nwseharpoonswne ( ) \Nwseline ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10. . . . see \textohm \ohm (Ω) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25 \odot (d) . 20 \oldstylenums . . . . . . . . \ostar ( ) . . 22 \odot ( ) . . . . . see \vee OR gates . . . 29 \ointclockwise ( ) . . . 25 . . 31 operators binary . . . \otriangleup (o) ovals .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . \nwsearrow ( ) . . . 21. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22 { \ohill (a) . .. . 32 . . . . 25 \odot ( ) . . . . . \otimes (⊗) . . . 25 \oint ( ) . . . . . . . . . 10 \oiiint ( ) . .. . . . . . . . \nwsearrow ( ) . . 50 \oast ( ) . . . . . . . 52 . . . \nwsebipropto ( ) . . 43 . . 52 P \P (¶) . . . . . .. . . . . . 95 \Obelus* ( · ) . . . . . . . . \ovoid (l) . . . . see alphabets. . .. . . . . overrightarrow (package) → \overrightarrow (− ) . . . 109 ( \overbridge (a) . . . . . . 28 \oiiint ( ) . 18 . . . . 25 \obackslash (n) . . . . . . . 103 \oplus (⊕) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ‚ \oiint ( ) . . . 73 25 22 25 25 25 22 25 25 40 25 80 22 17 \overbrace ( \overbrace ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . \overleftharp ( ) . . . . . . . 43 106 . . . . . . 25 \opposbishops (o) . . . . . 78 octonions (O) . . . . 95 · \obelus* ( · ) . . . . . . . . . . . 46 . . 52 . . . . . . 22. . . . 43 . . . . . . . \nwsecrossing ( ) . . . 13 \openo (™) . . 13 \ooalign . . . . . 60 60 59 47 47 60 59 59 60 \overgroup ( ) . \nwspoon ( ) . . . . . 119 .. . . . . . . . . . \oslash ( ) . . . . 25 \ocircle ( ) . . . . . . \oiint ( ) . . . . . . . 78. 60 ) . . .. . \otimes (⊗) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . \owns (∋) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10 o (o) . . . . . . 25 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . 22–25 logical see logical operators set . . . 104. . . . . . 13 \openo ( ) . . . . . . . . . . \owedge ( ) . . . . 10 \ohorn (ơ) . . . . . 43 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25 \oplus (⊕) . 28 ¶ \oint ( ) . . 20 \oleft (h) . . . . . . . . . see \bot \ORu () . . . . 71 optical scaling . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . \owns . . . . . 25 \obackslash ( ) . . . 30 old-style digits . see alphabets. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25 \olessthan ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18 open unit disk (D) . . . . . . \oslash (m) . . . . . . . 25 \octagon ( ) . . . . . . . . . . \oslash ( ) . . 52 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22 see \ni . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .\nwrsquigarrow ( ) . . . . . . . 25 \obar ( ) . . . . . . . . 60 . . 59 . 70 \Ohne (a) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . \owns ( ) . . . . . . . 60 \overbrace ( ) . . . . . 73 . . . . . . 25 \obslash ( ) . .. . . 116 \p ( ) .. . . . 60 ) . 80 \ORr (©) . . . . \overarc (a) . . . . . 16 ohm . . . . . . . . . . . 108. .. . 50 \ominus (—) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 104 . . . . . . . . . . 108. . . . . \oiint ( ) . . . . . . . . . . 104 ogonek (package) . . . . . . 30 ¨ \oiint ( ) . . 32 \oiiintclockwise ( ) \oiiintctrclockwise ( · \oiint ( ) . . . 27 \oint ( ) . \nwseline ( ) . . . . . . . . 32 . . . . . . . . 25 \ORl () . . . 26. 25 \oasterisk (f) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . 22 \ominus ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . math \openJoin ( ) . . . \overt ( ) . \owns () . . . 28 28 27 28 28 30 \OrnamentDiamondSolid ( ) 80 ornaments . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . \overline ( ) . . . . . . . math \Octosteel (‘) . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . ) . . . . . . . . . 10. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13 \opentimes ( ) . . .. . . . . . . 93 \oo (◦◦) . . . .. . . . . . 25. . . . . . . . . 47 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . \nwsearrows ( ) . . . . . . . . \ovee ( ) . . 32 . . . . . . . . . . . . 25 \ocirc ( ) . . . . see package options or . . . 25 \odplus ( ) . 17. . . . . . . . . 28 \ointctrclockwise ( ) . . . . . . . . 46 . . . . . . . . 59 \overbrace ( \overbracket ( ) . . . . . . . . 93 \opposition ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . 121 ogonek ( ˛) . . . . . . . . . . . . \nwVdash ( ) . . . . . see accents \ogreaterthan ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

. . 57. 94. . 105. 68. 119 bbold . . . . . . . . . 37. 61 g (esvect) . . . . 100. 40. . 26. . . 78. 113 amsfonts 22. . 41. 119. 14–17. . . 23–25. . . . . 119. 119. 91. 120 milstd . . . . . . . 119. 119. . . . 8. . . . . 119. . . . 119. . . . . . . . . 120 latexsym . 54 calligra . . . . . 100 ucs . . . . . 119. 60. . . 26 mathcal (euscript) . . . 119. . . . 60. . 81. 119. . . . . 106 ar . . 12. . . . . . . . 41. 121 cypriot . 120 slashed . 57. . 55. . . . . . . . 14. 119. 119 inputenc . . . 119. . . . . . 64. . . 26. . . 94. 105 chancery . . 36–38. . . . 113. . . 31. . . . . . . . . . 21–23. 120 type1cm . . . . . 80. 119. . 22. . 14. . 103. . . . . 121 dblaccnt . . 51. 68 mathscr (euscript) . . . 101. . . 119 dsfont . . 119. . 56. 100. 97. 17. . 66. 119. 119 arcs . . . . 98. 79. 61. . 115. . 68. . . . 41. . 119. . 119 phaistos . . . . 36–38. . . 65. . . 103. . . . 26 polutonikogreek (babel) . . . . . 67. . 82. 65. . . . . 18–20. 40. 74. . . 115 url . . . . . . 63. 120 holtpolt . . . . 92. . 50. 14. 112 amssymb . 117 varg (txfonts/pxfonts) . . 119. . . 120. . . . 61 integrals (wasysym) . . . . 119 149 . 119. . 17. . 72. . 61 f (esvect) . . . . 72. 120 fixmath . . . . . 119. . . . . . 21. 118 keystroke . . . 36. . 92. 119. 68. 80. 79. 107. . . . 80. . 119. 19. . 121 hhcount . . . . . . . 91. . 37. 58. . . 119. . 92. . . . 24. 95. 61. . 30. . 119. 119. 119. . . . 117 junicode . 120 shuffle . 87. 13. 121 vietnam . . . . . 16. . 42. . 50. . . 65 mathdesign . . . 67 universa . . 61. . 16. 119 colonequals 21. . 65. . . . 120 pigpen . . 71. . 86. . 104. . 119. 96. 57. . . 10. . . 65 ogonek . . . . 121 braket . 121 amsbsy . . . . . . 119. 68 cancel . . . . . . 68. 103 harmony . 119. . . . . 118–120 t4phonet . . 123 mathbbol . 115 recycle . . 61 e (esvect) . . 120 textcomp 8. . . . 121 hieroglf . . 49. 19. . 101. . . 119. . 68 mathcomp . . . . . 119. 77 pxfonts . 50–52. . . . . . . 29. . . . 54. . . 118 ulsy . . . . . 119. . 82. . . 68. . . 53. . . . . . . 119. . 65. . . . . . . . . 17. 68 eurosym . . . . 21. 119. . 65. . 88. . 115. . . . . . 41. 120 mbboard . . . . 32–34. 118 fourier 19. 31. . 17. 119 timing . . . . . . . . . . . . . 58 d (esvect) . 86. . . . . 119. . . 70. 119 metre . . . 120 harpoon . . 119. . 107. . . . . 120 igo . . . . . 58. 93. . . . 36. . . 21. . 120 extarrows . . . . . . . . . 105 staves . 27. . 119 mathdots . . . 36. . 61 b (esvect) . . . . . 80. 53. . . . . . 119. 18. 101. . . . . . . 10. . . 43. . . 67. . . 121 ntheorem . . . 34. . 120 euscript . . . . 119. . . . 90. . . 119. . . 119 feyn . 68. 93. . 89. . 120 combelow . 120 esint . 119. 120 pmboxdraw . . . . . 121 stmaryrd . 119 china2e 19. 103 graphicx . . . 120 polynom . . 53. . 52. . . 66. 10. . 56. 62. 88. . . 119. . 30. 120 trfsigns . . 47. . . . . 51. 120 DotArrow . 119. . 120 centernot . 30. . . 68. . 119. . . 120 extpfeil . . . 76. . . . 66. . 22. . 119. . . 58. 121 clock . 35. . 53. 117 isoent . . . . 80. 119. 48. 119 mathtools . 36. . . . . 120 extraipa . . . . 42. . 70. . . 119. . . . . . . 119. 67. . . . . . . . 119. . . . . 119 trsym . . 61 german (keystroke) . . . . 121 overrightarrow . . 99. . 97. . . . . . . . 95. 70 pifont . 120 tipx . . 52. . . . 28. . 65. 81. . . 120 bbm . . 119 fc . . . . 19. . . 119. . . . . . 101. . . . . . . . 70 graphics . . . . 30. . . . . 115 fontspec . 120 skull . . . 58. . . . 119. . . . . 27. . . . 64. . 119 pict2e . 100. . . . . . . . . . 119. 59 protosem . . 68 utf8x (inputenc) . . . . . . . 30. . . . . . . 50–52. 61 crescent (fge) . . 121 dozenal . . . . . . . 120 turnstile . 77. 120 phonetic . . 121 calrsfs . . 119. 92. 120 upgreek . 119 bm . . 25. . 120 txfonts . 85. . . 67. 36–38. . . 47. 119 steinmetz . . 120 musixtex . . 52. 120 units . . . . . . 30. . . . . 87. . 70. . . . . 58. 60. . 65. 49. 32. . 120 marvosym 18. 119 eufrak . . . . . . .package options a (esvect) . . 121 savesym . . 48. . . . . . 115 ushort . . 89 nath . 17. . 120 psnfss . . . . . 23. . 103. 100 semtrans . . . . 120 universal 75. . . 41. . . 59 cclicenses . . . . . . . . . 100. . . 62. 48. . 120 chemarrow . . 119. . 87. . . . 119. . . . 12. . . . . 75–78. . 58. . . 70. 119. . 121 manfnt . . . . 90. 103. . . 68 nointegrals (wasysym) . . . . . . 63. 14 fclfont . 120 cmll . . 51. 67. . 87 bbding 75–78. . 89. . 119. 101. . . . . . . . . . . . . 66. . . . . 72 greek (babel) . . . 17. . . 119 nicefrac . . . . . 68. . . 51 packages longdiv . . . . . . . 119 esvect . . . . . . . . . . 87 h (esvect) . . . 103. 120 teubner 19. . . . . . . 119. . . . . . 68. . 61 bbgreekl (mathbbol) . . 24. . . 119 linearA . 47. . . . 120 upquote . 119. . . . 67. . . . . . . . . . . 119 gensymb . 68 c (esvect) . . 48. . 119 chemarr . . 73. . . . . . 119 epsdice . . . . . 101 mathabx . . . 121 linearb . . . 120 fge . . . 39. . . . . 68. 119. 47. 104. . 120 ascii . . 41. 65. . . . . . . . . . 36. . . 102. 62. 119 rotating . . 120 simplewick . 119. . 119. . . . . . 43–48. . . 9. . . . 96. 119 MnSymbol . . 31. 115. . . . . . . . 119. . 107 dictsym . . . 63. 22. . . . . . . 70 tipa 11. . 117. . . . . . . . 24. 120 dingbat 76. . . . 68 amsmath 8. 52–55. . . 98. . . 109 simpsons . . . 120 mathrsfs . . 65. . . . 30. . 36. 120 arev . . 57. . . . . . 123 amstext . . . . . . . 119 ifsym . . . . . 120. . . . . 71–75. . . 100. . . . . 72 sarabian . . 36. . 14. . 63. . 67. . . . . 50 sans (dsfont) . 100. . . 9 undertilde . . 113 fontenc . . . . . 119. . . . 58–60. . . 42. . 42. . . . . . . . . . 8. . . . 21. . 119. 36. 93. . . . 64. 59 accents . 62. . 119. 21–23. . 40. . 24. . 90. . . . 63. . . 30. 120 babel . . . . . . . . . . . 119 underscore . . . . . 68. . . 59. . . 119 skak . 49. 17. .

