Bu lIeti n 208

Trickle Irrigation Scheduling for Florida Citrus
J Allen G. Smajstrla, Dalton S. Harrison, Fedro S. Zazueta, Larry R. Parsons, and Kenneth C. Stone

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Florida Cooperative Extension Service / Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences University of Florida, Gainesville I John T. Woeste, Dean for Extension

Table of Contents List of Tables . List of Figures Introduction I. Citrus Water Use 2. Average Daily Evapotranspiration (ET) Rates for Citrus 3. Soil Water Storage in the Effective Root Zone. . .. 4. Allowable Water Depletion Effect on Irrigation Depth S. Water to Apply per Emitter at Each Irrigation 6. Irrigation Frequency. ..... 7. Irrigation Time per Application .... Rainfall Effects on Trickle Irrigation Schedules 8. Tree Canopy Areas . 9. Relative Area Occupied by Tree Canopy. 10. Irrigated Zone Soil Water Content ... 11. Non-Irrigated Root Zone Soil Water Content 12. Antecedent Soil Water Content . 13. Potential Rainfall Storage in Effective Root Zone. 14. Effective Rainfall . 15. Rainfall Stored Under the Tree Canopy . 16. Days to Delay Irrigation Following Rainfall . Discussion. ...... Example Problems Summary Appendix .. A iv
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10 10 11
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Appendix B . Example 1. Drip Irrigation Scheduling Example 2. Spray-Jet Irrigation Scheduling Appendix C.. .. .. ... .. ... .....

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List of Tables Table 1. Florida citrus evapotranspiration Table 2. Average daily evapotranspiration at various tree densities. (ET).
(ET) rates for citrus

18 19 20 21 by 22 23 24 25
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Table 3. Soil water storage in soil depth irrigated. Table 4. Depth of water to be applied at each irrigation, considering allowable water depletion. Table 5. Volume of water to be applied at each irrigation each emitter (gallons). . . . . . . . . . . . .
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Table 6. Irrigation frequency, days between scheduled irrigations. ... ........... Table 7. Irrigation time per application (hours). Table 8a. Tree canopy area or emitter wetted area based on tree canopy diameters or emitter wetted diameters. Table 8b. Tree canopy area based on tree spacing and canopy width. Table 9. Relative area occupied zone correction by tree canopy. factor. factor. factor. Table 10. Irrigated Table 12. Antecedent Table 13. Potential (inches). Table 14. Effective irrigated.

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29 30 31 32 33 34

Table 11. Non-irrigated

root zone correction

soil water content correction rainfall

storage in soil depth irrigated . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. stored in the soil depth . . . .. rainfall

rainfall, rainfall ...............,

Table 15. Readily available effective rainfall, effective stored under and near tree canopy. Table 16. Days to delay irrigation following rainfall.

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List of Figures Figure 1. Figure 2. Components definitions. of citrus water balance and other ................. 18

A verage daily ET rate in gallons per tree based on tree density and the average daily ET rate in inches. Soil water storage in the effective root zone based on the effective root zone depth and the soil water-holding capacity. . .. Irrigation depth per application based on soil water storage in the root zone and allowable soil water depletion. " .. Irrigation volume per emitter at each irrigation based on emitter wetted diameter and depth of water to be applied. .. . '. Irrigation frequency based on the volume of water applied per tree at each irrigation and the average daily ET rate per tree.. Irrigation time (duration) per application based on volume applied per emitter at each application and the emitter flow rate. Tree canopy area or emitter wetted area based on the tree canopy diameter or the emitter wetted diameter. '" Tree canopy area based on the tree spacing along the row and the average tree canopy. width. ". .'. Relative tree canopy area based on the average canopy area per tree and the number of trees per acre.

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Figure 3.

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Figure 4.

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Figure 5.

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Figure 6.

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Figure 7.

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Figure Sa.

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Figure 8b.

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Figure 9.

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Figure 10.

Irrigated zone correction factor based on the time after irrigation until rain occurred and the scheduled irrigation frequency. Non-irrigated root zone correction factor based on the average canopy area per tree and the total emitter wetted area per tree.

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Figure 11.

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Figure 12.

Antecedent soil water content correction factor based on the irrigated zone correction factor and the non-irrigated root zone correction factor. . '. . Potentional rainfall storage in the tree root zone based on the soil water storage in the root zone and the antecedent soil water content." . . Effective rainfall based on actual rainfall and the potential soil water storage in the effective root zone... '. . Readily available effective rainfall based on total effective rainfall and the relative area occupied by the tree canopy.. Days to delay irrigation following rainfall based on the average -daily ET rate and the readily " available effective rainfall. "

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Figure 13.

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Figure 14.
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Figure 15.

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Figure 16.

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and crop conditions in the state. and management decisions in order to optimize irrigation scheduling for an individual grove. soil properties. This bulletin was written to be sufficiently general to be applicable to all irrigation system. t. soil. The method is based on a water balance of the tree effective root zone with water use by citrus based on normal Florida climatic conditions. and the rate of its use since it was applied. Figure 1 shows the components of the water balance and defines some of the other terminology used in this procedure. The irrigation scheduling method presented here requires that the individual irrigator make inputs to a series of 16 tables or figures concerning grove characteristics.Introduction ) . The objective of this method is to maintain a favorable soil water status in the tree root zone so that water is always available. irrigation system characteristics. the climate. the following sections of this bulletin are consecutively numbered with the corresponding table and figure numbers. 16 tables and corresponding graphs were required. or the characteristics of the crop. when it was applied. therefore. rainfall. The figures also allow the user to determine the relative effects of errors in inputs. Further complications exist in that irrigation decisions are also affected by rainfall and by irrigation system limitations. Irrigation scheduling is a procedure for determining (I) when to irrigate. Because rainfall occurs frequently in Florida. It can be used when scheduling irrigations for either drip or spray. This publication presents a method of scheduling trickle irrigation applications for citrus in Florida. and (2) how much water to apply. but also to see the graphs to aid in interpolation. The information presented in this bulletin can be used for flatwoods (high water table soils) or ridge (deep sandy soils) soil conditions. Irrigation scheduling is complicated by the fact that irrigation timing and the amount of water to apply are not independent of each other.jet emitters and for any number of emitters per tree. Because of the large number of tables and figures presented. tables 8 through 16 and figures I through 16 allow an irrigator to determine the period of time that a scheduled irrigation should be delayed following rainfall. · •. 1 . The decision concerning when and how much to irrigate will depend upon how much water was last applied. Tables 1 through 7 and the corresponding figures I through 7 can be used to determine a monthly irrigation schedule assuming that rain does not occur. Both tables and figures are presented to allow the user to not only obtain the accuracy associated with tables of data.

"Water Requirements for Citrus. ET for future months can be predicted based upon ET rates observed in the past." These data are used in the irrigation scheduling method described in this bulletin and are presented in Table 1. Monthly climatic conditions do not vary a great deal from year to year. Those data were compiled in the IF AS Agricultural Engineering Extension Report 83-10. ET data for Florida ridge citrus are summarized in the IFAS Water Resources Council fact sheet WRC-4. Ft.6 inches for the ridge citrus and 44. Pierce. average daily values. Conversely. this bulletin should be used to develop irrigation schedules for site-specific conditions. This site-specific table will be used on a day-by-day basis to reset the irrigation controller following a rainfall. For practical purposes. On hot.The authors do not expect that the average Florida irrigator will use all of the tables and figures on a day-by-day basis to schedule irrigations. so the term evapotranspiration (ET) is used to describe both evaporation and transpiration which occur simultaneously Evapotranspiration depends very heavily on climatic conditions. mild days. these processes are not separable. 1. Citrus Water Use Water is used by citrus by evaporation from the soil surface and transpiration from leaves. evapotranspiration rates will be small. Therefore. Table 1 also presents ET data for flatwoods citrus. and if water is available to the trees. Data are presented as monthly values. Annual totals were 47. and as annual totals. climatic demand will be great. Table 1 presents the best estimates currently available for citrus ET in Florida. They will be used to develop monthly irrigation schedules which can be programmed on irrigation timers/controllers. on cool. "Evapotranspiration and Net Irrigation Requirements for Crops in South and Central Florida. Those schedules will remain in effect as long as rain does not occur. The last nine tables and figures will be used more often to develop a table of delay times for specific sites and months when rainfall occurs. Rather. dry days. Differences presumably reflect climatic differences such as cloud 2 .6 inches for the flatwoods citrus. evapotranspiration rates will also be great." They are data from the IF AS and USDA SWAP research project. The first seven tables and figures will be used only once for a specific grove and irrigation system.

Also.. This rate can be calculated using the average daily ET rate in inches from Table I. The exact value will depend upon the amount of canopy cover which exists. then ET will Occur at approximately the rates given in Table 1. Also. The average daily ET rate in gallons/tree/day can be read from Table 2 or Figure 2 for inputs of average daily ET in inches and 3 . since seasonal climatic changes are gradual rather than abrupt. Under normal climatic conditions if a near-complete tree canopy exists. Actual daily ET rates for well-irrigated citrus may be greater (or less) than the monthly average values on any given day.'. or if the trees are immature such that less than 60% of the ground is shaded by the canopy. and from a knowledge of the number of trees per acre. This condition is typically met when there are at least 70 mature trees per acre. if at least 60% to 70% of the ground surface is covered by the canopy. If there are very few trees per acre.) . respectively. water will be evaporated and transpired only in amounts sufficient to satisfy climatic demand. Monthly ET values given in Table 1 are the expected average amounts of water that citrus would use during those months for long-term average (normal) climatic conditions. Because ET is an energy-based process. then a trickle-irrigated grove will normally use less water than the values given in Table I.. They range from small values during the winter months to large values in late spring and early summer. The irrigation system manager may wish to take this into consideration as irrigations are scheduled.. The reverse will OCcurin the fall as the succeeding months become progressively cooler. 2. they may underpredict during the later parts of the months as the next warmer month is approached. the actual ET will be greater or less than the monthly average during an unseasonably warm or cool day. The system manager can correct for this difference by adjusting the actual daily ET as appropriate . that is. This will Occur whenever actual climatic demand is greater (or less) than the average. although it is not linearly related to canopy cover.: ~ cover and cultural differences which Occur between the ridge and flatwoods areas. " . Average daily ET values are the monthly values divided by the number of days per month. Likewise. . average daily values may overpredict the actual ET values during the early parts of the spring months. Anrage Daily Evapotranspiration (ET) Rates for Citrus The average daily ET rate in gallons per tree per day must be known to properly schedule citrus trickle irrigation systems.

