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Bridge Hydraulic Analysis
Via CIVIL-3D-2009 & HEC-RAS
Example: BRIDGE AT STATION 65+870 (AN05107-Benguela-Lubango Road Project)
1. INTRODUCTION AND OBJECTIVES
HEC-RAS is the one of popular programs that is made for hydraulic analysis. It has been designed to perform one-dimensional hydraulic calculations for a full network of natural and constructed channels. In spite of many benefit of this program, some shortcomings are experienced while running HEC-RAS. The most significant shortcoming is the geometric input data. HEC-RAS conventional data entry procedure requires lots of manual work and gives engineers a burden of manipulating. AutoCAD Civil 3D could be an excellent assistant to aid this time-consuming work. AutoCAD Civil 3D allows engineers to develop geometric data for import in HECRAS and view exported water surface profile result data. As a result, the engineer could concentrate on hydraulic principle, rather than time-consuming work, during model analysis.
The example presented in hand is for a bridge crossing with an ephemeral wadi stream in Angola. The main goal of this example is designated to perform a complete hydraulic analysis of a wadi bridge by using the integrated package that includes the following programs: AutoCAD Civil 3D and HECRAS. The objectives of this comprehensive ³hand-on training´ example are to train the workshop participants to be able to carry out the following tasks: - How to generate automated river/wadi cross-sections using AutoCAD Civil 3D. - How to import the generated cross-sections to HEC-RAS. - How to carryout Hydraulic analysis using HEC-RAS and how to get the corresponding water surface profile and velocity variations through a bridge. - How to carryout scour analysis using the HD module in HEC-RAS in order to estimate the contraction scour as well as the local abutment and piers scour.
1.3 Used Softwares
The following software should be available and installed in order to be able to carry out the hand on training example: - HEC-RAS version 3.1 or up. - AutoCAD Civil 3D 2007 or up.
1.4 Site Data
The bridge is located in Benguela-Lubango , Angola. The catchment area equals 158.67 Km2. The stream length is estimated as about 22 km and the average catchment slope is 0.01 m/m. The following data are used in the design: a) Roadway data and site data survey: PGL at the bridge site = 514.524 Roadway width = 15m Natural wadi bed level at bridge location (u/s side)= 509.68 Natural wadi bed level at bridge location (d/s side)= 509.60 b) Rainfall data Rainfall depth corresponding to the 50 yrs event (P50) = 142.5 mm Rainfall depth corresponding to the 100 yrs event (P100) = 167.3 mm c) Catchment data Catchment area = 158.67 km2 Max. stream length = 22 km Average catchment slope = 0.01 m/m Time of concentration (Bransby William) = 495.32 min. d) Design flow data 50yrs Peak discharge (Q50) = 259.1 m3/sec 100yrs Peak discharge (Q100) = 359.8 m3/sec e) Initial bridge span Based on the given data, the initial expected bridge span ranges from 3.2 to 4.7 ¥Q = 60m to 90m. Based on this simple analysis, the initial guess of the proposed bridge span will be taken as 60m with 2 sets of piers (interspacing = 20m). It should be noted that the aforementioned initial bridge span dimensions will be checked using the following HEC-RAS Hydraulic Analysis.
2. GENERATING CROSS-SECTION BY AUTOCAD CIVIL 3D:
2.1 Open AutoCAD Civil 3D (Fig.1) By clicking the icon shown in Fig.1
Select this item: _AutoCAD Civil 3D (Metric) NCS LDT.dwt (Fig.2) In this step, the trainee is asked to add the contour data survey of a sample project using the attached AutoCAD file: Contour _Bridge_st65.dwg This file contains the contour data survey of a bridge location in Angola.
General Tool space (Fig.2.3) .2 check Units of theProject .
Choose Meters for Drawing Units 2. .3 Create Surface .
select all contour lines in the file .After pressing O.K.
2.4 Draw flow line .After that we will notes that there is aline is added around the contour In case of this line does not appear we will make it again. User should draw the flow line as the same direction of the flow User can draw polyline by using this icon Or by press (PL) then press Enter .
In our Example the flow direction will be in the Same as shown Fig. Then go to Alignments Creat Alignment from polyline .
Remove this right sign Then user should select the polyline 2. User should draw the polylines cross section as prevoius The cross-section will draw as follow .5 Draw The Cross-Section .
.Then user should select the Alignment Press O.K.
Click at any point in the drawing Now the cross-section will be appear.K.After select the polyline press Enter Creat Multiple Section Views After pressing O. .