. 76 \PencilRightDown ( ) . . 81 \Phone ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 101. 107. . . . 67 yfonts . . . . . . . . . 81 \PHeagle (e) . 67 \partialvardlanddownint ( ) 67 \partialvardlandupint ( ) 67 \partialvardlcircleleftint ( ) . . . . . . . . 43 \partialvardlcirclerightint ( ) . 67 \partialvardrcirclerightint ( ) . . . . . 16. . . . . . . 43 \partialvardrcircleleftint ( ) . . . . . . . . . 101. . . . . . 76 \PencilRightUp ( ) . . . 67 particle-physics symbols . 36–38. . . 76 \PencilLeftDown ( ) . . . . . . . . 44 \partialvartrcirclerightint ( ) . . . . . . . . . 16 – ˚ \passedpawn (r) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 119 phonetic symbols . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30. . . . . . . 81 \PHship (Y) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 76 \pentagon ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . 81 \PHcomb (U) . . . . . . . . . . . 70 \PHbee (h) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 80 \PencilLeft ( ) . . . 120 xfrac . 81 \PHpapyrus (k) . . . . . . . . . . 93 pawn . . . . . . 81 ! \PHhelmet (G) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 43 \partialvardrcirclerightint ( ) . . . 108. . . . . . . . . 81 \PHram (d) . . . . . . . . . . Scott . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 81 \PHgaunlet (H) . 1. . . . 76 \PencilLeftUp ( ) . 81 \PHstrainer (q) . . . . 81 \PHtattooedHead (C) . . . 118 \PaperLandscape ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 81 \PHshield (L) . . . . . . 119. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 118 \Peace ( ) . . . . . . . . . . 88 \PhoneHandset ( ) phonetic (package) . . . . . . . . . see \% \permil ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 33 \ParallelPort (Ñ) . . . . . . \invamp. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 81 \PHpedestrian (A) . 81 \PHcat (c) . . . . 81 \PHcaptive (D) . . 103. . . . . . . . . . . . 81 \PHlily (m) . . . . . . . . . . . see faces percent sign . . . . . . . . . . . 81 pharmaceutical prescription see \textrecipe \PHchild (E) . 31. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 64–66. . . . 81 \PHdolium (T) . . . 119. . . see \P \parallel ( ) . . . . . . . . 92 \PaperPortrait ( ) . . . . . . . . 16 –ˇ \partvoiceless (a») . . . . . . . . . . . . 26. . . . 51 \partial (∂) . . . 33 \perthousand (‰) . 43 \partialvartlcirclerightint ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 81 150 . 70. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 67 ¤ £ \partialvartrcircleleftint ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . 81 \PHarrow (J) . . . . 20. . . . . . . 41. . . . . 78 \pentagram ( ) . . . . . . . . . . 80 13. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 53 \partialslash (g ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 80 \phone ( ) . . . . . . . . . 18. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14 wasysym . . . . . . . . 119. . . . . . . 81 \PHclub (M) . 43 \partialvardlcircleleftint ( ) . . 22. . . . 67 \partialvardoiint ( ) . . . 56 \parallel ( ) . . . 67 \partialvartoint ( ) . 52 \partial (∂) . . 81 \PHsling (V) . . . . . . . . . . . . 72 \parallelslant ( ) . . 67 \partialvartint ( ) . . . 59. see \textperthousand \partvoice (a») . . 72 \PgUp ( Page ↑ ) . . . 81 . . . . . . . 81 \PHsmallAxe (r) . . 119. . . . . . . . . 77. . 81 \PHboomerang (R) . . . . . . . . . . 94 A pdfL TEX . . . . . . . . . . 64. . . . 10. . . . 24 \partial (f ) . . . . . . 74 parts per thousand . . . . . . . 43 \partialvartlcircleleftint ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . 81 \PHbullLeg (b) . . . . 81 \PHcolumn (W) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 52 \partialvardint ( ) . . . . . 120 wsuipa 13. . . . . . . 36 \parr (`) . . . . . . 71. . 70 \Pfund (£) . 119 Pakin. . . . . 13. . . . . . . . . . . . 68. . . 72 phaistos (package) . . . . . . . . 67 \partialvardstrokedint ( ) 67 \partialvardsumint ( ) . . . . . . . 92 par see \bindnasrepma. . . . . . . . . . . 31 \perp (⊥) . . . . . 81 \PHmanacles (N) \PHmattock (O) . 120 yhmath 58. . . . . photons . . . . . 23. 67 \partialvartrcirclerightint ( ) . . . . . 106 \perp (⊥) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 81 \PHsaw (P) . . 67 \partialvardoint ( ) . 67 \partialvartlanddownint ( ) 67 \partialvartlandupint ( ) 67 \partialvartlcircleleftint ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 67 \partialvartlcirclerightint ( ) . . . . . . . . . . and \parr paragraph mark . . . . 81 \PHcarpentryPlane (S) . 43 \partialvartrcircleleftint ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30. . . . ¨ © . . . . . . . . . . . .vntex . . 76 pencils . . . . . . . . . . . . . 67 \partialvardlcirclerightint ( ) . . . . 67 \partialvartoiint ( ) . . . . . . 81 \PHhorn (Z) \Phi (Φ) . 70 . 88. . . . . . . . . . . . 11–14 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 61. . . . . . 95 people . . . . . . 67 \partialvardrcircleleftint ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 81. . 81 \PHflute (o) . . . . . . . . . . . 120 Phaistos disk . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 81 \PHbeehive (X) . . . 81 \PHdove (f) . . . . . . . . 76 \PencilRight ( ) . . . . . . . . 67 \partialvartstrokedint ( ) 67 \partialvartsumint ( ) . . . . . . 81 50 50 50 $ ( & # ' % \PHlid (Q) . . . 16. . . . . . 74 \PHoxBack (n) . . . . . . 25 \pentam (λθλθλ||λββλββλ) . . . . . . 78. 81 \PHplumedHead (B) . . . 81 \PHhide (a) . . 81 \phase ( ) . . . 18. . . . 81 \PHplaneTree (i) . . . . . . . . 107. . . 18 \PgDown ( Page ↓ ) . . . 103. . . . . . . . . . . . \photon (¬¬¬¬) . . 81 \PHgrater (p) . . . . . . . . \phi (φ) . . . 73. . . . . . . . . . . . . 81 \PHrosette (l) . 69. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . \phiup (φ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 70 phasor . . . . . . . 81 \PHbow (K) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20 \Perp ( ) . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . .\PHtiara (I) . see fists \Pointinghand (Z) . . . . 76 plusses . 71 \pluto ( ) . . 81 \PHvine (j) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30 \prec ( ) . . . . . . 95 \pp (˙˙ ) . . . . 89 pullback diagrams . . . . . 79 polynom (package) . . . . . . see \textrecipe present-value symbols . . . . . . . . . . 98 {\pigpenfont M} (M) . 80. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 98 {\pigpenfont S} (S) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 32 \precnapprox ( ) . 33 \preceqq ( ) . . 98 {\pigpenfont K} (K) . . 95 ˙ \Pr (Pr) ˙ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 70 punctuation . . . . . . . . . . 66 \propto (∝) . . . . . 98 {\pigpenfont N} (N) . . . . . . . . . 32 \precapprox ( ) . . . . . 66. . 97 \Psi (Ψ) . . . . . . see alphabets. . . . . . . . . . 52 \Pp (˙) . . . . . . . . . see card suits Plimsoll line . . . . . . . . 119. . . . . . 98 {\pigpenfont G} (G) . . . . . . 95 ˙ ˙ \ppp (˙˙ ) . . . . . 31. . 51 \Pickup (A) . . . . . . . 50 \Postbox ( ) . . . . . . 22 \pm (±) . 98 {\pigpenfont C} (C) . . . . . . . . . . . . 98 {\pigpenfont V} (V) . . . . 95 6 7 ˙ Q. . . . . . . . . . 98. . 103. . 30 \preccurlyeq ( ) . . . . 65 \piup (π) . . . . . 74 \propto (W) . . . . . . . 100. . . . . . . . . 21–23. see fists probabilistic independence . . . . . 98 {\pigpenfont A} (A) . . . . . . . . . . . . 81 physical symbols . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 103. . . . 98 {\pigpenfont O} (O) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 71 \pm (±) . 76 \pluscirc (©) . . . . math \projlim (proj lim) . . . 76. 32 \preceq ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 42. . . . 81 protosem (package) 81. . . 98 {\pigpenfont R} (R) . . . . . . . . . . . 33 prescription . 73 pict2e (package) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 72 \ps ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . math \powerset ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 32 \precnsim ( ) . . . . . 49 \prec ( ) . . . . . 71 playing cards . . . 81 \PHwavyBand (s) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 115. . . . . . . . . . . . . 30. . . . . . . . . see alphabets. . 65 87 93 57 151 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 27. . . 116 power set . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 51. . . . 98 {\pigpenfont D} (D) . . . . . . . . . . . 31 \precnsim ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 50 \psi (ψ) . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . 30 \precsim ( ) . . . . . . . . 119. 75. . . 113 pmboxdraw (package) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 95 ˙ \Ppppp (˙) . 119. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10. . . 119. . . . . . . . . 65. . . . . . . . . . 72 printer’s fist . . . . . . 104 \Plus ( ) . . . . . 50 \psiup (ψ) . . . . . . . . . . 98 {\pigpenfont T} (T) . . . . . . . . 24 plus-or-minus sign . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 66 Pitman’s base-12 symbols . 36–38. . . . . 88 pointing finger . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . see \P pipe . . . 75. . . . . . . . . . see \textpipe \Pisces (ë) . . . . . . . . 48. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . \Quadrad (]]) Q . . 69. . . . . . . 47 pitchfork symbols . . . . . . . 30. . . . . . . . 65 proper subset/superset . . . . . . . . 76 \Pluto (s) . . . . . . 30 \propto (∝) . . . . . . . . . . . 95 \ppm (˙ ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . see \subsetneq/\supsetneq proper vertices . . . . 106 \pwedge (…) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 103 \Pound ( ) . . . . . . . . . 70 \PulseHigh ( ) . . . . . . . . 70 pifont (package) . . . . . . . . . . 98 {\pigpenfont Y} (Y) . 98 {\pigpenfont L} (L) . . . . 10 pushout diagrams . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 66 \Printer (Ò) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13 pxfonts (package) . . . . . . . . . . . . 98 PostScript . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23 \PlusOutline ( ) . . . . . 108 \prime ( ) . 98 {\pigpenfont B} (B) . . . . . . . . 50 polygons . . . 70 \PulseLow ( ) . . 95 ˙ \Pppp (˙ ) . . . 59 polynomial division . . . . . . 120 \ProvidesPackage . . . . . . . . . . . see \pm \PlusCenterOpen ( ) . . 32 \preccurlyeq ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . 112 PostScript fonts . . 77 \Pu (‰ ) . . . . . . . . 63  polutonikogreek (babel package option) . . . . . . . . . . . . 47. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . see phonetic symbols proof. . . . . . . . . . . . . 98 {\pigpenfont I} (I) . . 115 \Pxp (˙) . . . . . . 98 {\pigpenfont J} (J) . . . . . . 32 \precapprox (Æ) . . . 80 planets . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . end of . . . 75–78. . . . . . . . . 98 {\pigpenfont H} (H) . . . . . . 98 {\pigpenfont Z} (Z) . . . . 34 \precsim (À) . . . . . 30 # þ \preceq ( ) . . . . . . 81 \PHwoman (F) . . . . . . 34 \precneq (¬) . .. . 32 \precneqq ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 33 proto-Semitic symbols . 68. . 98 {\pigpenfont U} (U) . . . . . . . . . . 71 \Pluto (É) . . . 9. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 65 \prime (′) . . 31 \precnapprox (Ê) . . . . . . . . . . 98 pilcrow . 120 pigpen (package) . . . . 106 \prod ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 66 \pitchfork ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 95 ˙ ˙ \pppp ( ˙ ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 71 \Pisymbol . . . . . . .D. . . . . . . . . . 90 \polishhook (~) . . . . . . . 120 \pmod . 25 \prod (∏) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 50 \pi (π) . . . . . . . . . . . 95 ˙ \ppppp (˙˙ ) . 78. 70 \Pi (Π) . . 97. . . . . . . 119 \PrtSc ( PrtSc ) . . . . . . . . . . . \qside (M) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 50–52. . . . .E. . . . 77 \PlusThinCenterOpen ( ) . 18 9 8 @ A \polter ( ) . . . . . . . . . 30 \pitchfork ( ) . . . 41. . . 98 {\pigpenfont X} (X) . . . . . 33 \preccurlyeq (¤) . . . . . . . . . . . . 98 {\pigpenfont F} (F) . . . . . 95 ˙˙) \Ppp (¯ . . . 19 \pounds (£) . 98 {\pigpenfont Q} (Q) . . . . . . . . . . . 49 \pod . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 98 {\pigpenfont W} (W) . . . . . . . . . . 120 pigpen cipher . . . 24 \pm ( ) . . . . 49 \pointer ( ) . 29 projective space (P) . . . 31 \precnsim (Ä) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . 59 polytonic Greek . 30 \precapprox ( ) . 31 \precnapprox ( ) . . . . 50 \planck (¯ h) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 98 {\pigpenfont P} (P) . . 76 \plus (+) . . . . . . . . . . 33 \precdot (Ì) . . . 13 \Plane ( ) . 49 pronunciation symbols . 32 \precsim ( ) . . . . 98 {\pigpenfont E} (E) . . 71 \pisces ( ) . . . . . 103 \pitchfork (8) . . . 95 pseudographics . . . . . 95 ˙ \pmb ¯. . 50 \pi (π) . . . . . . 81 \PHtunny (g) . . 50 psnfss (package) . . . . . . . . \qoppa (ϟ) . 106 pulse diagram symbols . . . . 95 \pxp (˙˙ ) . . .