They may need to be refined for a specific field site by observing the soil depth wetted after an initially dry soil is irrigated with a known depth of water.-~. Rather.10 inches and there are 70 trees per acre. . For trickle irrigation of ridge citrus.5.--.0 ft and the soil water-holding capacity was 0. the depth to be applied should never move below the effective root zone. 4 "--~. if there are few trees per acre to provide the ET to meet the climatic demand.~. Likewise if the water-holding capacity was 1. For flatwoods citrus where root zones are limited to 1-1. Thus.. < :' '.6 inches per foot of soil. -.0 inch per foot.. then each tree will use only 19 gallons per day. . Water applied beyond the effective root zone will not be used by the trees. In general. this should be the zone irrigated..0 inches. water applied must be stored in the root zone so that it is available for use by the tree. then the water use rate per tree will be large. 3. These data for specific soil series can be obtained from local soil survey reports or from the Soil Conservation Service State Irrigation Guide. If the tree density is 140 trees per acre. the soil water storage would be 2.) from the number of trees per acre. this zone should be defined as the upper 1. if the soil depth irrigated was 2. if the average daily ET is 0. finer-textured soils have greater water-holding capacities than coarse-textured soils. From Table 2..11" If irrigation is to be effective. if there are many trees per acre. . then each will transpire fewer gallons to meet the climatic demand.5 ft. The trees' rate of water use will respond to the climatic demand.2 inches. <. Major emphasis should be placed on the upper portions of the root zone where most of the roots actively involved in water uptake are located.~. The water use on an area basis will be roughly equivalent to the amount of energy available to evaporate water over that area. The volume of water stored in the soil also depends upon the soil's water-holding capacity. From Table 3 or Figure 3.. For a given canopy coverage. Then the soil waterholding capacity can be determined from Table 3. the soil water storage in the irrigated depth would be 1. it should remain in the upper portion of the root zone where most of the roots actively involved in water uptake are located. Soil Water Storage in the Effective Root Zone '. For the same canopy coverage. because of high water tables Or soil restrictive layers.3 ft of the root zone. then each tree will use 39 gallons per day.

}:..._. ' The volume of water to be applied per emitter at each irrigation depends upon the depth of water that can be stored in the effective root zone and the portion of the root zone that is wetted by an emitter. This occurs because the most readily available water is used by the tree first. allowable water depletions of 33% (1/3) are recommended for irrigation during spring months when flowering and fruit-set OCCur. ... .7'_"':::"". From Table 4 or Figure 4.----.::'''-'· ! r -. Irrigations at 50% (1/2) to 67% (2/3) depletions are often used for less sensitive growth periods. 5 ':~~Ii~.I111 . then the allowable depletion may be larger. That is.75 inches and a 33% allowable water depletion. The actual water depletion used for a specific irrigation depends upon the tree's sensitivity to water stress at various stages of growth.--- ---------. As water is extracted from the soil.._.. For a soil water storage of 1. The remaining water is held more tightly in smaller soil pores thus making it more difficult for the tree to extract it. then the allowable depletion should be small. II_. irrigations must be scheduled before all of the readily available water is depleted... irrigations are typically scheduled when 1/3-2/3 of the soil's waterholding capacity has been depleted.25 inches. 5.r. For citrus irrigation. when the allowable depletion is in the range of 33% to 67%. Allowable Water Depletion Effect on Irrigation Depth . A point is reached where the tree cannot extract water at a rate sufficient to meet climatic demands. the depth of water to be applied at each irrigation can be determined from the soil water storage in the effective root zone and from the allowable depletion. the depth to apply would be 0.4. For a soil water storage of 0. For citrus.0 inch and a 50% allowable depletion... Water to Apply per Emitter at Each Irrigation . If the tree is not very sensitive to water stress at Ii given stage. To keep the tree from undergoing stress as it attempts to extract all of the soil's water. . the depth to apply at each irrigation would be 0._---.-. Because trickle irrigation systems normally do not irrigate the entire tree root zone. ~~--------. .. the actual volume of the root zone being irrigated must be determined. each succeeding increment becomes more difficult to extract. and water stress occurs. If a given growth stage is very sensitive to water stress...rlll.' All water stored in the soil is not equally available to citrus trees..50 inches. This can easily be done by observing the size of the wetted pattern created as an emitter operates.

The volume of water to be applied per tree at each irrigation is obtained by multiplying the volume of water to be applied per emitter (from Table 5) by the number of emitters per tree. It then essentially moves downward. 6. If the volume of water to be applied per emitter from Table 5 is 10 gall emitter. From Table 5 Or Figure 5. These examples illustrate that a much greater proportion of a tree root zone would be irrigated with a spray-jet emitter as compared to a point Source drip emitter on Florida's sandy soils.jet emitter per tree is 100 gal (from Table 5). Research data for the ridge soils indicate that yields were greatest when at least 50% to 70% of the root zones under the tree canopies were irrigated. and if the average ET rate per tree (from Table 2) is 25 gal/day. the volume of water to be applied per emitter would be 2.jet emitter). This value (40 gal) Would then be used in Table 6 to determine the irrigation frequency. Irrigation Frequency Irrigation frequency depends upon both the amount of water being applied at each irrigation and the rate at which it is being used by ET. A bulb shape is more common in finer-textured soils where soil capillary forces are relatively greater than in sandy soils. then the volume of water to be applied per tree is 40 gal at each irrigation. 6 . I). then the irrigation frequency is 4. The cylinder shape is more pronounced in sandier soils where gravity forces predominate as water moves in the soil. if the amount of water to be applied using one spray. forming a "cylinder" of wetted soil (Fig. for a depth of water to be applied per irrigation of 0.0 days from Table 6. The average daily ET rate to be used is that read from Table 2.2 gal. It can be measured at the soil surface or by digging a few inches below the surface.The diameter of the wetted pattern under a trickle emitter should be determined by field measurement.0 ft wetted diameter (typical of a spray.5 inches (obtained from Table 4) and a field-measured wetted diameter of 3. Table 6 Or Figure 6 allows irrigation frequency to be read for these inputs.75 inches and a 12. For example. the volume of water to be applied per emitter would be about 53 gal. For a depth of application of 0. the wetted zone expands slightly just below the soil surface.0 ft (typical of a drip emitter on Florida's sandy soils). and there are 4 emitters per tree. In the typical Florida sandy soils.

To assure that the tree will be able to make best use of the water applied. this indicates that several irrigations must be scheduled per day.5 ::: 2. because of the limited volume of the root zone wetted. If the number representing irrigation frequency is very small. for example. To achieve this and yet still apply the proper amount of water at each irrigation. Rather. all of the tree's daily water requirements cannot be supplied with one irrigation per day. if possible. Then the amount to apply per irrigation would be 203 gallons. such as only 15 gal for example. allowing time for the tree to extract water from the wetted area between irrigations. With such a system. the following procedure should be used: (I) round the irrigation frequency to the nearest whole number of days.4 days. (2) recalculate the volume of water to be applied per tree at each irrigation by multiplying the whole-number irrigation frequency and the average daily ET rate per tree.4 days. If less than 50% of the root zone is irrigated. a large fraction of the root zone beneath the tree canopy (at least 50%) should be wetted at each irrigation. (3) divide the new volume of water to be applied per tree at each irrigation by the number of emitters per tree to determine the new volume of water to be applied per emitter at each irrigation.8 = 188 gallons per irrigation or 94 gallons per emitter.0). There may not be sufficient opportunity for the tree to uptake all of its water needs between irrigations because of the limited portion of the root zone wetted. assuming an 80% irrigation efficiency. assume that at the desired allowable water depletion the irrigation frequency of a spray-jet system is 5. irrigations must be scheduled twice per day (1/0. Assume also that there are two spray-jets per tree. If we desire to irrigate every 5 days rather than every 5. then the irrigation frequency is 0.If the volume of water to be applied per tree at each irrigation is small. and the ET rate is 30 gallons per day. such as 30 gal/tree/day. the amount of water to be applied would be 150/0.5 days. water stress may Occur during extended droughts despite frequent irrigations. it may not be possible to provide all of the tree's daily ET requirements. This means that.4 days. and the average daily ET rate per tree is larger. This is because it is much easier to manage an irrigation system if irrigations are to be scheduled every 5 days rather than every 5. The above procedure for obtaining an integer number of days between irrigations should only have the effect of changing the 7 . It is desirable that the irrigation frequency from Table 6 be an integer (whole number) of days. As an example of the above procedure.

