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NEBOSH International Diploma Unit IA – Revision Notes
NEBOSH INTERNATIONAL DIPLOMA IN OCCUPATIONAL HEALTH AND SAFETY UNIT IA REVISION NOTES CONTENTS LIST OF TOPICS PAGE
INTRODUCTION 1 SYLLABUS 1 EXAMINATION STRATEGY 3 LAST MINUTE PRACTICE 3 ELEMENT A1: PRINCIPLES OF HEALTH AND SAFETY MANAGEMENT 5 REASONS FOR MANAGING HEALTH AND SAFETY 5 INTRODUCTION TO HEALTH AND SAFETY MANAGEMENT 6 HEALTH AND SAFETY POLICIES 15 ROLE AND RESPONSIBILITIES OF THE HEALTH AND SAFETY PRACTITIONER/COMPETENT PERSON 17 ELEMENT A2: LOSS CAUSATION AND INCIDENT INVESTIGATION 19 LOSS CAUSATION AND ANALYSIS 19 REPORTING AND RECORDING OF LOSS EVENTS AND NEAR-MISSES 22 INVESTIGATION OF LOSS EVENTS 25 ELEMENT A3: IDENTIFYING HAZARDS, ASSESSING AND EVALUATING RISKS 30 HAZARD IDENTIFICATION 30 SOURCES OF INFORMATION 30 EVALUATION OF RISK 33 FAILURE TRACING METHODS 39 ELEMENT A4: RISK CONTROL AND EMERGENCY PLANNING 42 SYSTEMS FAILURES AND RELIABILITY 42 RISK CONTROL SYSTEMS AND METHODS 45 COST-BENEFIT ANALYSIS 48 WORKPLACE PRECAUTIONS 48 SAFE SYSTEMS OF WORK AND PERMITS-TO-WORK 50 EMERGENCY PLANNING 53 ELEMENT A5: ORGANISATIONAL FACTORS 56 INTERNAL AND EXTERNAL INFLUENCES 56 TYPES OF ORGANISATIONS 57 ORGANISATIONS AND HEALTH AND SAFETY MANAGEMENT 58 THIRD PARTY CONTROL 60 CONSULTATION WITH EMPLOYEES 63 PROVISION OF INFORMATION AND DEVELOPMENT OF INFORMATION SYSTEMS68 DESCRIPTION OF HEALTH AND SAFETY CULTURE AND CLIMATE 70 DESCRIPTION OF FACTORS AFFECTING HEALTH AND SAFETY CULTURE 73
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ELEMENT A6: PRINCIPLES OF HEALTH AND SAFETY MANAGEMENT HUMAN BEHAVIOUR PERCEPTION OF RISK MAJOR DISASTERS IMPROVING INDIVIDUAL HUMAN RELIABILITY IN THE WORKPLACE ORGANISATIONAL FACTORS JOB FACTORS ELEMENT A7: PRINCIPLES OF HEALTH AND SAFETY MANAGEMENT COMPARATIVE GOVERNMENTAL AND SOCIO-LEGAL REGULATORY MODELS ROLE AND LIMITATIONS OF THE INTERNATIONAL LABOUR ORGANISATION GLOBAL HEALTH AND SAFETY SETTING THE ROLE OF NON-GOVERNMENTAL BODIES AND SELF-REGULATION ELEMENT A8: PRINCIPLES OF HEALTH AND SAFETY MANAGEMENT PURPOSE OF PERFORMANCE MEASUREMENT MONITORING SYSTEMS MONITORING AND MEASUREMENT TECHNIQUES PRESENTING AND COMMUNICATING FINDINGS 77 77 82 86 88 89 92 95 95 IN A 101 106 112 112 115 116 119 © RRC Training .
NEBOSH exam questions are set from the syllabus. however. All the examination questions are taken from the syllabus and therefore. You will find that in general your RRC notes follow the syllabus quite closely. as you become more familiar with the syllabus. Important: This revision book is NOT intended to replace a proper course of learning. not from the RRC notes. which amply covers the requirements of the NEBOSH International Diploma in Occupational Health and Safety. SYLLABUS Your secret to success is the Guide to the NEBOSH International Diploma in Occupational Health and Safety. or concentrating on likely topics. Remember. which seriously reduces your examination question choice.NEBOSH International Diploma Unit IA – Revision Notes INTRODUCTION The RRC study material provides a comprehensive set of reference notes. as you will see below. However. which is almost impossible. The notes below give you guidance on using the syllabus as your best revision tool and also suggest tactics for maximising mark attainment from examination questions. and therefore your chances of passing. you will be less likely to be 'thrown' by a surprise question. There is no substitute for hard work. Consequently your examination success strategy must be based on a revision programme that makes best use of this material but is focused on the requirements of the NEBOSH examinations. and the more study time you can spare the better. its strength is also its weakness in that there is too much material to retain in detail. The Guide sets out the structure of the Diploma (examinations and the assignment) and contains the syllabus. that you will be expected to apply your knowledge to both familiar and unfamiliar situations and to be able to undertake critical analysis and evaluation of information presented in both quantitative and qualitative forms. which you need in order to familiarise yourself with © RRC Training 1 . but this exercise is important to help you see 'the big picture' or 'the helicopter view'. This revision guide has been prepared with the examinations in mind. Many students simply rely on either trying to learn all the notes. but the secret is to use this time effectively. therefore an important revision technique is to map your notes against the syllabus. It covers key points within the syllabus.
NEBOSH International Diploma Unit IA – Revision Notes the whole of the course material. Ask yourself searching questions on each topic such as: "What use is this?". Content. "How would the Health and Safety Practitioner apply this in real life?". to lose sight of where the material fits into the grand scheme of things. which you may have to do in more complex examination questions. To gain this overview you must at least know the elements that make up each of the three main units and how they relate to the RRC material. then fill in the knowledge requirements (the detail) later. or how the Health and Safety Practitioner might use it in real life. Constant reference back to the syllabus will put that topic in perspective and help you to see how it relates to the field of health and safety generally. This is 'active revision' where you are testing your memory to see what you have learnt. in which case go back to your RRC notes and summarise the key issues that you need to know. Initially this might be very little. appreciate. which gives you the topics that you should be fully familiar with. Note that each element in the NEBOSH syllabus (e. "What is the point of this topic?". until you feel that you thoroughly understand why the Health 2 © RRC Training . Now write down what you know about that topic. By using these sections of the syllabus you can test whether you possess the necessary skills. It will also help you to cross-refer to other related topics. when studying one specific section of an element of the RRC text. It is far more effective than 'passive revision' where you simply read the RRC notes and usually switch off after 30 seconds with little recall of the material. An effective revision technique is to look at the syllabus and randomly select a section within it. which specify what you should be able to explain. If you practise this regularly you will eventually cover all of the syllabus and in the process find that you understand and retain the material much more effectively. what practical use it is. knowledge and understanding relevant to that element or whether you need to do more. Make a note of this topic and return to it a few weeks later and see how much more you can now remember. etc. You will find it easier if you ensure that you understand the topic first. It is all too easy. after having completed the element.g. assess. Element 1: Principles of Health and Safety Management) contains the following two important sections: Learning outcomes. carry out.
By adding a question word.NEBOSH International Diploma Unit IA – Revision Notes and Safety Practitioner needs to know this area. and convincing the examiner that you understand what you are talking about. then this should not be a problem. The more you can study past examination questions. LAST MINUTE PRACTICE Finally. Marks are awarded for setting down ideas that are relevant to the requirements of the question. without stepping outside the subject matter of the question altogether. Once you have this then you are in a position to at least say something about each of the topic areas and thus tackle any question set on the syllabus content. If you have the knowledge and understanding derived from study of the syllabus as set out above. Ensure that you explain each issue in order to convince the examiner that you have this all-important understanding. such as "explain" or "describe". Once you have this level of understanding the knowledge (detail) will be much easier to retain. and in some cases you may simply be able to derive it from your own workplace experiences. This is excellent examination practice because it serves as a © RRC Training 3 . If you only deal with half of the relevant issues you can only achieve half of the marks. Your revision aim is to achieve this comprehensive overview of the syllabus. the more familiar you will become with the way they tend to be phrased and 'the shape' of the answer required. EXAMINATION STRATEGY The examination process may seem complex but success simply depends on averaging around half marks or more for each question. Giving relevant workplace examples is a good way of doing this. Try to give as broad an answer as you can. a useful way to combine syllabus study with examination practice is to attempt your own examination questions. A common failing in answering questions is to go into too much detail on specific topics and fail to address the wider issues. An important examination skill is carefully reading and analysing the question so that you are clear about what is required to answer it. in front of the syllabus topic areas you can produce a whole range of questions similar to many of those used in past papers.
NEBOSH International Diploma Unit IA – Revision Notes valuable topic revision aid. while requiring you to set out your notes in the way that you would under examination conditions. 4 © RRC Training .
g.NEBOSH International Diploma Unit IA – Revision Notes ELEMENT A1: PRINCIPLES OF HEALTH AND SAFETY MANAGEMENT REASONS FOR MANAGING HEALTH AND SAFETY We can identify three main reasons for the need to manage risk. Based on the concept of an employer owing a duty to his employees to exercise reasonable care for their health and safety. Motor vehicle insurance. and legal fees.g. © RRC Training 5 . Moral Moral reasons should be the prime reason for managing risk. fines. e. Indirect costs are consequential e. Punitive . Economic Direct costs are calculable arising directly from the accident.g. Compensatory . the ILO Occupational Safety and Health Convention 1981. Employers' liability insurance. e. repairs to equipment.: Fines from criminal prosecutions. e. Public liability insurance.employees are able to sue in the civil courts for compensation. Many of the costs cannot be insured against. Legal For example. lost orders. Insurance costs – those covered by insurance.enforcement notices issued by enforcement inspectors.g.criminal courts impose fines and imprisonment for breaches of legal duties. Society expects every employer to demonstrate a correct attitude to health and safety to his workforce. business interruption. Preventive .
A hazard is something (an object or situation) with the potential to cause harm. Risk . Principles and Benefits of Risk Management on a Global Perspective Risk Management The culture. Bad publicity leading to loss of contracts and/or orders. e. Adequately identifies risks. Some of these costs are of indeterminate value.g.Risk is the likelihood that the harm from a particular hazard is realised.Danger is a liability or exposure to harm. processes and structures that are directed towards realising potential opportunities whilst managing adverse effects. A “Suitable and sufficient” risk assessment: Adopts an appropriate methodology. Suitable and Sufficient Set criteria have to be met. Danger .NEBOSH International Diploma Unit IA – Revision Notes Effects on employee morale and the resulting reduction in productivity. 6 © RRC Training . INTRODUCTION TO HEALTH AND SAFETY MANAGEMENT Definitions Hazard . a thing that causes peril. Suitable controls identified. Remains valid for a reasonable period of time.
Risk management involves: Risk identification. It adds to risk management by using management systems and incorporates such things as Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) and Socially Responsible Investing (SRI).NEBOSH International Diploma Unit IA – Revision Notes Health and Safety Risks in Business Health and safety management should not be seen as something separate from business.e. injury). etc. where there is only loss – such as disease. Health and safety is largely concerned with pure risks (i. It involves additional consideration of finance. security. Risk management is wider still and is concerned with speculative risks (i. Loss control is also concerned with pure risks but is wider in scope. © RRC Training 7 . business continuity. additionally encompassing fire.e. damage. where there could be loss or gain). environment and business recovery considerations.e. Corporate governance is even wider and is concerned with holistic risk (i. looking at risks as a whole. insurance. taking account of the interaction/impact of different risks on the business as a whole). brand/reputation.
Review. Retain/improve shareholder confidence. Audit. 8 © RRC Training . Risk management is useful to organisations. Achieve business objectives in a more targeted/efficient way. It enables them to: Look at potential business impacts of foreseeable events. 1999 Considers risk to essentially be exposure to the consequences of uncertainty (or deviations from the plan). Formulate and carry out risk elimination/control. Typical Organisational Models for Health and Safety Management AS/NZS 4360 Risk Management. Improve corporate governance. Risk elimination.NEBOSH International Diploma Unit IA – Revision Notes Risk evaluation. Respond to changes in risk perception. Standards Australia/Standards New Zealand. Monitoring.
NEBOSH International Diploma Unit IA – Revision Notes AS/NZS 4360: 2004 Risk Management Model BSI – OHSAS 18001 Occupational Health and Management Systems: Specification. British Standards Institution. 1999 Occupational Health and Safety Assessment Series 18001 (OHSAS 18001): Health and Safety Management Model © RRC Training 9 .
HSE. ILO. 2000 The HSG65 Model ILO-OSH-2001 Guidelines on Occupational Health and Safety Management Systems. Successful Health and Safety Management.NEBOSH International Diploma Unit IA – Revision Notes HSG65. 2001 Model Health and Safety Management System (ILO-OSH-2001) 10 © RRC Training .
Quality Management and Environmental Management Systems BS EN ISO 9000:2000 Series Quality Management Systems BS EN ISO 14000 Series Environmental Management Systems © RRC Training 11 . Performance Review. Audit. Planning and Implementing.NEBOSH International Diploma Unit IA – Revision Notes ANSI/AIHA Z10-2005. Continual Improvement. Organising. American National Standard – Occupational Health and Safety Management Systems American National Standard – Occupational Health and Safety Management Systems (ANSI/AIHA Z10-2005) Key Typical Components of OHS Management Systems Policy.
Health. Should involve timely overall system reviews where momentum in one element of an IMS may drive forward other elements. Regulators and single-topic auditors may have difficulty evaluating their part of the IMS. Effective Management of Health and Safety Appropriate Allocation of Responsibilities. A powerful. Facilitate decision-making. Uncertainties regarding key terms may be made worse. but quality management system requirements are largely determined by customer specification. Arguments Against Integration Integration may threaten the coherence and consistency of current arrangements. Health. Safety and Quality Management Systems Arguments For Integration More cost-effective. integrated team may reduce the ownership of the topics by line management. An IMS could introduce unreasonable bureaucracy. Reduce the possibility of resolving problems at the expense of creating new difficulties in other disciplines. A positive culture in one discipline may be carried over to others. safety and environmental performance are underpinned by statute law. 12 © RRC Training .NEBOSH International Diploma Unit IA – Revision Notes Arguments For and Against Integration of Environmental. Avoidance of duplication. A negative culture in one topic may unwittingly be carried over to others. Relevant specialists may continue to concentrate on the area of their core expertise. System requirements may vary.
and may be legally required in some regions. Common Health And Safety Management Systems In Global Organisations – Implementation. Multi-national organisations favour a consistent. Possible resistance to change (adequacy of existing systems. bureaucracy. Impacts include: Greater board-level leadership (directors). Possible cultural/social and legal barriers. health and safety Management systems can help ensure legal compliance and consistent application of standards in different parts of the world (even where they have lower national © RRC Training 13 . Benefits and Limitations A formal occupational health and safety management system approach is increasingly favoured by regulators throughout the world. economic and environmental impacts (all of which can affect their reputation and profitability). Modern goal-setting legislation implies the need for an occupational health and safety management system as a form of “self-regulation”. (e. Improved management control systems – (health and safety risks seen within the overall business risk management framework). UN Global Compact Businesses should support and respect the protection of internationally proclaimed human rights.g.NEBOSH International Diploma Unit IA – Revision Notes Setting and monitoring performance standards. Feedback and Implementation of Corrective Action. cost). standardised approach throughout the organisation – just like the business management system (“globalisation”). Public reporting of health and safety performance (annual reports to shareholders). The Influence of Corporate Responsibility and Business Ethics “Corporate responsibility” (also called Corporate Social Responsibility) is where businesses take account of their social.