. 55 ? \rFloor ( ) . . . 44 \recycle ( ) . . . \rightharpoonup ( ) . 100 \Respondens (∼) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 103 \Relbar ( ) . . 80 \RectangleThin ( ) . . 51 \rhookdownarrow ( ) . . . 98 \resizebox . . . 70 \Rangle (>) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 89 13 90 90 90 ¾ Ò \rfilet (?) . . . . . . . . . 44 \rhookswarrow ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . 88 quaternions (H) see alphabets. . . ) . . . . . . see . . . . . . . . 88 \quarternote ( ) . . . . . . 21. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 73 recycle (package) . . 56 \rangle ( ) . . 57 quarter note see musical symbols \quarternote ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 33 \Request ( ) . . . . 23 \rhd ( ) . . . . . 44 . . . . . . 99. . . 88 \Rightarrow (⇒) . . . . . . . . . . . . \rBrack (]]) . \righthand ( ) . . . 41 \rightarrow (→) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 46 retracting see \textretracting \Return ( ← ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 44 . . . . 53 . . . . . . 34–39. . 79 u v t 2 \rangle ( ) . . . . . . . . . 40 \rho (ρ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 44 \rhookleftarrow ( ) . . . \rarrowfill . . . . . . 54 \rgroup ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . \rceil ( ) . . . . 95 response ( ) . . . 47. . 72 62 36 49 49 see see . . see \textregistered relational symbols . . . . 44 \rcurvearrowright ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . \rcirclearrowdown ( \rcirclearrowleft ( \rcirclearrowright ( \rcirclearrowup ( ) \rcircleleftint ( ) . . . . . .. . . . . . . . 43 \rightarrowtriangle ( ) . . . . . . . . . math quaver . . . . 48. 56 \rightfilledspoon ( ) \rightfootline ( ) . . 51 \REAL ( ) . . . . . . . . . 57 \Quadras ([[) . . 44 \rcurvearrowsw ( ) . 88 \Rectangle ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31–33 triangle . . . . . . . . 29 . 41 \Rightarrow (⇒) . . . . . . . . 55 . . . . . 74 \Rain ( ) . . . . . 117 \quotesinglbase (‚) . 49 \Real ( ) . . . . . . . . math rationalized Planck constant \hbar \Rbag ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 54 \rfloor () . . . . . 98. . . 44 \rhooknearrow ( ) . . . . . 13 13. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . alphabets. . . . . . . . 103 \relbar ( ) . . . . . . . . 43 \rightarrowtail ( ) . . 44 .. . 10. . . . \rcirclerightint ( ) \rcorners (w) . . . see \textrecipe \recorder ( ) . . 55 \Re ( ) . . . . . . . . . 33 \relbar (−) . . . 72 return . . . . . . . . . . . . 91 raising . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ? ? . . . . . . . . . 48. . \rightharpoonccw ( ) \rightharpooncw ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 80 rectangles . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 88 \Rightcircle ( ) . . 99 recycling symbols . . see \upharpoonright \restriction (æ) . \Rational ( ) . math recipe . . . . . . . . . . . . 13 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 42 \rightbarharpoon (Ý) . . . . . 43 \RIGHTCIRCLE ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . © \rCeil ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . 117 R \R (∼) . 22. . . . . . . . . . 53 . . . \rceil ( ) . . 44 . 43 \rhookuparrow ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . \ratio (:) . . 54    \rcurvearrownw ( ) . 39. \rbag ( ) . . . rational numbers (Q) . . . . . . . \revepsilon (%) . . . . . \righthalfcap ( ) . . . . . . . .. . . . 44 . . . . . . . . 40 \Relbar (=) . . . . . . . . . 41 \rightarrowtail ( ) . . . .. . . 53 . . . . . . . . . .\quadrad (]]) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 55 \rgroup () . . . . . . . 48 negated binary . . . 88 \RightDiamond ( ) . . ) ) ) . . 68 \rAngle ( ) . . . . . \Rewind (¶) . . . . . . . . 50 \right . . . . . see carriage return A > c \rightevaw ( ) . . . 47. . . . . . . see \sqrt and \surd \Radioactivity (j) . . . . 88 \RIGHTcircle ( ) . . . \RewindToIndex (´) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . \rightfree ( ) . \rc (a) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . reverse solidus . . . . 102 \rightangle ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . 44 \rhooknwarrow ( ) . . 103 152 . . . 91 \RainCloud ( ) . . . . . . 103 . . . . . . . . . . . . 55 \RHD ( ) . . . . . . . . see \textraising \RaisingEdge ( ) . . . . 39. . . . . . . . \reve (#) . . . 95 \Radiation ( ) . . . . \rightharpoondown (ã) \rightharpoondown ( ) \rightharpoonup (á) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . \RewindToStart (µ) . . . . . . . . . 55 \RArrow ( → ) . . . . . . . 73 \Rectsteel (”) . . . . . 80 \Rectpipe (˜) . . . . . . . . 42 \rightarrow (→) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 67 \RIGHTarrow ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . \rcurvearrowdown ( ) \rcurvearrowleft ( ) \rcurvearrowne ( ) . . . 99 reduced quadrupole moment see \rqm \reflectbox . . . . . . . . 43 \rhoup (ρ) . . . .. 107 . . . 56 \rfloor ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . 92 radicals . . . \righthalfcup ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 56. 54. . . . . .. .. . . . . . . . . . \reveject (f) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 57 \quadras ([[) . 23 \rhd ( ) . . 56 \revD (¢) . . . . 14 a) \r (∼) . . 95 \r (˚ . . . \RATIONAL ( ) . . . \textbackslash reversed symbols . 50 \rho (ρ ) . . . . . . \revddots ( . . . . . . . . . 44 . . 21. . . . . . . . . 30 binary 30–32. . . . . . . . . . . . . ) . . . . . . . . . 103 registered trademark . . . . . . . . 10. . . . . 44 \rhooksearrow ( ) . . . . . .. 29 . . 13 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . \rightleftarrows (Õ) \rightleftarrows ( ) \rightleftarrows ( ) \rightleftharpoon (á) . . . . . . 44 \rcurvearrowup ( ) . . .. . . . . 44 \rhookrightarrow ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . 118 \restoresymbol . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 43 \rightarrow (Ñ) . . 55 \ranglebar ( ) . . . . . . . . . 44 \rdbrack (w) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . see musical symbols queen . . . . . 94 \quotedblbase („) . . . . . 49 real numbers (R) see alphabets. . .. . . . . . . . . . 42 \restriction ( ) . . 100. . . . . . . . . 47 33 33 24 24 76 46 46 43 41 43 41 42 41 43 43 \revaw ( ) . . . . . . . . . . 100 \restriction . . . . . . . . 95 \respondens ( ∼) . . . . . 119 \reversedvideodbend ( \revglotstop (™) . . . . . 80 \RectangleBold ( ) . 44 \rcurvearrowse ( ) . . 55 68 56 16 56 54 ½ Ñ \rbrace ( ) \Rbrack (]) . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . 106 \rWavy ( ) . . . . . . . \risingdotseq () \risingdotseq ( ) \risingdotseq ( ) \rJoin ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. 79. . . \rightthumbsdown ( ) . . . . . . . . see accents rook . . . a) ring equal to . . . . . . . . . . . 75 \ScissorLeftBrokenBottom ( ) . . . . . . math \sci (B) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . \rightthreetimes (7) . . . \rightmoon (v) .. . 87 \Sborder ( ) . . 43 . . . 103 rotating (package) . . . . ring (˚ . . . . . . . . \rightmapsto ( ) . . . . . . \SAa (a) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 87 \SAt (t) . . . 87 \samebishops (s) . . . . . . . \rightpitchfork ( ) . . . . \rightthreetimes ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . \rightmoon ( ) . . . . \rightsquigarrow (ù) .. . . 73 \RoundedTsteel () . . . 87 \SAzd (Z) . . . . . . . ring in equal to . . . . . . . 23. . . . . . . . . . . . . 17. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ... . . 87 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . \rip (y) . . . \Rrightarrow ( ) \Rrightarrow ( ) . 112 optical . . 93 . . . . . 43 41 41 46 62 43 43 33 33 71 71 18 47 76 76 33 42 41 43 43 43 75 22 33 47 42 41 44 18 64 66 22 23 76 76 42 73 88 33 33 d u . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . \SAh (h) . . . . . . . . . 80 satisfies . . . . \rvert (|) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . 87 \SAsa (X) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 75 \ScissorRightBrokenBottom ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 87 \SAtb (J) . . . 121 \SAs (s) . . . . . . 13 \roty (y) . . . . see \sqrt \rotatebox . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 75 \scn (X) . . 87 \SAr (r) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 54 S \rwave ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . 22 . . 54 . . . . . . . . . . . . 87 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 58 see accents see \circeq see \eqcirc . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . 13 \RoundedLsteel (Ÿ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 87. . 75 \ScissorLeft ( ) . 70–74 \ScissorHollowLeft ( ) . . . . . 109 \scd ( ) . . . . . . . . 100 scaling mechanical . . . \sagittarius ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . \rightturn ( ) . . . . \ring (˚) . 87 .. . . . . . . . . . . . . 87 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . \rightthumbsup ( ) . . . 56 \rightY ( ) . . . . . . . . . \rightrightarrows ( ) . . . . . . 68 \rqm (I) . . . . . . . . \Rightscissors (Q) . .. . . . . . \SAdb (D) .. . . 13 Schwartz distribution spaces see alphabets. . . . . 94 . . . . . . . 13 \rotOmega () . . . . . . . . \righttherefore ( ) . . . 13 scientific symbols . . . . . . . 100 \SAw (w) . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 55 see \rdbrack . . . . . . . 116 . . . . . . . 87 \SAz (z) . . . 71 \scr (t) . 36 \Scorpio (ç) . . . . . . . . . \rightrightharpoons (Ù) \rightrsquigarrow ( ) . . . . . . . \rightt (o) . . 93 \Sampi (Ϡ) . . . . . . . . . . . 87 . . . . . . . . 57 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23 .\rightleftharpoons (é) \rightleftharpoons ( ) \rightleftharpoons ( ) \rightleftharpoons ( ) \rightleftharpoonsfill \rightlsquigarrow ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . \rVert ( ) . 73 \RoundedTTsteel (ž) . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . 87 ¤ § ¦   ¡ ¥ £ ¢ 153 . . . . . . . . . . . . . 74 . . . . . . . . . \Rsh (é) . . . . . 71 \Saturn (Æ) . . \riota ( ) . . \rlap . . . . \rrparenthesis ( ) \RS ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . 13 \scg (0) . . . . . .. . . . . . . . \SAf (f) . . \rightsquigarrow ( ) . 56 \rightwave ( ) . 87 \sampi (ϡ) . . \rightVdash ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13 I . . . . 32 . 87 . safety-related symbols \SAg (g) . . . . . . \SAd (d) . . . .. . . . . . . 80 \scalebox . \righttoleftarrow (ý) . . \SAhd (H) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13 \rotvara (e) . . . . . . 55 \rwavy ( ) . . . roots . . . . 87 . 75 \ScissorRightBrokenTop ( ) 75 scissors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . \rightsquigarrow ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19. . . . 109. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23 . . . . . . 54 \rmoustache ( ) . . 57 \rrceil ( ) . . . . .. . . .. . . . . . . . . .. . . . 87 \SAn (n) . . 87 \sarabfamily . . . \rightslice ( ) . . . . . . . . . 55 S \S (§) . . . . . . \SAdd (B) . . . . . . . . . . 13 \scoh (˝) . . . . . . . . . . . \rightpropto ( ) . . . . . . . . . \SAga (G) . . . . . 87 \SAsv (S) . . . . \rVert (||) . . . 87 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30 . . . . . 87 \satellitedish ( ) . . \rightrightarrows ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . \rightmodels ( ) . . . . . 13 \rotr (r) . . . \rrfloor ( ) . 13 \schwa (!) . 72 \rotm (m) . . . . . 87 . . . . . . . . . . 9. . . . 71 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 54 \rrbracket ( ) . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 68 \SAo (o) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . 87 \SAq (q) . . 87 sans (dsfont package option) . . . 23 . . . . \rsemantic . . . . . . 105 \rrangle ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . \Righttorque (') . . . . . . L \rightpointright ( ) . . .. \rightrightarrows (Ñ) . . 13 \schwa (e) . . . . . . . . 87 sarabian (package) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 75 \ScissorHollowRight ( ) . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . \Sagittarius (è) . . ... . . . . . . . . \rsem ( ) . 119. . . . 11–13. . . . 87 \SAy (y) . . . \rightp (w) . . . . . . . . . . 71 savesym (package) . . . . 55 Roman coins . . . \rightvdash ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 103 rotated symbols . . . . . . . . . . . . . \rightspoon ( ) . . . . . . . . . 75 \ScissorLeftBrokenTop ( ) 75 \ScissorRight ( ) . .. . . . 71 \scorpio ( ) . . . . . . . 53 53 42 43 53 72 \SAk (k) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . \Rsh ( ) . . . . . . . \SAb (b) . . . . . . . 100 \savesymbol . 13 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . \SAhu (I) . . . . . . \Rsh ( ) . . . . . \rtimes () \rtimes ( ) \rtimes ( ) \rtriple . . . . 87 \SAl (l) . . . 41 . . .  \rmoustache () . . . . . 19 Romanian comma-belo accent (a) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 73 \Rparen ()) . . . . . . . . . 33 . . . . 31 . 13 \rotw (w) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 87 \SAlq (‘) . . . . . . . . . . . . 71 \saturn ( ) . . . . . \rightModels ( ) . 56 . . . 87 \SAm (m) . . . . . . N . . . . . . 87 \SAsd (x) . . . . see \models \Saturn (p) . . 87 . . . . . . . 71 . . . . . . . . . . . . \rightpointleft ( ) . . 87 \SAtd (T) . . . . . . . . . 17. . 42 . . . \rightthreetimes ( ) . . . . . . . . . 55 \rrbracket ( ) . . . . . . . . . \rightslice ( ) . . .

. . . . . . . 103 \sharp ( ) . . . . . . . . . 105 slashed. . . . . 105 \slashed . . . . . . . . . 90 \shortparallel ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 50 \sigmaup (σ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 42 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 70 \ShortPulseLow ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 46 ¡ \SePa ( @ ) . . . 79 \smalltriangledown (™) . . 24 shuffle product ( ) . . . . . see musical symbols semidirect products . . . . . . . \separated ( ) . . . . \SixFlowerOpenCenter (w) . . . . 92 sedenions (S) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 72 \Sigma (Σ) . . . . 21 shuffle (package) . . 32 simplewick (package) . . . . see alphabets. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 105 slashed letters . . . . 106 \scriptv (‰) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . \seppawns (q) . . . . . . . . . . 32 \ShortPulseHigh ( ) . 43 \senwharpoons ( ) . . math \scripta (¡) . . . . . . 47 set operators intersection . . . . 13 \scriptscriptstyle . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 78 \SixStar ( ) . . . . . . . . . 24 \smallsmile ( ) . . . 23 \SmallRightDiamond ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . 33 \semodels ( ) . . . . . . . . . 43 semantic valuation . . . . . \searrow ( ) . see \in union . 119. . 42 \showclock . . . 89 = = = = \SechBl ( ˇ “ = ) = \SechBR ( ˇ “ = ) = ˇ “=) \SechBr ( ˇ \SechBL (= “ ) = . . . . . . . 33 \sefree ( ) . . . . . . 52 \smallpencil ( ) . . . . . . 66 \SmallLowerDiamond ( ) . . . . . . 40 \SmallTriangleUp ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17. . . . 50 \sigma (σ) . . . . . 89 \second (P) . . . . . 46 \selectfont . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25 \SmallTriangleDown ( ) . . . . . . . . . . 72 \shift (˜) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .script letters see alphabets. . . . 54–57 \semapsto ( ) . . 36 \simcoloncolon (∼::) . 43 . 36 \simeq ( ) . . . . . . 72 \scu (‡) . . 89 33 47 93 72 72 \sersquigarrow ( ) . . . . . . 120 \senwarrows ( ) .. . . 70 \shortrightarrow ( ) . . . 70 \seharpoonccw ( ) . . . . 42 . . . . . . . . . . . . 30 \simeq ( ) . 13 \Sleet ( ) . . . . . . . . . math \sefilledspoon ( ) . . . . . 119. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 78 \SixteenStarLight ( ) . . . . . . . 32 \simcolon (∼:) . . . . . . 76 \smallprod ( ) . . . 42 \ShortSixty (Ö) . . 42 \ShortFifty (×) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 91 \shpos (´) . . . . . . . . . . . 117 sha ( ) . 93 \slash (/) . 14. . . . . . . . 13 \Scroll ( Scroll ) . . 13 \slashd () . . . . . 65. . . . . . . . . . . . see \cap membership . . . \SixFlowerPetalDotted () \SixFlowerAlternate ( 78 78 78 78 \SixFlowerPetalRemoved ( ) 78 \SixFlowerRemovedOpenPetal ( ) . 33 semtrans (package) . . 79 \smallsquare ( ) . . . . . . . . . 93. . . . . . . . see musical symbols \sixteenthnote ( ) . . . . . . . 22 \smallsetminus ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 50 \sim (∼) . . . . . . . . . . . . 43 . 115 \sim (∼) . . . . . . . 24 \ShortNinetyFive (Ô) . . . . 33 SGML . 25 ‘ v q u A  | ’ ( i  p (  P y d g f h e 154 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24. . . 119. . . . . . . . . . . 30 \smallfrown ( ) . . \searrowtail ( ) \sec (sec) . 93 \shortdownarrow ( ) . . see \cup \setminus (\) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 35 ) . 89 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 48 \SmallHBar ( ) . 89 . . . . . . . . . . \sepitchfork ( ) . . . . . 120 \skull ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13 \scy (“) . . . . \Searrow ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16 ¯) \smallbosonloop () . . 89 . . . 43 semibreve . . . 25 \smalltriangleleft ( ) 25. . 35 \textseagull . . 90 \shortuparrow ( ) . 23 slashed (package) . . . . . . . . 13 \slashdiv ( ) . 25 \smalltriangledown ( ) 25. 105. . seagull . . . . . . . . . 30 \shortparallel ( ) . . . 18 \shneg (ˆ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . \searrow ( ) . . . . . 30 \smallsmile ( ) . . 40 \SmallTriangleLeft ( ) . . . see \second \secstress (i) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 91 \sliding (a . . . . . . . . . 105 \slashu (…) . . . . . . . 105. . . . 79 \smallin ( ) . . . . . . . . . 79 \smallfrown ( ) . . . . . . 74 \smallbosonloopA () . . 49 X l 4 5 ¡ ¡ y) . 79 \smallowns ( ) . 33 segmented digits . . . . . . . . . 79 \smalltriangleleft (š) . . 43 \sesearrows ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22 \setminus ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . 13 \sddtstile ( \sdststile ( \sdtstile ( ) . 47 \sefootline ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 88 skak (package) . . . . . . . . . . . 120 skull (package) . . . . . . 41. 79 \SmallCross ( ) . . angular . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 79 \smalldiamond ( ) . 66 semiquaver see musical symbols semitic transliteration . . . . . . . 90 \ShortThirty (Û) . . 74 \smallbosonloopV () . . . . . . . . . 96 \sin (sin) . . . . . . . . . 66 \shfermion () . . . 48 \SmallSquare ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 115 \slashb (§) . . . . . . . . 8 \selsquigarrow ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21 \Shilling (¡) . . . 109 simpsons (package) . . . . . . . . . 120 \shuffle ( ) . . . 96. . . . . . . 90 \shortleftarrow ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . 79 \smalllozenge (◊) . . 78 sixteenth note . . . . . . . 30 \shortmid ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . 40 \SmallTriangleRight ( ) . . . . . . . 25 \smallstar ( ) . . . . . . . . . . 94. . . . . . . . . . . . 90 \ShortForty (Ù) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 74 \SmallCircle ( ) . . . . . . . . . . 30. . . . . . 24 \SI ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25 \smalltriangleright ( ) 25. 43 \sespoon ( ) . see \Searrow ( ) . 52 \smallint ( ) . . . . . . 119 Simpsons characters . 49 \sincoh (ˇ) . . . 24 \seVdash ( ) . . 74 \Shift ( Shift ⇑ ) . . . 79 \smalltriangleup (˜) . . . . .sty (file) . \searrow (×) . . . 106 \scriptstyle . . . . . . . . \SixFlowerAltPetal (…) . . . . \SerialInterface (Î) \SerialPort (Ð) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 49 \sdttstile ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 35 ) . . . . . . . . . . 79 \smalltriangleright (›) . . . . . . . 32 \sevdash ( ) . . . see \S \SectioningDiamond ( ) . 13 \scriptg (() . 21 \shortcastling (O-O) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 36 \sinh (sinh) . . . . . . . . . . . 42 \shortmid ( ) . . . 35 . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18 section mark . . . . 104. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14. . 17 \seModels ( ) . 25 \SmallDiamondshape ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 46 \seharpooncw ( ) . 106 . . . . . 22. . . 79 \smallsetminus ( ) . . \Sech (ˇ “) )= . . 119. . . . . . . . . . . . 93. . . 43 . . . 66 seconds. . . . . . . . . 13 \slashc () . . . . 88 \sharp ( ) . . . 23. . . . .

