1. Cells structure and Organisation 1.1 Plant Cells and Animal Cells: Fig.1.

0 Basic structures of an animal cell and a plant cell. 1. • • • Cell wall: Porou s. Permeable. Non-living structure made of cellulose. 2. Cell membrane/Plasma membrane • Semi-permeable/Partially permeable(Only certain parts can pass through it and some aren't able). 3. • • • Cytoplasm Contains cell organelles. Food substances. Mostly H2O. 4. Vacuole/Sap vacuole/Large central vacuole • Mostly H2O. 5. Nucleus • Controls all activities of a cell. 6. Chloroplasts • Contains green pigment called Chlorophyll which is important for doing Photosynthesis. 7. • • • Differences between plant cells and animal cells Only plant cells have cell wall. Only plant cells have chlorop lasts. Plant cells have a large central vacuole while some animal cells have sma ll vacuoles and some doesn't have any. • Plant cells have a regular shape while an imal cells have irregular shape. Biology Page 1

1.2 Specialized/Modified cells: 1. Root Hair Cell: • To absorb water and minerals. • Finger-like projection: Increases surface area for absorption. Has a larger vac uole to store more H2O. Fig.1.2 Root hair cell. 2. • • • • Red blood cell: To carry/transport oxygen. Packed with haemoglobin (red pigme nt). No nucleus. Biconcave shape. Fig.1.3 Red blood cells. 3. Xylem vessels: • To transport H2O and minerals. • Suppor ting plant body. Fig.1.4(a)Whole plant, (b) plant stem and (c)xylem vessel Biology Page 2

2. Diffusion and Osmosis Monday, October 20, 2008 8:15 PM 2.1 Diffusion 1. Diffusion: • The movement of particles form an area of higher con centration to another area of lower concentration down a concentration gradient. Fig. 2.1 Representation of diffusion. 2.2 Osmosis 2. Osmosis: • The movement of water molecules from an area of high concentration t o an area of lower concentration through a semi-permeable membrane. Fig. 2.2 (a)The sugar solution in the bag is more concentrated than the water ou tside the bag. (b)The water in the bag is more dilute than the sugar solution ou tside the bag. (c)The sugar solution in the bag is of the same concentration as that of the solution outside the bag. Biology Page 3

Active Transport: • The movement of particle from an area of lo wer concentration to an area of higher concentration by using energy.3 Cells and Osmosis: Fig. 4. 2. 2. Biology Page 4 .3 The behaviour of cells in solutions of different concentrations. • Glucose and amino acids by cells in the small intestine of humans. Thi s includes the absorption of: • Dissolved mineral salts by the root hairs.4 Ac tive Transport: 3. Active transport is involved in a number of processes occurring within an organism.2.

2. Biology Page 5 .4 Active transport-molecules diffuse against the concentration gradient f rom B to A. Concentration gradient: • The difference in concentration between a re gion of a solution or gas that has a high density of particles and a region that has a relatively lower density of particles.• Fig.

→"Lock & Key" hypothesis (One enzyme act on one substrate) They are affected by temperature.1 What are enzymes? 1. They remain unchanged after a chemical reaction.3. And at extreme temperature. 1. They catalyse reversible reactions. 3. 2008 8:18 PM 3. They are affected by pH. A) The enzyme activity is increasing from its in active state as the temperature increases.2 Characteristics of enzymes & Factors affecting enzyme activity. Enzymes: • They are biological catalysts made of protein. October 20. They may need other enzymes to work (Coen zymes). the enzyme stopped bec ause they are denatured. C) The enzyme activity decreases as it is exposed to temperature above the optimum/optimal temperature. They are specif ic. • • • • • • • Charac istics of enzymes: They alter or speed up the rates of chemical reactions that o ccur in a cell. 2. Biology Page 6 . Catalysts are substances that can change the speed of a chemical reaction. Factors affecting enzyme activity: 1) Temperature. 3. Enzymes Monday. B) The enzyme is at its most active s tate at optimum/optimal temperature (the temperature of which enzyme is most act ive). They alter the rate of chemical reactions without themselves being chemically c hanged at the end of the reaction.1 Effect of temperature. Fig.