For example. (e. access to bathrooms and potable water.) Businesses should uphold the freedom of association and the effective recognition of the right to collective bargaining. 14 © RRC Training .g. take steps to prevent injuries. This could potentially occur in an occupational health and safety context – so the safety management system should help ensure that selection of an individual for a task is based on such things as suitability. Management Systems: Facilities seeking to gain and maintain certification must go beyond simple compliance to integrate the standard into their management systems and practices. (e. regular health and safety worker training. and contains some specific occupational health and safety Reporting Performance Indicators. system to detect threats to health and safety. Specific items of note for disclosure in reporting are: Management approach to occupational health and safety. tasks and equipment to the individual by making reasonable adjustments. competence and risk. physical capability.) The idea is that these principles should be embedded in all the activities of a business so that the organisation behaves with a social conscience. The Global Reporting Initiative (GRI) A standard framework for reporting. age.g. Good health and safety management encourages consultation and participation at every level. the identification and prevention/control of potential chemical spillage scenarios will have a positive benefit for the environment. The safety management system should help adapt procedures. rather than gender. Investing in a positive health and safety culture can help retain staff.g. (e. Social Accountability 8000 Provide a safe and healthy work environment. too.) Greater environmental responsibility. a safety management system will necessarily have an impact on some environmental issues.NEBOSH International Diploma Unit IA – Revision Notes standards). Even without specific environmental managment systems.) The elimination of discrimination in respect of employment and occupation. Goals and performance.
and total number of work-related fatalities by region.). etc. counselling.e. Monitoring and follow-up (corrective actions. © RRC Training 15 . HEALTH AND SAFETY POLICIES The Role of the Health and Safety Policy In Relation to a Health and Safety Management System From a SMS point of view. Education. Express commitment to improving health and safety performance. the organisational roles/structure assigned to dealing with it). Be authorised by top management. Commit the organisation to continual improvement and compliance with legislation Be communicated to all employees and other interested parties Be kept up to date by periodic review. the policy is just a statement of intent – a demonstration of commitment. Rates of injury. prevention. training.NEBOSH International Diploma Unit IA – Revision Notes Organisation responsibility (i. It should: State the overall health and safety objectives. lost days. Performance Indicators identified for disclosure on occupational health and safety include: Percentage of total workforce represented in formal joint management-worker health and safety committees. and risk-control programs regarding serious diseases. occupational diseases. and absenteeism. Training and awareness aspects. Health and safety topics covered in formal agreements with trade unions.
It is required by the following standards: ILO-OSH 2001 (which supports ILO conventions). HSG65. Can be used in the induction of new employees. Communicates the organisation’s commitment to health and safety. Organisation – who does what. OHSAS 18001. ANSI Z10. etc. who is responsible.NEBOSH International Diploma Unit IA – Revision Notes As a Vehicle for the Communication of Health and Safety Information Tells people about a company’s approach to managing health and safety. Can be used at regular briefing sessions. The policy should be documented (paper or electronic) and authorised by top management. procedures. standards. General Components of a Health and Safety Policy Document A health and safety policy document (as opposed to just a health and safety policy) is a commonly used vehicle within a company. Arrangements – systems. Typically it will contain the following components: Statement of intent – the policy itself (as discussed). Can be used to involve workforce representatives. 16 © RRC Training . Requirements for a Written Health and Safety Policy and for Recording Arrangements May be a requirement of national legislation.
recording and analysing accidents and incidents. Review of performance and audit of the whole health and safety management system. to ensure senior managers get a true picture of how well health and safety is being managed (where a benchmarking role may be especially valuable). Interpret the law in the context of their own organisation. by advising line management on matters such as legal and technical standards. Day-to-day implementation and monitoring of policy and plans including accident and incident investigation. Decide priorities and establish adequate systems and performance standards. health and safety management and technical advances. Planning for health and safety. investigating. © RRC Training 17 . Establish and maintain procedures for reporting. Promote a positive health and safety culture. Establish and maintain procedures. Secure the effective implementation of health and safety policy. systems and risk control standards relating to hardware and human performance.NEBOSH International Diploma Unit IA – Revision Notes ROLE AND RESPONSIBILITIES OF THE HEALTH AND SAFETY PRACTITIONER/COMPETENT PERSON Role of the Health and Safety Practitioner in the Safety Management System Formulate and develop health and safety policies. Maintain adequate information systems on topics including civil and criminal law. including monitoring and other means such as review and auditing. Be involved in establishing organisational arrangements. reporting and analysis. Health and safety practitioners need to: Be properly trained and suitably qualified.
etc. Equipment suppliers. e. self-study. They must liaise with a range of bodies. Fire Department. Bridge the gap in skills/experience. Public. Have responsibility for professional standards and systems. Insurance companies. by undertaking training courses. health and safety specialists must: Support the provision of authoritative and independent advice. Responsibility of Health and Safety Practitioners to Evaluate and Develop their Own Practice Evaluate their own competence. 18 © RRC Training .NEBOSH International Diploma Unit IA – Revision Notes Present their advice independently and effectively.g. Have a direct reporting line to directors on matters of policy and the authority to stop work if it contravenes agreed standards and puts people at risk of injury. Identify development needs. Consultants/contractors. In terms of organisational structure/relationships. such as: Regulators.
not only in sequence. conditions or errors). and combinations of events. Basic causes (i. The essential features of the multiple causation approach are shown in the following diagram.NEBOSH International Diploma Unit IA – Revision Notes ELEMENT A2: LOSS CAUSATION AND INCIDENT INVESTIGATION LOSS CAUSATION AND ANALYSIS Domino and Multi-Causality Theories Single Cause Domino Theory Heinrich's Accident Sequence − − − − − Ancestry and social environment. but occurring at the same time. Unsafe act and/or mechanical or physical hazard. Bird and Loftus Accident Sequence − − − − − Lack of control by management. with chains of events.e. A major disaster normally has multiple causes. Multi-Causal Theories There may be more than one cause of an accident. Loss (negligible. then the injury cannot occur and the accident has been prevented. Accident. Fault of person. Immediate causes (substandard practices. If this sequence is interrupted by the elimination of one of the factors. Direct causes. serious or catastrophic). personal and job factors). minor. © RRC Training 19 . Injury.
Unsafe Conditions Mechanical. 20 © RRC Training . Physical. Underlying and Root Causes Unsafe Acts Active unsafe acts. Passive unsafe acts.NEBOSH International Diploma Unit IA – Revision Notes Cause a Cause b Unsafe Act Cause c Accident Cause d Injury. Damage or Near-miss Cause e Unsafe Condition Cause f Features of the Multiple Causation Approach Immediate.
hours worked Accident Incidence Rate Number of work .NEBOSH International Diploma Unit IA – Revision Notes Accident Ratio Studies and Their Limitations There is a relationship between the numbers of different types of accident as shown in the following accident triangle: Serious or disabling injury Minor injuries (first-aid injuries) Damage accidents Accidents with no damage – near-miss accidents 1 10 30 600 Accident Ratio Triangle Calculating Injury Rates from Raw Data Accident Frequency Rate Number of work .000 Total number of man .related injuries × 100.hours worked Statistical and Epidemiological Analyses in the Identification of Patterns and Trends Trend Analysis − − Plot the numbers of accidents or incidents against time.related injuries × 1.000 Average number of man . © RRC Training 21 . Different time periodicities may show the trend better than others.000 Average number of persons employed Accident Severity Rate Total number of days lost × 1.
Type of bar chart used to illustrate a frequency distribution. Presenting and Interpreting Loss Event Data Histograms . by plotting the number of days lost through sickness. REPORTING AND RECORDING OF LOSS EVENTS AND NEAR-MISSES Reporting Requirements and Procedures Article 11(c) of the Occupational Safety and Health Convention (C155) requires: 22 © RRC Training .Type of control charts used to detect small changes which could be indicative of a process starting to go out of control. Many graphs are needed to show all the values in a table of data. or the costs of damage/repair. The slope of the graph shows the rate of change. It is possible to plot a number of sets of values on one graph if one of the variables remains the same for each. then it is possible to make predictions with the aid of standardised Normal tables. Providing that the values of the mean and standard deviation of a Normal distribution are known. Used to identify problems which would not be apparent from single incidents. Line Graphs . where the pie is divided into 'slices' representing the fractions into which the total of the variable is divided. Cusum Charts .NEBOSH International Diploma Unit IA – Revision Notes − In addition. Normal Distribution . it is possible to include a measure of severity. Pie Charts .Used to calculate probabilities. Epidemiological Analysis − − Identifies patterns in data distribution.Circular diagram.Used to compare actual values with an expected value in cases where there are isolated events (such as accidents) occurring over a time span.Show the relationship between two variables. Poisson Distribution .
Workplace. dangerous occurrence and commuting accidents. work which results in fatal or non-fatal injury. with potential to cause an injury or disease to persons at work or to the public. Inform employees about the recording system and notifications. …commuting accident covers an accident resulting in death or personal injury occurring on the direct way between the place of work and residence” National governments should ensure that employers: Record and notify occupational accidents. circumstances. suspected cases of occupational disease. …occupational disease covers any disease contracted as a result of an exposure to risk factors arising from work activity. Infectious or parasitic diseases. when appropriate.NEBOSH International Diploma Unit IA – Revision Notes “…establishment and application of procedures for the notification of occupational accidents and diseases. or in the course of. by employers and. employer. …dangerous occurrence covers a readily identifiable event as defined under national laws and regulations. Person injured and nature of injury/disease. Conditions due to substances. Examples include: Conditions due to physical agents and the physical demands of work. Notifiable diseases should at least include the prescribed diseases listed under ILO Convention C122. Maintain records and use them to help prevent recurrence. and the production of annual statistics on occupational accidents and diseases”. Minimum Notification Data should comprise: − − − Enterprise. insurance institutions and others directly concerned. Minimum recommended notification dataset: © RRC Training 23 . establishment. Protocol (P155) and the accompanying ILO code of practice (Recording and Notification of Occupational Accidents and Diseases) define: “occupational accident covers an occurrence arising out of.
department and specific location. Location. The report form should include the following information: Name and personal details of the person who had the accident. time. non-fatal. i. nature. What things caused the accident. Who had control of the cause of the injury or damage.NEBOSH International Diploma Unit IA – Revision Notes Enterprise/establishment/employer. What inflicted the injury or damage. circumstances. Name and nature of disease and causative agent. The actual occupation of the person involved. − Internal Reporting and Recording Systems Accident investigation forms are used to provide management with an objective tool for measuring and evaluating safety performance. What actually happened. physical conditions and acts of persons. duration of exposure (to agent/process). Accident and its sequence. Dangerous occurrence details – date. Injured/diseased person. type. Date. work giving rise to exposure. i. Where the accident happened. location. The nature of the injury or damage. date of diagnosis.fatal.e. Recommendations to prevent the accident in future. Immediate remedial action. day and time of the accident.e. Additional information: − − − − Injury . 24 © RRC Training . The job being done at the time.
How to prevent similar accidents in the future. The use of the personal computer (PC) has revolutionised the storage and manipulation of accident data. those workers who tend to be repeatedly injured or are involved in more accidents.NEBOSH International Diploma Unit IA – Revision Notes Accident records used as a tool to help control the accidents that are causing the injuries and damage should give the following useful information: The relative importance of the various injury and damage sources. © RRC Training 25 . processes. then retrieve and analyse it. Any accident or injury report should at least require the person reporting an accident to say whether the cause was: An unsuitable working environment. Unsafe or inadequate equipment. The extent of repetition of each type of injury or accident in each operation. where a number or phrase can be put into each of the spaces can also produce graphs and other pictorial forms of information.e. Accident repeaters. A spreadsheet program with many rows and columns. The conditions. Step 1: Gathering the information. HSG245. Lack of a safe system of work. Unsafe personal factors. Step 2: Analysing the information. INVESTIGATION OF LOSS EVENTS HSE guide Investigating Accidents and Incidents. Lack of effective instruction or supervision. machines and activities that cause the injuries/damage. A database program can be used to store accident data in a set format. i.
e. training and information. If not treated. or human in origin. Identify remedial solutions that would effectively prevent recurrence. Data Gathering It is only after all the facts have been obtained that you can begin to interpret the results. so the ability to spot trends is a major skill for safety practitioners. which causes. would prevent recurrence of the loss.NEBOSH International Diploma Unit IA – Revision Notes Step 3: Identifying risk control measures. if removed. which may be procedural. a common one being Root Cause Analysis (RCA). 26 © RRC Training . Establish causes on the critical path i. procedures. practical. Discovery of Underlying and Root Causes Specific tools and methodologies may be used to help discover root causes. minor accidents could become major. Purposes of Accident Investigation There are a number of purposes that can be identified for conducting an accident investigation. RCA seeks to systematically: Find out why an incident occurred. Identification of Trends A spate of similar minor accidents could bring to light a problem in an organisation. Prevention of Recurrence Purpose of the investigation and report is to establish whether a recurrence can be prevented by the introduction of safeguards. or any combination of these. establishing any causal relationships between the events. Legal Liability Someone usually has to be held accountable. Step 4: The action plan and its implementation.
Portable lights. Support materials (photographs. Sample collection equipment. Tools for cleaning debris or spillages. Recommendations. Root cause/immediate causes. An introductory summary of events prior to the incident in question. while the conditions are more likely to be closest to those immediately before the accident. Details of witnesses. Portable gas/vapour detection equipment. Costings. diagrams to clarify). pencils and measuring equipment. Record-keeping equipment. Facts will be easier to determine and more details will be remembered by those involved. Conclusions. the better and more reliable the information available will be. Step 1: Gathering of Relevant Information The less time between the accident and the investigation. The date. Equipment required may include: Photographic equipment. ill-health or loss sustained. The signature of the person or persons carrying out the investigation. Sketchpad. Information about injury. Information obtained during any investigation.NEBOSH International Diploma Unit IA – Revision Notes Investigation Procedures and Methodologies Incident Report Forms Should contain the following information: A summary of what happened. © RRC Training 27 .
Interviewing Witnesses Types of Witness Victim. When. carry out interviews at the scene of the accident. Identify any gaps – and follow leads to fill those gaps. Eyewitness. Extract the information that is relevant. Start all questions with either What. 28 © RRC Training . People who can offer a variety of corroborative statements. noting: − − − The extent and severity of the damage. the site may need to be made safe but otherwise left undisturbed as a 'crime scene' pending an investigation by the police or a health and safety enforcement inspector. For serious incidents. Environmental conditions. There is also an orderly method of performing the investigation. it may be necessary to issue instructions prohibiting its use or repair until the investigation has been completed. Step 2: Analysis of Information Assemble all your data or evidence. The investigator should be looking for the witness's version of the accident. Damage to surrounding property. Put the person being questioned at ease. Look at the scene of the accident from a distance. Where. You may also need to notify and report the incident to your local regulator. How or Who. Where machinery or other equipment has been involved. Take samples for subsequent laboratory investigation.NEBOSH International Diploma Unit IA – Revision Notes The first priority is to help injured people. Survey the accident site(s) to see if there are any obvious dangerous physical conditions. Where possible.
Supervisors Likely to know most about the situation. Involvement of Personnel in the Investigation Process Managers Ultimately make the decisions and allocate resources. the company safety practitioner should be in charge of the investigation. underlying and root causes by systematically working through the event. © RRC Training 29 . sometimes called a ‘fishbone’ diagram. Also known as an Ishikawa diagram. Is this an event waiting to happen elsewhere? Do you need similar controls there to prevent another occurrence? Step 4: Plan and Implement Setting timescales. Failure Tracing Methods Fault tree and event tree analysis can be useful tools. Employees' Representatives May have a legal right to investigate. Step 3: Identify Control Measures Identify all possible control measures and then select the ones which are most suitable. Allocation of specific actions to specific individuals. Cause and Effect Diagrams An analysis tool. Safety Practitioner In the case of serious accidents. Checking that the proposed actions have actually been implemented.NEBOSH International Diploma Unit IA – Revision Notes Discover the immediate. Best position to explain to their team.