From Table 7 or Figure 7. Also. the application time for each irrigation would be 3. irrigation times per application have been calculated including the assumed 80% efficiency. Irrigation Time per Application The irrigation time per application depends Upon the emitter flow rate. 8 . Some evaporates or is lost to wind drift. To be conservative in the roundoff procedure. Therefore.allowable depletion percentage in Table 5 slightly.8 hours. and the irrigation system application efficiency. the previously-determined irrigation frequencies and durations of water applications can be set on an irrigation timer-controller at the beginning of each month. The irrigation application efficiency reflects the fact that some of the water is lost in application.0 hours. the system must be operated longer to assure that those portions of the grove which receive the least amount of water are adequately irrigated. it could be obtained by field measurement. because of the nature of trickle irrigation system design. for a spray-jet flow rate of 20 gal/hour and a volume of water to be applied per emitter of 60 gal. This will provide for more frequent irrigations and will maintain a more desirable soil water content for citrus growth. at each application. As long as rain does not occur. 7. water application is not perfectly uniform. For trickle irrigation of citrus. The volume of water to be applied per emitter at each application can be obtained from Table 5 either directly or as adjusted to achieve a whole number of days between irrigations as discussed in the previous section. Alternatively. In Table 7 and Figure 7. an application efficiency of 80% has been assumed to adequately represent Florida climatic conditions and irrigation system design criteria. the irrigation frequency should always be rounded down to the nearest integer number. The emitter flow rate can be obtained from the manufacturer's specifications and a knowledge of the average operating pressure for the emitter being used. the application time for each irrigation would be 5. The irrigation time per application is the final piece of information required to schedule trickle systems for citrus irrigation in Florida in the absence of rainfall. For a drip emitter flow rate of 1 gall hour and a volume of water to be applied per emitter of 4 gal. and the system can operate automatically for that month. the volume of water to be applied per emitter.

thus proportionally less of the water will be extracted from the irrigated zone. In the following discussion. This is especially important if the trickle system irrigates only a small portion of the tree root zone. Tables 1 through 7 allow citrus irrigation schedules to be determined in the absence of rainfall. Rainfall Effects on Trickle Irrigation Schedules " . The effect of rainfall on trickle irrigation scheduling is obviously that of alieviating the need for or delaying irrigations. the reason is that the tree will satisfy some of its requirements by extracting water from outside of the irrigated zone. Therefore. however. Again. at this time citrus research results have not yet indicated the exact proportions of water extractions from the irrigated and non-irrigated zones following rainfall. water will be taken up throughout the entire root zone. . the tree will uptake an increasingly larger portion of its ET from the irrigated zone. Therefore. It further demonstrates that the rate of water use from the irrigated zone will be less following a rainfall than following an irrigation. Roots remain active in this region because of rainfalls which periodically resupply the soil water in this region. . The question to be answered is.. Florida citrus trees take up a portion of their ET requirements from the soil in those regions where roots Occur but which are outside of the trickle-irrigated zone. seriously complicates irrigation scheduling in Florida. following a rainfall when water is readily available throughout the tree root zone. it was assumed that water extractions beneath and near tree canopies take place at the same rates both 9 . "How long should trickle irrigation be delayed following a given amount of rain?" The answer depends upon the rate of water use and the mechanism of water uptake by trickle-irrigated citrus in a humid region. They should be used as guides for specific applications. realizing that refinements may need to be made as field experience is obtained.Rainfall. the following sections of this bulletin are based on our best estimates of that process at this time. Tables 8 through 16 allow the irrigator to determine how long irrigations should be delayed after rainfall has occurred. Unfortunately. As water is used and less becomes available in the non-irrigated zone. The previously-described mechanism of water uptake demonstrates that a tree will have a larger volume of water available to it following a rainfall than following trickle irrigation in which the same depth of water is applied because of the greater volume of the root zone wetted.

then the relative canopy area is 0. for example.within and outside of the irrigated zone immediately following rainfall. From Table 8b. and there are 120 trees per acre. the canopy areas are calculated from the measured tree canopy diameter. Water stored in the alleys between tree rows and distant from the trees was assumed to be less available for use by the trees because fewer roots OCCur in those areas. if the tree spacing along the row is 15 ft and the canopy width is 22 ft. The tree canopy area is that area beneath the tree within the drip line. If trees are closely spaced along rows. .61. Table 8a or Figure 8a gives tree canopy areas for trees spaced so that their canopies are not touching and therefore are approximately circular in shape. Irrigations would then be scheduled whenever the water capacity in the effective root zone beneath and near the tree canopy has been depleted to the desired available water level. Tree Canopy Areas The tree canopy areas must be estimated in order to calculate the delay time following rainfall. If the average canopy area is 325 ft2 10 '. From Table 8a. A mature tree with a canopy diameter of 18 ft would have a canopy area of 254 ft2. then their canopies touch and their areas are better described as rectangles. 9. In that case. Relative Area Occupied by Tree Canopy The relative land area covered by the tree canopy is defined as the ratio of the land area covered by the tree canopy to the average land area occupied by each tree. if the average canopy area of each tree is 200 ft2. a young tree with a canopy diameter of only 12 ft would have a canopy area of 113 ft2. for example. The relative land area covered by the tree canopy is required to determine the amount of rainfall stored beneath or near the tree canopy and immediately available to the tree. It was further assumed that water depletions take place preferentially beneath the tree canopy and near the tree drip line where most of the roots are located. Both tree spacing along the row and the average width of the canopy are required for this calculation. 8. about 61% of the land surface is shaded by the tree canopies. Table 8b or Figure 8b allows canopy areas to be estimated for that condition. the canopy area per tree would be 330 ft2. From Table 9 or Figure 9. The average area occupied by each tree is determined from the number of trees per acre. That is.

11 . That is. If the tree canopy area is 350 ft2 and the irrigated area beneath the canopy is 200 ft2. Table 10 or Figure 10 can be used to obtain an antecedent soil water content correction factor for the irrigated zone. Conversely. If rain Occurs just before the next scheduled irrigation. This correction factor is an indication of the relative proportion of the tree root zone which is not irrigated. then the rainfall will be most effective. available for soil water storage when rainfall occurs. The water use in the irrigated zone is assumed to OCcurlinearly. the correction factor would be 2/3 == 0. For example. More of it will run off or be lost to deep percolation. then approximately 82% of the land surface is shaded by the tree canopies. and therefore. This correction factor depends upon the irrigation frequency and the time after irrigation that rainfall occurred. if the irrigation frequency is 3 days and rain occurred after I day. 10. the correction factor from Table 10 would be 1/3 == 0.33. For this procedure. the correction factor for the non-irrigated zone would be 0. For example. 11.43. it is necessary to separately account for the irrigated and non-irrigated zone water contents. if the average canopy area per tree is 250 ft2 and the emitters which irrigate that tree cover 50 ft2. trickle systems do not irrigate the entire area beneath and near the tree canopy.80. more of it will be stored in the soil because the soil was initially drier. if the soil is wet when rain Occurs. If two days elapsed before rainfall. the rainfall will be less effective. This factor is an indication of the relative amount of soil water storage capacity remaining for rainfall following a recent irrigation. the correction factor would be 0. The correction factor depends upon the average canopy area per tree and the emitter wetted area per tree.67. there exists both an irrigated and a non-irrigated zone which may have greatly different soil water contents when rainfall occurs. Non-Irrigated Root Zone Soil Water Content A correction factor for the soil water storage capacity in the non-irrigated portion of the tree root zone under and near the tree canopy can be obtained from Table 11 or Figure 11. In most cases. Rather. Irrigated Zone Soil Water Content The antecedent soil water content is water stored in the soil at the time that rainfall Occurs.and there are 100 trees per acre.

' .. 14. The potential (maximum possible) rainfall storage in the effective root zone can be determined from Table 13 or Figure 13. then the antecedent soil water content correction factor would be 0. because of the very sandy soils on which citrus is typically produced. Interception losses are not very 12 . It depends upon the soil water storage in the effective root zone for the soil water depletion allowed (from Table 4) and the amount of water already in star age (antecedent soil water content). Potential Rainfall Storage in Effective Root Zone "\"". All rainfall is not effective because some is lost due to runoff. then the potential rainfall storage would be 0.~ . or interception by the crop canopy. 13.75 inches and the correction factor is 0. if the irrigated zone correction factor is 0.4 and the non-irrigated root zone correction factor is 0. if the potential soil water storage in the effective root zone is 1. From Table 12 Or Figure 12. the antecedent soil water content correction factor would be 0. With each rainfall. .. These factors are an index of the amount of water that can be stored in the tree root zone when rain occurs. If the potential soil water storage is 0. In Florida.9. a small constant amount is lost due to interception by the tree canopies. Effective Rainfall Effective rainfall is that which is stored in the root zone and available for crop use to satisfy ET demands.2. deep percolation.60 inches. Antecedent Soil Water Content For citrus irrigation.5. If the irrigated zone correction factor is 0.5.8.. For example. More is lost to deep percolation below the tree root zone because of the relatively low water-holding capacity of the sandy soils. then the potential rainfall storage in the effective root zone would be O. . a relatively small amount of rainfall is lost to runoff.12.52.0 inch and the antecedent soil water content correction factor is 0. the antecedent soil water content correction factor can be determined from the previously determined irrigated zone correction factor (Table 10) and the non-irrigated root zone correction factor (Table 11).S inches. Rainfall will be less effective if the soil is already wet when rain OCcurs. From Table 13.. the antecedent soil water content is water which is stored in the tree root zone at the time that rain Occurs.8 and the non-irrigated root zone correction factor is 0.

the relative area occupied by the tree canopy is 0. If. but rather it compensates for some of the water which would normally be lost to ET. for example. From Table 15 or Figure 15. That is. then the rainfall depth under the tree canopy and most available for the tree's use would be 0. c· 15. and perhaps runoff. all of the rain is assumed to be stored in the tree root zone except for 0. In this bulletin. This is a' conservative estimate in that it does not require that all of the water in the areas between trees be consumed before irrigations are re-initiated.0 inch and a rain of 1.4 inches. Water on the leaves evaporates. Rainfall Stored Under the Tree Canopy Following rainfall or irrigation. then the effective rainfall would be only 1.5 inches of rain occurs. From Table ]4 or Figure 14. If the potential soil water storage in the tree effective root zone is 1. That is. 13 .0 inch.1 inch interception loss. If the relative tree canopy area is 0.75 inches occurs. The remainder would be lost to interception. the effective rain is 0. interception losses were assumed to be 0. In this analysis.3 inches.large because some of the water is not truly lost.6 and the effective rainfall is 0. the rainfall depth stored under and near the tree canopy (the readily available effective rainfall) can be determined from the relative area occupied by the tree canopy and the effective rainfall. then the readily available effective rainfall would be 1. and 0. citrus trees use water near the soil surface and under the tree canopy first.4 inches. if the potential soil water storage in the effective root zone is 1.5 inches.1 inch or less were assumed to be ineffective in delaying the need for irrigation. . rainfalls of 0. cooling them and thus reducing some of the ET demand while the leaves remain wet. That is the maximum amount that the soil could store. the number of days to delay irrigations following rainfall is based upon the rainfall stored under and near the canopy only (tree canopy area plus J 0% in the area near the tree drip line). They use that water which is near at hand and easiest to obtain before that which is more distant or deeper in the soil. From Table 14.5 inches. and this rainfall would refill that storage capacity. effective rainfall can be estimated for specific rainfall and soil conditions. :.8 and the effective rainfall is 1.12 inches.1 inch per rainfall. deep percolation.