2) pH. And at e xtreme pH (too acidic/too alkaline). the enzyme stopped because they are denatur ed. F) Some enzymes work best at alkaline pH. B) The enzyme is at its most activ e state at optimum/optimal pH (optimum acidity/optimum alkalinity). Biology Page 7 . 3. Fig. E) Some enzymes work best at acidic pH. A) The enzyme activity is increasing from its inactive st ate as the pH (acidity/alkalinity) increases. D) Most enzymes work best at neutral pH.2 Effect of pH. C) The enzym e activity decrease when it is exposed to above the optimum/optimal pH.

E) Hence. Chlorophyll. Word Equation for photosynthesis: Carbon dioxide + water sunlight glucose + oxygen. • • • • Photosynthesis required: Carbon dioxide(CO2). Water. D) This implies that the photosynthetic process is receiving the maximum amount of light it can make use of. wat er. Plant Nutrition Tuesday. chlorophyll Chemical equation for photosynthesis: 6(CO2) + 6(H20) sunlight C6H12O6 + 6(H2O) chlorophyll 3. after point C) a further increase in light intensity would n ot increase the rate of photosynthesis. C) At higher ligh t intensities (i. October 21. Sunlight.1 Photosynthesis 1. 2008 3:32 PM 4.4. Fig 4. 2) Temperature. 2. Photosynthesis: • It is the process of making food by using carbon dioxide.e. an increase in the brightness of light increases the rate of photosynthesis. Biology Page 8 . B) This indicates that the speed at which photosynthesi s is taking place is limited by the amount of light available. a n increase in light intensity will not increase the rate. with the help of sunlight and chlorophyll by green plants. Factors affecting the rate of photosynthesis: 1) Light intensity (The strengt h of light).1 Graph of rate of photosynthesis against light intensity A) Between regions A and B.

A) As there are more CO2.03%.03% under experimental conditions.2) Temperature. because that is the amount of CO2 in the air. 5. photosynthesis is in i ts most active state.4.3 The external structure of a leaf Biology Page 9 . • It produces oxygen to support other organism s for doing respiration. because the enzymes involve d in this process are denatured. B) CO2 concentr ation cannot exceed 0. the faster the rate of photosynthesis. 3) Concentration of CO2. At optimum temperature. 4. C) It c an only exceed 0. enzymes must be involved. the rate of photosynthesis decr eases. As the temperature increase. • It produces food which is the source of energy of other organism and itself. Above optimum temperature. the rate of photosynthesis also increase. At extreme temperature. Since photosynthesis can be affected negatively by heat. The leaf: Fig. Fig.4. Importance of photosynthesis: • It reduces the amount of CO2 in the air which i s the main cause of global warming. photosynthesis is inactive. photosynthesis stops.2 Effect of temperature on the rate of photosynthesis A) B) C) D) E) At lo w temperature.

2 Plant Mineral Nutrition Biology Page 10 . They are ther e to let CO2 in. The important features about leaves: • The cells in the palisade layer are pack ed with chloroplasts which contain lots of chlorophyll.Fig. This is to prevent water los s. • The palisade and spongy layers are full of air spaces to allow CO2 to reach the palisade cells. They also allow water to escape . 4.4. so the photosynthes is stops as well.this is how the transpiration stream comes about. • Xylem and phloem vessels cover the whole leaf like tiny "ve ins". but also stops CO2 getting in. which closes the stomatal pores. especially the top surface. When water is scarce.4 The internal structure of a leaf 6. 7. • The lower surface is full of biddy little holes called stomata. • The guard cells control this. • The cells in the epidermis make wax which cove rs the leaf structures. to deliver water to every part of the leaf and then to take away the food produced by the leaf. • This preven ts any more water being lost. and they change shape. This is where the photos ynthesis goes on. The stomata: • Stomata closes automatically when supplies of water from the roo ts start to dry up. they bec ome flaccid.

Plants lacking of nitro gen: • They will not grow properly.4. They got nitrogen from the c ompounds of nitrogen from the soil. 2. amino acids Biology Page 11 . 6. Nitrogen proteins new cells. Nitrogen-containing ions + carbohydrates proteins. Magnesium: • Important for making chlorophy ll. 5. Plants lacking of magnesium: • They will have leaves not healthily green. Nitrogen: • Plants need nitrogen to make proteins.2 Plant Mineral Nutrition 1. 4. 3.

