Systems Analysis and Design in a Changing World, Fifth Edition


Learning Objectives 


Explain the key role of a systems analyst in business Explain the importance of technical, people, and business skills for an analyst Describe the many types of technology an analyst needs to understand Describe various job titles and places of employment where analysis and design work is done Describe the analyst¶s role in a system development project Describe the role of Information systems to the success of modern business organizations Discuss the Systems Development phases


The Analyst as a Business Problem Solver 

computer technology knowledge and programming expertise business problems 

Understands  Uses  Has

logical methods for solving problems

fundamental curiosity to make things better 

Wants  Is

more of a business problem solver than a technical programmer

1 Analyst¶s Approach to Problem Solving Research and understand the problem Verify benefits of solving problem outweigh the costs Define the requirements for solving the problem Develop a set of possible solutions (alternatives) Decide which solution is best and recommend Define the details of the chosen solution Implement the solution Monitor to ensure desired results 4 .

and provide as output information needed to complete tasks  5 .1 Systems That Solve Business Problems  System ± interrelated components functioning together to achieve an outcome Information systems ± collection of interrelated components that collect. store. process.

1 Types of Information Systems  Transaction processing systems (TPS): Capture and record information about organization¶s transactions Management information systems (MIS): Take information captured by TPS and produces reports for planning and control Decision support / knowledge-based systems (DSS/KBS): Explore impact of available options or decisions (what-if scenarios) Enterprise applications: Highly integrated systems that support company-wide operations and data Communication support systems: Facilitate communication internally and with customers and suppliers Office support systems: Help employees create and share documents 6      .

1 Required Skills of the Systems Analyst 7 .

configuration management Analyst understands SDLC techniques  Project planning. documentation support. systems analysis  Systems design.NET or Java)  Operating systems and utilities Analyst uses tools  Software productivity packages  Integrated development environments (IDEs) for programming languages  CASE tools. reverse engineering. database design. VB. network design  Construction.Technical Knowledge and Skills  1   An analyst should have fundamental technology knowledge of  Computers / peripheral devices (hardware)  Communication networks and connectivity  Database and database management systems (DBMS)  Programming languages (for example. systems support 8 . testing. implementation.

and values of the organization  Organizational structure  Organization management techniques  Functional work processes Systems analysts typically study business administration/management in college with a major in CIS or MIS 9 .1 Business Knowledge and Skills   Analyst must understand  Business functions performed by organization  Strategies. traditions. plans.

1 People Knowledge and Skills   Systems analysts need to understand how people  Think  Learn  React to change  Communicate  Work (in a variety of jobs and levels) Interpersonal and communication skills are crucial to  Obtaining information  Motivating people  Getting cooperation  Understanding the complexity and workings of an organization in order to provide necessary support 10 .

security systems.  Must keep information private Any impropriety can ruin an analyst¶s career Analyst plans security in systems to protect confidential information   11 . such as salary. and so on.1 Integrity and Ethics  Analyst has access to confidential information. an organization¶s planned projects.

Software 12 . ERP support Typical job titles include:       Consultant ± Business. Technical Analyst ± Business systems. compliance. System. Web development.1 Systems Analyst Related Careers  Employment picture is complex with traditional programming jobs not as prevalent as previously Many new opportunities exist in areas such as consulting. systems Architect ± Web. security. Systems. Systems support Developer ± Web.

1 Analyst as a System Developer  Part  1: The systems analyst Chapter 1: The world of the information systems analyst (this chapter) Chapter 2: Approaches to system development     Predictive and adaptive SDLCs Traditional approach Object-oriented approach  Chapter 3: The analyst as a project manager 13 .

and implementation 14     .1 Analyst as a System Developer (continued)  Part  2: Systems analysis tasks Part 2: Systems analysis tasks  Chapter 4: Beginning the analysis: Investigating system requirements Chapter 5: Modeling system requirements Chapter 6: Traditional approach to requirements Chapter 7: Object-oriented approach to requirements Chapter 8: Evaluating alternatives for requirements. environment.