Therefore. and rain occurs two days after the last irrigation. the next irrigation should be scheduled in one day (3-2) plus the delay time calculated from Table 16. The number of days to delay is based upon the average daily ET rate (the rate at which the trees are using water) and on the rainfall stored in the soil and readily available to the trees (the readily available effective rainfall from Table 15). It can be used for systems equipped with either drip or spray-jet emitters.16. then the irrigation schedule should be delayed four days. the schedule can be set on an irrigation timer-controller to permit automatic operation.3 inches and the average ET rate is 0. 14 . Days to Delay Irrigation Following Rainfall From Table 16 Or Figure 16. In Florida.10 inches/ day. a period of time to delay irrigations which is In addition to the existing irrigation schedule. It is. rainfall occurs frequently. Tables 8 through 16 allow an irrigator to calculate the period of time that an irrigation schedule should be delayed following rainfall. if irrigations are scheduled at a frequency of three days. if the readily available effective rainfall from Table 15 is 0. This bulletin can be used for flatwoods or ridge soil conditions. and the average daily ET rate for the month is 0. For example. Discussion The methods and procedures presented in this bulletin allow an irrigator to schedule water applications for citrus production using a trickle system in Florida. Tables I through 7 can be used to determine a monthly irrigation schedule assuming that rain does not occur. Mature trees with only one or two drip emitters per tree may not meet this qualification if they cannot prevent a tree from wilting during drought. and for any number of emitters per tree as long as the irrigation system can supply all of the tree's water requirements if necessary. If the delay time obtained from Table 16 was four days. It is important to note that the delay time obtained from Table 16 is based only on rainfall additions to the soil water storage. For example. The average daily ET rate is the value from Table 1 for the appropriate month. therefore. If the readily available effective rainfall is 0.15 inches/ day. then the irrigation schedule should be delayed two days.40 inches. the number of days to delay irrigation following a rainfall can be calculated. In that case. then the next irrigation should be scheduled five days (I + 4) after the rainfall.

The irrigation schedule can then be adjusted accordingly. the soil water-holding capacity of a specific site may be different than it was originally assumed to be. Extractions from the water stored were obtained from long-term average ET data. Because of the number of inputs which must be made and the possibility of errors associated with each. Also. specifically the soil water-holding capacity and soil depth to be irrigated (effective root zone). Finally. and the soil wetted diameter resulting from each emitter. All of these factors are then integrated to provide an irrigation schedule specific for that set of conditions. When tensiometers are located in the wetted soil zone created by trickle emitters. The irrigator must measure rainfall depths and timing with respect to the irrigation schedule. emitter flow rate. Certain irrigation system characteristics must be known. An excellent tool for field observation is a tensioometer located in the wetted pattern of the trickle emitters. Adjustments can be made in the irrigation schedule based on field observations. estimates of effective rainfall may need to be refined by field observation. For example. Irrigations were then scheduled whenever water in the root zone was depleted to a predetermined critical level.. The irrigator must also provide a description of the soil. The information required includes a description of the trees. specifically the number per acre and the tree canopy area (area beneath the drip line).The irrigation scheduling method presented in this bulletin was based upon maintaining a water balance in the effective root zone of the citrus trees being irrigated. Tensiometers located in the emitter wetted pattern will indicate if the soil becomes too dry Or remains too wet between irrigations. The water balance method of irrigation scheduling presented here requires that the irrigator describe his specific conditions in order to develop an irrigation schedule. the long-term average ET rates presented in Table I may not be representative of a given time period because of unseasonably hot (or cool) weather. Water stored in the root zone was calculated based on the root zone depth and the soil water-holding capacity.. Likewise. they will accurately track both wetting and drying cycles. Because the soil remains moist in the trickle " . " 15 . the irrigator must make a management decision concerning the allowable soil water depletions between irrigations. the water balance approach to irrigation scheduling does not allieviate the need for field observations on a day-by-day basis and adjustments to the irrigation schedule based on those observations. They will not require frequent service unless the soil becomes very dry. specifically the number of emitters per tree.

It is also a relatively low-cost instrument. The second should be located nearer the bottom of the effective root zone that will be irrigated (24-36 inches below the soil surface). One should be located near the soil surface where most of the roots are located (6-12 inches below the soil surface). management decisions. A method was presented which allows individual irrigators to schedule irrigations based upon their specific soil. A blank irrigation scheduling worksheet following the same format is given in Appendix C. To check the soil water depletion with depth in the effective root zone. this bulletin can be used to accurately schedule irrigations for Florida citrus if the required data inputs are accurately made. at least two tensiometers should be used per location. a tensiometer will be relatively troublefree when located in this zone. a relatively few can be used to check critical areas of the grove. 16 . Rather. The methods and procedures for trickle irrigation scheduling as presented in this bulletin are based on fundamental physical laws. Currently. research data. Summary Trickle irrigation scheduling for citrus production in Florida was discussed. Example Problems Example problems are shown in Appendix B to illustrate the use of the irrigation scheduling procedure presented in this bulletin. Refinements will be made as improved research data become available. Tensiometers can be moved from site to site as necessary to check specific locations. It is important to concentrate both water applications and observations in the upper portions of the effective root zone where most of the roots actively involved in water uptake are located. grove and irrigation system characteristics.. The irrigation schedules derived using this bulletin can and should be refined for specific locations by field observations. Examples are given for both drip and spray-jet trickle irrigation systems following a standard 16-step format.wetted pattern. large numbers of tensiometers are not required. and our best current estimates of the processes of water use by citrus trees . When used to verify irrigation schedules as previously described.

and an irrigation scheduling worksheet was included for individual use. 17 .and upon long-term average citrus evapotranspiration (ET) requirements. Example irrigation scheduling problems were presented. A method was also presented to allow the effects of rainfall on the irrigation schedule to be determined.

txt..9 5.---.---~-----------------------* -------~-----------..----2.6 5.. Report R3-Ul..13 0.-----.7 2...3 4.19 0..3 3.9 4.1 2. Pierce.-..6 .09 0.4 4...3 47.-.-------------------.. "WATER REQUIREMENTS FOR ClTRUS.. "EVAPOTRANSPIRATION AND NET IRRIGATION REQUIREMENTS FOR CROPS IN SOUTH ANI) Cr.18 0.12 0." · .07 0.9 5.07 2.6 ~jdge Soils are deep sandy ·soils.NTRAl FlI)RI~I\.9 2.16 0..6 3.-----------..-~._. __ ~ ___________ . from If AS water -----..0 ET (INCHES) (INCHES) ET (INCHES) .07 .------ FLORIDA CITRUS EVAPOTRANSPIRATION (ET).15 0.17 0. 18 . Data are sheet WRC-4.oods so t l s are shallow. 0. ___ 4 ___ ~ ___ • __ • ___ • _________ .7 4. lOng.10 0. high water t ab le so t l s .09 0.TABLE 1.-- ----~ APR MAY JUN JUl AUG SEP OCT NOV DEC TOTAL 4.0 5..--..6 2.08 0.16 0._ .13 0. Components of citrus water balance and other definitions.. 44.1 ----~---------~-._ MONTH ----.0 2.---.8 4. ---~-----------resources fact 3.. ------~--------~---·--. I)ata are from tile swap research project.-.18 0.---~. reported In the Ag.~ -:' Figure 1. ~--..6 3.07 0.15 0.---------.---~-.16 0.1 0..." **Flat...1 .8 4.13 0.15 0. Ft. .. JAN FeB MAR MONTHLY ET ( INCHES) 2.09 0.-~AVERAGE DAILY MONTHLY H AVE~AGE OAIlY h RIDGE CITRUS * FlATI/OOOS CIT~US ...12 0..------.5 5. .

10 005 0: W w (!I cc > cc 0 70 TREE DENSITY (NUMBER OF' TREES I ACRE) Figure 2.23 . 15 H! __ (GALLONS/TRF.09 ._---._.---------.c'· TARLE 2.-----~-----.-------~-.-----.14 .E/OAY) ._~_ .0] 35 19 23 27 31 17 20 24 27 31 34 37 41 44 48 51 54 21 24 27 33 36 30 14 16 19 22 24 27 30 33 20 22 25 27 30 17 15 12 13 2iJ 25 27 10 13 15 17 19 21 23 17 10 12 14 16 ..19 .12 .----•• __ w _____ AVERAGE D._AVERAGE 93 I.. C!I IJJ l- *' INCHES ET 10AY 0: IIJJ cc ~ c < 0. based on tree 19 '.20 . . 60 90 100 110 • __ • ____ ~ __ • _______ ~_.-----~--.--.".24 .----___ DAILY ET RATE w _________ .06 .Oll .1F! 39 43 47 50 54 62 66 70 74 78 81 85 89 51l 23 39 42 45 3S 38 32 35 37 39 42 44 47 52 29 32 27 29 31 33 36 25 25 27 19 21 23 61 64 68 71 75 78 51.! 1 66 69 72 • 60 62 65 54 57 59 45 50 42 44 46 45 47 43 c <. TAIILE TREE DENS lTV 1) 70 --.-------~--.------~---~--~---------------------~--.. AVERAGE ~..J .::":.--~-.16 ..21 .\.-------..-----. DAllY rr (INCHES) (FRor.~ (ET) RATES FOR CITRUS AT VARIOUS TREE DENSITIES • (NUMBER OF TREES/ACRE) 120 ____ 130 ~ ~ _________ 140 ~ ___ -------._~ ________ • __ 11 I~ 15 .-. .-----. ~ DAILY ET RATE hJ W 0: I<"{ . ________ AVERAGE --.15 .11 .10 .:.--~----.17 .22 .--.HlY EVAPOTRMISPIRAfro. Average da lIy n rate In ga 11ons per tree density and the average daily ET rate In inches.<.! 43 51 54 57 63 43 46 49 52 57 41 43 43 50 54 52 45 38 41 34 36 38 40 29 31 33 35 37 39 41 60 54 49 -----~.05 .13 ..I . .

