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Lesson 06

**Operational Amplifiers (Op-amps)
**

6.1 Introduction

Voltage amplification is a main application of an operational amplifier. It can also be used to perform mathematical operations. Considering these two main applications, this electronic device is termed as operational amplifier(Op-amp).Operational amplifiers can be constructed from discrete components, mainly transistors, which provide a stable and high voltage amplification. But commonly they are available as monolithic integrated circuits(IC’s) as shown in Figure 6.1.

Figure 6.1: Top view of an Op-amp IC Op-amps can be used in electronic circuits to perform a number of linear and nonlinear mathematical operations such as addition, subtraction, integration and differentiation. They are also used as video and audio amplifiers, oscillators, etc. Because of their versatility, Op-amps are widely used in all branches of electronics; both digital and analogue circuits. One of the most common Op-amp IC is CA 741. Figure 6.2 shows the symbol for an Op- amp. It has two inputs named as inverting (V-) and non-inverting (V+) and one output.

V_ Inputs V+ Vo Output

**Figure 6.2: Symbol of an operational amplifier
**

69

On the diagram +VCC = +15V and -VCC = -15V.Operational Amplifiers – Lesson 06 The Op-amps originally behave as differential amplifiers. which provide a high linear gain on the voltage signal. Ad = Vo /( V+ .Ad x V. An Op-amp IC is activated by applying a dual DC power supply (approximately –15V and +15V). When both input terminals bear the same voltage signal V0 = 0V When inverting input (V-) is grounded(= 0V) V0 = Ad x V+ ie.V.3 Complete diagram of an open loop operational amplifier circuit For a linear amplifier the output voltage (V0) is Ad x ( V+ . +VCC V_ Inputs V+ Vo Output -VCC Figure 6. The linear voltage gain of this behavior is known as differential gain (Ad ) or open loop voltage gain.) An Op-amp shows this linear voltage amplification under certain conditions. The low frequency of the input signal and the low input voltage difference (V+ .2 Open loop and closed loop amplifiers Figure 6..) are prominent of them. In the symbol it is not usually mentioned. the sign of the output signal is same as the input signal (V+) 70 .V.) When non inverting input (V+) is grounded(= 0V) V0 = .3 shows a complete diagram of an open loop operational amplifier circuit.ie. 6. applied to the non-inverting (V+) input terminal with respect to the inverting signal voltage(V-).V. the sign of the output signal is the inversion of V.

According to the above graph.In closed loop amplifiers.V-). Op-amps are used in closed loop amplifier mode which consists of negative feed back (a portion of output voltage is negatively fed back to the input voltage signal) and reduces the voltage gain.5 shows the general form of a closed loop (negative feed back) amplifier circuit.5: Closed loop operational amplifier circuit 71 . The voltage range of the input signal corresponding to the linear amplification of an Op-amp is typically a few µV’s . Vo +VCC Saturated region V+ .4. Figure 6. Closed loop V_ Inputs V+ Vo Output Figure 6.4: Voltage amplification of an open loop Op-amp Linear region A Linear amplifier is one that has an output voltage (Vo) which is directly proportional to the input voltage (V+ . However in most of the applications. the input voltage can take up to few mV’ s in the linear amplification region.V-V1 +V2 Saturated region -VCC Figure 6.Operational Amplifiers – Lesson 06 The above relationships between the input and output voltage signals of an open loop amplifier is graphically represented by Figure 6. the linear amplification is valid within the input voltage range of -V1 to +V2 and out of that the output voltage saturates around +VCC and -VCC .