. . . . . 21. . . . . . 66. . . \sqcupplus ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25 square root . . . . . . 37 . . . . . . 79 . . . . . . . \sqsmile ( ) . . . . . . . . . . 77–79 \stater ( ) . . \sqsubseteqq (Œ) . . . . . . . . . \sqiiint ( ) . . . . \Square ( ) . . . . 37 . 66 \sphericalangle ( ) . . . . . 35 \ssttstile ( ) . 48 . 48 . \square ( ) . \Smiley (©) . . . . . 24 . . . . . . \sqeqsmile ( ) . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . \SnowflakeChevron ( ) . . . 78 stars . . . . . . . . . . 72 \SOH ( ) . . . . . . 42 \sslash ( ) . . . . . . . . . \sqsmilefrown ( ) . 90 \sphericalangle (c) . . . . ) . . .. . 80 \SquareShadowC ( ) . H f f H . . 48 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . vs. . . . . . . . . 48 . . . . . .. . . . . 37 . . . 48 . . \sqdoublefrowneq ( ) \sqdoublesmile ( ) . . . 106 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . \sqtriplesmile ( ) . . . . . . . 97 ) . . . . . . . . . . \sqsubset (€) . . . . . . . 80 \Squaresteel (“) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . smile symbols . . . 24. . see \textvisiblespace \Spacebar ( ) . . . . \smileeq ( ) . . . . 79 \SpinUp () . . 101 . 96 \snststile ( ) . . .. . . . . \smiley ( ) . . . . 37 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 37 36. . . . .. . . 66 \SpinDown () . . ... . \sqdoublefrown ( ) . . . . B . 23 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . smiley faces . . . . . . . . \squigarrowswne ( ) . . . 79 \SquareShadowB ( ) . . . . . . \sqsubsetneq ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . \sqSubset (”) .. . . . .. . . . 37 . . . . . 48 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 35 \ssearrow ( ) . . . . . . . . 37 . .. . . . . . . . . 35 \SO ( ) . . . . . . \smilefrowneq ( ) . . . . . . . . . . 64 \Squarepipe (—) . . . . . . . \sqsupseteqq () . \sndtstile ( ) . . . . . . . . \squigarrownwse ( ) . . . . \sqfrown ( ) . . . . . . . . . ) . . . \smile ( ) . . . . \smileeqfrown ( ) . 77 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 37 . . 65–67.. . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23 . . \SnowflakeChevronBold ( snowflakes . . . . . . . . . 78 “special” characters . .. . . . . . . . \sqSupset (•) . . . . . . . . . . . \sqsupseteq (…) . 37 . . . . . . . . . . 72. 80 \Squaredot (÷) . 35 ) . . . . . . .. . . 73 k l m   ¡ h ¢ g j i \squarewithdots ( ) .. . . \sqsupsetneqq (‘) . . . . 78 \starredbullet ( ) . . . 79–80. .\smalltriangleup ( ) . . . . . . . . 98 155 . . . 97 ) . . . \smilefrown ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . \sqsmileeq ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 87 space thin . 37 . . . . . . . . . 58 \splitvert (¦) . . 48 . . \squigarrowdownup ( ) \squigarrowleftright ( \squigarrownesw ( ) . 23 \sqcap ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . \sqsubseteqq ( ) . . 90. . 79 \SquareShadowBottomRight ( ) . . . . . 23 \sqcap (‘) . 97 ) . . . . . . . . . . . . ” \sqiint ( ) . . . . . . 104 \star ( ) . . .. \sqsmileeqfrown ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 35 \sswarrow ( ) . . . . . . .. . 78 \SparkleBold ( ) . . . 37 36. . . . . .. . .. .. . . . 22 \sqcup ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . 37 . 27 . . 113 visible . . . . . . . see \sqrt hooked . . 37 . . \sqfrowneq ( ) . . . . .. . . . . 48 . . . . . . . . . . . . . \sqdoublesmileeq ( ) \sqeqfrown ( ) . . . . . 37 . . . . . \sqsubsetneqq () . . . . . 37 . . . . . . . 16 ˙ \sqbullet () . . . . . . . . . . 27 . . . 48 . . . . . . . . . . . . \sqsubsetneq (ˆ) .. \Snow ( ) . . \ss (ß) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . √ \sqrt ( ) . . . . . . 23 \sqcapplus ( ) . . . . . . . 80 \SquareShadowTopRight ( ) 80 \SquareSolid ( ) . . . . . . .. . \SS (SS) . . 35 \sntstile ( ) . . 28 . . . . . . . . \Sqsubset ( ) . \sqsubset ( ) . . . . . . . . \sqsubsetneqq ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 107 \star ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 37 . . .. 22 \sqcap ( ) . . 22. . . . . . . . . 72 South Arabian alphabet . . . . . . . . 48 . . . . 48 . . . 66 \Sparkle ( ) . 23 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 36 . . . . . . . . . . . . . 37 . .. . . . 22 \ssststile ( \sststile ( ) . . 73 squares . 37 . 37 . \Square ( vs. . . \Sqsupset ( ) . . . . \sqsupset ( ) . 23 \sqcup (’) . . . . . . . 24 . . . \sqfrownsmile ( ) . . . . . . . . . 19 statistical independence . . . . . 21. . . 9 \SpecialForty (Ú) . 48 . . \sqint ( ) . .. . . . . . \sqsubset ( ) . . . . . . . . . . 37 . 37 . . . . 106 \staveI ( \staveII ( \staveIII ( \staveIV ( \staveIX ( \staveL ( ) . \square (¥) . . .. . . . . . . . 27 . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . 80 \SquareCastShadowTopRight ( ) .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . \squigarrowrightleft ( \squigarrowsenw ( ) . . . . . . . 25 Star of David . . . . 97 ) . . . . . 42 \stackrel . . . . . \sqsupsetneq (‰) .. . . . . . . . . . . \sqsupset () . . . . . .. . . . . . . . 88. . 66 \square ( ) . . . . 36 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1   – ” \SNPP ( ) . . . . . . . . 23 ¡ • 25. . 79 – \spirituslenis (a) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23 \sqcup ( ) . . 40 79 30 48 48 48 48 48 48 90 88 98 35 91 91 78 78 78 78 “ ’ A B \sqcupdot ( ) . . . \sqsupsetneqq ( ) . 72 spades (suit) . . 77. . . . . . . . . . . . 47 \spreadlips (a) . . . . . 80 \SquareCastShadowTopLeft ( ) . . . \Snowflake ( ) . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . \sqsupset ( ) . ) . . . 58 \spirituslenis (—) . . . . 37 . . . . . . . . . . . \sqsupseteq ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 72 spoon symbols . . \squplus (“) . 66 \sphericalangle ( ) . . \Square ( ) . . . . . 80 . . . . . 23 . 78 sparkles . 80 43 43 43 43 43 43 43 43 23 10 10 \ssdtstile ( ) . . . . 79 \SquareShadowTopLeft ( ) . . . . . . . . . . 108 standard state . . . . . . \sqdoublecap (”) . . 23 \sqcapdot ( ) . . 104. \sqcupplus ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 65 \spadesuit (♠) . . \sqfrowneqsmile ( ) . . . . 97. . . . . . . \sqiint ( ) . . . .. \SnowCloud ( ) . . . . . . 37 . . . . \smile ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 35 \snttstile ( ) . . 48 . . . . . . . . . \sqsubseteq ( ) . . . . . 23 \sqcapplus ( ) . 80 \spadesuit (♠) . . . . \sqsubseteq („) . 48 . . . . \sqsupseteqq ( ) . . . . . . \sqsupsetneq ( ) . › \sqint ( ) . . . 28 59. . 97 ) . . . 37 . . . . . . . . . \SmallVBar ( ) . . . . . . . \sqsubseteq ( ) . . . . . see \hksqrt \SquareCastShadowBottomRight ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . \squigarrowupdown ( ) . . . . . .. .. 37 .. . . \sqdoublecup (•) . . . . \Square ( ) . 67 \squaredots ( ) . . . \sqsupseteq ( ) . . 48 . . . . . . . . . . 37 . . 48 . . . . . . . . . \sqtriplefrown ( ) . ) . . . . . . 94 \SquareShadowA ( ) . .

. . . . . . . \subsetneq (ˆ) . . . 34 . . . 32 . \succnsim ( ) . . . . . . . 98 ) . . . "". . . . . 97 ) . . 31 . . . \succsim ( ) . 32 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 34 . . . 36 . . .. . 48. . . . . . . . . . . . 98 . . . 97 staves (package) . . . . . . . . . . \Subset ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 32 . \subsetneqq ( ) . . . . . . . . . . \StrokeFive ( ) \StrokeFour ( ) . . . . . . . . \succeq ( ) . . . . . . . . . . \succeqq ( ) . . . . . 97 \StopWatchEnd ( ) . . . . . 37 . . . ¡ \subrptr (a) . . . . . . 98 ) . . . . . \strokedint ( ) . . . . . . . . 37 . . . . . ◦ \stst (− ) . . . . 121 Steinmetz phasor notation . . . 54. .\staveLI ( \staveLII ( \staveLIII ( \staveLIV ( \staveLIX ( \staveLV ( \staveLVI ( \staveLVII ( \staveLVIII ( \staveLX ( \staveLXI ( \staveLXII ( \staveLXIII ( \staveLXIV ( \staveLXV ( \staveLXVI ( \staveLXVII ( ) . . . . . \succ ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . 97 ) . . . \subsetplus ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . \StrokeThree ( ) \StrokeTwo ( ) . . . . . . . . \succapprox ( ) . . \subseteq (⊆) . . . . . . . . 97 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 37 . . 98 ) . 98 ) . . . . . . . . . 105 . . . . . . . . . . . . 97 ) . . . . . . . \succ ( ) . \subseteqq ( ) . . . . . . . . . . 98 ) . . . . . . . . 35 . . . . . . . . . 36 . . . . . 37 . . . 98 ) . . . . . . . . . . 98 ) . . \subsetpluseq ( ) . . 97 ) . . . . 97 \StrokeOne ( ) . . . . . . . . \SUB ( ) . . . 98 ) . . . . . 36 . . . . . \subseteqq ( ) . . . \subset (⊂) . . . . . . . . . . . . 37 . . . . . . 30 . . . 35 ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 98 \staveXXIII ( \staveXXIV ( \staveXXIX ( \staveXXV ( \staveXXVI ( \staveXXVII ( \staveXXVIII ( \staveXXX ( \staveXXXI ( \staveXXXII ( \staveXXXIII ( \staveXXXIV ( \staveXXXIX ( \staveXXXV ( \staveXXXVI ( \staveXXXVII ( \staveXXXVIII ( \stdtstile ( ) ) ) . . 98 ) . . . . . . . 70 sterling . . . 97 ) . . . . 42. . 37 . . 36 . . . . 36 . . \subset (⊂) . . . 92 . . . \subseteqq (Œ) . . . \succapprox ( ) . . 97 ) . 32 . . . 37 . . . . . . . . . . . . . 98 \staveLXVIII ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . \succcurlyeq ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . 37 . . . . \subsetneqq ( ) . . . . 118–120 stochastic independence see \bot \StoneMan ( ) . . . \sublptr (a) . . . . . . . . . . . 98 . . . . . \succeq ( ) . 98 ) . . . . . . . . 98 ) . . . . 30 . . 98 ) . . . . . 97 ) . . . . . . . . . 119 \staveV ( \staveVI ( \staveVII ( \staveVIII ( \staveX ( \staveXI ( \staveXII ( \staveXIII ( \staveXIV ( \staveXIX ( \staveXL ( \staveXLI ( \staveXLII ( \staveXLIII ( \staveXLIV ( \staveXLIX ( \staveXLV ( \staveXLVI ( \staveXLVII ( ) ) ) . . . . . . . . . . 98 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 98 ) . 97 ) . . . . . . 37 . . . 97 ) . 92 104 ) . 35 ) . . . 97 ) . . . \subsetneq ( ) . . . . . . . . . subatomic particles . . . . \subsetneqq () . . \subseteq (⊆) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 53. 98 ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . \succnsim (Å) . . . . . . 97 ) . 98 ) . . . . . 32 . . . 30 . . . . . . . . . \succsim (Á) . . . . . . 37 36. 72 72 74 16 16 16 16 16 ) . . . . . . . . . . . 31 . . . . . . . . . . ˜ —) . . . . . . . . . . . 35 \steaming ( ) . . . . . . . . . . 97. . . 37 . . . \succdot (Í) . . . . . . . . . . . . 98 ) . . . 97 ) . . . 37. . . . . . . Y XXXX ... 97 ) . \Subset ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30 . . . 98 ) . . . . . . . . . \succcurlyeq (¥) . . 26. 91 \StopWatchStart ( \stress (h) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 98 ) . . . . 98 ) . . ¯ \subdoublevert (a) . . . . . . . . . . 87 \stigma (ϛ) . . . 97 \staveXV ( ) . . . . . . 32 . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31. . \succnsim ( ) . . . . subscripts ¿ new symbols used in \Subset (”) . . 91 \Stopsign (!) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 87 stmaryrd (package) 22. . . . . . . 37 . . . . . . . . . . . . 98 ) . . 91 18 31 31 31 29 92 92 \STX ( ) . . . . . . . \subseteq („) . . . . 97 ) . . . . . \strictfi ( ) . . . . . 101. . . . . . . . . . . \stststile ( \sttstile ( \stttstile ( X XXX XX . . . . \succneqq ( ) . . . . . . . \succnapprox ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 97 \staveXLVIII ( ) . 98 ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 37 . . . . . . . . . . . . 98 ) . . . . . . . . . . 31 . . . . . 67 steinmetz (package) 70. . . . . 40. . . . 81 \Stigma (Ϛ) . . . . . . . . \succneq (­) . . . 30 156 . . . . . \succnapprox ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 32 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 97 . \subsetneq ( ) . . . \succnapprox (Ë) . . 36 . . . . . . 119. . . . . . . . see \pounds stick figures . . 98 ) . 97 ) . . . 92 . . . . . . . . . . \subset (€) . . 98 ) . . . . . . . 98 staves . . . . . . 97 ) . . . . . . . . . . . \strictif ( ) . . . . . . . . . . 31 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 32 . . . . \strictiff ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . 104. . 98 \staveXVI ( \staveXVII ( \staveXVIII ( \staveXX ( \staveXXI ( \staveXXII ( ) ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 97 ) . . . . . . 98 ) . 32 . 97 ) . . . . . 97 ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . subsets . . 37 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . \succapprox (Ç) . . \succcurlyeq ( ) . . . . . . 98 ) . . . . . . . . . 37 . . 97 ) . . . . . . . . . . . . 74  ) . . . . . . . . . 32 . . . . . \subcorner (a) . . . . . . . . . . . 98 ) . . . 97 ) . . . . . . . . . . ^ \subdoublebar (a) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 98 ) . 32 .