Less obvious 'invisible' hazards. Task Analysis Used to analyse all aspects of a task (including safety). Incident Reports Records of all accidents that have taken place.NEBOSH International Diploma Unit IA – Revision Notes ELEMENT A3: IDENTIFYING HAZARDS. ASSESSING AND EVALUATING RISKS HAZARD IDENTIFICATION Techniques that can be used to detect hazards. Checklists Cover the key issues to be monitored. SOURCES OF INFORMATION Use of Incident Data and Rates Classify industries according to risk. Provide a coherent approach to the inspection process "4 Ps" structure: − − − − Premises. People. Plant and substances. with the intention of improving efficiency. Observation Observe the work being done. 30 © RRC Training . Look for: Actual and potential hazards – by observation and by questioning. Behavioural aspects. Procedures.
Problems in Obtaining Data Related to Health Personal details: What does the employer have a right to know? − If a person plays sport at the weekend.uk). but other sources will be needed for comparison.org/safework). USA’s OSHA (www. International bodies such as the European Safety Agency (osha. the World Health Organisation (www. Insurance companies.iirsm. frequency rate and severity rate. Trade unions. Maintenance records will usually show damage incidents.gov. © RRC Training 31 .org). unless the organisation is sufficiently large to give statistical significance. Measure the effect of preventative/control measures.who. Trade associations.int).gov. Absence records. Professional bodies such as IOSH (www. External Information Sources National governmental enforcement agencies such as the UK’s HSE (www. Western Australia’s Worksafe (www.au/WorkSafe/).ilo.gov). he might possibly try to pass off an injury as work-related. In making comparisons between various industries use formulae in Element A2: incidence rate.iosh.NEBOSH International Diploma Unit IA – Revision Notes Consider accident trends.eu).docep. and is injured.europa.org) and IIRSM (www.hse.wa. Use 'cause of injury' to determine hazards in a workplace.osha. Accident reports. Internal Information Sources Most relevant data for an organisation. the International Labour Organisation and their “safework” site (www.
May not take full account of overtime or part-time staff. Regular health screening during employment. External sources: − − − Statistics based on a larger sample. Heavy smokers may have no wish to cut down or stop. No indication of injury severity. Effect on compensation: Employees are unlikely to give information freely if it would reduce a possible claim. Avoid employing people with health problems. Use and Limitations of Information Sources Relevant to risk assessments. More relevant. Near-misses . When comparing data between organisations. remember: − − May use different def initions for a LTA.NEBOSH International Diploma Unit IA – Revision Notes Is the danger recognised? Alcoholics may not know they are. Cause of death: Often it can only be established by a post-mortem. Figures may be for employees only and so be misleading for an organisation that makes wide use of contractors.better indicator. and the family may not wish for this. Ethical issues. or those with drug. The type of industry covered may be much wider than your own situation. With low numbers of accidents it may be difficult to see trends. The absence of accidents is not a very good indication that all is well. alcohol or substance-abuse problems. Methods of Obtaining Data Pre-employment health screening. 32 © RRC Training .
g. you will move from using simple. e. © RRC Training 33 . fault trees.NEBOSH International Diploma Unit IA – Revision Notes Culture differences – an injured worker might be brought back to work on restricted or ‘light’ duties in order to avoid recording as a lost-time accident. low). Quantitative risk assessment (QRA) attempts to calculate probabilities or frequencies of specific event scenarios. Qualitative . Likelihood and severity can be represented by broad descriptive categories (e. This is sometimes mandated by legislation. qualitative to semi-quantitative to complicated quantitative techniques. high.g. there is also a third category which uses a mixture of the two and is called ‘semi-quantitative’.involves describing the qualities. Risk assessment must be proportionate to the risk. so that the results can be compared with criteria on what is considered an acceptable or a tolerable risk. QRA is used in high hazard chemical and nuclear installations and in the offshore oil industry. medium.based on hard evidence. This type of risk assessment typically uses advanced systematic methods. They may use advanced simulation or modelling techniques to investigate possible accidents and will utilise plant component reliability data. In practice. As the scale and complexity of risk increase. It typically uses scoring systems . EVALUATION OF RISK Types of Risk Assessment Two basic categories: Quantitative – measurement of magnitude is involved.
The more people likely to be affected in a single event. The stages of task analysis are: Select the job/task and decide on the aim of the analysis. the higher the risk is considered to be. Duration and Frequency of Exposure Groups which are often noted as being more vulnerable in certain circumstances include: pregnant women. remote possibility of damage beyond minor first-aid case. Persons and Numbers Exposed. duties. Task Analysis Involves identification of the essential tasks. 34 © RRC Training . Critical Hazard can result in serious illness. Accident/Exposure Outcomes Outcome depends on the particular circumstances at the time. skills.NEBOSH International Diploma Unit IA – Revision Notes Hazard Effects Hazard Severity Rating System example: Severity Negligible Description of Hazard Hazard will not result in serious injury or illness. disabled people. hazard capable of causing death and illness on a wide scale. but the results would not be expected to be serious. Catastrophic Imminent danger exists. severe injury. Frequent and long-term duration exposures may lead to higher risk of harm. injury or equipment damage. Marginal Hazard can cause illness. knowledge and abilities associated with doing a particular job. For a number of agents (such as noise and hazardous chemicals) whose effects are related to total exposure 'dose'. property and equipment damage. young people.
Analyse the data. © RRC Training 35 . Use the result to support the stated aim. Examples include: Machine repair. Legal requirements. Cleaning. Accident registers.NEBOSH International Diploma Unit IA – Revision Notes Collect data. Tests of safety features and emergency procedures. Training requirements. Interaction Consider interactions with other tasks and people in the vicinity. Special Safety Aspects In most jobs there are special safety procedures which are not part of the production process. Such procedures include: Activities concerned with permit-to-work systems. Removing finished articles. Record/describe the task. Method study breakdowns. Specialist inspections. Inspection. Reporting of unsafe conditions. Makers' instructions. Delivery of materials. Official publications. Data Sources Job descriptions.
Whether any amendments are required in the light of operating experience. or an increase in production quantity. although not negligible. Job Safety Analysis Also known as Job Hazard Analysis. Job Safety Review The primary objectives are to determine: Whether any deviations from the original breakdown have been introduced. Job Safety Instructions Give a clear description of the way each step of the job is to be done. Acceptability/Tolerability of Risk An acceptable risk is a risk which. 36 © RRC Training .e. key points (particularly key safety points). Stress the 'do's' and 'don'ts' at each step. Maintain the safe system. select-collect-describe-analyse-use). Develop control measures.e. except that at the “Describe” stage the task is broken down into smaller units or subtasks and these are arranged in the order in which they are performed – forming a hierarchy. Install the safe system. Hierarchical Task Analysis Also known as Hierarchical Task Decomposition. is presumed not to require any further controls. This is the simplest and most widely used form of task analysis.NEBOSH International Diploma Unit IA – Revision Notes Communication with others. The methodology is the same as that for task analysis (i. SREDIM principles: Select the job to be analysed. such as a change in materials or machinery. i. Examine the component parts of the job. Record the steps in the process.
then we can be retaining a risk without knowledge. but which should be kept under review and reduced further if and when it is possible. Risks to Members of the Public To some extent employees can be regarded as having 'volunteered' to accept a particular level of risk. Without Knowledge If we fail to consider a particular risk. Categorisation and Prioritisation of Risk One way of categorising risks is proposed by the UK’s HSE in their document HSG65: High – "Where it is certain or near certain that harm will occur" (95% will certainly be affected). where the first part of any loss is payable. deliberately run on a regular basis that isn't negligible and cannot be ignored.NEBOSH International Diploma Unit IA – Revision Notes A tolerable risk is a known risk. The risk to members of the public needs to be lower than this. Some events are not insurable. Most insurance policies operate an excess. © RRC Training 37 . In each of these cases there is some element of risk retention with knowledge. It is worth considering for intermediate and infrequent losses. Medium – "Where harm will often occur" (majority will be affected). Injury Risk Time off work is not a good measure. There is also usually an upper limit to insurance cover. Risk Retention With Knowledge If we have made a correct assessment of both the probability and the severity of the loss then funds can be set aside for this purpose. While this will give a comparable rate for different industries. Individual and Average Risk Industrial rates usually give the average risk for particular industries. there will always be individuals who are at greater risk.
Prioritisation Target resources to deal with those hazards that pose the greatest threat first. Severity Extent of potential loss. identify ways of reducing them and calculate residual risk. high or definite. This is particularly useful where risks can’t be quantified with any degree of certainty. Sometimes it is only possible to make a subjective judgement as to whether the probability is negligible. risk. we are dealing with absolute probabilities/frequencies. Risks can be rated by comparison of one industry with another. Quantified Risk Assessment QRA enables designers. The final QRA results can be expressed either as individual risk or as societal risk. low. 38 © RRC Training . moderate. Relativistic and Probabilistic Methods of Risk Rating “Relativistic” – looking at things in relative terms only.NEBOSH International Diploma Unit IA – Revision Notes Low – "Where harm will seldom occur" (95% will not be affected). The figures obtained are not precise but they do place a useful numerical value on the probability of engineering failure or a major event occurring. operators or regulators of industrial plant or equipment to estimate existing risks. Probabilistic rating is where risks are calculated (albeit for later comparison with limits of acceptability/tolerability). Frequency Usually it can be regarded as identical to probability. This helps in deciding whether the risk is acceptable or tolerable. or the time interval between expected loss-making events. Probability This is the chance that a given event will take place.
start-up and shutdown. where a small error or fault can have drastic consequences. © RRC Training 39 . The process is first fully described and then every part is questioned to discover all possible deviations from the intended design which might occur. checking flow. using a checklist of guide words. they are used extensively in. temperature and concentration. the working document is normally the flow diagram. A number of 'guide words' are applied to the statement of intention. for more complex cases. such as large chemical plants or a nuclear power station. and what their causes and consequences might be. Studies are carried out by a multidisciplinary team who make a critical examination of a process to discover any potential hazards and operability problems. quantified risk assessment. so that every possible deviation from the required intention is considered. For a continuous process. Each pipe is examined in turn. Hazard and Operability Studies (HAZOPS) Designed for dealing with complicated systems. in some cases. The study should also consider the situation during commissioning. The main guide words are: NO or NOT MORE LESS AS WELL AS OTHER THAN PART OF REVERSE There are slight differences between the method for a continuous process and a batch process. calculation of failure probabilities. pressure.NEBOSH International Diploma Unit IA – Revision Notes FAILURE TRACING METHODS Provide a systematic methodology for identification of hazards and. for example.
The methodology is as follows: Break the system down into its component parts. there must be more than one condition present at the same time. which traces all branches of events which could contribute to an accident or failure. Identify the effects and extent of the failure on the system as a whole.). Allocate a risk priority code (based on severity and probability) or a risk priority number (based on severity. probability and detection). rather than preventing. The AND gate indicates that. Identify all possible causes of that failure. in order for the event to occur. Fault Tree Analysis A logic diagram based on the principle of multi-causality. Decide on controls needed to reduce the risk to an acceptable level. The OR gate indicates that in this situation there are a number of ways in which the condition can occur. The fault tree starts with a 'top event'. etc. the flow diagram and the operating procedures would be vital documents. Assess the likelihood of failure. Identify the means of detection of failure (alarms/sensors. losses.NEBOSH International Diploma Unit IA – Revision Notes For a batch process. Failure Mode and Effects Analysis (FMEA) The purpose of the analysis is to identify the causes of failure of individual components in a system and explore the effects of these failures/malfunctions on the system as a whole. Identify how each component part could fail. It defines the events which flow from the primary event. Stages in carrying out event tree analysis: 40 © RRC Training . such as a particular accident or other undesirable event and is developed from the top downwards to obtain all the possible primary cause events. Event Tree Analysis Starts with a primary event such as a power failure and works from the bottom up. Event trees are used to investigate the consequences of loss-making events in order to find ways of reducing.
2. © RRC Training 41 . Construct the event tree beginning with the initiating event and proceeding through failures of the safety functions. Identify the primary event of concern. 5. Identify the critical failures that need to be addressed.NEBOSH International Diploma Unit IA – Revision Notes 1. 3. 4. Identify the controls that are assigned to deal with the primary event such as automatic safety systems. Establish the resulting accident sequences. alarms on operator actions.
no analysis of the safety management system.looks at the behaviour of the total system rather than the workings of individual components.divides the system into its components. Analytical Considerations of Systems and Subsystems Failures The range of failure tracing methods that are based on treating the fault. failure or events systemically. Event Tree Analysis. 42 © RRC Training . Reductionist approach . i. Lack of competency in the management team to recognise the potential for failure. Hazard and Operability Studies (HAZOPS). Systemic analysis involves looking at a whole system. orderly and sequential manner. Application of System Failure Analysis Flixborough Key factors leading to the disaster included: Lack of a proper design study for the modification with no reference to appropriate standards or safety testing. Fault Tree Analysis. i. no application of system failure analysis to the plant.NEBOSH International Diploma Unit IA – Revision Notes ELEMENT A4: RISK CONTROL AND EMERGENCY PLANNING SYSTEMS FAILURES AND RELIABILITY Complex Failure Analysis Holistic approach . Differences Between Systemic and Systematic Analysis Systematic analysis involves looking at something in a logical. Failure Mode and Effects Analysis (FMEA).e.e.
Design failure. If components are added in series. fuelling the fire.NEBOSH International Diploma Unit IA – Revision Notes Piper Alpha North Sea Oil Rig Explosion Key factors leading to the disaster included: Failure in the permit-to-work system. A B Parallel System R(S) = 1 − [(1 − R(A))(1 − R(B))] Series Systems In series. but not blast-resistant. all components must function for the system to operate. Assessment of System Reliability Equipment Reliability The overall reliability of equipment depends on both the reliability of all components and the way in which they are arranged: If a single component has a reliability of R. putting two identical components in parallel will increase the overall reliability. © RRC Training 43 . indicating no examination of this key subsystem. the reliability of the system is reduced. This shows that there was no analysis of the rig network as a system. in that the rig containment wall was fire-resistant. This was not identified by any systematic analysis. Parallel Systems In a parallel system the failure of one component will not stop the system functioning. Other rigs did not shut down and continued to feed into Piper Alpha.
i.90 Break down the overall system into component series and parallel systems and treat each separately. loss of electricity supply. Initially.e. Hardware design can only go so far for improved reliability. but at some point the windscreen wipers will operate instead of the indicators. there still exists the human input into the operation. The driver knows how to drive (a licence confirms that. A human error will have occurred in a situation where the driver has already demonstrated an understanding of the working of the indicator controls. We have only mentioned human 44 © RRC Training . Principles of Human Reliability Analysis Think about a person who is driving an unfamiliar car.NEBOSH International Diploma Unit IA – Revision Notes A B Series System R(t) = R(A) × R(B) Mixed Systems R(A) = 0.60 R(C) = 0. e. indicating during driving will be correct.g.99 Mixed System R(F) = 0.93 R(B) = 0.95 R(D) = 0. Common Mode Failures Failure of a number of items due to a common cause.999 R(E) = 0. A problem may occur if the windscreen wipers and the indicator stalks are reversed as compared to the normal. training and certification). The driver will identify where all the controls are and what they do (familiarisation) and set off.