Fibre or roughage . phosphorus. • Constipation . Water: • They are the essential constituent of protoplasm. • Examples of minerals are calcium. Fibre or roughage: They are the indigestible fibrous materials. A grease spot can be seen if f ats are present using the filter paper experiment. They are for maintaining normal health and development. • • • Vitamins: They are not energy-providing food nor are they body-bu lding food. present in the diet. 11. Carbohydrates can be divided into two: • Starch (To test for starch. Malnutrition (Unbalanced diet): • Obesity . 9. Proteins: • To test for the presence of proteins.5. use biuret's reagent. 4.extremely overweight. 5. 2008 9:43 PM 5. Animal Nutrition Thursday. It prov ides bulk to the intestinal contents and helps peristalsis. use iodine solution. sodium. • • • 7. Mineral Vitamins. • • • • Factors affecting the diet of indi viduals: Activity. e. it means that proteins are present. If the colour of the reagent changes to violet. the colour of the reage nt will change if glucose is present). 6. November 20. A balanced diet is a type of diet which consists of all types of food at the correct amount. the colour will change from orange to blue-black if starch is present ). 10. Fats. 8. Body size. Age. 2. • Insufficient of fibr e can cause constipation. use benedict's reagent. • Glucose (To test for glucose. Water. cellulose. Biology Page 12 .g. potassium an d iron. Minerals: • They are the ino rganic salts which do not provide energy but are indispensable to bodily functio ns. chlorine.1 Food 1. Lack of vita mins can cause diseases such as scurvy and rickets. 3.difficulty to remove faeces. Sex. Fats: • Its presence can be tested by using the filter paper experiment or the alcohol test. • • • • • • • There are 7 types of food: Carbohydrates. Insufficient of fibr e can cause constipation. Proteins.

18. 2) Digestion. 4. Vitamin C maintains healthy skin. • It produces pepsin (an enzyme for digesting proteins) and renin (an enzym e for digesting milk proteins). Lack of Vitamin C can cause scurvy. 2) Bile are e mulsifying agent created in the liver. 3. 13. Stages of nutrition: 1) Ingestion. 2. • Ileum: Biology Page 13 . Cholesterol is a kind of sterol which is essential for the formation cell membrane. Stomach: • It pummels food with its muscular walls. they are also called the protease enzyme. Mouth: • Chews food up into easy-to-swallow balls. slippery substance). Lack of red blood cells can cause anaemia. 16. it has the functi on: 1) For strong bones and teeth. 2) Clotting of blood. Salivary gland s: • Produce an enzyme called amylase to start the breakdown of starch. 4) Assimila tion. • Hydrochloric acid. it has the function of makin g haemoglobin in red blood cells. 3) Sodium bicarbonate are secreted into the duodenum to neutralise the acidic effect of hydrochloric a cid. 3) Absorption. 17. Small intestine: • Duodenum: 1) Secretion of pancreatic juice which consis ts of the pancreatic amylase. Carbohydrates and fats are the main source of energy. 5) Egestion. 14. 15. 19. • Saliva con tains mucous (sticky. 2) To give the r ight pH for pepsin and renin to work (pH2-acidic).12. • It pro duces hydrochloric acid for three reasons: 1) To kill bacteria. gum and the l ining of blood vessels. trypsin (protease). Protei ns are from amino acids. 5.e. Vitamin D helps the absorption of calcium. Calcium is a type of mineral. 6. 3) To neutralise the alkaline effect of saliva. 20. Vitamin C helps our cells to stick together. 5. Lack of calcium can cause rickets. Iron is also a type of mineral. pepsin and renin are called the gastric ju ice. to make new cells and repairing damaged tissues. Carbohydr ates are from glucose and starch. Lack of Vitamin D can cause rickets.3 Digestion and the digestive system 1. Fats are from fatty acids and glycerol. lipase and bile. stored in the gall bladder and transferre d to the duodenum through the bile duct to emulsify fats. This is necessary so that fo od substances are small enough to be carried by the blood and able to pass into the cells. Oesophagus (Gullet): • The food chut es from the mouth to the stomach. While proteins are use d for growth i. Digestion is the pr ocess of breaking down food into its simplest form.

Buccal cavity Oesophagus/gullet. Large intestine: • Colon: 1) Excess water is absorbed from the food. 2) It is where the foods are completely digested into its simplest form. and fats are digested into glycerol and fatty acids . Colon. Salivary gland. Duodenum. 7. 5) It is long and folded to increase surface area. • Rectum: 1) To store faeces. Anus: • The faeces (the indigestible food) are expelled. maltase. Ascending colon. Small intestine. proteins ar e digested into amino acids. Biology Page 14 . Ileu m. 8. 3) Carbohydrates are digested into glucose. 4) This is also where the "food" is absorbed into the blood. Stomach. Tiny finger-like things called villi cover the inner surface to increase the surface area for absorption. lipase and protease. A) B) C) D) E) F) G) H) I) Tongue.• Ileum: 1) Secretion of intestinal juice which consists of the intestinal amylase .