. . . . . . . . . 108 alpine . . . . . 94 \symUE ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 70 engineering . 43 \swarrow (Ö) . . . . . . 81–87 annuity . . . . . . . . 89 laundry . . . . . . . . . . . . 52 linguistic . . . . . . . . . . . 43 \swneharpoons ( ) . . . . 94 \symrook (R) . 51. . . . . . . . 108 linear logic . . . . . . 91 \SummitSign ( ) . . . . . . . . . . 18. . . . . . . 43 \swarrowtail ( ) . . . 19. . . . . . . . . . . . . 73 magical signs . . 70. . . . . 94 \symknight (N) . . . . 11–13. . . . 47. 97 mathematical . . . . . . . 119. . . . . . . . 105 supersets . . . . . . . . 47 \swfootline ( ) . . 91 zodiacal . . 33 \syl (a) . . . . . . . 9–20 bold . . . . . . . . 36. . 9. . . . . . . . . . 17 . . . . . . . . . .157 a \succsim ( ) . 70 pitchfork . . 43 \swfilledspoon ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . 90–92 communication . . . . . 29 \sumint ( ) . . . . 36 \supsetneq ( ) . . . . . . . 65. digital logic . 70–74 Simpsons characters . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21. . . . . 47     „ % \swrsquigarrow ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . 36. . . 37 technological . . see \sup \Supset (•) . . . . . . . . . . 68 \symbishop (B) . \T (⊗) . . . . . . 89 definition . . . . . −− \tabcolsep . . . see \sim \swVdash ( ) . 114 variable-sized . . . . 102 weather . . . . 88 general . . . . 37 \supsetneq ( ) . . . . . . . . \t (⊗) . . . . 108 APL . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 59–63. . 21–69 METAFONTbook . . . . 105 − \sum ( ) . . . . . . . 33 \swnearrows ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 68 \symking (K) . . . . . . . 71 symbols. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 43 \swmapsto ( ) . . . . . . . . . . 37 \supsetneqq (‘) . . 103. . 18. . . 51 . . . 68 \symB ( ) . . . . . . . 91 \swpitchfork ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . \t (a) . 108 dictionary . . . vs. 36 \supsetneqq ( ) . 14 upside-down 11–13. . . . . . . . . . . . . 25–30. . . . . 53. . 67 frown . tacks . . . . . 30. . . . . . 37 \supsetneqq ( ) . . . 71 \sun (☼) . . . . . . . 47. . . 21. . . . . . . 42 \Swarrow ( ) . . . 70. . . 90 non-commutative division 63 particle physics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 37 supremum . . . 107–109 Feynman diagram . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 46 swords . . . . . . 108 proto-Semitic . . . . . 48 gates. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18 \symA ( ) . . . . . . 37 \supsetneq (‰) . . . . . . . . 102. . . . . 19. . . . 29 \Summit ( ) . 72 Knuth’s . . . . . 25 \sum (∑) . . . . . . . . 90 legal . . . . . . . . . 97 subset and superset 36. . . . 11–14 physical . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 100. . . . . . . . 43 \swspoon ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 68 dangerous bend . . . . . . . . . 113 box-drawing . . 37 \supseteq (…) . . . 17. . . . . . . 33 \swharpoonccw ( ) . 30 reversed . . . 72 Ã Ü Ý T \T . . . . . . . . 91 \SunshineOpenCircled ( ) . . . . . . . 49. 89 navigation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 66 Pitman’s base-12 . . . . 88 Go stones . . . . . . . . . 36 \supseteqq ( ) . . . t4phonet (package) 120 →→ \Tab ( −− ) . . . . . . . . . . 94 Symbol (font) . 74 Frege logic . . 89 transliteration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . \T ( ) . . . . . . . . . . 81 phonetic . . . . . . . . 68 \sympawn (p) . . 103 keyboard . . . . . . 98 clock . . 95 miscellaneous . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 94 cipher . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 36 \supseteq (⊇) . . . . 42 \swarrow ( ) . . . . . 46 \swharpooncw ( ) . . 98 biological . . . . . 71 \Sun (À vs. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 37 \Supset ( ) . 16 \syllabic (j) . . 11–14 log-like . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .tex (file) . . . . . . . . . . . 94 \symqueen (Q) . . 100. . . . . . 98. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 95 . . . 103 safety-related . . . . . 89 metrical . 48 currency . . . . . . . 71. 80. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14 . . . 94 information . . . . . . . . . . . 64. . . . . . . 96 smile . . . . . . . . . 33 \swmodels ( ) . . . . . . 37 \supset (⊃) . . . . . . . . . . . . 71 astronomical . 68 musical . . . . . . . . . . . . . 88 \SunCloud ( ) . . . . . . 91 \Swarrow ( ) . . . . . . . . . 88. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 51–53 life insurance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 74 scientific . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 48 spoon . . . . . 72 contradiction . . . . . 105 \suchthat (− ) . . . . . . . . . . 68 \symAE ( ) . . . . . . . . . 70–74 TEXbook . . 74 block-element . . 17. . . . . . . . 65–67. . 49 superscripts new symbols used in . 19. 10 . . . 36 \supset (⊃) . . . . . . . . . . . 80 \sup (sup) . . . . . . . . . 33 \swvdash ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . 37 \supsetpluseq ( ) . . . . 37 ` \surd ( ) . . . . . . . . 32 \swfree ( ) . . . 37 \supseteqq ( ) . . . . . . . . 32 such that . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 99 relational . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 51. . . . . 88. . . . . . . 36 \Supset ( ) . . . 116 letter-like . 104 . . . . 93 inverted . . . . . . . . . . 65 present value . . . . . . . . . 91 ancient language . . . . . . . . . . . 119 \symC ( ) . . . . 106. . 95 14. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 37 \supseteq (⊇) . . . . . 103. . . . . 97 chess . . . . . . . . . 101 \Sun ( ) . . . . . . 90 informator . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 97 body-text . . . 65 \SurveySign ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17. . . . . 9. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 66. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 70 recycling . . . 47 staves . . . 11–13. . . . . . . 91 \Sun (À) . 47. . . . 43 \swModels ( ) . 71 astrological . . . 113 Á Û Â logic . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29–30. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 93. . . . 107 \swarrow ( ) . . . . 96 dingbat . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 37 \supset () . 94 \symOE ( ) . . 91 \Sun (d) . . . . . 73 extensible . . . . . . 81 pulse diagram . . 46 \swlsquigarrow ( ) . . 74 Phaistos disk . . . 65. . . . . . . . . 73 computer hardware . . 63. . . . . . . . . . 72 . . . . . 107 electrical . . . . . 21–23. 17. . 25. . 103 symbols actuarial . . 73 genealogical . . . . 41. . . . . . . . 75–80 dot . . . . . . . 37 \supsetplus ( ) . . . 47 \swswarrows ( ) . . . . . . 43 swung dash . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 103 rotated . 11–14. 37 \supseteqq () . . . d) . . . 68 \SYN ( ) . . . . . . . 88–99 monetary . . . . . . .

. . 18. 11 . . . . 12 . . . . . 64.\taild () . . \tailn (W) . . . . . .. . . \textctesh (š) . . 95 \Terminus* (⊕) . . . . . . 18 \textdollaroldstyle () . . . . . 12 \textblank ( ) . . . . 120 TEX . . . . . . . . . 11 \textbarl (ł) . . . . . . . 109. \textcrinvglotstop (Û) \textcrlambda (ň) . . . . \textctc (C) . . 11 \textbarg (g) . \textctd (ć) . . . . . . . . . 119. . 11 . . ... . . . . 18 \textasciimacron . . . . 116 @ @ ( \textasciibreve ( ) . . . . . . . 41. . 111 testfont. . . . . . . . . . 20 \textbardotlessj (é) . 111–113. . 8. . .. . . . . . . 11 \textbarrevglotstop (Ý) . . . . . . . . . \textcttctclig (ťC) . . . . 35 \tdttstile ( technological symbols . . . . . . . 12 \textdoublebarslash (=) . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . 64. . . . . 11 \textcrb (ă) . . . . . . 11 \textcloserevepsilon (Æ) . . . . . . . \td (a) . . . . 19 \textcircumacute (Ż) . . . 112 symbols from . \textctinvglotstop (D) \textctj (J) .) . . \talloblong ( ) tally markers . . . . . . . . . . \textcrd (ž) . . 20 \textbabygamma (È) . . . . . . . . . . 9. 11 textcomp (package) . . . . 15 ffi \textaolig (") . . . . . . . . . 15 a ˙ \textdotbreve (˘) . . . \textcypr . . . . . 21 \Tent ( ) . . . . \tcmu (µ) . 100. . . . . 9. 97 \textdnblock ( ) . . . . . . 116 . . . 18 \textcommatailz (Þ) . . . . . 9. 11 \textbenttailyogh (B) . . 67. . . .. . . . . . . . . 12 . . . . . 116 \textcorner (^) . . . . 12 \textdownstep (Ť) . . 18 \textasciicaron ( ) . . . . . . . . . . 97. . . . . . . . . 11 . . . . . 11 . . . . . 11 \textbarglotstop (Ü) . . . \textctstretchc (%) . .. . . 11 \textdownarrow (↓) .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . \textcrg (g) . . . . 115 \textbaht ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . 35 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 122 TEXbook. . . 100. . 88 \textdiscount ( ) . 11 . 57. . . . . . . 17 Ÿ \textdoublepipe ({) . . . . . . . . . 35 ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15 < \textbraceleft ({) . . . . .. . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . 114. . . . . . 21. . . .. . . . 106 \textacutedbl ( ) . . . . . . . . . .. 11 \textbackslash (\) . . . . . . . . . . The 103–107. . . . . . \Takt . . 9. . . \textcrd (ą) . . . 88. . 20 158 . 35 ) . . . . . . . . Tate-Shafarevich group \tau (τ ) . . . . . 12 \textbeta (B) . . 11 \textbeltl (ì) . . 15 a ˇ \textadvancing (a) . . . . 18 \textchi ( . . . . . . . . 105. \textcrtwo (2) . . . . 67 \textdivorced ( ) . . . . . . . . 73 \Telephone ( ) . . . . . . 11 \textdoublebarpipe (}) . 19 \textcopyright (©) . . . 18. 12 \textasciiacute ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . 11 \textbaru (0) . . . . . . . . . . . . . \tauup (τ) . . 11 / \textdoublegrave (‚) . . . . . . . . . 20. . . . . 14 \textcircledP ( ) . . . 16 . . 11 . \textdaggerdbl (‡) . . . . 91 \Terminus (⊗) . . 103–109. . . . . . . . . 9. . . . . . \tccentigrade ( ) . . . . \textctyogh (ÿ) . . . . 88 \textbottomtiebar (a) . . . 11 \textbaro (8) . 65 . . . . . 71 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .tex (file) . . 11 \textbigcircle (○) . . . . . . . . . 11 \textdegree (°) . . . . . . . . . \tailt (€) . . . . . . . . 20 . . . . . . . . . . . 14 . . . . . . . . . 71 see \top . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17 ¼ \textdoublevertline (Ş) . 9. . . 118. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12 . . . . 47. \tdststile ( \tdtstile ( ) – . . . . . . . . 70. . . . . . . . . . . . \taill (H) . Bob . . . . . . . . . . 11 \textdyoghlig (Ã) . 15 a) ˙ \textcloseepsilon (Å) . . \tcohm (Ω) . . . . . . . . . . . \Tape ( ) . . . . . . . 50 . 11 \textbard (d) . . . . . \textcurrency (¤) . 20 \textdiv (÷) .. . . . . 18 \textbar (|) . . 116 \textcentoldstyle () . . . 11 \textcent (¢) . . . 116 \textasciitilde (˜) 9. . 12 \textdoublevbaraccent (İ) . 11 \textdoublebarpipevar (H) . 11 \textcolonmonetary (₡) . . 13 testfont. . . . 11 \textbari (1) . . 92 \Telephone ( ) . . . . \tails (v) . . 11 \textbardbl ( ) . 11 \textcloseomega (Ñ) . . 40. . 9 \textbraceright (}) . . . . . . . . . . . . \textctstretchcvar (&) \textctt (ť) . 11 \textbarc (c) . 18–20. . 11 \textdzlig (dz) . . 12 . . 20 ) \textdbend ( ) . . . . \textdagger (†) . . 65 . . 89 \text . 12 . . . . . . . . . . . . 11 . . . . . . . . 9. 20. . . . . 67. . . 115. \textctn (ő) . . 111. . . . . . . . 97 \textdollar ($) . . . . . . . . . 15 a \textdoublevbaraccent (a) . . . . 115. .. . . . . . . . . . . 20 \textdblhyphenchar ( ) . .. . 20 \textbktailgamma (. . . . . . . . . . . . 20 \textblock ( ) . . . . . . 115. . . . 15 a ¯ \textacutewedge (´) . . . . 114 \textbarb (b) . . . . . 14. \tailr (p) . . . . . . . . . . . . \textcrh (è) . . 95. . 65 . 11 . . . 119 \textcopyleft ( ) . . . 117 \textasciidieresis ( ) 18. . . . . . \tanh (tanh) . . 15 a ¯ \textbrokenbar (¦) . . . . . . . 95 \terminus* (⊕) . 9. . 19 teubner (package) 19. . . . . . . . . . 98 Tennent. . . . . 89 \textdblhyphen ( ) . . . . . . 116 \textdied ( ) . . . . . . . . 65 . . . . . . . 11 . . . . . . 95 \terminus (⊗) . 11 18. 20 \textdblig ()) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11 . . . . . . . . . . . 117. . . . . . . . . . 13 13 13 13 13 13 13 13 89 22 92 49 49 80 . . . 115. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 65 ) . . 11 \textcircled ( ) . . . 115 \textasciimacron ( ) 18. . . 11 \textdoublepipevar (G) . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . 18 \textdotacute (§) . . . . 11 \texteightoldstyle () . \Taurus (á) . . . . . . . . 71 . . . . . . 12 \textdctzlig (dý) . .dvi (file) . . . . \textctjvar (2) . . . . . . . . . \tan (tan) . . 11 . . \textctturnt (@) . . . . . . 70–74 \Telefon (T) . . . . . . . . . . \taurus ( ) . 85. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 112 \tetartemorion (Β) . . . . 11 . 116 \textasciigrave ( ) . . . . . . . . . 9 \textbrevemacron (˘) . . . . . . . . . . \tailinvr (r) . . 97 \textborn ( ) . . . . . . . 87. . \tailz (•) . . 50 . . . . . 14 . . . . 70. . . . \Taurus () . . . . 9. . 19. . 11 . . . . . . 41 \textdownfullarrow (ˇ) . . .  \Taschenuhr ( ) . . . . . \textcrh (§) . . . . 15 a \textdoublebaresh (S) . . . . . 15 a \textdoublegrave (a) . . . . . . 117 \textbullseye (ò) . . . . . \tcpertenthousand ( \tcperthousand (‰) . . . . . . . . 117 \textceltpal ( ) . . . \tddtstile ( ) . 11 . \textctz (ý) . . . 11 . . . . . . . 86 . . . . 88 \textdkshade ( ) . 117 \textasteriskcentered (∗) . . . 11 \textcelsius ( ) . 15 a \textcircumdot (ˆ . . . . . . . . . 70. 9. . . \textctdctzlig (ćý) . . . . . 18 \textdong (₫) . . 18 \textacutemacron (´) . . . . . . . .. . . . . 95 \tesh () . . . . . . 91 see sha .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18 \textasciicircum (ˆ) . 11 . . . . . . . .. . tautology . . . . . . . 116 \textbullet (•) . . . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . 9 \textquotedbl (") . 57. 11 85. . . . 116 \textordmasculine (º) . . . . . 11 . . . . . . . . . . . . \textlhtlongy (ű) . . . . . . . 11 . \textnineoldstyle () \textnrleg (6) . . 15 ˛ \textprimstress (") . \textmarried ( ) . . . . . 14 \textlambda (ń) . . . . . . . . . . . 11 67. . . . . . . . . . . . . 9 \textendash (–) . . . 12 \textguarani ( ) . . . . . . 