Man-machine interface is ergonomically suitable. Standby systems. Minimising human error. Methods of Improving System Reliability Use of reliable components. − Should part of the system or a component stop working. Working environment is comfortable. Minimising failures to danger. the other one will keep the system going.NEBOSH International Diploma Unit IA – Revision Notes reliability as basically 'unreliable'. Means of detecting and dealing with problems before a breakdown occurs. − − Systems fail to safety. Humans do not work in the same way as machines. then an alternative system automatically steps in to continue operation. The reliability of a human being cannot. be determined to the same accuracy as a machine. Parallel redundancy. RISK CONTROL SYSTEMS AND METHODS Concepts and Their Limitations within a Health and Safety Management Programme The topic of risk control can be split into loss control and risk financing. The question we have to ask of this human input is: "How unreliable is it?" We then have to establish the answer to this question. − − − Training and instruction. therefore. Planned preventive maintenance. nor do two humans perform in the same way. − Additional components can be added in parallel so that if one component fails. but action can be taken to make reasonable assessments of the type and frequency of error so that positive action can be taken to minimise the effects. © RRC Training 45 . They are not good at carrying out repetitive tasks to a consistent standard.
Use of specialist contractors. Risk financing: Risk retention: finance from funds within the organisation. 46 © RRC Training . Automation of process. or fold company Fund. Selection of Optimum Solution Based on Relevant Risk Data Probability Severity High Medium Low High Medium Low High Medium Low High Medium Low Catastrophic High Medium Low Action Eliminate Fund (cheaper than insurance) No action . Risk reduction: control. Hazard Avoidance Redesign of tasks.NEBOSH International Diploma Unit IA – Revision Notes Loss control: − − − − Risk avoidance: eliminate. insure. or fold company Fund or retain as an expense No action Definite High Medium Low Remote Relationship Between Probability and Severity Important factors include: Present state of technology. Risk transfer: finance from funds outside the organisation.operating expense Eliminate or reduce probability or severity Reduce severity Retain as an operating expense Reduce severity Reduce severity or transfer Retain as an operating expense Fund or insure Fund Retain as an operating expense Insure.
Plant and substances. Information. Legal requirements. Control of Inputs RCSs: − Minimise hazards and risks entering the organisation. o o o o Premises. o o o Physical resources. Human resources. Control of Outputs RCSs: − Prevent the export of risks off site or through the products and services generated by the business. Levels of insurance premiums. Confidence of the company in the benefits of risk management and in the competence of the risk manager.NEBOSH International Diploma Unit IA – Revision Notes Public expectancy. By-products. Control of Work Activities RCSs: − Contain risks associated with the business process. Procedures. People. Human factors. © RRC Training 47 . Risk Control Systems Risk Control Systems (RCSs) form the basis for ensuring that adequate workplace precautions are provided and maintained. Economic state of the company. o o Products and services.
Operational Costs of running and maintaining safety systems. WORKPLACE PRECAUTIONS General Principles of Prevention Avoid risks where possible. and the time involved.NEBOSH International Diploma Unit IA – Revision Notes o Information. Design Engineering aspects. Planning Safe methods of work. Costs involved with accident prevention and risk reduction. 48 © RRC Training . + MAXIMUM BENEFIT BENEFIT POSITIVE BENEFIT 0 − NEGATIVE BENEFIT COST OF SAFETY Cost-Benefit Graph Risk Control Cost Decisions Cost Areas Organisational Costs of staff. COST-BENEFIT ANALYSIS Costs involved with accidents and losses.
social relationships and the influence of factors relating to the working environment. Categories of Control Measures Technical . organisation of work.a procedural solution may mean a safe method of work. Substitution Replace a toxic chemical with one that is not dangerous or less dangerous. we must establish an order of treatment. One such order of treatment is: Elimination Stop using the process. There are a number of different hierarchies. Give appropriate instructions to employees. Use less noisy pumps. substance or equipment or use it in a different form. General Hierarchy of Control Measures In dealing with risks. Replace the dangerous with the non-dangerous or the less dangerous. Adapt to technical progress. Give collective protective measures priority over individual protective measures. Develop a coherent overall prevention policy which covers technology. working conditions. Combat the risks at source. Adapt the work to the individual. Behavioural .a behavioural solution will involve education and training of operatives.a technical or engineering solution. © RRC Training 49 . using protective equipment and generally making employees aware of the risks. putting up notices and signs. You can view it as changing the 'safety culture' of the organisation.NEBOSH International Diploma Unit IA – Revision Notes Evaluate the risks which cannot be avoided. This embodies the principles of risk management and requires the employer to look at all aspects of the health and safety management system rather than simply concentrating on basic workplace precautions. Procedural .
g. e. which are as safe and without risk to health as is reasonably practicable 50 © RRC Training . and use work methods.NEBOSH International Diploma Unit IA – Revision Notes Engineered Controls Redesign of process or equipment to eliminate release of the hazard so that everyone is protected. effort) in comparison to the risk and the likely benefit. PPE (as a last resort) Respiratory protective equipment (RPE). enclosure or isolation of the process or use of equipment to capture the hazard at source. Administrative Controls Design work procedures and work systems to limit exposure. So.g. machinery and equipment. limit work periods in hot environments. etc." Legal Requirements In some countries there is an explicit legal requirement to maintain systems of work that are safe. Factors Affecting Choice of Control Measures The chosen solution has to be reasonable in the circumstances: sacrifice (cost. gloves. Article 10 of the ILO Occupational Safety and Health Recommendation (R164) states the following obligation on employers: to provide and maintain workplaces. implemented quickly to give some measure of risk reduction but their effectiveness may be short-lived. SAFE SYSTEMS OF WORK AND PERMITSTO-WORK "A safe system of work is a formal procedure which results from systematic examination of a task in order to identify all the hazards. time. e. – only protects the individual. Methods low down in the hierarchy tend to be cheapest. It defines safe methods to ensure that hazards are eliminated or risks minimised. Methods towards the top of the control hierarchy tend to be more effective but more expensive and take longer to implement (long-term). less effective measures may be adopted in the short-term.
Who will need to use these instructions? There could be a need for diagrams rather than just words. Introduce controls and formulate procedures. Developing and Implementing a Safe System of Work Analyse the task – identifying the hazards and assessing the risks. equipment and tools through proper training and supervision.NEBOSH International Diploma Unit IA – Revision Notes Practical Requirements Safe use of plant. Examine the component parts of the task. Develop the safe system. When is a Safe System Required? A safe system of work is needed when hazards cannot be physically eliminated and some element of risk remains. the more acceptable will be the end result. Maintain the safe system. Preparation of Job Safety Instructions and Safe Operating Procedures This involves writing out a set of instructions which must be followed. Monitor and review the system. The Use of Hazard/Task Analysis in the Development of Safe Systems of Work The steps for Job Hazard Analysis (JHA) are often expressed as: Select the task to be studied. Instruct and train people in the operation of the system. © RRC Training 51 . The more operators and employee representatives are involved in the process. Components of a Safe System of Work A safe system of work constitutes the bringing together of materials. Instal the safe system. equipment and environment in such a way as to effect work activities in safety. Record the steps in the process. people.
gases or their residues. Clearly stated on the permit. Permit-to-work systems are widely used in the following jobs: Working in confined spaces. All the methods to be used and precautions to be taken should be: Carefully discussed and agreed beforehand. Work on electrical equipment. liquids. The permit-to-work is always based on a formal document. Permit-to-Work Systems A safe system of work may require a permit-to-work system to be adopted as part of its overall systematic control of risk. Cutting into pipework containing hazardous substances. Permit-to-work systems try to ensure that formal action is taken by providing a written and signed statement to the effect that all the necessary actions have been taken. The permit must be in the possession of the person in charge of the operation before work can commence. Describe checks to be carried out before normal work can be resumed. The document should be valid only for a limited period depending on the nature of the work and associated hazards. Hot work on plant containing flammable dusts. Name the person responsible for controlling the job. Essential Features of a Permit-to-Work System Permits should: Define the work to be done. Say how to make the work area safe. Identify any remaining hazards and the precautions to be taken.NEBOSH International Diploma Unit IA – Revision Notes Analysis methods like JSA and HTA (Hierarchical Task Analysis) which break down a job into task-steps are perfect for creating a set of instructions or operating procedure for doing the job safely. 52 © RRC Training .
ILO Convention C161 Occupational Health Services (First aid/medical). e. Fire .Consideration must be given to raising the alarm. water resources.The emergency plan needs to include: raising the alarm. informing other relevant parties.NEBOSH International Diploma Unit IA – Revision Notes Basic Principles of Operation Evaluate the Hazards Plan the Precautions Instruct the Supervisors and Others Who Will be Responsible for Carrying Out the Work Issue the Permit EMERGENCY PLANNING Need for Emergency Preparedness Within an Organisation Personal Injury Explosive Device . etc. evacuation procedures (for the site and the surrounding areas. limiting the extent of the 'spillage' (if it is safe to do so). government departments and national agencies with responsibility for the environment. where necessary).A system should be in place to evacuate the site should a suspect package be found or if a warning is received. Loss of Containment . Consequence Minimisation via Emergency Procedures First-Aid/Medical. escape routes from the site/building as well as the means for tackling a fire. © RRC Training 53 . 1991 (especially Chapters 1-6). International Requirements and Standards ILO Occupational Safety and Health Recommendation R164 (Article 3: First Aid and Emergency Plans). ILO Convention C174 Prevention of Major Industrial Accidents (1993).g. and considering how the clean-up process may be undertaken. fire department. ILO Code of Practice on the Prevention of Major Industrial Accidents.
The off-site plan is the responsibility of the authorities. disruption to normal operations.). It aims to minimise negative impacts on the organisation (such as injury. putting employees on standby and calling in the external emergency services. poor public image and reputation) and aid rapid post-incident recovery. On-Site For simple installations. Liaison with external agencies. first aiders. the plan may consist simply of raising the alarm. the employer has responsibility for producing it.location and organisation. written document designed to assist management with the control of specific hazards or incidents. far more will be needed. Assessment of size/nature/likelihood of potential accidents. site main controller. Off-Site Off-site plans should contain details of: 54 © RRC Training . e. Spill Containment. etc. For more complex installations. Appointment of those with specific duties (incident controller. Preparation of Emergency Plans for Major Emergency Scenarios The on-site emergency plan is principally concerned with the control of the emergency using on-site resources. The two emergency plans should be complementary and need to be monitored and maintained on an ongoing basis. Emergency Control Centre (ECC) . On-site actions (including evacuation and roll-call) during emergency. Procedures for raising the alarm and for communications. property damage. Development of Emergency Plans An emergency plan is a formal.NEBOSH International Diploma Unit IA – Revision Notes Fire Extinguishment. The purpose of the off-site emergency plan is for the protection of the public and the environment.g.
Communications . local inhabitants. © RRC Training 55 . etc. names of site main controller’s ECC.NEBOSH International Diploma Unit IA – Revision Notes Organisation . contact details.identify personnel involved. Humanitarian arrangements – transport. Getting information to the public – dealing with media.heavy lifting gear. Specialised knowledge – expertise that may be needed. emergency feeding. evacuation. Nature of chemical risks on site. Specialised emergency equipment . etc. warning systems. first-aid.command structures. etc. Arrangements for obtaining weather information. Arrangements for collecting information on the developing emergency (to identify cause) and for reviewing the plan.
Trade union safety representatives are involved as members of safety committees and as such are actively involved in improving health and safety in the workplace. 56 © RRC Training . Trade Unions .NEBOSH International Diploma Unit IA – Revision Notes ELEMENT A5: ORGANISATIONAL FACTORS INTERNAL AND EXTERNAL INFLUENCES External Influences on Health and Safety within an Organisation Enforcement Agencies Insurance Companies Contractors/Clients The Organisation Legislation Public Opinion Contracts Trade Unions Courts/Tribunals External Influences on the Organisation Internal Influences on Health and Safety within an Organisation Finance Production Targets .The attainment of production goals subjects operatives to intense pressures which can lead to stress and an increase in incidents and accidents in the workplace.
written management rules and procedures. with authority or control running from top to bottom. organising and control. etc. Products. INPUTS CONVERSION Open System Organisation OUTPUT Organisational Structures and Functions Organisation Charts The pyramidal structures identify the formal levels of authority and responsibility within the organisation or department. etc. © RRC Training 57 . etc. Research and development.represented by the company organisation chart. Concept of the Organisation as a System ENVIRONMENT Production and marketing activities. etc.represented by individual and group behaviour. job descriptions. the distribution of legitimate authority. Informal . services. waste. ideas. Planning. finance.NEBOSH International Diploma Unit IA – Revision Notes TYPES OF ORGANISATIONS Formal and Informal Formal . People. materials. information.
− − − − Encouraging co-operation amongst employees and safety representatives by involving them in: 58 © RRC Training . Providing adequate supervision. Ensuring accountability of persons allocated health and safety responsibilities.NEBOSH International Diploma Unit IA – Revision Notes Role of Management Line Management . Functional Relationship . − − Allocation of health and safety responsibilities to line managers with access to specialist advisers. Allocation of health and safety responsibilities to competent persons who are given time and resources to carry out those responsibilities. Providing a payment and reward system which avoids conflict between production targets and health and safety requirements. ORGANISATIONS AND HEALTH AND SAFETY MANAGEMENT Organisational Requirements for the Management of Health and Safety Control by managers who lead by example. Setting those persons realistic targets and providing positive reinforcement. Implementation of plans.'Line' relationship between the employees and departments. − Clear allocation of responsibilities for: o o o o Policy formulation and development.Certain members of staff have a company-wide remit to carry out activities 'across the board'. Reporting on performance. instruction and guidance.Direct line of authority (from the Works Director to the Shop-Floor Operative). Staff Relationship . Planning and review of health and safety activities.
Transfer and training. Placement. © RRC Training 59 . Responsibility and the extent of what they can and cannot do.NEBOSH International Diploma Unit IA – Revision Notes − − − Policy formulation and development. auditing and reviewing performance. Ensuring competence by means of: Recruitment. Ensuring effective communication by means of: − − − − − − − − Visible behaviour. implementing. Arrangements at operational level in support of more formal participative measures. measuring. Face-to-face discussion. Accountability. Written material. Planning. For the organisation to achieve these goals then the employees need to have their own goals and objectives to work towards the organisational goal. Selection. Organisational Goals and Those of the Individual Both the organisation and individuals have goals. Integration of Goals of the Organisation with the Needs of the Individual Authority to enable the individual to carry out tasks can result in an increase in self-esteem and increases the possibility of the tasks being performed well. Provision of adequate specialist advice. made clear to all individuals given health and safety responsibilities.
you may have equivalent requirements. Members of the public are those who do not fit into either of the above categories. nor are they employees. customers. Even if your country has not ratified the above ILO convention. This collaboration requirement is repeated in some of the sector-specific conventions such as C167 The Safety and Health in Construction Convention (Article 8). Uninvited visitor – would not have had such an invitation extended to them. Unlawful visitors – persons entering premises contrary to the law or for unlawful purposes.NEBOSH International Diploma Unit IA – Revision Notes THIRD PARTY CONTROL Identification of Third Parties A third party is defined as: "someone other than the principals who are involved in a transaction". 60 © RRC Training . they shall collaborate in applying the requirements of this Convention. Reasons for Ensuring Third Parties are Covered by Health and Safety Management Systems ILO Occupational Safety and Health Convention C155 (Article 17) states: Whenever two or more undertakings engage in activities simultaneously at one workplace.g. Invited visitor – one to whom hospitality has been extended or who has been explicitly invited onto the premises. passer-by making a reasonable enquiry of the occupier. Contractor "One who is engaged to perform a certain task without direction from the person employing him. There is a moral imperative which 'obliges' us to look after other people. etc. enforcement officers." Categories of Visitors Lawful visitors – have either an explicit invitation or an implied right to enter e. Note that “uninvited” does NOT necessarily mean unlawful.