1. Production of other proteins such as enzymes and hormo nes. Making new cells. 10. Transverse colon. Gall bladder. Large intestine. An us. Repair replace damaged tissues. Liver. • • • • • • Uses of glucose and fats: For energy (to respire). The capillaries of the villi will join up to form the hepatic portal vein which carries blood to th e liver. Deamin ation is the process by which amino acids are broken down into glucose and urea. Glycogen can be converted back to glucos e when the body needs more glucose. 9. 7. Absorption is the process by which digested food are transfer red into the blood stream through the villi of the ileum. Biology Page 15 . Descending colon. 5. Glucose & amino acids will be sent to parts of the body that need th em. 2. Too much alcohol in the body can make the person unconsci ous. Pancreas. 1. Any more excess glucose will be converted to fats and stored in the adipose tissues under the skin. 5.5 Assimilation. 6. Fats are used as insulators. Rectum. Assimilation is the process by which some of the absor bed food materials are converted into new protoplasm or used to provide energy. 4.J) K) L) M) N) O) Ascending colon. A nother function of the liver is the breakdown of alcohol: Alcohol carbon dioxide + water + energy. Excess glucose will be converted by the liver into a storage substance ca lled glycogen & stored in the liver. 8. 3.4 Absorption. 2. 5. Urea is a nitrogenous substance which is sent to the kidneys for disposal. Excess amino acids will undergo a process called deamination which is done by the liver. Fats are used to form part of a cell such as the cell membrane and the nucl ear membrane.

2. Hot. • • • • Factors affecting the rate of transpiration: Humidity. Wind. Temperature. • Active transport. 6. the higher the rate of transpiration . 1. 1. Transpiration is the process by which water is lost from the leaves of the pl ants.1 Water and ion uptake. 3. Biology Page 16 . • Transpiration pull. • • • • Higher rate of transpiration when it is: Windy. Water is ta ken up into the plants by: • Root pressure. 5. Light: • The rate of transpiration will be high when there is light. Humidity & wind: • The lower the humidity. November 23. so the rate of transpiration is high. in other words. Lig ht. Less humid. 7. 4. 2008 10:52 PM 6. Dayli ght. 2.6.2 Transpiration and translocation. Transport in plants Sunday. • The wind blows away the water vapour surrounding the leaves. How to measure the rate of transpiration: • Using a potometer. Temperature: • The higher the temperature. the humidity surrounding the leaves become low. the higher the rate of transpirati on. Ion is taken up into the plants by: • Osmosis. 6.

The foods are transported t o other parts of the plant because: • For energy. 9. Translocation is the process by which food substances(glucose) are transporte d to other parts of the plant through the phloem. Biology Page 17 . • To make new cells.8.

1 The structure of the heart. The Double circulation: Biology Page 18 .7. November 23. 2008 11:09 PM 7.1 The Heart. The thickest part of the cardiac muscle indi cates that it is the left part of the heart. • To prevent the backflow of blood. 2.7. Functions of valves: • To allow th e blood to flow in one direction only. 1. Fig. Transport in humans Sunday.

Differences between arteries and veins: 1) Arteries have smaller central cavi ty than veins.3 The Blood. 2) Arteries have thicker elastic and muscular wall than veins. The blood which carries oxygen is called oxygenated blood (from lungs to body ). 8) Bl ood in arteries flow due to the pumping action of the heart while veins flow due to the contraction of the heart.2 The Blood Vessels.2 (a) Pulmonary and (b) systemic circuit. The Double circulation: Fig. 3) Veins have valves while arteries don't have valves. 5) All arteries carry oxygenated blo od except pulmonary artery while all veins carry deoxygenated blood except pulmo nary veins. Veins. 7. smoother and at low pressure than arteries. 1. 4. Biology Page 19 . 4) The blood flows slower. (smallest) 2. • • • There are three types of blood: Arteries.2. 3. The blood which doesn't carry oxygen is called deoxygenated blood (from body to lungs). Veins are big. Capillaries. 6) Arteries carry blood away from the heart to the body while veins carry blood to the heart from the body. The left side of the heart is more muscular and thicker because it pumps blood to all parts of the body. 7. 7) The blood carried by arteries are bri ght red in colour while the blood carried by veins are dark red in colour. slow and evil.7.