11 \texthtc (°) . \textlonglegr (Ô) . . . . . . . 15 . . . 11 \textepsilon (¢) . . . . 20 \textonequarter (¼) . . . . \textlhti (1) . . . . . . . \textltilde (ë) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11 . 18 \textphi (F) . . . . . . . . . . . 10. . 20 \textfractionsolidus (⁄) . 11 \textrevscl (v) . . . 11 \textrangle (〉) . . . 11 . . . . . . . . . . . 116 \textretracting (a) . 11 \textless (<) . . . . 14 \textestimated (℮) . 20 \textperiodcentered (·) . . . . . \textomega (ř) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . \textlhtlongi (ę) . . . . 12 . . . 14 \textesh (S) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . \textmidacute (Ÿ) . 21 \textregistered (®) 9. . . . . . . . . . . . 11 \texthtrtaild (č) . .) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15 . . . . . \textltailn (©) . . 15 „ \textiota (Ì) . . . . 9. . . . . . . . 12 159 . . 12 \textgoth . . 9 \textquoteright (’) . . . 20 \textpipe (|) . . . . . . . . . . . . 116 \textpmhg . . 86 . 11 \textproto . . . . . . . . . . . . . . \textOlyoghlig (ŋ) . . . 20. . . . . . . \textlira (₤) . 57 \textleaf ( ) . . . \textltailm (M) . . . . . 12 \textglobfall (Ů) . . . 9. . . . . . . . . . . . . 82 \textpolhook (a) . . . . . . . . 15 fi \textramshorns (7) . . 12 \textreferencemark ( ) 20. 9. . 20 . . . . . . 11 \texthtbardotlessjvar (3) . 12 \textglotstop (P) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14 \textpipevar (F) . 114 \textgrgamma (. . . . . . . . . 11 \textinvscripta (!) . . . . \textlhookt (ş) . . . . . 12 \textfrhookd (’) . . . . . . . . . . 67. . \textnumero (№) . . . . 12 \textparagraph (¶) . . 116 \textopenbullet (◦) . . . . . . . . . . . 11. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15 a — \textoverw (a) . 18 \texteuro (€) . . \textohm (Ω) . . . 67 70. . . . . . . . . 11 \textinvomega (. . . . 11 \texthth (H) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 70 \textinterrobang ( ) . . . . . 12 . \textlinb . . . . . . . . . . . . 11 \textpipe (|) . . . . 20 \textinterrobangdown ( ) . 15 a \textgreater (>) . . . . . . 18 \texthalflength (. . . . . 20 \textoneoldstyle () . . . . 12 \texthmlig (4) . 12 . . . . . . . a \textminus (−) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20 \textraiseglotstop (ij) . . . . . . . 114 \textquotestraightbase ( ) 20 \textquotestraightdblbase ( ) . . . . . . 12 \textfrhookdvar (() . . . . . 97 \textlfishhookrlig (I) . . . . . . . . 41 \textlengthmark (:) . . 20 \textinvglotstop (Û) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11 \textifsym . . . . . . 68 \textgravecircum (Ž) . . . . . . 15 a \textgravemacron (`) . . . . . . . . . 19 \texteuro ( ) . 20. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11 \texththeng (Ê) . . . . 18 . . . 11 \texthtb ( ) . . . . . . . . . \textlooptoprevesh (>) \textlowering (a) . . . . 89 . 15 a \textgravedbl ( ) . . 70 . . . . . . . . . . . . . \textlyoghlig (Ð) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12 . . 117 \textpeso ( ) . . . . . . . . 19. . . . . . . . . 114 \textrbrackdbl ( ) . 9. \textlnot (¬) . . . . . . 88 . . . . . 11 \texthtscg (É) . . . 12 \textrevapostrophe (\) . 12 \texthooktop (#) . 12 \texthtc (Á) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20 . . . . . . . \textmusicalnote (♪) . 12 \textfrtailgamma (-) . \textltshade ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9. . . . . . . . 103 \textreversedvideodbend ( ) . . . . 14 \texthtq (Ó) . . . . . . . 89 \textrevglotstop (Q) . . . . . . 20. . . . 57 . . . . . . . . 14 \texthtbardotlessj (ê) . . . . . . . . . . 14 \textordfeminine (ª) 9. . . . 57 \textrecipe ( ) . . . . 12 \textglotstopvarii (U) . . . . . 117 \textexclamdown (¡) . . . 11 . 11 \texthtk (¨) . . . 11 . . . 11 \texthardsign (ż) . . . 14 . . . . . . . . . . 11 \textlangle (〈) . 67. 116 . . . . . 12 . . . . . . . \textmho ( ) . . . . 12 \textpm (±) . . . . . . . 114 \textquotedblleft (“) . . 88 \textleftarrow (←) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11 \texthtp (±) . . . . 20 \texteuro ( ) . . 11 \texthtt (Ö) . 15 a ¯ \textgravemid (Ź) . . 12 \textesh (¬) . . . . . . 9 \textquotesingle (') . 11 \textraising (a) . . 18 \textfouroldstyle () . . 11 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15 ffl \textretractingvar (˚) . . . . . . 114 \textlfblock ( ) . . . . . . \textObardotlessj (Í) \textObullseye (9) . . 116 \textoneoldstyle . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12 \textfiveoldstyle () . . 67. . . . . . .\textellipsis (. . . . . . . 11 \texthtd (¡) . . . . . . . . . 11 \texthtt (º) . 14 \texthtd (â) . . \textonehalf (½) . . . . . . . . \textnaira ( ) . . . . . 11 \textopeno (ª) . . . . . . . . 12 \textfrhookt (?) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18 \textgravedot (đ) . . . . . . . . . . 14 \texthtp (Ò) . . . . . . . . . . . 11 \textpalhooklong (ˆ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 114 \textlbrackdbl ( ) . . . 20 \textfjlig () . . \textlhookp (<) . . . . 18. . . . . . 70 . . . . . 9 \textfemale (7) . . 11 \textheng (0) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . fl \textlptr (¡) . 116 \textonesuperior (¹) . . . 12 . . . . . . . . . 11 \textreve (9) . . . . 9 \textemdash (—) . 15 \textpalhook (%) . . . . . . 12 \textfishhookr (R) . . . . 12 \textgamma (G) . . . . . . 11 \textpilcrow ( ) . . . 116 \textpertenthousand ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . \textltailn (ñ) . . . 57. . . . . . . . . . 18 67. 68 \textfrbarn (5) . . . . . . . 11 \textopeno (O) . . . . . 20 . . . . . . 11 \textglotstopvari (T) . . . . . . \textlquill ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20. . . . . . 9 \textepsilon (E) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .) . 11 \texthtb (á) . . . . . . 12 \textpalhookvar (˜) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 81 \textqplig (=) . . . . . 11 \textraisevibyi (ğ) . . . . ) . . . . . . . . . . 12 \textglotstopvariii (V) . . . . . 9 \textquoteleft (‘) . . . . . . . . 11 \textiota (à) . 67 \textfrak . . . . . . \textmu (µ) . . . . . . . . . 14 \texthtg (ä) . . . . . 116 \textovercross (‰) . . . 115. . 20 \textperthousand (‰) 20. . 12 \textinvsubbridge (a) . . . . 12 \textlhdbend ( ) . 102 \textrectangle (¨) . . . . . 11 . . . . . . . . . . . . 12 \textglobrise (Ű) . . . . . . . . . . 20. . . . 97 . . . . . 14 \texthvlig (ß) . . . . . . . . 20 \textopencorner (_) . . . . . 116 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11 . . . . . . 12 \textinvsca (p) . . . 9 \textquotedblright (”) . . .) . . . 11 \textrevepsilon (3) . . . . . . . . . . . . 12 \textg (ě) . 14 \textflorin (ƒ) . . . 11 \texthtk (Î) . . . . . 12 \textinvscr (K) . . \textlhookfour (#) . . . 11 . . . . . . . 12 \textquestiondown (¿) .

. . . \textscm (w) .. 97 \textSFxxxvi ( ) . . . . . . \textsce (ď) . . . \textrhoticity (~) . . . . . . . . . . . . . \textsevenoldstyle () . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15 \textsubbar (a) ¯ \textsubbridge (a) . . . . \textrtailn (ï) .. . . . . 117 \texttslig ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 97 \textSFxlviii ( ) . . . \textringmacron (˚) .. . . . . . . 97 \textSFli ( ) . . . . . 11 \textturnm (W) . . . ˙ \textsubdoublearrow (˙) . . . . . . . . 97 \textSFxlvii ( ) . . . . . \textscu (Ú) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11 \textturnscu ({) .. . . 15 ˚ « \textsubsquare (a) . . . . . . . . . 18 \textstretchc (Â) . . . . . . . \textscb (à) . . . \textsck (t) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . \textrhooke (*) . . 15 \textsubtilde (a) . . . .. . . . .. . . 11 \textturna (5) . . . . . 11 \textturnlonglegr (Õ) . . \textscdelta (r) . . . 15 – \textsubplus (a) . . 97 \textSFx ( ) . . . . 11 \textteshlig (œ) . . . 12 \textsubring (a) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12 \textturnh (4) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . \textscriptv (V) . . . . . . . . . . .\textrevscr (z) . . . . . 20 \texttwooldstyle . . . . . . . . 11 \textturnrrtail (õ) . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . 97 \textSFxliii ( ) . 97 \textSFxlv ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . 15 » \textsubrightarrow (¯) . . . . . . . . . . . \textrhooka ( ) . \textsarab . . 11 \textspleftarrow (˝) . . . . . . .. . . . . 97 \textSFxxv ( ) . . . . . . 97 \textSFxlvi ( ) . . \textrtblock ( ) . . .. . . . . . \textscomega (ś) . . . . . . . . \textrtailz (ü) .. . . . . \textscaolig (q) . . . . . 12 \textthornvariv (S) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 97 \textSFxxxviii ( ) . . . . \textscp (x) . .. . . . . .. . 97 \textupfullarrow (˘) . . . . 97 \textSFxxvii ( ) . . . 97 \textSFl ( ) . . 116 \texttildedot (˜ a) . . . . . . . 97 \textSFix ( ) . . . . . . . . 97 \textSFxlix ( ) . . \textscj (ĺ) . . . . . . 15 › \textsubarch (a) . . . . 97 \textSFxli ( ) . . . . 105. 11 \textturnw (û) . . . . . . . . 16 & \textsuperscript . . . . . 16 \textsurd (√) . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . 97 \textSFvi ( ) . . . . . . . . . \textscf (s) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 97 \textSFxlii ( ) . . . . 97 \textSFlii ( ) . . . . . \textsca (À) . . . . . . . . 15 \textsubumlaut ˜ ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. .. . . . . . . . . . . . . 12 \textturnscripta (6) . . 11 \textturnmrleg (î) . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . 16 ˇ \textsuperimposetilde (a) . . . . . . 97 \textSFliii ( ) . . 97 \textSFxxii ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . 16 " \texttctclig (tC) . . . \textrtaill (í) . . 11 \textturncelig (ŕ) . . . 11 \texttwelveudash ( ) . . . . 11 \textstretchcvar ($) . . . . 12 \textturnv (2) .. . . . . . . . . . 97 \textSFxl ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . \textrthook ($) . . 12 \textvibyi (ğ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11 \textturny (L) . .. . . . . . . .. . . . . 11 \textthornvari (P) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 106. 20 \texttwooldstyle () . . . . . . . . . . . 12 11 12 12 12 12 12 12 12 41 15 15 12 57 12 14 12 12 11 11 11 11 14 11 97 11 12 87 11 12 11 12 11 12 11 11 11 14 11 11 12 11 12 11 11 11 12 12 11 11 11 11 14 11 11 15 11 20 19 20 97 97 97 \textSFiv ( ) . \textrtailhth (/) . . . . \textSFi ( ) . . . . . . 15 (a . . . . . . . . \textsubw (a) . . . 12 \textthreeoldstyle () . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . \textrquill ( ) . . . . . \textSFii ( ) . . . . . . . . . 11 \textturnk (ľ) . . a \textrptr (¿) . . . . . . . . . 97 \textsixoldstyle () . . . . . . . . . 11 \textteshlig (Ù) . 113 \textsubacute (a) . . . . 97 \textSFxxvi ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . 97 \textSFvii ( ) . . . . . 9. . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . \textscripta (A) . . . . . . 15 ff \textsubrhalfring (a) . . . \textrtaild (ã) . . . . . 12 \textunderscore ( ) . . . . 97 \textSFxxxix ( ) . . . . 20 \textthreequarters (¾) 67. 11 \texttoptiebar (> . . 116 \textthreequartersemdash () . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 97 \textSFxix ( ) . . . . . . .. . . . . \textsch (Ë) . . 20 \textthreesuperior (³) 67. . . . . . . . . . . . 11 \textturnthree (C) . . . . . \textsci (I) . . . . . .. 9 \textuparrow (↑) . . . . . . . \textschwa (¡) . \textrtailt (») . . . . . . . . . . \textscn (ð) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ¨ . . . . 11 \textupstep ( ) . 11 \textturnr (ô) . . . . . . . . . . . . . \textrtailr (ó) . . . 16 ˙ \texttildelow ( ) . . . \textrhookopeno (:) . \textscy (Y) . 17 ¿ \textvertline (Š) . . . .. . 97 \textSFviii ( ) . . . . . \textscq (y) . . 16 — \textsubwedge (a) . . 12 \textupsilon (U) . . . . 12 \textturntwo (A) . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . \textsecstress ( ) .. . . . . . . . . . . \textscriptv (¬) . . . 67 \texttoneletterstem (£) . 20. . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9. . . . . . . . . 15 ‹ \textsublhalfring (a) . . 19. 12 160 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16 a \textvbaraccent (a) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15 . . . . . 11 \textturnglotstop (E) . . 15 ” \textsubcircum (a) . . . . . . \textrthooklong (´) . . . . . . . . . .. 12 \textthornvariii (R) . . . 41 \textupblock ( ) . . . . . 97 \textSFliv ( ) . . . . . . . . \textscg (å) . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . 97 \textSFxi ( ) . . . . ... . . . \textscl (Ï) . . . \textservicemark ( ) .. . . . . . . . . 14 \texttheta (T) .. . . ... . . . . . . . . . . 12 \textsterling (£) . . . . . . 97 \textSFxxiv ( ) . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20 \textsoftsign (ž) . . 9. . . . . . 67 \textswab . . . . . . . . . . . .. \textrevyogh (ź) . . . . . . . . .. 67. . . . . . . . \textscoelig (Œ) . . \textrhookepsilon (+) . . . . . . . . . . . .. . 15 \textsubdot (a) ˆ .. . 12 \textthornvarii (Q) . . . . . . . .. . . . . . 16 a) \texttrademark (™) . . . . . . . 97 \textSFxx ( ) . . \textsection (§) . . .. \textscr (ö) . 11 \textvbaraccent (IJ) . 116 \textuncrfemale (8) . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . \textseagull (a) . . . .. . . 97 \textSFxliv ( ) . . . 97 \textSFxxiii ( ) . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . 11 \textturnsck (u) . . 12 \textvibyy (ů) . . . . .. . . . 91 \textthorn (þ) . . 97 \textSFxxviii ( ) . 68 \textsyllabic (a) . . . . . . . . . . . 12 \textsubgrave (a) . . . . .. . . \textrtailt (ú) . . . . . .. . \textrtails (ù) . . . a ¯ \textroundcap (“) . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 97 \textSFv ( ) . . . . . \textrtaild (ð) . . . . . . . 115 \texttimes (×) . . . . . . . . . . . . \textrightarrow (→) . 12 \textturnt (Ø) . . 20 \texttwosuperior (²) . . . . . . . . . . . \textschwa (@) . \textscriptg (g) .. 97 \textSFxxi ( ) . \textrhookrevepsilon (Ç) \textrhookschwa (Ä) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. 15 “ . . . . 12 \textstyle . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . \textSFiii ( ) . 11 \textthing ( ) . . . . .. . 97 \textshade ( ) . . 97 \textSFxxxvii ( ) . . . .