Article 17 of C155 The ILO Occupational Safety and Health Convention. Article 12 of the ILO Safety and Health Convention (C155). For example.e. Suppliers to Customers/Users in relation to machinery and dangerous substances for use at work. This implies co-ordination/collaboration of activities and exchange of essential information. It arises from the moral/ethical duty not to cause injury/damage through negligent (i. Contractors to Clients (and Vice Versa) It has long been held that professional people owe a duty of care to their clients. Accidents resulting from poor health and safety management result in huge financial losses to everyone concerned. but under the “neighbour” concept. There is also an implied duty (frequently enshrined in law) for clients to make reasonable “due diligence” efforts to ensure that the contractor that they engage is actually competent to do the job. Specific examples: Designers.NEBOSH International Diploma Unit IA – Revision Notes Economic considerations are twofold. the reverse is also true. © RRC Training 61 . and a reciprocal duty on the contractor (as on any employer/self-employed person) to ensure that his employees are competent to do the job. Basic Duties Owed To and By Third Parties The concept of “duty of care to your neighbour”. Manufacturers. The duty is essentially to take reasonable care to see that the visitor will be reasonably safe in using the premises for the purposes for which they are invited or permitted by the occupier to be there. The ILO code of practice on Construction Safety and Health also identifies the responsibility of the client to ensure that contractors consider the cost of adequate health and safety provision for the construction project when tendering for the job. Poor health and safety management is often itself caused by the serious lack of economic resources. careless) acts/omissions. even without a specific contract between parties. This is a common principle in civil law. Occupiers of Premises/Land to Visitors Many countries have established a common duty of care of an occupier to all lawful visitors (remember the earlier definition of lawful visitor).
Involve the potential contractors in discussions concerning the health and safety requirements. Ask the contractor to provide a safety method statement outlining how they will carry out the job safely. Identify foreseeable hazards and assess the risks from those hazards. Carry out site induction training for all contractor employees. Checking on Performance Are contractors working to agreed safety standards? Have there been any incidents and were they reported? Have there been any changes of circumstance. Contractors Working on Site Introduce a signing in and out procedure. Ensure the contractor provides a named site contact. Lay down health and safety conditions specific to the tasks. including site rules and emergency procedures. Supply information regarding the job and the site.NEBOSH International Diploma Unit IA – Revision Notes Internal Rules and Procedures Concerned with the Selection. Appointment and Control of Contractors The Planning Stage Define the task(s) that the contractor is required to carry out. control activities by using a permit-to-work system. change of personnel? 62 © RRC Training . Choosing a Contractor Determine what technical and safety competence is required by the contractor. e. Introduce suitable control measures to eliminate or reduce those risks. Where necessary.g. Ask the contractor to supply evidence of that competence.
etc. procedures. Major hazard installations are required to inform the local population of the hazards arising from site activities and the action to take in the case of major incident. General Public Notices and warnings on perimeter fences. Responsibilities for Control of Risk Associated with Contractors on Site General duty to ensure that all reasonably practicable measures are taken by clients (i. Visitors It is common practice to give visitors to the workplace written information on emergency procedures. Provision of Information Relating to Hazards and Risks to Third Parties Contractors Collaboration on health and safety matters contained within the Occupational Safety and Health Convention will necessarily involve exchange of relevant information (on hazards.e. those who engage contractors) and people in charge of premises to reduce the risk to contractors and vice versa. © RRC Training 63 . Involving employees educates and motivates them to co-operate in the promotion of safety. method statements. etc. CONSULTATION WITH EMPLOYEES Role of Consultation Within the Workplace “Workers can contribute to prevention of industrial accidents by spotting and warning about potential hazards and giving notice of imminent dangers.NEBOSH International Diploma Unit IA – Revision Notes Review Regularly review the procedures to ensure they remain up to date and effective. risk assessments.). gates.
Workers or their representatives and. essential to improve working conditions. their representative organisations in an undertaking. as the case may be. and are consulted by the employer on. all aspects of occupational safety and health associated with their work” Employee Representatives Article 20 of the Convention involves the appointment of: 64 © RRC Training . Representatives of workers in the undertaking co-operate with the employer…. Representatives of workers in an undertaking are given adequate information on measures taken by the employer to secure occupational safety and health and may consult their representative organisations about such information provided they do not disclose commercial secrets.” Formal Consultation – Functions of Employee Representatives and Safety Committees.” The ILO Occupational Safety and Health Convention 1981 (C155). co-operate in the fulfilment by their employer of the obligations placed upon him. People have a right to be involved in decisions that affect their working life. in the course of performing their work. Article 20. Workers and their representatives in the undertaking are given appropriate training in occupational safety and health. are enabled to enquire into. states: “Co-operation between management and workers and/or their representatives within the undertaking shall be an essential element of organisational and other measures taken. Co-operation between the two sides of industry. particularly their health and wellbeing. Article 19(a)-(e) of the ILO Safety and Health Convention: “There shall be arrangements at the level of the undertaking under which: Workers. in accordance with national law and practice.NEBOSH International Diploma Unit IA – Revision Notes Ideas and experiences of workers are regarded as a useful contribution to safety improvement. should be based on an equal partnership.
Typical activities include: Workplace observations and inspections. Consulted (when major health and safety measures or changes to work with health and safety implications are planned). Health and Safety Committees Union Committees According to the ILO training guide. Initiate action on the hazards it recognises. Educate union members in health and safety. Access to all parts of the workplace. © RRC Training 65 . Reading information. Asking members represented what they think. Examination of records. the role of the local union committee is to: Respond to worker concerns. Representatives should have the following functions. rights and entitlements: Be given adequate information on health and safety matters. Listening to complaints. Workers’ safety and health committees and/or joint safety and health committees. workers. Allowed reasonable time (paid) and given training to perform their functions.NEBOSH International Diploma Unit IA – Revision Notes Workers’ safety delegates (often called “safety representatives”). The main role of representatives is to work proactively to prevent worker exposure to occupational hazards. Protection from dismissal/prejudicial treatment. Be able to contribute to the health and safety decision-making process/negotiations. labour inspectors and health and safety specialists (as required).
NEBOSH International Diploma Unit IA – Revision Notes
Help represent workers’ health and safety grievances to management. Typical activities of such committees would include: Regular meetings to discuss issues brought to its attention by members, suggest possible solutions and progress reports on issues being tackled. Developing health and safety training programmes. Researching specific health and safety issues to aid negotiations with management. Accompanying government inspectors on workplace inspections.
Joint Labour-Management Committees
These involve management as well as workers. Typical activities of these committees would include: Promoting health and safety in the workplace (including providing training). Monitoring the workplace for hazards and legal compliance (including inspections). Agreeing the health and safety policy and its implementation. Working with management to resolve health and safety problems/complaints. Involvement in planning proposed changes that may impact on health and safety. Keeping union members informed about planned actions.
Discussion Groups and Safety Circles
Consist of a group of individuals, often, volunteers, who meet informally to discuss safety problems in their immediate working environment.
Normally attended by shop-floor representatives, supervisory and management staff who will meet frequently, often once a week, to discuss general matters affecting their department.
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Role of the Health and Safety Professional in the Consultative Process
Provision of authoritative and independent advice. Responsibility for professional standards and systems. Liaise with a wide range of outside bodies and individuals.
Behavioural Aspects Associated with Consultation
Peer Group Pressures
The safety representative is a worker's representative and not part of the management team. Neither is he necessarily "a competent person". His role is primarily a policing one in which he monitors the safety performance of management and, because of peer group pressure, he may see himself in a conflicting, rather than co-operative, role.
Potential Areas of Conflict
Management may take the view that their opinions are correct simply because they are management and know better.
Development of Positive Consultative Processes
Consultation means to discuss (with others) a given agenda and to give or receive information or advice about that agenda prior to taking any action or arriving at decisions about possible courses of action. Positive consultation is based on a willingness on both sides - employer and employee - to consider problems together, to make use of each other's knowledge and expertise, and to apply that collective wisdom to the problem in hand. Consultation is particularly necessary on such matters as: The introduction of any new measure at a workplace which may substantially affect health and safety. Arrangements for appointing competent persons to assist the employer with health and safety and for implementing procedures relating to serious and imminent danger. Any health and safety information that the employer is required to provide.
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The planning and organisation of health and safety training, and health and safety implications of the introduction, or planned introduction, of any new technology.
Contributions of Employee Representatives/Safety Committee Members
Employee representatives: Will have a basic health and safety knowledge (legislation, guarding, noise, etc.). Need to be active in promoting and encouraging a health and safety culture amongst their colleagues: Safety committee members: Will have some health and safety knowledge (but probably less than the representative). Are likely to have a more reactive role than that of the representative (discussing reactive data such as accident reports/investigations). The safety committee has an important role in following up problems which have not been satisfactorily resolved by safety representative intervention.
PROVISION OF INFORMATION AND DEVELOPMENT OF INFORMATION SYSTEMS
Legal Requirements and Practical Arrangements for Providing Health and Safety Information
ILO Occupational Health and Safety Convention C155
Article 19(c) – employers to provide health and safety information to worker representatives.
ILO Protocol of 2002 to the Occupational Health and Safety Convention P155
Articles 3(a)(ii) and 4(a)(ii) – provision of information to employees regarding accident reporting systems and notified accidents.
ILO Occupational Health and Safety Recommendation R164
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information to the local public from competent authority on action to take in case of major accident.provision of information to authorities on potential accidents. organisation statements. ILO Communications Within the Undertaking Recommendation R129 Article 2(2) – dissemination of information. newspapers. performance standards. © RRC Training 69 . including the use of posters. etc. ILO Safety and Health in Construction Convention C167 Article 33 – provision of information to workers on health and safety hazards ILO Prevention of Major Industrial Accidents Convention C174 Article 9 . Article 16 .NEBOSH International Diploma Unit IA – Revision Notes Article 12(2) – provision of health and safety information to safety representatives/committees. etc. Provision of systems for cascading information to users. The documentation of policy. etc. rules and procedures. Development of a Health and Safety Management Information System Within the Workplace The collection of information from external sources. Article 14 – information on health and safety policy/organisation/arrangements brought to attention of employees. bulletins.
codes of practice and guidance National and international Standards Manufacturers' instructions Health and Safety Policy document Compliance data Cost data Risk assessments Monitoring results: Guidance from safety and professional bodies e." 70 © RRC Training ." "An attitude to safety which pervades the whole organisation from top to bottom and has become a norm of behaviour for every member of staff from the board of directors down to the newest juniors.NEBOSH International Diploma Unit IA – Revision Notes Information Sources EXTERNAL INFORMATION SOURCES Legislation. ILO.g. WHO. IOSH Guidance from industrial bodies • • • • Noise Dust Lighting Atmospheric. etc. INTERNAL INFORMATION SOURCES Job descriptions Job safety analyses Results of inspections/audits Accident and ill-health reports/statistics Training records Management system performance data DESCRIPTION OF HEALTH AND SAFETY CULTURE AND CLIMATE Definition There are many definitions for health and safety culture: "A system of shared values and beliefs about the importance of health and safety in the workplace.
The wearing of PPE. however. Bureaucratic Role Culture The power of the individual derives from the office or position he holds within the organisation. The presence of warning notices throughout the premises. There are set procedures and rules which must be followed and which ultimately give rise to a predictable and secure culture. Flexible Federal Role Culture Organisations run by persuasion and consent. Impact of Organisational Cultural Factors on Individual Behaviour We are all influenced to some degree by things that we see and hear. deal well with periods of rapid change. What are likely to influence our behaviour when it comes to safety? Managers and Supervisors Work Colleagues Training Job Design Work Equipment Influence of Organisational Structures Organisational Role Culture Describe the way in which individuals behave in organisations.NEBOSH International Diploma Unit IA – Revision Notes A health and safety climate is defined as "the tangible outputs or indicators of an organisation's Health and Safety Culture as perceived by individuals or work groups at a point in time". This type of culture thrives well in times of stability but does not. Flexible cultures try to avoid the 'them and us' image of managers and workers and instead use the concepts of team leader or staff co-ordinator. Indicators of Culture The registration of visitors. © RRC Training 71 .
A significant proportion of older. Balance of productivity and safety. Management visibility.g. Health and safety focus. more experienced and socially stable workers. Correlation Between Health and Safety Culture and Climate and Health and Safety Performance Factors associated with good safety performance: Effective communication. Subjective and Objective Nature of Culture and Climate The culture refers to objective characteristics that can be observed or inferred by an outside observer. do individuals feel like a valued member of the organisation? Measurement of the Culture and Climate Attitude Surveys Survey questionnaires containing statements which require responses indicating agreement or disagreement. The climate is more subjective.g.NEBOSH International Diploma Unit IA – Revision Notes Good or bad staff relationships. e. Learning organisation. Statements made by employees. "That's not my responsibility" (negative culture). Accident figures.g. E. a respect for tradition or service to customers. Committed resources. Participation. 72 © RRC Training . Job satisfaction. e. High quality training.
NEBOSH International Diploma Unit IA – Revision Notes When carried out regularly.introducing safe systems of work. Enforcing the company safety rules . Evidence of Commitment by Personnel at All Levels in the Organisation Visible commitment can be demonstrated by management: Being seen and involved with the work and correcting deficiencies. Effectiveness of Communication Successful communication is measured by feedback which enables the sender to test whether the receiver has fully understood the communicated message. Prompt Lists These are similar to attitude surveys except that prompt lists are used with predetermined answers. Ensuring that all personnel are competent. Providing sufficient resources to carry out jobs safely. © RRC Training 73 . attitude surveys can identify trends and it is then possible to quantify how attitudes are changing. Matching their actions to their words. High Business Profile to Health and Safety A positive health and safety culture can be promoted by including safety in all business documents and meetings. DESCRIPTION OF FACTORS AFFECTING HEALTH AND SAFETY CULTURE Factors that May Promote a Positive Health and Safety Culture or Climate Management Commitment and Leadership 'Lead by example'. Findings of Incident Investigations Where carelessness is found to be the widespread cause of accidents/incidents then this may be an indicator of poor safety culture.
Involvement and Consultation Involve staff members in: Risk assessments. Setting and Meeting Targets Setting targets: Can have a positive effect on a safety culture. Promotion of Ownership Involvement and consultation. leaflets or in staff newsletters). Accident investigations. Workplace inspections. Training To ensure that people have the right skills to carry out their job safely. Any health and safety information to be provided to employees. Should encourage people to work together in order to achieve the target. Factors that May Promote a Negative Health and Safety Culture or Climate Organisational Change This can: 74 © RRC Training . Consult with employees on: The introduction of any measures which may substantially affect their health and safety.NEBOSH International Diploma Unit IA – Revision Notes Provision of Information About health and safety matters (posters. Health and safety consequences of introducing new technology. The arrangements for appointing or nominating competent persons. The planning and organisation of any health and safety training. Safety committee meetings.
changes are phased in over a period of time. Cause mistrust of management and suspicion of any alterations to role or environment. leading to a subsequent deterioration in the safety culture.g. Action to Promote Change Direct Positive action is carried out with the sole objective of effecting change (a steering group and a working party). e. lack of interest in the job and generally poor attitudes towards the company and colleagues.: risk assessments and training. Uncertainty Can lead to dissatisfaction. © RRC Training 75 . Lack of Confidence in Organisation's Objectives and Methods If productivity appears to take precedence over safety. Disadvantage – the changes take a relatively long time to implement. Effecting Change Planning and Communication Start at the top of the organisation but encourage participation at all levels with clear objectives as to what is to be achieved by the proposed change. The Need for a Gradualist (Step-by-Step) Approach Advantages . ensuring that there is time for adaptation and modification and for the change to become part of the established culture. Management Decisions that Prejudice Mutual Trust or Lead to 'Mixed Signals' Regarding Commitment Can cause unrest and distrust in an organisation. with little commitment to safety.NEBOSH International Diploma Unit IA – Revision Notes Leave individuals worrying about job security and their position in the organisation. Indirect This brings about change but is not necessarily the primary reason for carrying out the action. the worker perception will be that the company is untrustworthy.
leading to a complete breakdown in relations between management and workforce. Absence of Trust in Communications Inconsistent management behaviour can bring about mistrust and uncertainty. Adopting Too Broad an Approach It is important that everyone is clear about the changes that will occur. confused and angry.NEBOSH International Diploma Unit IA – Revision Notes Problems and Pitfalls Changing Culture Too Rapidly Employees may feel vulnerable. 76 © RRC Training . Resistance to Change Set patterns of thought and behaviour can be difficult to overcome when change occurs. insecure.