4. Blood cells. glucose. Platelets which are also known as thrombocytes have the fun ction to clot blood. Plasma is the liquid pa rt of the blood. proteins. Factors that may cause heart diseases: 1) Smoking. (involving the use of fibrinogen) 7. 4) Lack of physical exercise. The blood cells consist of two parts: • Red blood cells. Platelets. • White blood cells. Platelets. etc. White blood cells are also known as leucocytes which have the function as a d efense mechanism. vitamins. 2) Stress. Was te products. 5. 8.3 The Blood. 3) Malnutrition i. Biology Page 20 .7. Water. Food substances. Red blood cells are also known as erythrocytes which have the function of transp orting oxygen. 6. 3. Fibrinogen work togeth er with platelets to form fibrin. 1. obesity. • • • • • • • Components of the blood: Plasma. Hormones. • • • 2. it contains: Blood cells.e. Blood proteins.

5.1 Respiration.8.03% 3. There are two types of respiration: 1) Aerobic respiration. Temperature of: 1) Inspired air is lower than body temperature. Aerobic respiration is the process of breaking down food in living cells to release a large amount of energy in the presence of oxy gen. Breathing is a mechanical process that involves taking in air into the lungs & takes out air from the lungs.3 Human Gaseous Exchange. Anaerobic respiration: Glucose 'e' + ethanol(alcohol) + carbon dioxide (Micro organism and plants) Glucose 'e' + lactic acid (Humans) 8. Noble gases 5. Aerobic resp iration: Glucose + oxygen C 6H12O6 + 6O2 'E' + carbon dioxide + water 6CO2 + 6H2O + 'E' 6. 8. Respiration is the process of breaking down food to release energy in the pre sence of oxygen. Carbon dioxide 0. 2.2 Human Respiratory System. 1. Anaerobic respiration is the process of breaking down food in living cel ls to release a small amount of energy in the absence of oxygen. Respiration Monday. 2) Anaerobic respiration. Oxygen 4. Water vapour Inspired air Expired air 78% 21% 1% Varies 78% 16% 4. 2. 2) Expired ai r is about the same as body temperature. Biology Page 21 . 1. 2008 12:17 AM 8. 4. Inspired and expired air: Substance 1. 3.5% 1% Saturated 3. Nitrogen 2. November 24.

Nos Mouth. Trachea. Alveoli (alveolus sg.) Bronchioles.8.3 Human Gaseous Exchange. 1.8. • • • • • • • The respiratory system consists of: Lungs. The gas exchange system in man: Fig.1 The gas exchange system in man (left lung cut open to show alveoli) 3. Inspiration & Expiration: Biology Page 22 .) 2. Bronchi (bronchus sg.

mainly due to its own weight. I) The volume of the thorax is decreased. K) During forced breathing. B) Contraction of the external intercostal muscles pulls the rib cage upwards and outwards. while contraction of the diaphragm muscles result in the flattening of the diaphragm. such as during exercise or sneezing. The rib cage drops. G) During expiration. and ○ The diaphrag m muscles.2 (a) Inspiration and (b) expiration. E) Air is then sucked into the lungs. expiration beco mes a much more active and forceful process as the ribs are moved more vigorousl y downwards and the diaphragm is moved upwards. Inspiration & Expiration: Fig. forcing it out. inflating the alveoli until the internal pressure equals that of the atmosphere . H) The diaphragm relaxes and is forced into a dome shape by the falling rib cage. J) Pressure is then exerted on the air in the lungs. only the internal in tercostal muscles contract. A) Inspiration is an active process involving the contraction of: ○ The external intercostal muscles. Structure of the alveolus: Biology Page 23 .8. 4. D) Pressure in the thorax is thus reduced. C) The net result is an increase in the volume of the thorax (the part of the bo dy between the neck and the abdomen where the heart and lungs lie).3. F) Expiration is a passive process.