20 2.----~-"--------..50 0.l.10 2.5 0.5 2.BO 0.20 1. IRRIGATEO..0 2.25 w~~ _______ ~~ _______ 4.95 2..BO 1..40 2..20 0.50 I..50 2. O~.---.50 3.15 0.50 . 50 1..00 3..1:10 3 00 1.70 O.25 ------~--------p-~~----__________ _ 2.6 0.75 3...~-----0.25 1.70 3..60 3.40 1.00 1.4 0.5----2LO-_--'2.O---I.5 3.5----IJ. u z O.---------- SOIL WATER STORAGE ~ 20 .20 1.75 2. on the 20 .00 2.-O..10 1.20 .40 2.80 1. FT SOIL WATER-HOLDHIG (INCHES Ill\TERI FT SDIL) CAPAC ITY DEPTH TO 8£ 1.TA~l( 3.3 1. SOIL WATER STORAGE SOIL IN SOIL nEPT~ IRRIGATED.6n 1.---.B --~----~-.7 0.-5-----'30 EFFECTIVE ROOT ZONE 1FT) Figure 3. effective Soil water storage in the effective root root zone depth and the soil water-holding zone based capacity.2 1.0 0.OO .30 3..~-----.J.BO 1.60 O.0n 2.40 1.4 1. 1..50 0..00 1.1 1.r..0 1.1)0 3..90 4.0 1.20 1.65 1.9 1.BO 1.75 2.5 O.25 2..00 1..60 2.90 LOS SOIL WATER STORAGE (INCHES) 1.40 0.35 1.90 1.10 2.60 0.30 3.50 1.

77 0.110 1.75 1.24 0.60 0.74 0.20 1.54 0.____.50 0._~_____ 10 Jl 40 50 liD 67 70 -----.46 0.40 0. 21 .3A 1. ___ w __ -------~-----__ M_ ---·--·-----------------------·~---·-.51 0.49 O.66 0.--------~-----------------~--~---~--~--. 75 2.5f! 0. SOIL WATE~ STlJRAGE IN SOIL DEPTH IRRIGATED (INCHES) (FROM TABLE J) DEPTf! OF WAT£R TO BE APPLIED AT EACH CONSIDERING ALLOWABLE WATER DEPLETION.5 SOIL WATER STORAGE IN ROOT ZONE (INCHES' figure 4.40 0.50 0.94 1. 25 1.60 0.82 0.52 0.67 0.70 O.5 1.42 0.56 0.40 0.1l4 w :r: 1.50 0.13 1.90 1.92 2.-----------------~-~----~-------------~----.87 0.48 0._----------OEPHI OF WATER TO BE APPLIED 0..36 0.T!> ffi ~ 0.20 0.-~-------~-.00 1.go 11..75 0.28 0.20 0.80 0.33 0.00 2.20 0.78 0.00 1.25 0.05 1.-----~--.90 1.24 0.67 1._____.60 0.42 0.------------~--.17 1.45 0.45 0.8~ 1.50 1.46 0.65 0.56 0.36 0.70 0.50 2.---~ Vi o :i!.11) 1.16 0._~__~_.43 0.91 0. &: o :J O.42 (INCHES) -----~-. __ 0.55 0.65 2.72 0.15 0.01 1.------_.70 0.80 0.20 0.75 3.____~______.40 0.20 0.36 0.------------.90 1.84 0.75 0.60 0.00 t .30 0.44 0.70 0. 30 1.30 0.47 0.00 IRRIGATION DEPTH o Z ~ <t 0.BO 1). 1.13 0.22 1.54 0.67 0.52 0.25 n.24 0.33 0.16 0.74 0.16 0.- ALLOIIABLE OEPLETION (l) -~--.-.40 0.26 0.25 2. Irrigation depth per application based on solI water storage in the root zone and allowable soil water depletion.35 0.0 1.49 0._6____.27 0.10 1.32 0.-.00 PER IRI! lGArrON 0.82 1.35 --------~-----.50 0.21 0.60 0.----.93 1.10 0.30 0.36 0.33 0.--.40 1.39 l 0.40 1.TABLE 4. IRRIGATION.29 0.00 1.--.66 0.----.99 t.34 1. W o ~ ALLOWABLE DEPLETIONS 0.91 O.10 0.ll 0. 57 1.63 0.05 1.15 0.12 D. 50 1.60 0.84 0.27 0.

B 9.5 3.7 250.2 156. Irrigation volume per emitter at each irrigation emitter wetted diameter and depth of water to be applied.4 35.--"----_.6 48.S 5.4 2.0 9.0 1.9 lIS.i 0: :x:: GO W t: ~ 40 0: W 0.6 6.9 4. ._ .8 146.-.8 12.9 12.2 1.9 2.1 239.7 73. based on 22 . s 0 0 4 B 12 :3 ~ DEPTH O' WIlTER TO BE APPLIED (INCHES) EMITTER WETTED DIAMETER 1FT J Figure 5.. ---.5 5.9 6.0 6...50 VOLUME OF WATER PER PER EMITTER 1.-----.0 2.9 17.1 489.7 195..2 3..6 59..0 3.0 9.9 6.3 3.6 97...1 B.5 143.6 79..3 62.0 19..6 48..0 18. ~.5 2.5 1.2 3.2 97.7 2.4 105.3 4. '--~-7r .0 6.0 7B. q 187.6 15..5 3.0 7.5 4..6 6.0 14...S I?S.1 B.9 12.5 29.6 24.9 70..6 1.---------------~--~-~---------~-------------------EMITTER DEPTH OF WATER TO BE APPLIED AT EACH IRRIGATlOfl (INCHES) WETTED fHAMETER (HI (FROM VOLur~E OF WATER TO BE ~PPLlED BY EACH EMITTER (GALLONS).-----.4 2.4 95.2 31.4 140.00 IRRIGATION 1. IRRIGATION ~ 100 . M l..3 12..5 0.2 '_I".1 4.0 19. -~ ~ .B 1.0 7.3 39..B 2.6 11.0 1.B 237.9 15..B 9...0 35..B 93.0 20.6 19..4 15.1 fl.0 11.5 O.!J 24.5 47..6 24.9 7. AT EACH IRRIGATION TARLE 4) 0.50 2.0 O.------------.9 17.1l 44.2 24.9 5.2 6~.0 12.5 1..7 52.0 2..0 4..7 36.0 176.5 6.4 315. W 20 :i.75 1.B 24..5 47.25 0..0 31.TABLE 5.0 16.2 4.9 391.9 26.tl 30.1 4..0 10.1 2.00 2.0 3.2 35.2 18.6 313.9 14.3 0.0 7.3 (GALLONS) 2.9 46.J VOLUME 8 0 t:l ct z i= ct eo i'i: !_l.1 122.0 23.50 0.2 99.0 3..9 7.6 191.7 IB.6 9.._ .4 13.S 71.--~..0 39.9 59.6 293.9 79..0 396.

' 5 1.0 4.2 1.0 7.1) e.8 1.0 3.0 m __________ 6._-_.1 0.3 1.l 3.0 5. 23 .0 0.0 0.2 0.---~ _4~___~____~____.5 1.3 6.2 0.7 10.3 O.5 5..-----.--._-------------.5 10.___M________.4 0.3 S.a 0.-.0 0..5 6.8 2. IRRIGATION f~EQUENCY.8 3.0 2.7 4.2 c.. IIATER TO 8E APPLIED PER T~EE AT EACH IRRIGATION (GA LLONSfTRE£ ) AVERAGE IlAILY ET RATE PER TREE (GALLONS/TREE/DAy! (FRa..0 8.7 O.8 1.8 1.0 1.5 2.0 2.0 4.0 3.0 2.0 20.0 10.0 2.1 1.1 0.l 0.' I VOLUME PER TR EE AT EACH IRRIGATION I GAL) Figure 6.0 6.3 O.-.6 0.0 1.0 4.1 3.7 2.5 1.B 1.7 5.0 16.1 1.7 2.0 0.0 12.l 11.5 0. I> .l 0.0 4.0 6.J 1.---~.5 2.0 6. 1].1 14. Irrigation frequency based on the volume of water applied per tree at each Irrigation and the average dally [T rate per tree.4 1.4 10.0 4.~.3 12.0 14.0 10.0 1.0 8.6 0.0 8..--~--------.] _______ ~ 3. DAYS RETWUN SCHEDULED IRRIGArIONS.---.-~---VOLur1E OF --.----.~) 1·5.4 0.~______---_~_____ _ IRRIGATION .--------..---.5 1.•.O FREOUENCY * AVE Ol\ll'( F.6 2..--------~------~--------~---~-..3 0.--~----~-.3 0.3 10.0 1.~ _____ • ______________________________________________ TABLE 6.0 2.6 0..0 3.0 2.-------------------~----IRRIGATION FREQUENCY w __________ ~.S 0.3 2.3 6.7 8._---------------.6 1. 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 50 60 -----.2 0.--~4--.7 5.---._-_.-.9 1.2 0..0 3.S 2.6 0.0 12.1 3.5 0.3 0.4 1.7 100 200 300 400 SOD 9!J 80 70 6..8 1.0 .0 15.1 0.T (GAL/TREE/DAY) . TABLE 2) (OAYS) • 10 15 20 30 40 SO 60 .3 2.5 0.-----.4 0.1 O.8 2.------------.0 20..1 0.0 !l.3 4.3 0.9 1.6 1..o 20.4 2.0 o.0 20.5 4._------.4 0.5 3.2 1._----_.5 1.3 1.3 l.0 2.---.0 9.0 1.---...0 1.2 0.0 1.0 5.