2.6 Export Data to Hec-Ras: Select HEC RAS Export Select toolbox Export (Browse for save data as .Geo file) .
26 Write the title: Angola Bridge and (1) File Name: STA. IMPORTING CROSS-SECTION DATA FROM GEO-RAS TO HECRAS 3.1 OPEN Hec-RAS By double click on HEC-RAS icon. the following window will appear: Fig.65+870.2 Go to File If not New Project Unit system go to options Select system international (Metric system) Angola Bridge STA. 65+870(1) Note that user must remove the star from the file name . 25 Make sure that the SI (metric) units is active 3.3.prj Fig.
27 Our stream reach with its sections will appear as follow: .3.3 Edit Geometric Data Fig.
4 Save data as follow Enter the name of geometric data (say Natural) Fig. browses to save data . 29 then.Fig. 28 3.
To 0. 408.5 Check Data It is recommended to check the geometric data to make sure that no errors have been taken place.as flow approaches the bridge these values should be raised to account for the bridge local losses The common practices is to set the contraction coeff.4692 Sec.2)&the expansion coeff. 328.3 (increased by 0. 352.5538355 Sec.1 and 0.5 (i.2) There will be done for the following sections Sec. 30 3.3 respectively However .3.7355 . are 0. Cross section Scroll to go through all the imported X-section Geometries Fig.e. To 0. increased by 0.6 Adjusting Local Losses for the nearby bridge sections The default values of contraction expansion Coeff.
033 Data will be shown as follow .3.7 Inserting Manning (n) coefficient Insert n value =0.
5114) Fig. IMPORTING BRIDGE DATA 4. 32 .4.1 Click Edit and/or Create bridges and culvert Fig. 31 4.2 Insert Bridge at station (340.
33 4.Now the bridge is inserted at the aforementioned station and Fig. Fig.3 Click Deck /Roadway to insert the roadway or the bridge deck.33 shows the upstream & downstream cross sections of the bridge Upstream cross-section Downstream cross-section Fig. 32 .
Following that. we will enter the pier data.33 5. the roadway data window will be as in the Figure below. the geometry of the roadway embankment is entered by entering the lateral station and elevations (high chord. low chord levels) of the shown points in Figure 33. In this example we have two sets of piers. Click copy US to DS since they are similar. Click pier .In this step. (1) (2) (3) (5) (4) (6) Fig. EDITING PIER DATA In this task.
35 . 1 Fig. Pier No.Pier No. 2 Fig. Change the centerline station in the u/s and d/s as shown in Figure 35.34 Copy the pier #1 data by clicking the copy button shown in Figure 34 to transfer the common data to the second pier.
50Yr) This two profiles means we have two Alternatives: Design flow of 50 year =259. ENTERING FLOW DATA AND BOUNDARY CONDITIONS EDIT/ENTER STEADY FLOW DATA No. of cases (we choose 2 cases: 100Yr.1 m3/sec & 100 year flow of 359.8 m3/sec Select Normal Depth type boundary and Insert Upstream &Downstream slopes=0.35 .6.01 it should be mentioned that in other examples the u/s slope might be different than the d/s slope Fig.
After adding the flow (Fig.Note : Before adding the bridge & piers user can make the following : 1.35) user can run the data by pressing Use mixed flow regime If it is expected to have subcritical and super critical flow in the same reach/river. Mixed .
Click export data. Select any profiles you may have created during the analysis. an SDF file is created .2. . select export Water Surfaces.Export data to Civil 3D : In the main HEC-RAS window. click File Export GIS Data In the GIS Export dialog box: Under Results Export options.
Open Civil 3D file (which included the first surface and the alignment and the cross section) Browse for HEC-RAS File In the Import SDF dialog box: Select the site for reach alignment. Select the profile style. Select the style for reach alignment. After that user will find that the section locations and flood elevation profiles are imported into the drawing. .3. Select the alignment label style set.
7. 36 Click to adjust/enter the ineffective area for the d/s Bridge cross section Fig. user could adjust the ineffective flow areas that have been added already via GeoRas (Item 4step 9) Click to adjust/enter the ineffective area for the u/s Bridge cross section Fig. 37 . ADJUSTING/INSERTING OF THE INEFFECTIVE FLOW AREA IN UP&DOWN STREAM CROSS-SECTION BRIDGE In this step.
The geometric information for each abutment can vary from upstream to downstream. 1 Abutment No. 2 Abutment No.INSERTING ABUTMENT DATA Abutment No. 38 In this step.in many cases . user will add the abutment data (if the abutment type is not vertical). 1 Abutment No.the abutment type is spill-through accordingly it is essential to present the slopes of the abutment faces so as to have the correct local abutment scour. It should be mentioned that the failure of not representing the slopes of the abutment might lead to significant under estimation of the abutment local scour. 2 Upstream (Bridge) Downstream (Bridge) Fig. and it is therefore not necessary to enter it. 1 Abutment No. The low chord information of the abutment is assumed to be below the ground. The data for each abutment consist of a skew angle (this is optional) and the station and elevation information. 2 Abutment No. The station and elevation information represents the high chord information of the abutment. If this information is the same .8.