Without this chemical or surfactant . This makes it easier for t he lungs to be inflated during breathing in. Exchange of oxygen: • Each haemoglobin molecule present in red blood cells can combine reversibly with up to four molecules of oxygen.01 mm . is enhanced by the following features: Large surfac distance between the air and the blood. A very small percentage is dissolved in plasma as carbonic acid. Biology Page 24 . B) The distance ov er which the gases must diffuse is about 0. forming the compound oxy haemoglobin.4. Short ntration gradient maintained nd ventilation of the lungs. This has been foun d to contain a chemical which lowers surface tension.two cell layers thick. • • • Diffusion across the alveoli e area of the alveoli. xide. the narrowness of the capillaries forces them to slow down and b ecome distroted. Some carbon dioxide be comes attached to haemoglobin to form the compound carbamino haemoglobin. • This increases the time available for gaseous exchange to take place. Steep conce by constant movement of blood through the tissues a and • Ability of blood to carry oxygen and carbon dio 6. the alveoli would collapse and become stuck together each time air passes out of the lungs. 7. Structure of the alveolus: A) The alveoli are where gaseous exchange takes place between the air in the sac s and the blood in the capillaries surrounding each alveolus. 5. • • • Exchange of carb on dioxide: Carbon dioxide is transported in a variety of ways by blood. • Most o f the carbon dioxide is carried by the plasma as hydrogen carbonate ions. as well as exposes a larger surface area of the cell. C) A t hin film of moisture covers the surface of the alveolar wall. • As the red blood cells move through the blood capillaries surroundi ng the alveoli.

1 The urinary system in man.9. 1. 2. L ungs. Excretion is the process by which waste products and toxic mat erials are removed from the body of an organism. Fig. • • • Excretory organs: Kidneys. The urinary system in man: Fig.2 The structure of the kidney. Biology Page 25 . 3. 2008 4:54 PM 9.1 Excretion. Excretion Monday.9. Liver. November 24.9.

They also lose a great deal of water vapour. but this loss is unavoidable and is not a method of controlling water c ontent of the body. These substan ces are excreted when we sweat. The pigment undergoes changes in the intestine and is largely responsible for the brown colour of the faeces. But. Kidney failure may result from an accident involving a drop in blood pressure.4. Therefore. hormones and drugs. Biology Page 26 . Skin: Sweat consists of wate r. 6. skin is not an excretor y organ. A dialysis machine is required to r eplace the function of the kidneys should the kidneys are damaged. bil irubin. 8. They also expel excess water. sweating is a response to rise in temperatu re and not a change in the blood composition. Lungs: The lungs supply the body with oxygen. but they are also excretory org ans because they get rid of carbon dioxide. with sodium chloride (salt) and traces of urea dissolved in it. 7. or from a disease of the kidneys. Kidneys: The kidneys remove urea and other nitrogenous wa ste from the blood. Bilirubin is excreted with the bile into the small intestine and expelle d with the faeces. 5. Liver: The liver breakdown haemoglobin to produce yellow/green bile pigment. salts.

2. Biology Page 27 . 3. but by different cells.1 Homeostasis. a receptor which can detect the stimulu s. • • • For any homeostatic control to occur there must be: a stimulus which is a change in the internal environment.10. Blood water potential. 3. the islets of Langerhans.1. They ar e produced by the same region of the pancreas. an automatic or self-regulatory corrective mechanism. 1. Homeostasis is the maintenance of a constant internal envir onment. • • • 1. The two hormones.1 Homeostatic control of blood glucose level. Homeostatic control of blood glucose level: Fig.10. 2008 10:14 PM 10. which bring about a neg ative feedback. Homeostasis Monday.2 Blood glucose regulation. The regulation of blood glucose level is done by the pancreas. 2. Homeostasis may include the regulation of the following: Blood g lucose level. November 24. 10. Temperature. insuli n and glucagon have different effects on the glucose level in the blood. Their secretion into the blood is controlled by the negative fe edback mechanism depicted in Figure 10.

5.4. The regulation of blood water poten tial is done by the kidneys. 2. you'll produce more urine which will be pa le and dilute. concentrated and little of it. your urine will be dark-coloure d. 10. Glucagon converts glycogen to glucose which increases the blood glucose level .3 Regulation of blood water potential. you sweat a lot.2 Homeostatic control of water potential.10. if you don't sweat. Biology Page 28 . 4. Homeostatic control of water potential: Fig. On a cold day. 1. On a hot day. 3. Insulin converts glucose to glycogen which reduces the blood glucose level.