3 Ideal Op-amp approximations An ideal operational amplifier has the following characteristics: • Infinite input impedance (any signal can be supplied to the Op-amp without loading problems) Zero output impedance (the power supplied by the Op-amp is not limited).= I + = 0A 72 .0 mV V.= 5.= 5.0 mV V. What would the output voltages be when the non inverting input (V+) and the inverting input(V-) terminals are connected to the following voltage signals? (i).= -100 µV V. The closed loop gain depends on the components connected externally and not on the amplifier characteristics . • • Infinite voltage gain (the output voltage exceeds the power supply voltage) • Flat frequency response ( voltage gain does not depend on the input voltage frequency) Two Golden rules can be derived by following the above approximations.They are .3V Answer : 15V Answer : 8V Answer : -15V Q2: What are the disadvantage of an open loop amplifier ? 6.Operational Amplifiers – Lesson 06 In amplifier circuits the feed back path of the closed loop mode consists of a resistor which controls and stabilizes the amplifier gain. I . V.0 mV Answer : 0. V+ = 2. Q1: The output of an Op-amp saturates at +15 V and –15V. V+ = -20 µV (iv).0µV V. The open loop voltage gain (Ad) is 105. V+ = 5.0mV (iii).= 2.= V+ Rule 2: The input bias are zero.0 µV (ii). V+ = 10. Rule 1: The voltages at the inverting and non inverting terminals are equal.

subtraction. inverters (dc to ac or dc to ac) . The external negative feed back network (a resistor connected across an input teminal and output terminal )brings the input voltage difference to zero (if possible). limiting the 73 . Some of these applications are discussed in the following paragraphs.4 Op-amp applications Op-amps are used as basic building blocks to build different linear and non linear analogue electronic systems.Operational Amplifiers – Lesson 06 To apply the 1st rule requires negative feedback. differentiation and integration. they are used to perform various mathematical operations like addition. The linear circuit applications include amplifiers. the 2nd rule indicates that the input current through the inverting and non inverting terminals can be negligable. multiplication. sample and hold circuits.1 Inverting amplifiers Figure 6.Deu to high input impedance of the Op-amp. The input signal is applied to the inverting input through a resistor (Rin) and a fraction of the output is fed back into the input through the feed back resistor (Rf).6 shows a basic inverting amplifier circuit using a negative feed back resistor (Rf).4. 6. logarithmic amplifiers etc. If Rf Rin Vin Iin Vout Figure 6. 6. division. active filters.6: Inverting amplifier circuit. These two rules provide a simple way to find the approximations of Op-amp circuits like resultant voltage gain. voltage to current and current to voltage converters. In addition.

Rf ( Vin) Rin The negative sign indicates that the polarity of the output signal is the opposite of the input signal ( out of phase.= 0. Therefore the amplifier is called an inverting amplifier. The magnitude of the voltage gain of an inverting amplifier is defined by the ratio of two resistors (Rf and Rin). Golden rule 2) (I= V / R) V − Vout Vin − V− = − R in Rf Vin − Vout = R in Rf (Because V. The values of input and feed back resistors are 50kΩ and 100kΩ respectively.= V+ = 0 .. output voltage signals in scale. Draw the circuit diagram and input. ie Iin = If V − Vout Vin − V− = − R in Rf Kirchoff's current law.Operational Amplifiers – Lesson 06 voltage gain. The input current (Iin) through the resistor. Rin and the current Iif through the feed back resistor are equal because of the high input impedance of the Op-amp. Golden rule 1) Vout = . 74 .+ If Iin= If ( Because I. Q3: A sinusoidal voltage signal with an amplitude of 8 mV is connected to a inverting amplifier circuit. 180 phase change ). Iin = I.

75 .Operational Amplifiers – Lesson 06 6.7 : Summing amplifier circuit A summing amplifier circuit is a modification of an inverting amplifier circuit.= .2 Summing amplifiers Figure 6. Golden rule 1) Rf R 1 R 2 R 31 V V V Vout = − R f ( 1 + 2 + 3 ) R 1 R 2 R 31 if R1= R2= R3 =R Vout = -Rf ( V1 + V2 + V3 ) R It is seen from the above equation that the amplifier out put is proportional to the sum of the input signal voltages.7 shows the circuit arrangement of an Operational amplifier used as a summing amplifier or an adder. Therefore it is known as summing amplifier(adder ) circuit. If = I1 + I2 +I3 V − V− V− − Vout V1 − V− V − V− + 2 + 3 = R2 Rf R1 R3 − Vout V1 V2 V = + + 3 (Because V+ = V.4. V1 V2 V3 R1 R2 I1 I2 I3 If Rf Vout R3 Figure 6. Kurchoff's current law.