Anthropology . Gregarious instinct. Scientifically select. Mental Levels Conscious level. Unconscious level. train and develop the worker. Taylor – Improvement of Industrial Efficiency Principles developed by Taylor: Develop a science for each element of a person's work.NEBOSH International Diploma Unit IA – Revision Notes ELEMENT A6: PRINCIPLES OF HEALTH AND SAFETY MANAGEMENT HUMAN BEHAVIOUR Basic Concepts Psychology . Co-operate with the workers to ensure that the work is done in accordance with the principles of the science which has been developed. Aggressive impulse. Sociology . Complexity of Human Behaviour Human Instincts Self-assertion.study of the history and nature of human society.study of the human personality. Acquisitive tendency. Constructive instinct. Subconscious level. © RRC Training 77 . W. Key Theories of Human Motivation F. human physiology and psychology.study of the whole science of man. the study of man as an animal.
C. Need for power. Mayo (Hawthorne Experiments) Working in a small. Need to achieve. 78 © RRC Training . McClelland Need for affiliation. harmonious group can have a significant effect on productivity.NEBOSH International Diploma Unit IA – Revision Notes Ensure that there is equal division of work and responsibility between the management and the worker. Motivators. and they only take it as a means of getting more money. Having a chance to air grievances seems to be beneficial to working relationships. Maslow (Hierarchy of Needs) Self-Actualisation Esteem Task needs Social Safety or Security Biological Maslow's Hierarchy of Needs Contemporary Theory (Complex) D.people do not really like responsibility. Douglas McGregor Theory X . Herzberg's Two-Factor Theory Hygiene factors.
HSG48 Model Errors Actions or decisions not intended and that involve a deviation from an accepted standard. − − − − Cutting corners to save time and/or energy – may be due to various reasons. © RRC Training 79 . situational and exceptional. etc. Mistakes – do the wrong thing believing it to be right: Rule-based. Knowledge-based. Routine – normal way of working.people are self-motivated to work and perform best with a minimum of supervision and control. Situational – rules are broken due to pressures from the job. Lack of enforcement of the rule. Violations Deliberate deviation from a rule or procedure. There are three types of violation: routine. Errors can be split into: Skill-based errors: − − − − Slips – failure in carrying out the actions of a task.g. awkward working posture.NEBOSH International Diploma Unit IA – Revision Notes Theory Y . New workers starting a job where routine violations are the norm and not realising that this is not the correct way of working. e. Lapses – forgetting to carry out an action. Perception that rules are too restrictive or no longer apply. Exceptional – rarely happens and only occurs when something has gone wrong.
Basic/routine. Perceiving. On. Specific control skills: − − − − − Sensing. Process Operator Skill Assessing the operator's skills.and Off-Line Processing On-line processing – decisions which have to be made as a work process is in operation. Familiarity with controls. Skill-Based Decisions Perceptual motor skills. A. Off-line processing – decisions which can be made after consideration of a number of alternatives. 80 © RRC Training . Complex Skills Sensing or obtaining information.NEBOSH International Diploma Unit IA – Revision Notes Individual Decision-Making Processes Decision Types Peter Drucker Tactical/strategic. Taking appropriate action. Decision. Organisational/personal. Unprogrammed decisions. Prediction. Deciding what should be done. H. Simon Programmed decisions.
Aptitude . © RRC Training 81 . Rule. attitudes and motivation. Sociological and Anthropological Factors The establishment of behavioural norms and resultant peer group pressure on individuals to comply with these norms. Errors occur if there are any problems such as machine variation or any environmental changes. where there are no tried rules or routines.Tendency of an individual to take action to achieve a particular goal. Motivation . Errors occur when some condition is not correctly considered or when the resulting effect was not expected. Human Behaviour . mental.Influences Personality . Sociological and Anthropological Factors Contributing to Individual Differences Psychological Factors Differences in personality.View of the world and approach to the situation. Knowledge-based behaviour . moral and social qualities of the individual.Talent or the appropriateness of actions. Behaviour Patterns Resulting from Ancestry and Social Background Effects of Ancestry Personality is a fixed quantity.person has to cope with unknown situations.operator is multi-skilled and has available a wide selection of well-tried routines which can be used to complete the task. Psychological. Attitude . Rule-based behaviour .person is carrying out an operation in automatic mode.and Skill-Based Behaviour (Rasmussen) Skill-based behaviour .Integrated and dynamic organisation of the physical.NEBOSH International Diploma Unit IA – Revision Notes Knowledge-.
NEBOSH International Diploma Unit IA – Revision Notes Social Background In other words. and you should have a general idea of why this could be so. Taste. The safety practitioner probably needs to be more concerned about those who don't know that they have sensory defects or try to forget about it. production-line type of employment will be boring in the extreme. Sensory Defects and Basic Screening Techniques Sensory defects increase with age and failing health. Education and Training Experience With increasing experience we would expect an employee to become more competent. production-line type of employment will be very taxing. Hearing. factors we learn by association. Intelligence Low intelligence: routine. Effects on Behaviour at Work of Experience. Some people need spectacles and hearing aids. Touch. Education and Training Training is used to motivate and change the behaviour of the people involved in workplace activities to eliminate or reduce the human failings which result in accident behaviour. High intelligence: routine. Intelligence. PERCEPTION OF RISK Human Sensory Receptors Sight. Smell. 82 © RRC Training .
We perceive not only the problem. stresses from the workplace. physical and mental ability. or not to take.NEBOSH International Diploma Unit IA – Revision Notes Individuals have the ability to screen out things that they are not interested in. but we fail to see alternative causes and solutions. action. Process of Perception of Danger Signals from the sensory receptors. © RRC Training 83 . which is then processed by the brain. physical effort. Perception and the Assessment of Risk Problems in the perception of a situation will cause errors in perception of risk. Perceptual Set A 'mindset'. strength. Further evidence may become available which shows that our original perception was faulty. and stresses from home and outside activities. Errors in Perception Caused by Physical Stressors Fatigue. We continuously screen out items that are not of immediate interest. Expected information from the memory. overtime. To take. Perception and the Limitations of Human Performance Limitations in knowledge. Perceptual Distortion The perception of hazard is distorted (work rates. bonus payments). but also the answer and set about solving the problem as we have perceived it. These two signals combine to give us a 'picture' of the situation of hazard. Filtering and Selectivity as Factors for Perception The filter mechanism only allows vital elements to be passed on. overwork.
84 © RRC Training .NEBOSH International Diploma Unit IA – Revision Notes Process of filtering and selectivity can present a danger by concentrating on a particular topic and missing a vital signal which should have warned of danger. Expected information (fatigue. Possible actions. Action will affect the situation and so produce a feedback loop. Perception and Sensory Inputs The Hale and Hale Model Perception is based on: Information from the senses (physical defects of sight or hearing can affect the presented information). stress or drugs can alter the expected information). Cost/benefit decision.
NEBOSH International Diploma Unit IA – Revision Notes Individual Behaviour in the Face of Danger The Hale and Glendon Model SYSTEM MODE Input LEVEL OF FUNCTIONING Processing Output No No Need for action recognised? Yes (Labelled as danger) Responsibility accepted or allocated? Knowledge Tests for danger known & carried out? Yes No Yes No Hazard seeking initiated? No Rules Yes Yes Plan made & carried out? No SYSTEM BOUNDARY Yes Obvious warning? Procedure known & chosen? Yes No No Programmed or insistent danger signals? Skills Yes Response in programme & carried out? Yes No Danger unaffected Danger brought (or stays) under control (Increasing Static Decreasing) OBJECTIVE DANGER Behaviour in the Face of Danger Model © RRC Training 85 .
Hale and A. such as HAZOP. The Netherlands) MAJOR DISASTERS Contribution of Human Error to Major Disasters Seveso (near Milan.instead they were vented directly to atmosphere when the bursting disc failed during overpressure. No emergency response plan. Chernobyl (Ukraine). indeed no safety management system. Basic safety rules were not clearly stated (there should have been an instruction to forbid running at low output levels) and normal safety rules were not followed during the experiment. no catch-pot system to intercept toxic by-products . 1976 Factors contributing to the accident: The legislative environment – well-intentioned law regarding weekend plant shutdowns that did not allow management discretion to complete a batch process. Sara Burgerhartstaat 25. 1986 Factors that led to the accident: The reactor design was flawed – there are inherently safer designs. R. inadequate sensors for measuring critical process parameters. 1055 KV Amsterdam. Italy). I. had been carried out on the process – the potential consequences would almost certainly have been picked up if a HAZOP had been conducted. There was also no trip system to prevent running at low outputs. lack of automatic systems. Glendon (1987) with kind permission from Elsevier Science – NL.NEBOSH International Diploma Unit IA – Revision Notes (Reproduced from Individual Behaviour in the Control of Danger by A. There was an automatic shut-down system to insert all the control rods to shut down the reactor but this had been disabled. (It was important to keep the reactor output above a minimum of 20%. The process was stopped at an unusual stage (never before stopped at this stage). as below this it 86 © RRC Training . Inadequate reaction/process control: no cooling or stirring when the process was stopped for the weekend. No systematic hazard analysis.
This did not look at the status of the relief valve directly – it should have done. Things are bound to go wrong outside of this. 1979 Factors that led to the accident: Operators were under considerable stress – many alarms were going. Operator training was inadequate. It should © RRC Training 87 . be trained in diagnosing problems (both foreseen and unforeseen) and in the use of diagnostic aids. it went down to around 6% output. Poor understanding of the consequences of their actions by the operators (e. It was not a raw material nor a product but an intermediate. they did not understand the importance of keeping a minimum number of control rods in place to control the reactor). lack of inspection/regulation. Poor safety culture – turning a blind eye to rule breaking. They also need to understand the principles of the process. Bhopal (India).g. at least 30 control rods should always have been in place as a minimum – instead. They had incorrectly diagnosed what they thought was the problem and stuck to a course of action. Protective systems were disabled – the automatic trip which would have shut down the reactor under fault conditions was isolated. In the experiment. Operators of complex plant cannot just be given a series of instructions to follow. Lack of proper planning of the experiment – in particular. all but six were removed. despite apparently overwhelming evidence to the contrary.NEBOSH International Diploma Unit IA – Revision Notes could become unstable. culture of “sloppiness”. Three Mile Island (USA).) Also. The crucial indicator (of the status of the pressure relief valve) was wrong. 1984 Factors that contributed to the accident: The large inventory of the intermediate. This was unnecessary. lack of proper authorisation of the experiments (at the appropriate management level). consideration of how things might go wrong and their potential consequences.
88 © RRC Training . This should not have been allowed . No systematic study (such as HAZOP) undertaken to identify any suggested contamination routes (it is well known that water and MIC react together violently) and therefore implement measures to eliminate the likelihood of this happening. A shanty town (temporary housing) had been allowed to grow up very close to the plant. The plant was located next to a sizable population. The plant was a joint venture – part owned by Union Carbide and part owned locally.either by planning legislation or by Union Carbide buying and fencing off the surrounding land. Process parameter instrumentation was poorly maintained and unreliable . Even if they had been working they are likely to have been inadequate to control a thermal runaway of this magnitude (but would certainly have reduced the effects). Poor emergency planning. There is some suggestion that managers and operators at the plant had insufficient experience and knowledge. Reward Schemes Reward given for improvement or a target reached.NEBOSH International Diploma Unit IA – Revision Notes not have been stockpiled but instead used in the next stage of the process as it was produced or at least kept to a minimum.led to early signs of pressure/temperature increase being ignored. Job Satisfaction Factors which lead to job satisfaction (motivators). Protective systems were not kept in working order. IMPROVING INDIVIDUAL HUMAN RELIABILITY IN THE WORKPLACE Motivation and Reinforcement Workplace Incentive Schemes Provoke employees to work harder in order to receive a payment or benefit.
Design To ensure a system works effectively. Information Should be accurate and timely. Importance of Interview and Selection To get only those workers who will conform to safety standards. Programmed instruction. give the opportunity for improvement. allow the employee to comment on progress and to voice opinions. ORGANISATIONAL FACTORS Effect of Organisational Factors on the Probability of Human Error Inadequacies in Policy Inefficient co-ordination of responsibilities. Appraisal Schemes Way of finding out what problems exist within a workplace and. Provide a measure of the safety culture. Poor management of health and safety.NEBOSH International Diploma Unit IA – Revision Notes Factors which lead to an absence of dissatisfaction (hygiene factors). More importantly. © RRC Training 89 . On-the-Job Training Provides trainees with experience which is a combination of work-based knowledge and the development of skills. Off-the-Job Training Lectures. Seminars.
A lot of work situations involve group work or committees and discussion groups. Informal Groups Within any organisation there is a 'grapevine'. Group Formation People join groups with a similar outlook. Experience or expertise. This is usually very effective in passing gossip and information. the information might not be totally reliable. Influence of Formal and Informal Groups Within an Organisation Formal Groups Formal organisations are established to achieve set goals. and arranges for division of labour. Group Reaction The group tends to create rules. They have clearly defined rules. In small groups. Peer Group Pressures and Norms The word 'peer' means someone of the same level or rank as yourself. structures and channels of communication. individuals can exert more influence. aims and objectives. Out-of-work activities. 90 © RRC Training . Superimpose on the formal organisational structure an informal structure of communication links and functional working groups. governments and international concerns. These cross all the barriers of management status and can be based on: Family relationships.NEBOSH International Diploma Unit IA – Revision Notes Implementation Everyone involved must understand what their role is and how this integrates into the system. Since the source is difficult to trace. Examples of formal organisation are businesses.
© RRC Training 91 . and good working conditions.NEBOSH International Diploma Unit IA – Revision Notes Group Development Groups develop 'pecking orders' in terms of the amount of speech and influence permitted. Conflicting interests. Types of Organisational Communication Vertical Vertical communication may flow upwards or downwards although the amount of communication downwards tends to exceed that going upwards. Detect deviations from this standard. Have power to demand conformity. both within a department and between departments. Dominant individuals struggle for status and an order develops. Horizontal Information is channelled horizontally. Lack of leadership and control. Group Control A group will: Establish standards of acceptable behaviour or group 'norms'. company loyalty. Poor communication. Approaches to conflict: Unitary approach – the common aims of the organisation generate team spirit. Inward Outward Procedures for Resolving Conflict and Introducing Change Conflict can occur because of: Personality clashes.
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Pluralist approach – the organisation is made up of various groups whose interests and goals may differ. Balance the various groups and bring causes of conflict into the open with bargaining.
Workplace Representation on Safety Committees
Items likely to be discussed at a safety committee meeting include Reports from safety representatives.
Effects of Patterns of Employment, Payment Systems and Shift Work
Short-term contracts may cause stress due to the lack of job security. Permanent contracts may lead to complacency in the workforce. Piecemeal workers are paid by performance and speed is of the essence, because the faster they work the more they get paid. Shift workers may experience negative effects on their health.
Application of Task Analysis
A means of breaking down a task into each individual step. By breaking the task down into each step, the cause of the injury may become apparent and it may identify a better way of completing the task.
Influence of Process and Equipment Design on Human Reliability
Grouping of displays. Consistency in displays. Relative positioning of control devices and displays. Working space and environment. Layout of controls, displays and seating for convenience of operation.
The Employee and the Workstation as a System
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MAN MACHINE Bells Buzzers Hooters Lights Ergonomic Fit
Display Dials Counters Gauges
Switches Knobs Levers Pedals
Elementary Physiology and Anthropometry
Anthropometry - study of human measurements, such as shape, size, and range of joint movements. Machine must be designed for the person. Physiology - study of the calorific requirements of work (how much energy is needed). A person must not be expected to do more than the human body is capable of.