. . ) . . . . . . . . . 119. . . . . 18 \textwynn ( ) . 35 ) . . . . . . . . . . 20. . 70 tipa (package) 11. . 36 transliteration semitic . . . . . . . . . 100. . H`n Th´ . 65. . ¼ \u (˘) . . . . \ulcorner ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13 . . . . . . 14 \textzerooldstyle () . . . . . . . 24 Times Roman (font) . . . 13. . . 120 \tndtstile ( ) . . 13 \thorn (þ) . . . 95 \ttdtstile ( \ttststile ( \tttstile ( \ttttstile ( ) ) . . . . . . . 27. . . 50–52. . . . . . 40 \triangleleft ( ) . see alphabets. . . . . . . . . 12. . . . . . . . . . . . 44 \twoheadswarrow ( ) . . . . . . . . 93 \times (×) . . . . 30 \thicksim (∼) . 21–23. . . . . . \UB (< . . . . . . . . 94 \TriangleUp ( ) . 50 \theta (θ) . . . . . . . . 89 umlaut (¨) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24. . 91 \textyen (¥) . . . 39 \trianglelefteq ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . 44 \twoheaduparrow ( ) . . . . 40 \trianglerighteq ( ) . . . 22 transversal intersection . . . . . . . . . . 44 \twoheadnearrow ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14 . . 91 \Theta (Θ) . 24. 101 \TriangleDown ( ) . . . . . 115 extensible . . . . . . . . . 119 \triangle ( ) . . 92 \timelimit (T) . . . . . . . 95 \tsmm ( ) . 112 t R n I n I U \U (a) . . . . . . 40 \TriangleDown ( ) . 39. . . . . 118 . . . . . . . . . . 120 tipx (package) . 35 \TTsteel (š) . 72 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 48. . 61 vertically centered . 17 transliteration symbols . . . . . . 57 \triplefrown ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 90 trademark . . . 10. . . . 90 \tone . . 48 trsym (package) . . 12 \textyogh (¶) . . . . . 15–16. . 36. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 79–80. . . . . . . . . 18. . . . 91 \thinstar ( ) . . . . 12. . 42. . . . . . . . . see tilde \twoheaddownarrow ( ) . 43 \twoheadleftarrow ( ) . . . 79 \TriangleUp ( vs. 41. . \udtimes ( ) . 41 \twoheadrightarrow ( ) . see \rightarrow \ToBottom (½) . . . . . . . . . . 52 \topbot (⊥) . . . . . 40 \TriangleLeft ( ) . . . ) . . . . . . 32 torus (T) . \udots ( ) . 90 turnstile (package) . math \ToTop (¼) . . . 115. . . see accents a trfsigns (package) 36. see musical symbols \Thorn (Þ) . . . . . . 89 . . . . . . . . see check marks tilde 9. . . 23 . 102 timing (package) . . . . . . . . . . . . . \udesc (u) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 107. . . . . . 18. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 40 \trianglerighteqslant ( ) 40 triangles . . . . . . . . 59 \Tumbler () . . . . . 52. . . . 39. 95 . . 107 a a ˆ e \therefore (T) . . . . . . . . . 80 \triple . . 13 \thorn (f) . . 59. . . 35 \tnttstile ( ) . 35 \tntstile ( ) . 31. . . . . . 101 \TriangleUp ( ) . . . . . . 12 \textxswdown ( ) . . . . . . 35. . . . . . . . ˘ \U (a) . . . . . . . . . 35 ) . . . . . . 44 \twoheadnwarrow ( ) . . . . . . . .\textvisiblespace ( ) . . . . . see \textperthousand ∼ \threesim (∼) . . . . . . . 30. . . . . 73   ¢ Q o Q o P  TUGboat . . . . 107 \topdoteq () . . . . . 105 \top ( ) . 17 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 80 \triangledown ( ) . . 116 \textyogh (Z) . . see accents a \tsdtstile ( ) . . 102. . . . 66 \triangledown ( ) . . 120 \TwelweStar ( ) . . . . . . . . \UHORN (Ư) . . . . . . . . . . 73 \tststile ( \tsttstile ( ) . . 112 117. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13 \thorn (p) . . . 39 \triangleq ( ) . . . . . . . 116 Th`nh. . . . . . . . . 40 \trianglerighteq () . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 50 \thething ( ) . . . . . . . . 35 \Tsteel (œ) . . . . 36 transforms . . 24 . . . 14 transpose . a \UArrow ( ↑ ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 40 \triangleeq ( ) . . . . . . . . . . 36. . 66. . 33 \triplesmile ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 40 \TriangleRight ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . 64 \therefore (∴) . . . . . . 13 time of day . . . \ulcorner (x) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 40 \triangleright ( ) . . \udotdot ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 40 \trianglelefteqslant ( ) . 30 \thickvert (~) . 53 . . . . . . . . . . . 10 . . 103. . . . 40 \trianglelefteq ( ) . . 35 161 . . 14. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18. . . . 14–17. . . . . 44 \twonotes ( ) . . . 40 \trianglelefteq (œ) . . . . . . . . 55 thin space . . . . . 21. . . 55 ulsy (package) . . . . . . 39 \trianglerighteq ( ) . . . 119 \Umd ( a) . . . 10 . . . . . 68. \uhorn (ư) . 119. . . 30. . . . . . . 66 thirty-second note . . 78 twiddle . 95 \tsststile ( ) . . 35 \to . . . . . . . . . . . . . . see \texttrademark \TransformHoriz ( ) . . . . . . . . . 66. . ucs (package) . . . . . . . . . 73. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 35 \tnststile ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . 35 . . . . . 95 111. . . 11. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 119. . . 44 \twoheadrightarrow ( ) . . 40 triangle relations . . . 48. 48 \triplesim ( ) . . . . . . . . 13 . \udot (¤) . 61. . \ubarbbrevis (ε) \ubarbrevis (δ) . . . 9 \textwon ( ) . . . . . . . 20 \TH (Þ) . . . . . 57. . . . 103. . . . . . . 59. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 55 \ullcorner ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 36–38. . . . . . . . . . 10. . 91 \thickapprox (≈) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12 \top ( ) . 64 \Thermo . . 41 \twoheadleftarrow ( ) . . . 79 \triangleleft (˜) . . . 22 \triangleright ( ) . 55 \ulrcorner ( ) . . . . . 63 \TransformVert ( ) . 13 thousandths . . . . . . . . . . 22 \triangleleft ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 44 \twoheadsearrow ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 51. . . 40 \triangleq ( ) . 25 \third (Q) . . . . . . . . . . . . 53 \ulcorner ( ) . . 120 type1cm (package) . 64 . . . . . . see \pitchfork trema (¨) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 95 . . 79 \TriangleDown ( vs. . . . . 104 ∼ tick . . . . 100 Type 1 (font) . . . . . . . . 39. . . . . . . . . 32 \therefore (∴) . . . . . \ubarsbrevis (φ) \ubrevislonga (κ) ubulb. . . . . . 115 \tilde (˜) . . 107 \tildel (E) . 50 \thetaup (θ) . . . . . . . . . 79 \triangleright (™) . . . . . . . . . . ) \ubar (u) . . . . . . . . . 22. . . .fd (file) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14 . . . . . 119. . 95 . . . . . . . . 113 \ThinFog ( ) . . . . . 64 . . . . 22 \times (×) . . . . . 35 ) . . . . 57. . . . . . . 116 \th (þ) . . . 65 \triangle ( ) . . . . . . . . 105. . 88 txfonts (package) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 120 \tsbm ( ) . . . . . . . 63. 119. . . . 91. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 35 \tsmb ( ) . . . . . . . 91 \textxswup ( ) . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 47 \underring (y) . . . . . . . . \uptodownarrow (þ) \upuparrows (Ò) . . see \cup unit disk (D) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 97. . . . . .. . . . . . . . 51 \uppitchfork ( ) . . . \underleftharpdown ( ) . . . . . . . . 120 universal (package) 75. . . . . . 119. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 39. . . . . . . . . . . 51 \upnu (ν) . . . . 51 \UParrow ( ) . . . 118 utf8x (inputenc package option) . 51 \upsigma (σ) . . . . . 104 undertilde (package) 61. . . . . . . . 60 o \undergroup ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . 44 \uparrow (↑) . . . . . . \upsilonup (υ) . 22 \uplus ( ) . 119. . . . . . . . \Uranus (Ç) .. . . . . . . . 93 units (package) . . . . . 22. 51 \upphi (φ) . 18 \undergroup (lo o n) . . 33 \upmu (µ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 115 \US ( ) . . . . . 93 107 . . . . . . . . 18 Unicode . 44 \upModels ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9 \underset . 109 \upchi (χ) . . . . . \underlinesegment ( ) . . . . . . 18 \upparenthfill . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 44 \uparrowtail ( ) . . . . . . 51 \Upsilon (Υ) . . . 17 . . . . . . . . \upt (l) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 50. . . . . . . . . 44 \uplus () . . . .. \upvarrho (ρ) . . 59 → \underrightharp ( ) . . . . 60 ) . . 24. . . 51 \Updownarrow ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . \upslice ( ) . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . 108. . . . . . . . 33 \upfree ( ) . . . . . . . 51 upgreek (package) . . . . . . . . . . . . 18 underscore . . 67 unity (1) . . . . . . . \urcorner (y) . .. . . . 103 \Upsigma (Σ) .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . − \underleftharp ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . \upvarepsilon (ε) . . . . . . . 109 \underbracket ( ) \underbracket ( ) \underdots (r) . .. . . . . 33 \Upgamma (Γ) . . . . . . . . see alphabets. . . . . . . . . . . . 60 \underbrace ( ) . . . . . 46 \upharpooncw ( ) . . . . . . . . 41 \upiota (ι) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . \Uranus (q) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 51 \upp (t) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 100 \uparrow (↑) . \underaccent . . . . . 88 \Uparrow (⇑) .. . . . . . . . . . . . . 72 \usepackage . . math universa (package) . . . . . . . . . . 59. . . . . 50 50 50 25 47 18 51 64 51 51 42 42 41 44 43 51 51 51 51 51 51 51 51 33 33 51 51 24 51 71 71 71 53 53 \urcorner ( ) . . . . 16 \upbeta (β) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 46 \upharpoonleft (ä) . . . . . . . . . 90. . . 120 \unlhd ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . \varcurlyvee ( ) › . . . . . . .. . . . . . . 60 59 47 47 59 61 59 60 \underleftarrow (←) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 51. . . . . . . . . . . . . 43 \updownharpoons ( ) . . \upvarphi (ϕ) . .  \underbrace (lo mo n) o o \underbrace ( \underbrace ( . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 33 \upmodels ( ) . . . 54 \Uparrow (⇑) . \upVdash ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 80. 30 V \v (ˇ) . 90. 44 \updownarrow ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 61. . . .. 120 \upharpoonccw ( ) . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . .. . . . 55 url (package) . . . . . . . \upvartheta (ϑ) . . 54 \updownarrow (↕) . . . . . . .. . . 41 \upharpoonright (æ) . . 119. . . . . . . . . . . . 22. . . . .. . 51 \uppi (π) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . \uptheta (θ) . 8. 41.. . . . . . . . . . . . 24 \upmapsto ( ) . . 17. . . . . . . . . . . . 21. . . . . . \upuparrows ( ) . . . . . . . . . . 24 Utopia (font) . . . . 51 upright Greek letters . . . . . \upxi (ξ) . . . . . . see alphabets. . . \upsilon (υ) . . . . . . 41. . . 33 \Uppsi (Ψ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . \varclub ( ) . . . . \upvdash (⊥) . . . . . .. . . . . . . . .. 117. . 51 upquote (package) . . . . math \unitedpawns (u) . . . . 51 \upomega (ω) . . . . . . . \underarc (a) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 114 upside-down symbols 11–13. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 43 \upharpoonleft ( ) . .. . . . 51 \uprsquigarrow ( ) . . 119.. . . . 51 \Upomega (Ω) . . 21 . 47 \upfootline ( ) . . . . . . . . 54. .. . 117 \utilde ( ) . . 16 ˜ UTF-8 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . \upspoon ( ) . . . . . . . . . \uptherefore (∴) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 41. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16 . . . . . . \underline ( ) . . . . \uptau (τ) . . \varangle ( ) . . . . 23 \uplus ( ) . . . . . . . . \underparenthesis ( ) 108. . . . . 61 \utimes ( ) . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 77. . 51 \Updelta (∆) . . . . . . . 51 \Uppi (Π) . . . . .. . . . . 14 13 66 22 91 67 66 87 22 162 . . . 47 \uppropto ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . .. . 54 \Updownarrow ( ) . 120 \undertilde (|) . . see underline underscore (package) . . 61 \ut (a) . . . 51 \uplett . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 44 \updownarrows (Ö) . 61 \ushortw ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 51 \Uplambda (Λ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 51 \uplambda (λ) . . . 40 \unrhd ( ) . . . . 44 \upbar . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 51 \updelta (δ) . . . . . . 18 \underwedge (}) . . . . . . . . \urcorner ( ) . . . . . . 24 \utimes ( ) . \upupharpoons (Ú) \Upupsilon (Υ) . . . . . 33 \updownline ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . \upuparrows ( ) . a \vara (—) . . . . . . 51 \upkappa (κ) . . . . . . . . . . . . \upvarsigma (σ) . . . . . . . . . 51 \upbracketfill . . . 44 \updownharpoonleftright ( ) 46 \updownharpoonrightleft ( ) 46 \updownharpoons (ê) . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . 47 \underrightharpdown ( ) . . . . . . \varclubsuit ( ) \varcoppa (ϙ) . . . . . . . . . . . . \upzeta (ζ) . . . . 41. . . . . . . . . . .. . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 51 \uppsi (ψ) . . . . . . . . . . \uranus ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23 \unrhd ( ) . . 117–118 union . . . . . . . . . . \Uptheta (Θ) . . . . . . . . 44 upside-down symbols . . . . 42 \updownarrows ( ) . . . . 51 \upgamma (γ) . . 61 \ushortdw ( ) . . 46 \Updownline ( ) . . . . . \upvarpi (ϖ) . . . 109 \underrightarrow (− ) . .. . . . . . 40 \upalpha (α) . . . . \upupsilon (υ) . . . . 43 \upharpoonright ( ) . . . 18. \unclear (k) . . . . \Upxi (Ξ) . . . . . . . 109 \Upphi (Φ) . . . . . . . . 16 \uplsquigarrow ( ) . . 8 ushort (package) . . . . \upY ( ) . \underleftrightarrow (← ) → underline . 121 \ushort ( ) . . . . . . . \underarch (a) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 59 . . . 60 . . . . . . . . . . . \varbigcirc ( ) \VarClock ( ) . . . .unary operators . . . . 9. . . . . . . 51 \upfilledspoon ( ) .. . . . . ... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . 119. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 39. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 115 \uprho (ρ) . . . . . . 80. . . . . . . . . . . . . 33 \upepsilon (ε) . . 51 \upeta (η) . . . . . . . 23 \unlhd ( ) . . . . . . . . . 60 ) .