5 16.5 15.0 5.0 3.9 1.0 18..0 8.(HOURS)..0 20.3 0.0 _-- 3.1 0.3 11..5 18.3 O.3 3._ •• __ • __ ••• 25.3 0... --"ATERPER EM ITTERPER APPLICATION (GALLONS) -----------TARL[5) 0.:~ -.--------_ .8 10.0 11.0 6.0 1.! 6.5 E!'IITTER fUN •••• • 1.0 22.7 2.6 6.3 0.!! ---- 1 2 4 6 3.....0 17..3 4.4 5..2 0.5 3.'"..3 0.1 2.8 __ 2. _ .5 IRR [GATtON nfiE 0.-.5 4..4 0. -~' <.4 0. ---_ VOLUME OF.2 5..0 0.0 10. •• 10.-_ _ _ ... APPLICATION £FFICE'fCY..5 2.5 5.8 1.0 1..0 20._.0 (HOURS) * .. -_ .4 0..3 1.5 3. _ .0 10.5 16.5 20.1 3. ---_ 0...3 5..3 12.0 2. IRRIGATION TIME PER APPLICATION z o <t ~ U Q._----_ TARLE1.S 3..1 0...2 6.9 2.5 10. • ASSlJ1ES AN 80\ ---..3 2.1 2.rION 0.3 O..0 6.---_ .3 16.._ ..3 4.7 2.0 -_ .9 3...S 0.0 2.0 PER APPlIC. --.0 15.- .7 1... Q.8 4.1 0.-------_ 2.B 5..3 1..7 20.5 3.7 0.7 20.0 1.3 12.7 7...2 0..8 _ 3D.8 5.1 0.8 ItA TE _ _ [GAL lOHS/HOUR ..5 _ 5..8 1. •••• _. 15. .8 20 30 40 5!! 60 IS 8 10 5.5 10.__ (FROI1 __ .5 5.6 0.8 1..8 5. .5 5.7 0.. .-.-.5 0..5 l.3 0.. .----..-_ .S 2.0 0.5 0.0.3 1.0 1.S 0.0 12.5 16._.5 9.8 12.--.0 5..._-_ _----.3 8. 10 .2 0.6 1.5 O.5 8. Irrigation time (duration) per application and the emItter flow rate..3 2.5 2.l 0.5 3.8 1.1 0.. ::i <t 0:: G w IL W :!! 1= z <t ~ \!) o u: a: VOLUME PER EMITTER AT EACH IRRIGATION Figure applied per emitter at each application 7...1 0.3 1..0 12 5 1!._---_ .. based \ 011 volume 24 I'.7 12.8 1.3 12.3 1.0 1..5 8.---_ . _ ...4 0.1 0.0 --_ ---.0 20.5 0....9 2.5 1.2 8..8 4.3 12...8 70 80 90 100 200 300 400 500 -_ ..4 3.0 4..---.0 15.0 1. -_-----_ IRRIGUIONTlMf . _------ -.---_ .0 1.>: .PEAAPPLfCATION ----.6 0.

-----------------------~--------------------------~------------TREE CANOPY OIAMETER OR TREE CANOPY AREA OR EMITTER WETTED DIAMETER TREE TREE CANOPY AREA OR EMITTER WETTED AREA BASED ON CANOPY DIAr1ETERS OR EMITTER WETTED DIAHETERS. Tree canopy area or emitter wetted area canopy dfameter Dr the emitter wetted diameter.TABLE 8A. (FT) EMITTER WETTED AREA (SO FT) 1 ----------------------1 2 3 4 6 ------------------3 13 28 SO 113 201 254 314 452 154 79 7 " 16 10 12 14 8 20 22 24 ---------------------w • 18 380 ~--- i=' Lt. <c 250 w It « w :t o TREE CANOPY AREA ANO EMITTER WETTEO AREA t: 200 w a: w lI- 150 ~ o ~ 100 ex: It « o ~ ~ u 50 w W It I- °O~~--~------7e------~----~16~----~ro TREE CANOPY DIAMETER OR EMITTER WETTED DIAMETER 1FT) based on the tree Figure 8a. 25 .

Tree canopy area based on the tree spacing along the row and the average tree canopy width.I'i._-----------------------------------------------TREE SPACING AVERAGE CANOPY WIDTH (FT) ALONG ROW ----------------------------------------------------(FT) 12 14 16 18 20 22 24 25 ----------------------------------------------------------------------TREE CANOPY AREA (SQ FT) --------------------------------------. W 300 a:: c::( o z w w \1. 144 168 196 192 224 216 252 240 280 264 308 288 336 312 364 " \ 16 18 20 22 26 28 30 24 192 216 240 264 288 312 336 360 224 252 281) 308 336 364 256 288 320 352 384 416 448 480 288 324 360 396 432 468 504 540 320 360 400 440 480 520 560 600 352 396 440 484 384 432 4~O 528 576 624 672 720 416 468 5?0 572 624 676 728 780 ------------~-----------------------------~---------. '. " -----------. CANOPY WIDTH (FT) TREE SPACING ALONG ROW (FT) Figure Bb.~--------------10 121 140 160 180 200 220 240 260 12 14 WI TMLE 8B.~~~ ~_J " ~. TREE CANOPY AREA BASED ON TREE SPACING AND CANOPY 'HDTH. li: 200 5 a:: I- * AVE. ._--------. .~----------------500 TREE CANOPY AREA 420 392 616 660 5n 52B 400 N lc::( u. 26 '- .--::::. _ .

66 0.---.53 0.35 0.24 0.71 0.49 0.62 0.40 0.74 0.32 0.__ aD 90 100 110 120 13rJ 1~0 ---------~-.62 0.35 0.25 0.6 <C u.--.30 0.-------~ AVERAGE CANOPY TABLE 9. R 8B) O (SO FT) 10 TREE DE·~SIlY (NliHBER OF TREES I ACRE) 0.-.20 0.16 0.51 0.76 0.88 0.--.51 0.88 0.90 0.51 0.~---RELATIVE AREA OCCUPIED BY T~EE CANOPY SO .. Relative tree canopy area based on the average per tree and the number of trees per acre.61 0.83 0.17 0.40 0.69 0.82 0.22 0.----.57 0.20 0.13 0.---------------.61 0.68 0.40 0.38 0.83 0.71 0.--.18 0.62 0.25 0.62 0.sn 1.44 0..J W ~ a: 0.-~----~-------~-.56 0.33 0.44 0.97 O..~---.25 0.41 0..35 0.14 0.15 0.63 0.80 O.45 0.----~-.27 0.4 > .14 0.-~--------------.56 0.18 0. <C >- o z U W 0.2 * NUMBER OF TREES I ACRE 100 AVERAGE CANOPY AREA PER TREE (FT2) canopy area Figure 9.----~--.81 0.--.B <t 0:: w 0..45 0.98 0.-.45 0.0 RELATIVE· TREE CANOPY AREA O..09 0.32 0.--.9'3 0.28 0.80 0.71 0.97 0.--.21 0.38 0.26 0.25 0.----~------------------------------~ 0.13 0.--------------------.-. 27 .31 0.28 0.CANOPY. _ 0..23 0.91 o.30 0..44 0.42 0.27 0.15 75 80 90 100 125 150 175 200 225 250 275 300 325 350 400 450 500 0.22 0.90 0.53 0.66 0.!'!2 0.19 0.27 0.20 0.30 0.--.----------~----------------.----.------~--~-.16 0.6<) 0.57 0.91 .23 0.76 0.91 0.18 0.49 0.23 0.IlS 0.11 0.16 0.l'! AREA PER TREE (FROM TMLE all. RElAT! VE ~REA OCCUP lEO BY TREE --------------~--.-~------.29 0.-.34 0.57 0. --.68 0.7~ 0.10 0.57 0.53 0.35 0.74 0.49 0..

.08 0.50 0..00 0. _.33 0.00 12 14 0.---------P-.t.115 1.13 0.33 0..0 ZONE CORRECTION FACTOR ~ 0.4 o ~ N 0.57 1.• -.-_ '.00 0.29 0.~~..75 0.07 0.67 0..14 0.50 0.67 0.33 0.10 0. "j ---------------------------~--------------~----------~----------------IRRIGATION TIME AFTER IRRIGATION UNTIL RAINFALL OCCURRED (DAYS) ---------------------~-·------------.38 0.25 0.43 0.6 IU ~ z Q I- 0._---_ .40 0..50 0.----IRRIGATED ZOIl~ CORRECTION 3 4 TABLE 10.. Irrigated until IRRIGATION zone rain correction occurred UNTIL RAIN OCCURRED (oAYS) time artr>r Irrigation factor based on the and the scheduled I / .00 0..83 0.20 0.2 * IRRIGATION FREOUENCY (OAY'3) ~ C) a: a:: 00 2 4 G 6 10 TIME AFTER Figure 10.25 1.17 0.00 0.30 0.43 0.44 0..86 Lao IRRIGATED 1..50 0..60 0. Irrigation frequency.22 0.29 0.60 0. IRRIGATED ZONE CORRECTION ~ __ w FACTOR.67 0.11 FACTOR ~_ 6 7 8 9 10 5 o 33 0. FREQUE~CY (DAYS) ----------- _ 1 2 3 6 10 12 2 1 ---------------------------------------------~------------1.71 0.80 0.6 U W a:: a:: o o W Z 0.67 0.00 0.21 0.14 0. 28 --- .75 0.89 0.~--~ •.20 0.17 0.25 0.---~.40 1..57 1.00 1.50 0.80 0.