Degradation of Human Performance Resulting from Poorly Designed Workstations
Unnatural posture. Leaning forwards, causing neck and lower back problems. Repetitive motions, requiring the operator to exert force or use some unnatural motion, can lead to upper limb disorders.
Ergonomically-Designed Control Systems – Examples of Applications
Production Process Control Panels
Operate the panel from a safe place. Reach all the dials and switches easily. Emergency controls clearly identifiable and easy to operate.
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Operator able to see the production area.
Crane Cab Controls
Controls in the cab within easy reach and permit ease and delicacy of control. Driver has a satisfactory view of operations below. Driver protected from the external environment.
Interface easily with all the controls. Controls/displays fitted in a logical way. Safety-critical switches cannot be inadvertently operated. Emergency controls clearly identifiable, easy to use and situated in a suitable location. Pilot must be able to adjust position to obtain the best field of vision.
Operator can access the key pad or keyboard easily and can use keys comfortably. Operator can adjust operating position.
Relationship Between Physical Stressors and Human Reliability
Extremes of heat, humidity, noise, vibration, poor lighting, restricted workspace.
Has a negative effect and means that errors are more likely to occur.
Effects of Fatigue and Stress on Human Reliability
Stress can affect performance and an individual's ability to make decisions and work effectively. Fatigue can lead to poorer performance on tasks requiring attention, decision-making or high levels of skill.
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sets an objective but leaves it to the dutyholder to decide on the best way of achieving the defined goal. a civil action is concerned with an individual who has suffered some loss. however. There are. If a government introduces legislation then there is a requirement for the legislation to be enforced. Benefits and Limitations of ‘Goal-Setting’ and ‘Prescriptive’ Legal Models Nature Goal-setting legislation . Act 1974 (United Kingdom) Occupational Safety and Health Act 1970 (USA) Work Environment Act 1977 (Sweden) By defining minimum acceptable standards. legislation at least partly forces organisations to adopt good practice. such as being injured following a workplace accident. which may lead to punishment. perhaps a fine or a prison sentence. © RRC Training 95 . There is little incentive for organisations to go beyond the minimum legal requirements. In addition. In contrast.NEBOSH International Diploma Unit IA – Revision Notes ELEMENT A7: PRINCIPLES OF HEALTH AND SAFETY MANAGEMENT COMPARATIVE GOVERNMENTAL AND SOCIO-LEGAL REGULATORY MODELS The Role. Function and Limitations of Legislation Examples of legislation include: Health and Safety at Work. Legislation may be introduced that leads to criminal and/or civil consequences. etc. A crime is an offence against the state and the consequence of a criminal action is the prosecution of the offender. limitations to the legislative approach. there must also be procedures for prosecution and punishment. The aim is for the claimant (the one who has suffered the loss) to seek (usually) financial compensation from the defendant as a result of the wrongdoing. The Nature.
It is more easily understood by the dutyholder and enforced by the regulator and it provides a uniform standard. The EU issues directives which are “binding as to the result achieved upon each member state to which it is addressed. it is difficult to enforce because what is “adequate” or “reasonably practicable” is much more subjective.NEBOSH International Diploma Unit IA – Revision Notes Prescriptive legislation . Within Europe there have been moves to harmonise standards in different countries. recognised that there are a number of different legal systems within the EU. However. There have been many attempts to harmonise occupational health and safety standards in Australia. This allows each member state to introduce its own legislation as long as it achieves the broad objectives contained within the directive. 96 © RRC Training . however. but shall leave to the national authorities the choice of form and methods”.defines the standard to be achieved in far more explicit terms. such as states or provinces. Goal-setting legislation allows more flexibility in compliance because it is related to the actual risk present in the individual workplace. Legal Hierarchy of State and Federal Laws A federal government is formed when a group of political units. the Occupational Safety and Health Act 1970 was enacted at federal rather than state level and so the USA does not have significant problems with harmonisation of standards. In the USA. It is. However. Benefits and Limitations Prescriptive legislation has clearly defined requirements. If each state can set their own standards then this will inevitably lead to inconsistencies. inflexible circumstances may lead to an excessively high or low standard and it does not take account of the circumstances of the dutyholder. merge together. One of the difficulties in federal systems is to ensure uniform standards and regulation throughout the country.
employees or both. The statutory duty was owed to that claimant. This invariably means having to resort to litigation in the courts. © RRC Training 97 . Others do not require proof of fault (no fault liability). such as their employer. Social Insurance Schemes . Virtually all cases are brought under the tort of negligence and the tort of breach of statutory duty. UK operates an Industrial Injuries Disablement Benefit Scheme.Operated by insurance companies who are paid premiums by employers. Some require the person making the claim to prove that their accident or ill health was a result of the fault of another. This is funded by National Insurance contributions.NEBOSH International Diploma Unit IA – Revision Notes Loss Events in Terms of Failures in the Duty of Care to Protect Individuals and the Compensatory Mechanisms that May be Available to Them There are a number of mechanisms that have evolved to provide compensation to the injured worker or to his or her dependants. with possible further contributions made from general taxation. For breach of statutory duty the claimant has to prove: The statute places the obligation on the defendant.These schemes are administered by government and funded by compulsory contributions made by employers. USA and Australia. Australia and the UK) have legislation that makes an employer liable for injury or illness to a worker as a result of their occupation. Compensatory Schemes No-Fault Compensation Scheme There are two main categories: Employers’ Schemes . Fault Compensation Scheme Employers’ Liability Most jurisdictions (including the USA. This requires the injured employee (or dependants following a fatal outcome) to bring a civil action against the employer and the need to establish fault on the part of the employer or one of his or her employees. and in many jurisdictions this is compulsory.
it depends on the standard of care which would have been adopted by the reasonable man in the circumstances. The claimant suffered damage as a result of the breach. Legal costs. The harm was foreseeable. and loss of companionship or amenity.NEBOSH International Diploma Unit IA – Revision Notes The injury was of a type contemplated by the statute. Non-economic . They include: − − − Loss of earnings due to the accident or ill health before the trial.include future expenditure and issues which cannot be precisely quantified. Damages may also be categorised as compensatory and punitive. General Damages . Compensatory Damages Special Damages . Medical costs to date.represent actual monetary loss. They include: − − − Pain and suffering before and after the trial. The breach of statutory duty caused the injury. For negligence the claimant must prove: The defendant owed the claimant a duty of care. 98 © RRC Training . Reduced likelihood of being able to secure suitable employment. The defendant was in breach of that duty. The important point to note is that the standard required of the defendant is an objective one. The defendant was in breach of that duty . Damages Economic . Loss of quality of life. suffering.represent pain.relate to known expenditure up until the trial. i.e. it is well established that an employer owes a duty of care to their employees and so if the defendant is an employer this element is unlikely to be contested.most negligence cases hinge on this point.
which involve a risk of serious personal injury. Usually only awarded when the conduct of the defendant was particularly oppressive or where the defendant made a profit from the behaviour. USA . Mechanisms Used to Enforce Health and Safety Legislation Typical Role and Function of Enforcement Agencies It is necessary to have a government body that is responsible for regulating health and safety at work. Inspection and Investigation Inspectors have extensive powers to carry out their duties. or are likely to be carried out. Prohibition Notices An inspector can issue a prohibition notice if he is of the opinion that activities are being carried out. Improvement Notices An inspector can issue an improvement notice if he is of the opinion that a person: − − Is contravening one or more relevant statutory provisions. UK . © RRC Training 99 . Inspectors have a number of ways of encouraging dutyholders to comply with legal requirements. The UK system will be used to illustrate the model.the Health and Safety Executive (HSE). They provide advice and often refer to the vast amount of guidance literature that has been published by the HSE and other bodies.NEBOSH International Diploma Unit IA – Revision Notes Punitive Damages These are awarded to punish. or Has contravened one of the provisions and it is likely that the contravention will continue or be repeated. to signify disapproval and to deter the defendant and others from carrying out similar conduct to that which harmed the claimant.the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA).
Business contracts are usually communicated and accepted in writing because it is much easier to prove that it has been created. Adverse Publicity Orders These are a feature of a number of jurisdictions including the USA. If. If the person who has caused the breach does not provide a remedy then the person who has suffered a loss as a result of the breach can bring a court action. The order requires the directors and senior managers to alter the way occupational health and safety is managed so that the likelihood of similar accidents or ill health occurring is reduced. Corporate probation is a supervision order imposed by the court on a company that has been convicted of a criminal offence.e. Corporate Probation This is a feature of the USA and Canadian jurisdictions but is a relatively new provision in the UK. Principles of Typical Laws of Contract If a contract is formed.NEBOSH International Diploma Unit IA – Revision Notes Criminal Action The ultimate sanction is to prosecute. This is called the binding nature of a contract. The usual penalty is a fine. One of the implied terms of such a contract is that the employer will take reasonable care to ensure the health and safety of the 100 © RRC Training . for example. an agreement between two or more parties which is enforceable in a court of law. subsequently. This might. then the parties who formed the contract are legally bound by the terms of the contract. require the company to introduce new procedures or ensure employees are fully trained. They require the convicted organisation to publicise at their own expense the wrongdoing that led to the conviction. When an employer engages an employee a contract of employment is established. Australia and more recently the UK. one of the parties defaults on the contract then this would constitute a breach of contract. i. It is effectively “naming and shaming”. Laws of Contract Definition of Contract An exchange of promises.
In respect of occupational health and safety. legal disputes submitted to it by states and to give opinions on legal questions referred to it. social progress and human rights. When articles and substances are manufactured then there may be a series of contracts established between the producer (or manufacturer) and the consumer (or end user). international security. particularly in the construction industry. issues such as slavery. Codes of Practice in Relation to Health and Safety United Nations The United Nations (UN) is an international organisation whose aims are to facilitate co-operation in international law. The Court’s role is to resolve. It is commonplace for employers to engage contractors for short-term work. © RRC Training 101 . Similarly the employee is required to carry out his or her work with reasonable care and skill. in accordance with international law.NEBOSH International Diploma Unit IA – Revision Notes employee. discrimination against women and the rights of migrant workers are of particular relevance. ROLE AND LIMITATIONS OF THE INTERNATIONAL LABOUR ORGANISATION IN A GLOBAL HEALTH AND SAFETY SETTING Role and Status of Ratified International Conventions. Office of the United Nations High Commissioner for Human Rights The High Commissioner for Human Rights is the principal human rights official of the United Nations. International Court of Justice The International Court of Justice is the principal judicial organisation of the United Nations (UN). Recommendations. economic development.
However. 2006 (1) Each Member shall establish. security and human dignity. The ILO is the only “tripartite” United Nations agency in that it brings together representatives of governments. and when a specified number of governments have done so the convention becomes a treaty in international law. in consultation with the most representative organisations of employers and workers. ILO Conventions The adoption of a convention by the International Labour Conference allows governments to ratify it. Nearly half of all ILO standards are concerned with health and safety matters. maintain. International Labour Conference Provisional Record 20A Convention Concerning the Promotional Framework for Occupational Safety and Health. encourage decent employment opportunities. Ratification of a convention imposes a legal obligation to apply its provisions.NEBOSH International Diploma Unit IA – Revision Notes International Labour Organisation (ILO) ILO Role and International Labour Conference The International Labour Organisation (ILO) is an agency of the UN which is devoted to advancing opportunities for women and men to obtain decent and productive work in conditions of freedom. equity. it is voluntary for a country to ratify a convention. enhance social protection and strengthen dialogue in handling work-related issues. Its main aims are to promote rights at work. Geneva. The ILO is the global body responsible for drawing up and overseeing international labour standards. progressively develop and periodically review a national system for occupational safety and health. All adopted ILO conventions are considered international labour standards irrespective of how many governments have ratified them. If a convention has not been ratified by member states then it has the same legal force as recommendations. ILO. The ILO has more than 180 ILO Conventions and 190 Recommendations covering all aspects of the world of work. The national system for occupational safety and health shall include among others: © RRC Training (2) 102 . employers and workers to jointly shape policies and programmes.
and support mechanisms for a progressive improvement of occupational safety and health conditions in micro-enterprises. responsible for occupational safety and health. provisions for collaboration with relevant insurance or social security schemes covering occupational injuries and diseases. addressing occupational safety and health issues. research on occupational safety and health. (b) (c) (d) (3) The national system for occupational safety and health shall include. occupational health services in accordance with national law and practice. and any other relevant instruments on occupational safety and health. a mechanism for the collection and analysis of data on occupational injuries and diseases.NEBOSH International Diploma Unit IA – Revision Notes (a) Laws and regulations. the provision of occupational safety and health training. or bodies. where appropriate: (a) (b) (c) (d) (e) (f) a national tripartite advisory body. or authorities or bodies. mechanisms for ensuring compliance with national laws and regulations. cooperation between management. workers and their representatives as an essential element of workplace-related prevention measures. at the level of the undertaking. taking into account relevant ILO instruments. an authority or body. collective agreements where appropriate. including systems of inspection. in small and medium-sized enterprises and in the informal economy. and arrangements to promote. (g) (h) © RRC Training 103 . information and advisory services on occupational safety and health. designated in accordance with national law and practice.
Every delegate has the same rights. Provide specific measures to prevent catastrophes. recommendations are drawn up by representatives of governments. Each member state is represented by a delegation consisting of two government delegates. a worker delegate. Along with conventions. codes of practice on occupational safety and health and the working environment. An example is the Code of Practice on Safety and Health in the Iron and Steel Industry (2005). Roles and Responsibilities of ‘National Governments’. Undertake or promote studies and research. and their respective advisers. employers and workers and are adopted at the ILO's annual International Labour Conference. The member states of the ILO meet at the International Labour Conference. 104 © RRC Training . They aim to serve as practical guides. Review legislative enactments. held every year. ILO Codes of Practice ILO Codes of Practice contain practical recommendations intended for all those with a responsibility for occupational safety and health in both the public and private sectors. or accepted standards. an employer delegate. Codes of Practice are not legally binding instruments and are not intended to replace the provisions of national laws or regulations. and all can express themselves freely and vote as they wish. ‘Enterprises’ and ‘Workers’ as Given in the Publication R164 Occupational Safety and Health Recommendation 1981 Key provisions: National governments: Issue or approve regulations. One example is the Occupational Safety and Health Recommendation R164 1981. Provide information and advice.NEBOSH International Diploma Unit IA – Revision Notes ILO Recommendations Recommendations are non-binding guidelines so are not ratified by member countries and do not have the binding force of conventions.
NEBOSH International Diploma Unit IA – Revision Notes Secure good liaison with the International Labour Occupational Safety and Health Hazard Alert System. Report forthwith to their immediate supervisor any situation which they have reason to believe could present a hazard and which they cannot themselves correct. and use work methods. To institute organisational arrangements regarding occupational safety and health. To provide adequate supervision. without any cost to the worker. Workers should: Take reasonable care for their own safety and that of other persons who may be affected by their acts or omissions at work. To provide. machinery and equipment. To give necessary instructions and training. Comply with instructions given for their own safety and health and those of others and with safety and health procedures. does not adversely affect occupational safety and health. To undertake studies and research or otherwise keep abreast of the scientific and technical knowledge. To take all reasonably practicable measures with a view to eliminating excessive physical and mental fatigue. Provide appropriate measures for handicapped workers. adequate personal protective clothing and equipment. © RRC Training 105 . which are as safe and without risk to health as is reasonably practicable. Enterprises: To provide and maintain workplaces. Report any accident or injury to health which arises in the course of or in connection with work. To ensure that work organisation. Use safety devices and protective equipment correctly and do not render them inoperative. particularly with respect to hours of work and rest breaks.
safety. environmental and technical standards through the publication of guidelines. They can promote common interests and improvements in quality. THE ROLE OF NON-GOVERNMENTAL BODIES AND SELF-REGULATION Relevant Influential Parties Employer Bodies These represent the interests of employers. Sharing of good practice can be facilitated. conduct inspections and sit on a safety committee. and regular briefing notes on technical issues and regulatory developments. The CBI is the main lobbying organisation for UK business on national and international issues. codes of practice. Trade Associations Trade associations are formed from a membership of companies who operate in a particular area of commerce and exist for their benefit. 106 © RRC Training . hours. The CBI helps create and sustain the conditions in which businesses in the United Kingdom can compete and prosper for the benefit of all. and working conditions. information notes. In the UK. It is committed to bringing conventions and recommendations before Parliament. Trade Unions A trades union is an organisation of workers who have formed together to achieve common goals in key areas such as wages. It works with the UK government. unions may appoint safety representatives from amongst the workers who may investigate accidents. health. In the UK the main body is the Confederation for British Industry (CBI).NEBOSH International Diploma Unit IA – Revision Notes How International Conventions Can be Used as a Basis for Setting National Systems of Health and Safety Legislation In the UK the body responsible for establishing and enforcing health and safety standards is the Health and Safety Executive. international legislators and policymakers to help UK businesses compete more effectively.