Vin ) R in Rf Therefore Vout = ( 1+ Rf )Vin Rin 76 .Operational Amplifiers – Lesson 06 6. Two resistors.8.8: Non-inverting amplifier circuit.=V+ = .4. Iin = − But − V− R in V− R in and If = Iin = If V− − Vout Rf The = V− − Vout Rf ∴ − Vin Vin − Vout = ( Because V. If Rf Rin Iin Vin Vout Figure 6. In this circuit the feedback resistor is still connected to the inverting input to limit the voltage gain of the Op-amp. Rin and Rf which are connected across the ground and output terminal behave as a voltage divider. A basic non-inverting amplifier is shown in Figure 6.3 Non-inverting amplifiers It is possible to operate the Op-amp as a non inverting amplifier by applying the input voltage signal to the non inverting input terminal.

amp. Vin Vout Figure 6. no current flows into the positive input. 77 .10 : Buffer circuit as an interface According to the Golden rule 2. The following circuit diagram shows a special case of a non inverting amplifier. Therefore the amplifier is called a non inverting amplifier. and therefore the source resistance is not loaded at all. However this circuit is very useful as a buffer. When a voltage source with a high internal resistance has to be loaded with a low resistor. Q 6:Give a suitable circuit diagram of an amplifier with a gain of +10. Therefore it is known as a unity-gain follower (Vout = Vin). The voltage gain of a non-inverting amplifier is 1+Rf/Rin. Q 4: What are the main differences between an inverting and a non-inverting amplifier circuit. High resistive source Low resistive load Figure 6.Operational Amplifiers – Lesson 06 According to the above equation the polarity of the output signal is the same as the input signal ( in phase).9: Unity-gain follower (Buffer) circuit According to the above equation the voltage gain of this non inverting amplifier is one unit and the out put follows the input. Its Rin is infinite and Rr is zero. using an Op. this buffer circuit can be used as a interface to prevent the drain of high current from the source as shown in the following figure.

11: One Op-amp differential amplifier circuit The current. I1 I3 I2 I2 Figure 6.4 Differential amplifiers The voltage difference at the two inputs of the circuit is amplified by a finite value in the differential amplifier circuit. current does not flow into the non inverting terminal of the Op-amp. Here resistors R1 and R2 act as a simple voltage divider.4. Then the voltage at the non inverting terminal (V+).I1 and V+ to Vo . By Golden rule 2. I2 flows from V2 through R1 and R2 to the ground.Therefore the currents through the resistors R1 and R2 from V1 to V+ . I3 are given by the following equations I1 = V1 – V+ and I3 = V+ – Vo R1 R2 Where I1 = I3 (Golden rule 2 and Kirchoff’s current law) By solving the above three equations VO = (V2.11 shows a simple one Op-amp differential amplifier circuit.V1 ) x R2 R1 78 . Figure 6.Operational Amplifiers – Lesson 06 6. V + = V 2 x R2 = V 3 R 1 + R2 By Golden rule 1. what ever voltage that appears at the non inverting terminal (V+) also appears at the inverting input terminal(V-).

the sources which have high resistance drop their actual voltages internally.13 shows the use of an Op-amp with a feed back resistor replaced by a diode.12 shows the three Op-amp differential amplifier circuit. Figure 6. Three Op-amp differential amplifier (Instrumentation amplifier) This amplifier circuit is regularly used in most of the analytical and bio-medical instruments. But when the input currents ( I1 and I2) are consumed by the circuit .13: Logarithmic amplifier 79 . The one Op-amp differential amplifier is quite satisfactory for low resistance sources ( V3 and V4).5 Logarithmic amplifiers Figure 6. Therefore high resistive sources should be connected with the high impedance differential amplifiers which has zero input bias currents. The amplification factor of this instrumentation amplifier is the same as the one Op-amp differential amplifier given above. Figure 6. 6.Operational Amplifiers – Lesson 06 The relationship between the input and the output voltage signals of an one Op-amp differential amplifier is given by the above equation. The first two unity-gain follower circuits provide the high input impedance for the differential amplifier circuit.12.4. R Vin Vout Figure 6.