50 0.43 0.00 0.92 0.86 0.75 0.80 0.-----------~----~~.ft _________________ 0.94 400 0.94 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.50 0.00 0.60 0.98 0.96 500 ____ .69 0.~~~----------------.00 0.88 0.97 0.97 0.~ _____ -----------. 02 AVERAGE CANOPY AREA PER Figure 11.33 0. it o 1+ EMITTER WETTED PER TREE IrT2.99 0.94 0.~-------.98 0.80 0.25 0.96 0. Non'irrlgated average canopy area per tree.85 0.------.00 0.00 0.20 0.99 0.00 0.00 50 0.96 0.00 0.60 0.99 0.----------------------~-.00 0.33 0.00 150 175 200 225 250 275 300 325 0.92 0.96 0.60 0.98 0.90 0.97 0.OO 0.64 0.~~ _____ •• _.20 0. o aD ~__ _____ _________~.56 0.11 0.._y.00 0.00 0.00 0.----- 350 0..90 o.95 0.33 0.00 0.87 0.38 0.80 0.96 0.1)0 0.87 0. 0.----.71 0.00 0.96 0.98 ¥w ______________ 0.97 0.89 0.95 0.73 0.83 0.a' 0.00 n.---------------------------~-----------------5 10 20 50 100 200 300 400 ~----.0 ROOT ZON E CORRECTION FIICTOR a: o Z t.00 0.20 .99 0.97 0.00 ---.60 (SQ FT) AVERAGE CANOPY AREA PER TREE (FROM TABLE SA OR TABLE 8B) EMITTER WETTED AREA PER TREE (SQ FT) 75 100 125 0.90 0.00 0.91 0.78 0.90 0.00 0.14 0. 0.00 0.82 0.00 0.93 0. 09 AREA :rl z o W j: 100 a: a: 06 o o w NO..4 200 o ~ I!) ii a: z o z .33 0.00 0. NON-IRRIGATED ZONE CORqECTION FACTO~ -.97 1'1.-------~------.43 NON -IRRIGATED 1.67 0.93 0.75 0.00 0.00 0.1'10 0.93 0.~~.5.00 0. _________________ ROOT ZONE CORRECTION ~ •• ~~ ________ FACTOR.00 0.96 0.98 0.71 1).----------------.80 0.56 0.95 450 0.67 0.00 0.93 0.) 0.08 0. w •• _________ NON· IRRIGATED .78 0.11 ll.00 0. root tree and the total zone correction factor based 011 the emitter wetted area per 29 .__ • ____ TAIlLE 11.. 4 _____ .00 0..97 0..84 0.98 0.27 0.

60 0.-------.-----.3 0.2 u IZ « 0 0 0.---------~-----------------.64 0.28 0..88 0.90 0.00 0. cr ~ ~ z 0.00 1.91 1.00 0. TARLE n.65 0.60 0.50 0.~.4 (I) * CORRECTION FACTOR NON' IRRIGATED ROOT ZONE w 0 w UJ 0.w ______ .93 1.37 0.73 0.20 0.------------------------_ .96 1.-----.97 1.2 IRRIGATED 0.94 0.80 0.BO 0.92 1.52 0.5 0.00 o } I O. a UJ u 0.40 0.46 0.86 0.82 0.00 1.--.19 0.13 0.~------------------~-----------.84 0.90 0._ ••• ___.31 0.10 0.S 0.~__ ••_______ _________ CONTENT CORRECTION FACTOR.60 0.19 0.58 0.92 0.7 -' IRR [GATED ZONE CORRECflON FACTOR NON-IRRIGATED ROOT ZO~E CORRECTION fACTOR (FROM T"'aLE 11) 0.82 0.-----_.00 1.00 1.79 0. IZ 0.84 0.00 1.30 0. I 1·t-·.00 0.4 ZONE 06 CORRECTION 08 FACTOR 1.76 0.90 1.4 0.40 0..65 0..---(fROM TABLE 10) 0.---.91 0.-----------.96 --------~---------.30 0.00 0.88 0.90 0.9 1.55 0.94 0.0 SOIL WATER CONTENT CORRECTION FACTORS a i= u w a: II.7 0..£_--~-..86 0.91 0.93 0.3 0. 30 c_' :' •• _ .44 0._:_.2 0.16 0.----.58 0.70 0.10 0.82 0.4 0.88 0.00 O.0 ! I Figure 12.-----.1 0.99 1.00 1.0 1.00 1.00 0.00 0.68 0.-.94 1.28 0.97 0.60 0.0 0.0 0.92 0.84 0.~---.00 0.J"_ 1 .1 ------.88 0.:-:_ ~ .0.52 0.70 0.00 1.~---~.72 0.44 0.92 1.80 0.00 1.50 0.64 0.6 O._~~__ANTECEDENT•• SOIL WATER••_____ ~______ •___ •____ •___ •________ •___ .----.51 0.82 0.95 1.00 u ANTECEDENT 1.--------------.0 0.9 1.6 0.85 0.6 := a _.98 1.64 0.B 72 0.. Antecedent soil water content correction factor based on the Irrlgated zone correct Ion factor and the non-Irrl gated root zone correction factor.46 0.----.96 0.8 IZ IZ a ~ u a: w 0.95 0. --~.15 0.85 0.20 0.10 0.0 0.0.55 0.76 0.00 0.8 .2 0.70 0.36 0.00 1.98 0.68 0.76 0.-------.80 0.00 0.94 0.

02 2. SOIL WATER STORAGE Iii SOIL DEPTH IRRIGATED (INCHES) (fR!J'1 TABLE 4) IRR[GATED (INCHES I.40 1.87 1..25 0.25 1.2.05 0.---·-------------------w ____ POTENTIAL RAIN STORAGE [N ROOT ZONE (INCHES I 0.75 1. 0.00 2.75 3. ~ ____ ~.00 1.S8 1.10 1.12 0.37 0.40 1.-------.15 0.10 0.--------------.-------------------~-.00 -------·------------.65 1.60 1.9 1.45 0.90 0.00 0.-------~-. SO 1. a:: ~ ~ W ~ <t o .5 20 25 30 STORAGE IN EFFECTIVE ROOT ZONE (INCHES) Figure ]3.45 o ~ _____ __________ • _______ • ________ • ___ ~ _____ ~ III POTENTIAL RAIN STORAGE IN TREE ROOT ZONE ~ 2.35 1. __ .07 0.00 2.67 75 0.20 0.35 1.' 0.00 1.60 0. ___ ANTECEDENT SOIL WATER CONTENT CORRECTION (FRil'!TA8lE 121 FACTOR 9_ 0.30 0.30 0.-~---------.11 0.80 D.50 2.-------0.25 -------.60 0.2 ~ W I- 05 SOIL WATER 10 1.6 0.05 1.13 1. 31 '.3 .20 0.40 0.25 1. Potentional rainfall storage in the tree root Zone based on the 5011 water storage In the root lone and the antecedent soil water con tent.50 I.30 0.1 ---~ ---------. ------·------~-- __ w _____ POTENTIAL RAINFALL STORAr~ IN SOIL • ___ .22 1.1 0.13 0.t 05 0._.70 1.00 0. 50 1.25 0.52 0.75 0.25 0.30 0.-----. ____ • _____ .67 0.TARlE 13..15 0.-----.00 2.25 1.0 --~~---~----.8 0.90 0.----------.75 0.---.0.50 0.22 0.00 • __ .80 0.05 I.15 0.---._.5 0..40 0.10 1.07 b. 75 1._..38 1.90 1..22 0.27 0.75 1.-------------~-----~-------0.-----.92 2.25 2.20 0.l0 0.75 2.40 1. .20 • ___ .22 0.60 0.12 1..10 0.* CONTENT CORRECTION FACTOR ANTECEDENT SOIL WIITER III 1.00 1.60 __ a so 4 __ 0.45 0.25 0.17 0. 57 1.4 0.52 0.05 0.90 1.30 0.45 0.50 0.25 2.47 2.20 1.75 3.20 1. ___________ DEPTH 9 _____________ -.82 0.60 0.50 0.80 0.50 2.38 0.20 0.40 0.80 2.20 2. 50 0. 0..35 0.0 0'" Z f= .--.5 ~ u t- ~ <i a:: 2.63 0.25 2. 0._~.15 0.55 0.02 0.70 1.57 1. 80 2.70 0.35 0.-----.50 0.75 2.