Public Individual members of the public can have little influence on the regulation of health and safety unless they can influence others and so form a body of opinion (e. e.g TV and radio may publicise major accidents. Publicising good and bad health and safety performance. ‘lobby groups’ or ‘protest groups’.NEBOSH International Diploma Unit IA – Revision Notes Professional Groups In the UK. However. Agencies such as OSHA (USA) and the HSE (UK) produce guidance for all categories of dutyholders in all types of employment. Pressure Groups A pressure group can be described as an organised group of people who have a common interest but unlike a political party do not put up candidates for election.g. The Importance of the Media in a Global Economy In terms of occupational health and safety. This is available in hard copy and more commonly in electronic format that can be downloaded. a pressure group) that cannot be ignored. the Chernobyl disaster. IOSH is formally recognised by the ILO as an international non-governmental organisation. Incidents with lesser consequences may be publicised within the area in which they occurred. It has local branches not only in the UK but also in the Middle East. It is an independent. They can also be described as ‘interest groups’. here are some of the ways in which the media is used: Making health and safety guidance easily accessible with minimal cost. the Institution of Occupational Safety and Health (IOSH) is the largest body for health and safety professionals.g. IOSH has increased its international presence in more recent years. e. they seek to influence government policy or legislation. supports and develops members and provides authoritative advice and guidance on health and safety issues. prosecutions and public inquiries. notfor-profit organisation that sets professional standards. Hong Kong and the Caribbean. This allows dutyholders who have limited expertise to access relevant information and so comply with legal requirements. Such publicity increases the awareness of © RRC Training 107 . Major disasters may be publicly discussed not only in the country in which they occurred but internationally.
The Benefits of Schemes Which Promote Co-Operation on Health and Safety Between Different Companies In the UK a number of schemes have been established to encourage larger organisations to help smaller businesses and contractors with health and safety expertise. examples of this include: Making the public. The media can be used to help change attitudes to occupational health and safety. TV/radio and the Internet. Enabling anyone with an Internet connection access to a huge range of information (good and bad) which would otherwise be much less accessible.g. Assisting in educating members of the professional body and promoting good health and safety standards by publishing professional journals (e. through the newspapers. Small businesses do not have access to the same health and safety expertise. aware of enforcement action such as prosecutions. 108 © RRC Training . Schemes have also been established between organisations of similar size. Institution of Occupational safety and Health (UK)). convictions and civil actions. It is much less costly to share such resources and all members of the scheme will benefit. so if a large organisation can provide advice to a smaller one.NEBOSH International Diploma Unit IA – Revision Notes occupational health and safety issues and reminds dutyholders of the possible consequences of failing to pay attention to these issues. then the smaller business will benefit and the larger organisation will be able to demonstrate its public responsibility. Adverse Publicity Orders (see above) are a sanction that the courts may impose against organisations that fail to comply with legal requirements. They might involve sharing expertise and equipment such as a noise meter. They will have an adverse effect on the perceived reputation of the organisation. and in particular dutyholders. Companies publicising good health and safety performance to promote their services and to secure a competitive advantage by being seen as good employers. Enforcement bodies making information on good health and safety practice easily accessible to dutyholders.
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Supplier auditing is the process by which an organisation establishes that its existing and new suppliers meet their requirements. In the context of health and safety this would include ensuring that the quality of the products and services it supplies meets legal requirements and other standards. For example, this may include the company sending an auditor to a manufacturer of machines to ensure that it has adopted safe working practices and that the machines are constructed from suitable materials and meet designated safety standards.
Effects on Business of Adverse Stakeholder Reaction to Health and Safety Concerns
Following any adverse health and safety incident, such as an accident or case of occupational ill-health, there will be financial implications for the organisation. Some of the losses can be relatively easily quantified, but there will be a range of indirect costs whose effect cannot easily be determined. One such effect is on the stakeholders of an organisation and include: Employees who rely on the organisation for employment. Other businesses including suppliers and contractors who trade with the organisation. Businesses that benefit indirectly from the presence of an organisation, e.g. local shops. Shareholders who own the organisation and wish to see their investment yield a satisfactory financial return. Perrier Mineral Water Incident, 1990 It was declared that it was due to a bottle of cleaning fluid and was limited to the US. A few days later the real cause was shown to be failure to replace charcoal filters that were used to remove impurities. The misinformation provided by the company in the early days of the incident that led to the image that the water was unsafe. The inconsistency in the messages provided by the company had a significant financial impact on the business. Piper Alpha Disaster 1988 The initial explosion was caused by a failure to manage a maintenance operation. However, failings in design, communication and a lack of
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emergency preparedness caused the small explosion to escalate into much larger gas explosions that led to the loss of 167 lives and the rig. This led to the owners of the rig, Occidental Petroleum, withdrawing their interests from the North Sea. The offshore industry’s image in general was damaged and resulted in the UK economy losing revenue.
The Origins and Meaning of ‘Self Regulation’
Self regulation is the process whereby an organisation monitors its own adherence to health and safety standards, rather than having an outside agency, such as a governmental body, monitoring and enforcing them. The benefit to the organisation is that it can set and maintain its own standards without external interference. Self regulation of health and safety within a legal framework was one of the recommendations of the Robens Committee, which was established in 1970 in the UK to "review the provision made for the safety and health of persons in the course of their employment and to consider whether any changes are needed”. The Robens report identified that the existing system relied too much on regulation by external government bodies with too little reliance on organisations establishing their own standards. A key recommendation in the report was that those who create the risks of occupational accidents and ill health should be responsible for regulating them. Future legislation should establish conditions for creating more effective self regulation rather than relying on more negative regulation by enforcement bodies. The UK agency the Health and Safety Executive defined self regulation as "the purposeful creation and maintenance of standards of health and safety and the accordance of priorities commensurate with the risks generated by the activities of the organisation". To achieve self regulation the Robens Committee recognised the importance of securing worker participation in the implementation and monitoring of health and safety arrangements. In many countries, including the UK, this is achieved through representatives of workplace safety (trade unionised or otherwise) and/or safety committees (which include worker representation).
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NEBOSH International Diploma Unit IA – Revision Notes
The Role and Function of Corporate Governance in a System of Self Regulation
Aside from external legislation which may dictate the conduct of the company, an organisation is to a certain extent self regulating; it sets many of its own objectives and standards and determines how it will achieve them. Corporate governance is the system by which organisations are directed and controlled by their board of directors and includes the making of broad strategic decisions which affect the direction of the organisation. It is on a higher level than management, which relates to the regular decisions and subsequent actions needed to effectively run the business. The board of an organisation, which comprises its directors, provides this governance which aims to create a successful organisation. Their area of control includes occupational health and safety as well as other corporate objectives such as being competitive and making a profit.
How Internal Rules and Procedures Regulate Health and Safety Performance
The worker must clearly understand and appreciate the need for the rules as well as have the competence to comply with them. The working conditions must encourage compliance. For a rule to be effective it has to be enforced by the organisation. This may include routine day-to-day monitoring, formal inspections and random spot checks. Failure to comply with internal rules may lead to sanctions.
How Non-Conformity to an Accredited Health and Safety Standard can be Used as a Form of Enforcement Within a Self Regulatory Model
All safety management models include the capacity for monitoring, auditing and feedback which leads to continuous improvement. If a system is established that responds quickly to failures then there will be substantial improvements in standards.
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NEBOSH International Diploma Unit IA – Revision Notes ELEMENT A8: PRINCIPLES OF HEALTH AND SAFETY MANAGEMENT PURPOSE OF PERFORMANCE MEASUREMENT Purposes of performance measurement include: To assess the effectiveness and appropriateness of health and safety objectives. We then have an objective to aim for. Realistic – realistically achievable with the resources you have. Achievable . and for noise. Timely – set a reasonable timescale to achieve them. and must not exceed a certain level. To maintain and improve health and safety performance. and some goal or standard against which to judge that measurement. We need to set objectives in terms of things that can be measured. To measure and reward success. The safety objective could be set lower than this standard. Measurable – so you know if they have been met. The exposure to some chemicals must be kept as low as possible. 112 © RRC Training . Making recommendations for a review of current management systems. An acronym for setting objectives is 'SMART'.attainable. If we achieve this consistently then an even lower standard can be set. Good objectives need to be: Specific – as to what you want to achieve. Assessment of the Effectiveness and Appropriateness of Health and Safety Objectives and Arrangements We must first have both something that can be measured. In many regions of the world there are legal standards for chemical contaminants and dust levels.
Refresher training and perhaps even re-testing can be used to make sure that practical skills are maintained. safe behaviour by employees. Fire precautions. procedures. such as hazard reports. compliance with safe systems of work. © RRC Training 113 .e. Measuring Performance Against Objectives When setting objectives. covering such topics as: Accident reporting. Active systems which monitor the achievement of objectives and the extent of compliance with standards. Contractors and visitor arrangements.. not to penalise failure. In reactive monitoring we should be looking at accidents and accident rates. Dealing with any hazards in the operation (i. ill-health. Training. control measures). we have to consider performance standards and indicators. then it should be made the clear responsibility of an individual. The “health and safety arrangements” section of a safety policy document usually includes systems.NEBOSH International Diploma Unit IA – Revision Notes It is possible to create standards with regard to training. Good practice dictates that certain jobs should only be performed by qualified or experienced workers. incidents and other evidence of deficient health and safety performance. In active systems we would be interested in monitoring the safety of plant and equipment. etc. There is then a standard to measure performance. Arrangements for Actioning Objectives If something needs to be done. standards. The primary purpose should be to measure and reward success. Reactive systems which monitor accidents.
policy. implementation and systems for measuring and control. Quarterly review for a department. 114 © RRC Training . Supervisor daily assessment. Annual review for the organisation. Identification of areas where improvements are required. Review of Current Management Systems Either we have achieved what we set out to do or we have failed. Assessment of specific set objectives. All these arrangements need to be assessed to make sure that they are (and continue to be) effective and appropriate and working as intended. Review Process Review is combined with audit procedures. The review would probably cover: Assessment of degree of compliance with set standards. The audit looks at all aspects of the system . planning. Measurement of the degree of control is by systematic reviews. Sectional manager monthly review.NEBOSH International Diploma Unit IA – Revision Notes Safe methods of work and permit-to-work schemes would also be detailed. organisation. Analysis of accident and incident trends. We require a system which is continually being improved. Control Measures An assessment of the effectiveness and the appropriateness of the control measures of a company is another important area of performance measurement. If we have failed we must find out why. Were the objectives impracticable? Were resources not available? Was the safety practitioner incompetent? Every element of the management system can be audited or examined in detail.
such as hazard reports. © RRC Training 115 . Legislation and technical standards. so that there is not a rapid cause and effect situation. thus maintaining the adequacy of the health and safety plans. Variations from year to year might be due to pure chance rather than any accident reduction measures that we have introduced. and helping to avoid any incidents. Objectives of Reactive Monitoring To analyse data relating to: Accidents. steps can be taken to ensure that any weaknesses are addressed. therefore numbers may not be statistically significant. ill-health. incidents and other evidence of deficient health and safety performance. By identifying non-compliances.NEBOSH International Diploma Unit IA – Revision Notes MONITORING SYSTEMS Need for Both Active and Reactive Measures Active systems . Time off work does not correlate well with the severity of an injury.which monitor accidents. Objectives of Monitoring Objectives of Active Monitoring Active monitoring checks that the health and safety plans have been implemented and to monitor the extent of compliance with: The organisation's systems and procedures. Under-reporting of minor accidents. Limitations of Accident and Ill-Health Data as a Performance Measure Rare occurrences. Accident statistics tend to reflect the results of actions which were taken some time ago.which monitor the achievement of objectives and the extent of compliance with standards. Reactive systems .
In-house or proprietary. Production of reports. Any other factors which degrade the system. An external safety audit. Workplace Inspections Walk the premises. In-House and Proprietary Audit Systems Types of Safety Audit A detailed internal investigation of the safety systems and practices of the organisation. rules or safe practice. Other Methods Safety tours. looking for hazards or non-compliance with legislation. Safety surveys. Use of Computer Technology to Assist with Data Storage and Analysis and Production of Reports Availability and types of software.NEBOSH International Diploma Unit IA – Revision Notes Ill-health situations. systematic. critical investigation into all aspects of safety. MONITORING AND MEASUREMENT TECHNIQUES Measurement Techniques Health and Safety Audits An in-depth. Other loss-causing events. Safety sampling. carried out by an outside organisation. 116 © RRC Training .
Objective . It puts the safety practitioner in the situation of making speculative predictions. © RRC Training 117 . However. but below are listed a range of active and reactive outcome indicators relevant to a range of objectives.Depends upon someone's opinion. number of accidents reported. e. If an accident occurs then we can no longer suggest that this is improbable. Active Monitoring Data The extent to which plans and objectives have been set and achieved. Range of Measures Available to Evaluate Organisation's Performance Performance measures can be used to give an accurate picture of how an organisation is performing with respect to health and safety.Detached from personal judgment.g. including: Perceptions of management commitment. Selecting the appropriate outcome indicator depends on the chosen objectives. this is what the law requires.The data describes numbers. We can certainly measure whether we have taken action in those areas where the risk assessment suggests that we do. Qualitative − − Data is not represented numerically. We carry out risk assessments to decide what might happen and then take action. Reactive After it has happened. Difficult to treat as an accurate measure. Measuring safety performance by looking for things before they happen can never be easy. Quantitative . and Applicability of.NEBOSH International Diploma Unit IA – Revision Notes Distinctions Between. Performance Measures Active Before it happens. it needs to be included in the risk assessments. Subjective .
lost-time accidents. Reportable dangerous occurrences. Comparisons of Performance Data Previous Performance Compare present performance data with that obtained previously to show overall trend. Near misses. Damage-only accidents. 118 © RRC Training . Regulatory agency enforcement actions. Safety policy. Criticisms from regulatory agency staff. Lost-time accidents. Complaints. Sickness absences.NEBOSH International Diploma Unit IA – Revision Notes Specialist staff. Reportable major injuries. Performance of Similar Organisations/Industry Sectors Compare the performances of your company with others (benchmark). Health and safety committee meetings. Unsafe conditions. Risk assessments. Reactive Monitoring Data Unsafe acts. Three-day. Training. Extent of compliance.
Graphical: tables. Recommendations Important part of the report. pie charts. PRESENTING AND COMMUNICATING FINDINGS Reporting Techniques Textual: by means of a written report. © RRC Training 119 . line graphs. It is important that the style is clear. Content tells what actions are required. Can be useful in gauging where you are as a company. bar charts and histograms. concise and easy to understand.NEBOSH International Diploma Unit IA – Revision Notes National and International Performance Data Performance data produced by national enforcement agencies and also by international organisations (such as the World Health Organisation).