Vout = .14. Considering the relationship between the variation of the current through a P-N junction diode and the voltage applied across it . C Vin R Vout Figure 6. Vout = k1 Log(k2 Vin) Where k1 and k2 are constants 6.1 ∫0 Vin dt RC The output of this electronic circuit is the integration of input voltage signal with respect to time as shown in above equation. the following equation can be derived for the above logarithmic amplifier circuit.Operational Amplifiers – Lesson 06 This circuit is employed when an output voltage is desired to be proportional to the logarithm of an input signal.5. 80 t . The basic circuit of an integrator is shown in Figure 6.7 Integrators The Op-amp can also be used to perform the mathematical operation of "integration" by using a capacitor in the feedback path.14: Integrator circuit By applying Op-amp Golden rules and equations related to capacitors it is possible to derive the following equation.

15: Differentiator circuit By applying the Op-amp Golden rules the following equation can be derived for the above differentiator circuit. Then the output voltage increases gradually. 81 . the differentiator circuit is obtained by interchanging R and C components of the integrator circuit. because the integration of a constant(C) with respect to time(t) gives C x t 6.15. Therefore.Operational Amplifiers – Lesson 06 Q7: Starting from a DC voltage signal.5.RC d (Vin) dt Thus the out put voltage is the differentiation of the input signal. The basic component connection of a Differentiator circuit is shown in Figure 6. R C Vin Vout Figure 6..8 Differentiators Differentiation is the opposite of integration. Vout = . how do you obtain a voltage signal which automatically increases linearly with time? Answer: By connecting a DC signal to the input of an Op-amp integrator circuit.

the dual power supply should be in the voltage range of +/. For the CA 741 operational amplifier.Operational Amplifiers – Lesson 06 6. • input impedance ≈ 2MΩ • output impedance ≈ 50 Ω Input bias current ≈ 500 nA Flat frequency response from DC to several MHz.The mid terminal is connected to the negative voltage (Pin No: 4) 82 .amp IC-CA741 CA 741 is the most widely used operational amplifier IC which is constructed using more than 25 bipolar junction transistors.16: Pin configuration of the CA 741 Op-amp • Op-amps are often powered by both a positive and a negative supply so that the output can swing above and bellow ground.5 and +/. non-inverting and inverting are Pin No:2 and Pin No:3 respectively. • The two inputs. It is also one of the cheapest you can buy.16. Negative voltage must be connected to Pin No: 4 and positive voltage to Pin No:7.pins in a dual line integrated circuit package as shown in Figure 6. CA 741 has the following characteristics. there are "offset null" inputs at Pin No: 1 and Pin No:5 which is used to calibrate the constructed Op-amp circuit. • In addition . • The output is taken at Pin No:6.18 . Pin No: 1 Off set null Pin No: 2 Inverting input Pin No: 3 Non inverting input Pin No: 4 Negative power supply 1 8 Pin No: 5 Off set null 2 7 CCA7 411 Pin No: 6 Output 3 6 Pin No: 7 Positive power supply 4 5 Pin No: 8 No connection Figure 6.6 Details of Op. • voltage gain ≈ 105 at DC • • CA 741 possesses 8 . End terminals of a variable resistor are connected to Pin No: 1 and Pin No:5.

Calculate the error of the amplifier circuit . 83 . 220 resistors as feedback and input resistors respectively.17: Inverting amplifier circuit Q4: An inverting amplifier circuit is designed selecting 2. This amplifier circuit gives 52mV as the output voltage when 5mV is applied as the input.2k. 150kΩ 1kΩ Vout Vin 10kΩ -15V 0V +15V Figure 6.Operational Amplifiers – Lesson 06 A sample circuit of an inverting amplifier to illustrate the pin connection of CA 741 IC is shown in the following figure.

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