4 Temperature regulation. 3) Vasodilation. The skin: Fig. 4) Body gai ns heat as erector muscles in the skin contract causing the hairs to stand up. this shivering resulting in production of heat. 7) Metaboli c rate is raised leading to increased heat production by cells. increases the internal diameter of blood vessels so that more blood is brought to the capillaries. reduces the internal diamete r of blood vessels so that less blood is brought to the capillaries. When the body is exercising vigorously or when the surrounding is hot: 1) Thermoreceptors in the skin detect an increase in environmental temperature or heat sensors in the hypothalamus detect a rise i n the temperature of the blood. 6) Less blood is brought to the skin surface so that less heat will be lost. 4) Body loses heat as sweat evaporates . 2) The sweat gl ands stop production of sweat. leading to in creased heat loss by conduction.3 The structure of the skin. 2. convection and radiation. When the body is at rest or when the surrounding is cold: 1) Therm oreceptors in the skin detect decrease in the environmental temperature or heat sensors in the hypothalamus detect drop in temperature of blood. 4. The regulation of temperature is done by the skin. 5) Body loses heat as more blood is brought to the skin surface. 6) Metabolic rate is lowered leading to the decreased heat production by cells.10.10. 8) Body temperat ure is raised. 5) Skeletal muscles contrac t and relax repeatedly. 7) Body temperature i s lowered. 1. 3. 2) The sweat glands increase the production of s weat. c reating a layer of air which will act as insulation. 3) Vasoconstriction. Biology Page 29 .

Malphigian layer. • One of the organs of the sense of touch. ii. 3) Hypodermis. iii. 2) Dermis. The skin is: • A waterproof structure. Cornified layer. Granular lay er. Biology Page 30 .5. 6. The skin has three parts: 1) Epidermis: i.

Coordination & Response Monday. Structure and functions of the human brain: Fig. The nervous system of a mammal consists: • The central nervous system (CNS) comprising the brain and the spinal cord.1 The structure of the human brain. 5. Neurones: 1) Sensory neurones: ○ It is a receptor ne urone.1 The Nervous System. ○ It transmits impulses from the CNS to the effectors. 3) Relay neurone: ○ It connects sensory neurones to motor neurones.11. November 24. ○ It transmits impulses from the sense organ (receptor) to the CNS. 1. 6. 2008 11:40 PM 11. spinal nerves and sense organs . A synapse is a junction between two neurones. It serves to transmit impulses. 4. A dendron transmits impulses to wards the cell body of a neurone. • Te peripheral ne rvous system (PNS) comprising the cranial nerves. An axon transmits impulses away from the cell body of a neurone. 3. A nerve fibre is a long protoplasmic extensions of the cell body of a neurone. A neurone is a nerve cell. 2. Biology Page 31 . A nerve is a c ollection of nerve fibres.11. 2) Moto r neurone: ○ It is an effector neurone.

2 Structure of the eye. 8. Refracts light. (Cer ebrum) 2. e. Cerebral hemisphere Intelligence. Controls amount o f light entering the eye. Muscular coordination and bodily balance. Suspensory ligament 5).g. 3). Concerned with sight and movement of eyeball . Cornea 4). respiratory movements. Biology Page 32 . peristalsis. A refle x arc is the shortest pathway by which impulses travel from the receptor to the effector in a reflex action. 7. Parts of the eye 1). Aqueous humour 2). Cerebellum Regulation of body temperature and osmotic pressure in blood. keeps eyeball firm. Attaches lens to ciliary body. Optic lobes 5. keeps eyeball firm. Iris 6).2 The Eye. Vitreous humour Function(s) Refracts light. 11. memory. Hypothalamus 3. heartbeat. Lens Refracts light rays into pupil. Pituitary gland 4. voluntary actions. Medulla oblongata Involuntary actions. sensations. 1. appetite and emoti ons. Pupil 7). 6.11. Structure and functions of the eye : Fig. Focuses light rays into retina. Secretes a number of hormones.Parts of mammalian brain Function(s) 1. Allows light to enter the eye. Reflex actions involve messages being transmitted from the sensory neurone to the motor neurone without involving the conscious part of the brain.