HecRas has a built in module that could be used to calculate the local velocities from the average cross-section velocities. This can be done by activating the flow distribution module as follow.9. FLOW DISTRIBUTION LOCATION It is important for scour analysis to use the local velocities (not the average values) near the abutment toe and bridge piers. This data will be like that Fig. 39 .
User could add interpolated sections as follow Click here to interpolate the sections No. of interpolated section Fig. Accordingly it is recommended to have the sections spacing not to big . 40 .10. ADDING INTERPOLATED SECTIONS The accuracy of the predicted wsp depends on the distance between the x-sections.
RUNNING STEADY FLOW ANALYSIS Perform a steady flow simulation Use Mixed flow regime If it is expected to have subcritical and super critical flow in the same reach/river. 41 .11. Mixed Compute User might face one of the following cases: Case 1: there is no error Fig.
This problem can be solved by using the cross section filter as follow: Solution Fig.Case 2: there is an error: Error Sample #1 Sometimes. error messages are pupped up and the following screen might appear: Error statement Station and elevation data contains duplicate points. 42 .
let us demonstrate another probable error that could be faced. the duplicated points problem has been resolved.1-Click here to choose sections 2-Filter points on selected XS Then press O. 43 By this step.K Fig. Now. .
Solution Over than 500 point Fig.Error Sample #2 Error statement The maximum number of station-elevation points. blocked obstructions .K and rerun the model again.2 or any value until no. . 44 Change it to 0. of points decrease below 500 points. This can be done by using the filter. This error means that the number of points in a section exceeded the maximum number (500 points). then press O. This problem could be resolved by decreasing the x-section points.and levees is 500 point.
12. some cross section reshaping might be a solution or longer bridge span might be required. 2. use higher values Min. Surface water level to the bridge *If the available free board is not sufficient. 12. *Press (Ctrl) to measure the distance between the max.6 m min. .4 to 2.1 POST PROCESSING Check Max.6 (set by Bridge) 0. water level In case of high debris.
protection is required .12.2 Check Velocity High velocity area just d/s of the bridge accordingly.
Click the Hydraulic Design icon to start scour calculations 12. Check the discharge for return period 100 Yrs.12.1 Filling the missing data for Contraction Scour.3 results (scour calculation) Perform Hydraulic design Computation. D50 of soil = 1mm for size particles (from sieve analysis of bore holes) Coefficient depends on Temperature .3.
Temperature in the bridge Click K1 button 12.00 D95 of soil = 3mm for size particles (from sieve analysis of bore holes) . D50 of soil = 1mm for size particles (from sieve analysis of bore holes) Insert the skew angle.3. We put it zero if the road Perpendicular on bridge 3.2 Filling the missing data for Pier Scour.
3 Filling the missing data for Abutment Scour.55 (Spill-through abutment) Choose the biggest of left and right abutment to estimate L/ya (This data is for example only) .3.when the value of ( ) < 10 use K1 = 0.12. Choose Correction factor for abutment Shape Insert the skew angle. We put it 90 if the road Perpendicular on bridge We choose the correction factor for abutment shape based on the following cases: 1.
00 (Vertical abutment) Choose the biggest of left and right abutment After this make Compute then Report.when the value of ( ) > 25 use K1 = 1.82 (Vertical with wing walls) Choose the biggest of left and right abutment (This data is for example only) 3.2.when the value of 10< ( ) > 25 use K1 = 0. .
12.3.Local Abutment Scour Local Abutment Scour Depth Choose the biggest from the left& right abutment scours .4 Exploring scour results.Local Pier Scour Local Pier Scour Depth 2. 1.
(General + Contraction) Scour HEC-RAS estimates the local and contraction scours only. In this example.Input data for ³in house´ Excel program (general/contraction scour solver) . an in-house excel program has been used to calculate it (the Excel program is attached with the Example). General scour should be estimated by other techniques such as Regime theory Contraction Scour Depth only For General Scour: General scour could be calculated using Lacy equation or any other equations based on the regime approach. .3.
Fill the excel sheet using the data from HEC-RAS as per the following Figures. Where: H1 V H2 Q2 W2 D50 Q1 W1 .Channel Slope Take average .
of piers - Pier Width Pier Width .Bridge Width - Bridge Width No. of Piers No.
2.General/Contraction Excel Solver Results General only General + contraction Then select the biggest of the following to estimate the General+contraction scour depth: 1. The Lacey value from Excel Solver+ contraction value from HEC-RAS Choose the Bigger .. The average value from Excel Solver.
12.4 Export cross section User can export u/s and d/s bridge cross sections as dxf File as follow: Lines and symbols. user can change the lines shape and the symbols of the cross section as follow: .
then press o. .Browse to save cross section.k.