1 Analyst as a System Developer (continued)  Part     3: Systems design tasks Chapter 9: Moving to design Chapter 10: Traditional approach to design Chapter 11: Object-oriented design: Principles Chapter 12: Object-oriented design: Use Case Realizations Chapter 13: Designing databases Chapter 14: Designing the user interface   15 .

and people Integrity and ethical behavior are crucial to success for the analyst Systems analyst encounters a variety of rapidly changing technologies 16 . and procedures Systems analyst has broad knowledge and variety of skills.Summary  1       A systems analyst solves business problems using information systems technology Problem solving means looking into business problem in great detail. people. inputs. software. business. and choosing best solution Information system development is much more than writing programs Information systems. including technical. completely understanding problem. outputs. data. subsystems. and components interact with and include hardware.

opened retail store in Park City Became large.Introduction to Rocky Mountain Outfitters (RMO) Business  1 Began in Park City. phone-order revenue is $50 million     17 . Utah supplying winter sports clothes to local ski shops Expanded into direct mail-order sales with small catalog²as catalog interest increased. regional sports clothing distributor by early 2000s in Rocky Mountain and Western states Currently $150 million in annual sales and 600 employees and two retail stores Mail-order revenue is $90 million.

1 Early RMO Catalog Cover (Fall 1978) 18 .

1 Current RMO Catalog Cover (Fall 2007) 19 .

portal to outdoor sports Web sites Add specific product information. and all product offerings Supply chain management Customer relationship management  Enhanced Web site functions   Detailed IS strategic plan   20 .1 RMO Strategic Issues  Innovative clothing distributor. request copy of catalog. featured products on Web site ahead of competitors Original Web site functions   Enhance image. weekly specials.

1 RMO¶s Organizational Structure  Managed   by original owners John Blankens ± President Liz Blankens ± Vice president of merchandising and distribution  William McDougal ± Vice president of marketing and sales White ± Vice president of finance and systems   JoAnn Background in finance and accounting 21 .

1 RMO Locations 22 .

1 RMO Information Systems Department  Mac Preston ± Assistant vice-president and chief information officer (CIO)  Recent promotion made after IS strategic plan created CIO reports to finance and systems VP CIO is increasingly important to future of RMO Given its strategic importance. IS department will eventual report directly to the CEO 23    .

RMO Information Systems Department Staffing 1 24 .

mail-order. and human resources Has dedicated connectivity to distribution and mail-order sites   LANs  and file servers Supports central office functions. distribution centers.1 Existing RMO Systems  Small  mainframe-based system Supports inventory. accounting. and manufacturing centers Batch updates to mainframe 25  .

VSAM application  Merchandising/distribution   Mail  order system order system Fourteen-year-old mainframe COBOL application Oracle and Visual Basic system built 6 years ago 26  Phone  .1 Existing RMO Systems (continued)  RMO  informational Web site system Hosted by Internet service provider (ISP) Twelve-year-old mainframe COBOL/CICS. DB2.

e-mail Thirteen-year-old mainframe-based payroll and benefits  Human   Accounting/finance  system 27 Mainframe package bought from leading vendor .1 Existing RMO Systems (continued)  Retail  store systems Eight-year-old point-of-sale and batch inventory package. Internet. overnight update with mainframe  Office  systems resources system LAN with office software.

mail orders.1 The Information Systems Strategic Plan  Supports   RMO strategic objectives Build more direct customer relationships Expand marketing beyond Western states  Plan calls for a series of information system development and integration projects over several years launch: New customer support system to integrate phone orders. and direct customer orders via Internet 28  Project .

and telecommunications  Strategic    business processes via Internet Supply chain management (SCM) Direct customer ordering via dynamic Web site Customer relationship management (CRM)  Web-based intranet for business functions 29 . database.1 RMO Technology Architecture Plan  Distribute   business applications Across multiple locations and systems Reserve mainframe for Web server.

1 RMO Application Architecture Plan  Supply  chain management (SCM) Product development. product acquisition. Web)   Strategic  information management system Extract and analyze SCM and CSS information for strategic and operational decision making and control 30 . inventory management  Customer  support system (CSS) Integrate order-processing and fulfillment system with SCM Support customer orders (mail. manufacturing. phone.

procedures.RMO Application Architecture Plan (continued)  1 Retail store system (RSS)  Replace existing retail store system with system integrated with CSS  Accounting/finance system  Purchase intranet application to maximize employee access to financial data for planning and control  Human resources (HR) system  Purchase intranet application to maximize employee access to human resources forms. and benefits information 31 .

Timetable for RMO Strategic Plan 1 32 .

1 The Customer Support System (CSS)  RMO core competency is their ability to develop and maintain customer loyalty chain management (SCM) must be defined before CSS can begin is a core system supporting customer relationship management analysis activities will define system requirements in detail plan¶s stated objectives will form guidelines as project proceeds 33  Supply  CSS  Systems  Strategic .

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