. .\varcurlywedge ( ) . . \vppm ( ˙ ) . . \vartriangleleft (˜) \vartriangleleft ( ) \vartriangleleft ( ) . . . . . . \vartimes ( ) . \varpropto (∝) . . . . . . . . . . 22 \varogreaterthan ( ) .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 78 \varhexstar ( ) . . . . . . \veebar ( ) . \vcentcolon (:) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 90 163 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . \veebar (‰) . \vDash (@) . . . \Venus (Ã) . . . . . . . . . . 91 varg (txfonts/pxfonts package option) . . . . . 91 \vin ( ) . . . . . . . . 53 vinculum . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . \vDash ( ) . . . . . . 79 . 13 \varominus ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . \varw ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 49 \varlimsup (lim) . . . . . 49 \varmathbb . . \vbipropto ( ) . . . . . . . . \vartriangle ( ) . . . . . . \varsigmaup (ς) . . \varpi ( ) . . . \varrhoup ( ) . . . . . . \veedot ( ) . 31 ) $ # \varparallelinv ( ) . . . . . . .. 28 fl \varointctrclockwise ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . \VT ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . 28 \varolessthan ( ) . . 70 . . . . . \varsupsetneq ( ) . . . . . . 22 \varocircle ( ) . . . . . \Vvdash (D) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 68 \VarMountain ( ) . . . . . . . 34 . . . 40 . . . . 51 \varg (q) . .. . . . . . versicle ( ) . . . . . . . . . 0 \VarTaschenuhr ( ) . . . . . . . \varsubsetneq (Š) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . \varprojlim (lim) . . . . ” . . . . . . . 77 \vari (i) . . . . . . . . . . 25–30.. . . . . . 26 \various (R) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 32 \Village ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 50 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22 \varodot ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . \VHF ( ) . . . . . . . \Vdash ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 100. . . \VarSummit ( ) . . \varvarrho ( ) . 13 \varoplus ( ) . . 33 32 30 33 32 30 33 30 33 64 63 64 58 57 67 67 23 22 24 23 22 24 23 71 71 71 71 118 \VERT ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . .. . . . . . . \vcenter . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10. . . . . . \varsupsetneqq ( ) . . . . . . \varvarpi ( ) . \VDash (@) . . . . . . . . . . . . 22 \varobar ( ) . . . \vec ( ) . . . . . . \varstigma (ϛ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . \vdash ( ) . . . . . . . . . . 91 \varinjlim (lim) . \vertbowtie ( ) \vertdiv ( ) . \varrho ( ) . . . .. . . \varsigma (ς) . . . . . 51 \varg ( ) . . . 51 . . . . 66 \varheart (♥) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22 \varomega (¨) . 40 . . . . . . . \virgo ( ) . . ← − \varpropto (∝) . . . W \WashCotton (‰) . . . . . . . . . 51 . . . . . . . . . . \vary ( ) . . . . . . \vdots (. . . . . . . . . . . . . 24 . . . . . \varthetaup (ϑ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 49 − → \varint ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . \Vvdash ( ) . . \varsubsetneq ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21. . . . \varsubsetneqq ( ) . . . . . . . . 51 . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22 \varopeno (g) . . .. \vvvert (~) . . . 91 . . . . . ƒ . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . 28 \varoiintctrclockwise ( ) 28 \varoint ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . \vartheta (ϑ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . \varphi (ϕ) . . . . .. . . . . . . . . \varspadesuit ( ) . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22 \varovee ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22 . . . . . . 50 \varepsilonup (ε) . . . \varsupsetneq (‹) . . . 38 \varliminf (lim) . . . . . 50 \varleq (¨) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28 ff \varointclockwise ( ) . . . . . \varpiup ( ) . . . . .. . . 39 39. . . . 22 \varotimes ( ) . . . . . . 40 . . . . 31 53 50 50 50 51 50 28 49 30 33 90 50 51 50 50 50 67 66 37 37 37 37 23 87 37 36 37 37 36 37 91 37 36 37 37 36 37 \VDash ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . 67 \varheartsuit ( ) . . \Vier (ˇ “ ) . . . . . . 52 \varnotowner (…) . . . . . \Vvdash ( ) . . . \vDash ( ) . . . . . . . . . 27 \varoiiintctrclockwise ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 67 \vardiamondsuit ( ) . . . . . . . . 66 \varEarth (t) . . 40 . . . . . . . . \vec ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . \vpppm ¯˙ ) . . 40 . . . . . . . . . . . . \Vectorarrow (p) . . 66 \varnotin („) . 104 . . . . . \varphiup (ϕ) . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . \varQ ( ) . . . . . 13 \vargeq (©) . . . . . . 28 ! \varoiint ( ) . 28 \varointctrclockwise ( ) . . . . \vert (|) . .) \vdots ( ) . . . . \VM (>) . 22 \varowedge ( ) . . . . . . . . . \varsupsetneqq (“) . . . . . . . . . . ˚ \voicedh (h) . . . \varsupsetneqq ( ) . . . 66 \varhexagon ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . \varsubsetneq ( ) . . . . . . \Virgo (å) . . . . . . . \varspade ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . 22 \varoslash ( ) . . . . . 56 54. . . . .. . . . . . . . . . .. . 89 71 71 89 14 13 13 95 95 97 72 61 31 32 30 33 55   . . . . . . . 24. . . . . . . . . 39 39. . . . . . . . . \varprod ( ) . . . . . . . . 51 . 51 . . . . vietnam (package) . . . . . 119 0 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22 \varparallel ( ) . 13 variable-sized symbols . . . . . . . . . \Vdash ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . \varpartialdiff ( ) .. . . . 38 \varhash (5) . . . . . . \vernal ( ) . . . . . . . 22 \varoiiintclockwise ( ) . 33 . . . . . . . .. . 71 \varepsilon (ε) . . . \VBar ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . \venus (♀) . . \varsupsetneq ( ) . . . 50 . 24 . . . . . . . ( \vrule ¯ . . . . . . . . . 56 . . . . . \VvDash ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . \varrho ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . .. . 89 . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22 \varobslash ( ) . 28 \varoiintclockwise ( ) . . . . . . . . . 66 \varnothing ( ) . . . . . . . . \vartriangleright (™) \vartriangleright ( ) \vartriangleright ( ) \varv ( ) . . . . . . . . . 24 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . \varsubsetneqq ( ) . . . . . 50 \VarFlag ( ) . \vdotdot ( ) . . . . 52 \varoast ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . \veedoublebar (‘) . . . . . . . . \vdash ( ) . . . . . . . . 57 \Vert ( ) . . . . . see \overline \ViPa (> ) . . . . . . . . \Vdash (D) . . . . . . . . . . . . 22 \vardiamond (♦) . . . . . . . . 66 . . . . . . . . 65. .. . \vee (∨) .. . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . vntex (package) \vod (v) . . . \vv ( #») . . . . . . . 102 \VarIceMountain ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . \varsqsubsetneq (Š) \varsqsubsetneqq (’) \varsqsupsetneq (‹) \varsqsupsetneqq (“) \varstar () . . . . \vartriangle ( ) . . . . . . . \Venus (f) . . . . 54. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . \vcrossing ( ) . . . \varsubsetneqq (’) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 91 \varnothing (∅) . . . . . . . . . . \Vectorarrowhigh (P) \vee (•) . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . \varpi ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . \vee (∨) . . . . 93 \varkappa (κ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 90 \WashSynthetics (Š) . 26 \varointclockwise ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . 73. . .   \Wecker ( ) . 90 wsuipa (package) 13. . . 56 \wbetter (f) . . . . . . 69. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 65 . . . . 59 \widetilde (̃) . . . . . . 94 whole note see musical symbols Wick contractions . . 36–38. . . . . . . . 51 \wp (℘) . . . . . . . 64 wavy-line delimiters . . . . . . . . . . . . . 62 − \xhookrightarrow ( − ) → \Xi (Ξ) . . . . ... . . . . . . . Billy . . . . . . 62 \xrightharpoonup (− ) . . . . . 93 \withidea (E) . \zeta (ζ) . . . . . 63 = \xlongequal (==) . . . . . . . . . . 62 . 62 − Xs . .\WashWool (‹) . 18. . . . 90 \wp (℘) . . . . . . . 119.. . . . . . . . . . . 24 \wreath ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 88 \wasypropto ( ) . . . . . . . . . 16 94 94 94 94 94 94 94 94 94 94 94 94 A) \WhiteBishopOnWhite (B) \WhiteEmptySquare (0) . . 59. \widering ( \widering (˚) . . . . . . . . . 62 \xleftharpoonup ( −) . . . . . . . . . . 36 − \xleftrightharpoons (− ) . . . . . . . . 26. . 18. . . . . . . . . . . 93 \withinit (C) . . . . . . . . . . . . 59 \wind . . . . . . . 24 \with (v) . . . . . \WhiteKingOnWhite (K) . 24 . . . . . . . . . . . 90 \wasylozenge (◊) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20. . . . . . . . . . . 93 \withattack (A) . . . . . 119. 78. . . . . . 30. 62 94 \whitestone . . . . . . . . . . . . . \xiup (ξ) . . . . 62 \xLeftrightarrow (⇐ ⇒) \xLeftrightarrow (⇐ ⇒) \xleftrightarrow (← →) \xleftrightarrow (← →) . . 118 . . . . \xi (ξ) . . . 59. . . .. . . . . . . . . . . \wedgedot ( ) . Xdvi . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 62 − →) \xmapsto (− . . . 107. . . . . . . . . . . 31. . ) . . . . . . \WhiteBishopOnBlack ( . 93 \weakpt (J) . . . . 24 wreath product . . . . . . 62 \xmapsto (− →) . . . . . . . . . . . 93 \without (w) . . . . . . . . . . . . 62 = \xlongrightarrow (−→) . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . 62 = − \xlongleftarrow (←−) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 90 77 77 77 91 91 63 \xtwoheadleftarrow ( − −) − \xtwoheadrightarrow (− − ) 63 − X -pic . . . \wedge (”) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 60 Z . . . . 22 . . . . . . . . . .. 106 Y Y \Ydown ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 62 \xlongequal (==) . 22 \yogh (–) . . . . . see \textyen yfonts (package) 68. . . . 93 \wdecisive (h) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 77. . . . . . . 119 \Yinyang (Y) . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . 91 \wideparen ( ) \wideparen ( ) \wideparen (Û) u \widering (˚) . . \x (˙˙) . 91 . . . . Weierstrass ℘ function \wfermion ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 91 \WeakRainCloud ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 61 \xrightharpoondown (− ) . . . see \textwon world . . . . . . . . . 13. . . . . . . 63 XML . 22 Yu. zodiacal symbols . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Û . . . . \whfermion ( ) . 60 \widebar (s) . . . 61. . . . . . . . . 62 \xLongrightarrow (=⇒) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 52 \wr ( ) . 91 window . 120 \wasytherefore (∴) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 62 \xrightleftharpoons (− ) . .. . . . . . . 93 \wn (?) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22 yen . . . \wedge (∧) . 22. . . . . . . . . . 62 \xleftarrow (← . 64–66. . . 60 \wideparen (u) . . . =) \xLeftarrow (⇐ . . . . . . 109 \widearc ( ) . . . . . . . . . . \WhiteQueenOnBlack (L) \WhiteQueenOnWhite (Q) \WhiteRookOnBlack (S) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22 Z Zapf Chancery (font) Zapf Dingbats (font) \Zborder ( ) . 74 . . . . . . . . 81. . . 60 \widehat ( ) . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 120 \wupperhand (c) . . . 61 −) \xleftharpoondown ( −) . . . . . .. . . . . . . 60 60 59 60 60 \xLongleftarrow (⇐=) . . 90 won . . 13 \yogh (x) . . 61 \widetriangle (Ê) . 41. . . . \WhiteRookOnWhite (R) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . .. . . . ˙˙ \XBox ( ) . . . . . . . . . \WhiteKingOnBlack (J) . . . 89 164 . . . . . . . 62 = \ztransf ( ) . . . . . 103 . 107. . . 103. . . . . . 117 \xRightarrow (= ) . . . . . . . . . . . . 62 . . 55. \XSolidBold ( ) \XSolidBrush ( ) \xswordsdown ( ) \xswordsup ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . 120 yhmath (package) 58. . . . . . 108 \Yup ( ) . . 90 \Yleft ( ) . . . 95 . . . . 24 see \wp . . . . . . . . . 21 woman . . 22 \wr ( ) . . ˚) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 60 \widecheck (q) . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 60 \widehat ( ) . . . 90 . . . . . . . . . . . . 74 . . . . . . . . 89 \ZwPa ( A ) . . . . . . .. . . 13 \Yright ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . 23 . . . .. . . . 62 ⇒ \xrightarrow (− →) . . . 88. . . . . . 36 \zugzwang (D) . . . .. . . 64. . . . . \whistle (a) . . 90 Windows® . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . š d m . . . . 115 \with (&) . 71. . . . . . . . . . . . . . xfrac (package) 5 6 7 . . . . 77. \Zodiac . . . . 90 \Womanface (þ) . . . . . 119. 93 \Zwdr (ˇ “* ) . 68 77 80 50 50 71 71 \Ztransf ( . . . . . . . 93 X \x (X) . \WhitePawnOnWhite (P) .. 62 50 50 50 . . 67 \xhookleftarrow (← ) . 77 47. . . . . 59 \wideOarc ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . 101. . 60 \widetilde ( ) . \wedge (∧) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16. . . . 93 \WeakRain ( ) . . . . . . . 62 . 70. 91 weather symbols . . . . .. . . 62 − \xrightleftharpoons (− ) . . . . . . \XSolid ( ) . . \Wheelchair (w) . 62 \xLongleftrightarrow (⇐=⇒) = . see \wr \Writinghand (b) . . . . 101. . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . 23. 75. . . . . . . . 62 \xlongleftrightarrow (←−→) − . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . \zetaup (ζ) . . . . . . . . . \WhiteKnightOnBlack (M) \WhiteKnightOnWhite (N) \WhitePawnOnBlack (O) . A XEL TEX . . 60 \widearrow (t) . . . . . . . . . 31 wasysym (package) . . . .

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