Pancreas Insulin. 2. The pituitary gland plays an important role as a "controller". therefore they are affected by pH and temperature. 3. Sup ports sperm formation. The islets of Langerhans are the special group of cells in the pancreas which Biology Page 33 . Controls curvature or thickness of the lens. 13). Ovaries Other hormones Oest rogen. each of which controls the activity of a particular gland.3 Hormones. contains: (i). Rods c oncerned with vision in dim light. Cones concerned with colour vision in bright light. Stimulate and regulate menstrual cycle. increases metabolic activities. so that lig ht rays continue to be focused on the retina. Hormones are chemical substances produced by a gland. 12). Si nce hormones are proteins. progesterone Testosterone Increases blood glucose level. increases blood volume and pressure. Adrenaline 2). Transmits impulses from eye to brain. regulates growth and development. Thyroid Secretion Thyroxine Effects Stimulates and maintains metabolic processes. Locati on of endocrine gland: Endocrine gland 1). Retina No photoreceptor cells. Accommodation is the ability to change the curvature of the lens. and produce a response. glucagon 5. 1. Pigmented black to pr event internal reflection of light. Blind spot 15). maintain female secondary sexual characteristics. maintains male secondary sexual characteristics. Sclera 11). Rectus muscle 10). (ii). Adrenal glands 2). 2. Lens 8). carried by the blood. Control blood glucose level. Protection against mechanical injury. Increase blood glucose level. Choroid Movement of eyeball. Optic nerve 14). Yellow spot (fovea) Region of acute vision. and destroyed in the liver. 4. no vision when image falls on it. 9). Light sensitive layer. hen ce the pituitary gland is sometimes referred to as the "master gland". t o the target organ(s). Adrenal glands 3). Ciliary muscle Focuses light rays into retina. It secretes a nu mber of hormones. 4).7). Testes 5). 11.

shivering Tenses them 7). for muscle contraction No sensation Biology Page 34 . Muscles of the alimentary canal 6). rapid removal of carbon dioxide Effects or sensation Thumping heart Panting Constricts them Less blood for the going to the skin means more is available to the muscles Person gets paler 4). The islets of Langerhans are the special group of cells in the pancreas which secrete the hormone insulin into the bloodstream. Fat depots Fatty acids available in blood. more energy available for action Ready for immediate action ‘hollow’ feeling in stomach Tense feeling. Breathing centre of the brain 3).Arterioles of the skin Effects of adrenaline Beats faster Faster and deeper breathing Biological advantage Sends m ore glucose and oxygen to the muscles Increased oxygenation of the blood. Heart 2). Liver Conversion of glycogen to glucose Conversion of fats to fatty acids Glucose available in blood for energy production No sensation 8). Muscles of body Constricts them Less blood for the digestive Dry mouth system allows more to rea ch the muscles Relax Peristalsis and digestion slow down. Adrenaline: Target organ 1 ). 6.5. Arterioles of the digestive system 5).

Abn ormal decreases in blood sugar concentration. body weakn ess follows. Increasing the conversion of glucose to g lycogen.4 Diabetes Mellitus. Since muscle cells have no reserve of glycogen. 11. Effects of lack of secretion: Glucose cannot be stored or utilized by tissue cel ls. Effects of oversecretion. Body oxidizes fats instead of glucose to produce energy and this result in production of poisonous substances called ket ones which are excreted in urine. Biology Page 35 .7. Shock results. Increasing the oxidation of glucose to carbon dioxide and water in resp iration. Insulin: Endocrine gland and secretion Islets of Langerhans in pancreas produ ce the hormone insulin Causes of secretion Effect(s) Increase in Decreases blood glucose concentrations concentration by: of blood In creasing the permeability of cell glucose membranes to glucose thereby increasin g the rate of glucose uptake by cells. continuous loss of weight. Death can occur. there is an overall increase in the utilization of glucose by cel ls. Coma and death may follow. Thus. so blood glucose concentration rise and some is subsequently lost in the uri ne-diabetes mellitus.

An insulin-dependent person is a person who needs daily injections of insu lin. Treatments Supplying insulin by injection. T he cells producing insulin have been destroyed. Signs of diabetes mellitus: • A persistently high blood glucose level and glucose in the urine after a meal are signs of diabetes melli tus. Balancing the amount of insulin supplied with the amount of total car bohydrate intake and exercise. to respond well to i t. 1. Type 1 diabetes (Juvenile-onset diabetes=early-onset di abetes=insulindependent diabetes) Type 2 diabetes (Adult-onset diabetes=late-ons et diabetes=insulin-dependent diabetes) Biology Page 36     .4 Diabetes Mellitus. An insulin-independent person is a person who doesn t usually require an y injections of insulin. 2). onset diabetes) the pancreas. 3. Type 2 The fall in the Regulating the carbohydrate diabetes (Adultproduction of insulin by content in their diet. 4. Treatment: Type of diabetes Causes mellitus 1). Doesn t usua lly require insulin Failure of the target cells injections. Type 1 diabetes (Juvenil e-onset diabetes) The inability of the pancreas to produce sufficient insulin. 2.11.

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