60 0..--------------------------------.50 1.15 1.75 0.25 [jj 2.20 0.60 0.40 0.L.15 2.00 0.00 0.00 2.00 1.50 ) 3.60 0..00 1.30 0.25 1.10 0.20 0.80 0.25 1. RAINFALL STOREO._~14.90 1.75 0.60 0.0 1. EfFECTIVE RAINFALL.60 0.30 0.00 2.20 0.50 2.00 1.50 0..20 0.--~ 05 1.50 0.50 1.10 0.50 0.30 0.00 1.40 1.10 0.50 0.50 0.90 0.40 0.10 0.----------------~-EFFECTIVE 2.30 0.50 0.20 0.00 2..50 1.------.20 0.50 0._ . 75 2.-------.00 -.70 0.50 0.50 0..-----.---~~-----~.75 0.75 0.------.40 0.00 2.50 1.90 1._----1.5 1.70 0.50 1.OOL.15 1.00 1.50 1.O.90 3.10 0.30 0. 15 0. Effective potential soil water rainfall based on actual storage in the effective root rainfall lone..90 2.65 2.25 1.15 1. and the 32 . 25 0.---0.5 RAINFALL 1.70 0.~-----------------~--------.50 2..50 0.30 0.75 0.00 2.75 0.00 0.00 3.50 3.75 0.90 1.TABLE IN _.90 1.10 0.90 2.60 0.10 0.50 0.00 2.70 0.'----_L---.65 1.50 3.25 1.00 2.65 1.00 0.50 0.~ • RAINFALL (INCHES) POTENTIAL SOIL ~ATER STORAGE IN SOIL DEPTH IRRIGATED (INCHES) (FR{)ITABLE 13) 0.65 1.60 0.50 1.80 0.__..70 0..50 0.40 0.5 w f- 2: ~------------------------I~ ~ u.5 20 RAINFALL (lNCHESI 25 Figure 14.80 0.50 1.50 0.50 2.00 1.10 0.70 0.75 0.15 2. ~ • ~~ .00 2..25 1.20 0.00 1.30 0.0 * ~ o ~ POTIONTIAL OIL WI\TIOASTORAGE S IN EFfECTIVE ROOT ZONE 20 :J ~ z <i: a: 1.20 0.15 1.-.50 0.------.SO 0.25 1.40 2.40 1.00 1.40 2.50 0.60 0.50 2.00 0.10 0.50 0.40 0.L.80 0.50 0..25 1.50 0.30 0.9 THE SOIL OEPTH IRRIGATED.75 ----------.90 1.50 2.50 0.70 O.00 0.~---.40 1.75 0.On 0.30 0.00 1.40 0.---__.75 1.25 1.50 0.00 LOO I.60 0.----~~-~----------------------.5 O.40 0.50 0.50 0.70 0.25 2.90 1.00 0.20 0.50 0.--_.60 0.75 0.25 1. u.40 0.75 0.00 1.40 1.00 3.75 0.00 0.40 0.90 1.---------------EFFECTIVE RAINFALL (INCHES) 0.50 -~. W 0.50 0.

98 1.15 0. 33 r .12 0.63 0..READilY AVAllAALE 0.18 0.30 0.90 1.14 0.90 1.ro 0.40 1._ RELATIVE AREA OCCUPIED St TREE CANOPY (FROI1 TARLE 9) EFFECTIVE RAINFALL z.24 0.08 0.5 ".80 1. .04 0.~.00 2.0 2.PY 0'2.36 1).45 0.4 0.8 0.20 0.9 1.64 0.72 0. --~-.00 1.5 3.40 0.~ __ w_w ______ .09 0.70 0.00 1.96 1.75 1.18 0.40 0.4 1.84 0.81 0.7 0.56 0. 80 2.72 0.60 0.2 1..06 0.8 2.--~-------_~_. 0.32 0.---.54 0. Readily available effective rainfall based on total effective rainfall and the relatiVe area occupied by the tree canopy.16 0.12 1.5 0.12 1.42 0.6" 0.00 __ • ~---~------------------~-------------~-·------~- .08 0. ~__ __ 0.48 0.72 0.48 0. ___ .2 0.44 1.6 0.. Sf} .1 0.3 0.50 0.6 1.--------------.36 0.20 0.-. 20 as {INCHES) EFFECTIVE RAINFALL Figure ]5.25 0.06 0.60 0.7 0.24 0.30 0.U9 0.5 0.84 0.44 1.96 0.6 0.~---~---.20 1.26 1." READILY AVAILABLE EFFECTIVE RAINFALL *RELATIVE 8Y TREE MEA OCCUPIED CANO.72 0.21 0._.20 0.41) 1. --~--------~------------.42 0.26 1.4 0.60 I.28 c.21 0.90 1._.0 (INCHES) ----------------_ 0.16 0.27 0.56 0.08 0.TARLE 15.25 ___ 4 ____ • ____ ~ ____ EFFECTIVE RAINFALL (INCHES) (FROM TASLE 14) REAOllY AV~ILAALE EFFECTIVE RA ~Arr'IFALL STORED UNDER AND NEAR INFALL.--------.0 1.30 0._.42 0.18 0.9 1.5') 0.75 2.80 0.40 0.54 0.8 0.28 0. EFFECTIVE TREE CANOPY.80 0.60 0.SO 1.45 0.54 0.20 0.AO 0.BO 1.2Q 1.00 1.---.0 ---------~~------.12 0.64 0.25 1.10 0.48 0.sa 0.--.27 0.20 1. 2.10 0.---. 1.48 0.56 0.63 0.3 0. 62 1.07 0.36 0.24 0.05_-----------------------------------.12 0.49 0.80 0.---~-------.08 0.90 0. ___ • ____ • ___ ~ ____ • ___ • ___ ~ _________ • ___ • __ ~.50 0.70 O.30 0.03 0.35 0.35 0.15 0.70 0.24 0.40 0.36 0.

~ '...'_ .-------_ .. .....4 1..... --_ .. _--------_ .1 .8 .. --_ ....__ .--2 2 2 2 2 Z 3 3 .... ---. _-_ .............06 0........_----------_ .." .2 _----_ .0 10 8 7 6 3 ~ 12 10 9 7 1 14 12 10 8 6 6 5 1 9 16 13 11 9 10 8 7 6 6 10 9 8 8 13 11 15 18 17 14 IJ II 9 20 15 13 11 20 17 I6 14 13 12 10 9 9 8 9 7 1 7 6 6 11 20 IB 20 18 16 15 14 13 12 10 9 9 8 11 11 0.....' ""............. -_ ..... _------_ .._ ...-........13 0. . -......-_ ....... TO_ ............. ---_ ..23 0.....12 0... 34 '. (----......... --_ ....18 0. .... _---..---_ . ILABlE EFFECTIVE RAINFALL (FR()oI TABLE 15) .14 0...... ...... -_..25 0....22 0...0 REAOILY AVAILABLE EFFECTIVE RAINFALL ...05 AVERAGE Figure 16....2 1... _----_ ..0 1... ...........-_ . IRRIGATION ......_ ....10 DAILY ET 0.....2 _ .. ...5 ~ z ~ ~ a: 0:: ~ _J ~ W4 a Ul ~ c 2 * 0 0.. ".---------------_ .20 0.----....24 I 1 1 1 1 2 1 1 3 3 2 2 Z 2 Z Z 2 3 3 3 2 Z 2 Z 2 ....... FOLLOWING RAINFALL 4 4 6 6 5 5 5 9 8 7 7 7 9 6 8 e 10 10 9 8 9 DAYS TO DELAY._------20 5 4 4 4 1 6 1...17 0.......... _-_ ..6 1.0... REAOIU AV . -----------_ . ............20 0... --_ .--...... 5 2 4 5 5 5 4 4 4 4 4 3 6 6 5 5 5 5 4 4 4 7 6 6 6 5 S 5 S 6 8 7 1 1 8 2 -_ .. OATS TO OELA T IRR IGA TlOII ...19 0.. _--_ ..........6...' . __ . ..10 0...... __ . ......3 1) ..... -.......15 0..16 0..... ----_ ..4 3 1 1 4 4 5 6 .+ 8 0 1..--_ .-_ ... 3 3 3 3 3 2 3 5 5 4 6 5 5 S 4 4 4 4 3 3 3 3 3 10 9 7 1 11 9 9 12 5 4 1 6 e 10 1Z 11 11 10 9 9 16 15 13 20 18 11 15 14 13 12 11 11 13 3 1 1 1 1 0 0 0 0 1 4 ....S _-----_. . TABLE ET RATE ( INCHES/MY) (FRIJ'I TASLE AVERAGE DAILY OATS D£LA T 16.09 2 4 2 1 3 2 2 2 2 2 _ .... .--_ ..... .. ._-_ .---------_ ...05 0.. ----.. ...9 ..-_ ... . 1" ...07 0.. Oays to delay irrigation following rainfall based 011 the average dally ET rate and the readily available effective rainfall.. 8 ..S 2......1 _--------_ . - 3 3 3 3 3 4 ---_ ... -_ ._--------_ 0. _------.08 0.JGATlON fOLLOlilNG RAINFALL.....15 RATE (INCHES/DAY) 0.. __ ...---..... ---_ . INCHES) IR1I....-..11 0. ~1'.21 0...... _--------_ ......

... . B. Drip Irrigation Scheduling. Trickle Irrigation Scheduling Appendix C .. 41 .Appendices Appendix Appendix A.... '. 85 . 44 38 38 . 36 Example 1... Example 2. .. ...

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APPENDIX Example 1. 1.!:. 2.:.!_l_.0 gal/hr System Management Information: Root Depth to be Irrigated: _-".0:. 38 .3-.0=--_ ft Number of Emitters/Tree: 4 Emitter Flow Rate: 1.-"0'----_ ft Allowable 5011 Water Depletion: 50 J: Scheduling Calculations Calculation th is bu11et in. for (month) Average daily ET rate ~ 0. Average daily ET rate ~ 35 gallons/tree/day. and location • ~ge_.-."7 __ 1nches of water/ft of soil " " Irrigation System Informat10n: Emitter Wetted Diameter: _-..13 AP.. for ET rate ~3 __ inches/day (from Step 1) and IOn trees/acre. Drfp Irrfgatfon Schedulfng (I lrrigation Scheduling Worksheet Informat ion Requi red Climatic Information: Month of Year: April Geographfcal Location (Ridge or Flatwoods Areas): Tree Information: Tree density: Ridge 100 trees/acre Tree Canopy Diameter: ft or Soils Information: Soil Water-Holding Capacity: Tree Spacing Along Row: 15 ft Average Canopy Width: ~ ft _-.=3:. step numbers correspond to Table and Figure numbers In inches/day._:.

!:. then this irrigation system wf11 not be able to supply all of the tree's water requirements because an insufficient volume of the tree's root zone Is befng irrigated. 7.53 days. al information is required about each rainfall: Rafnfall Days after 8.00 irrigation c inches until rain occurred: ft2. gal/emitter. more emftters or spray-jets should be used to Irrigate a larger fraction of the tree's root zone. This is. ~or _1_ days Tree canopy area ----- ----- ft canopy diameter 39 " .1 irrigated m inches.5 gal/tree gal/tree/day ET rate.5 days) allowing for water depletions between irrigations. appl fed per emitter (from Step 6. So11 water ~ fnches storage in sol1 depth irrigated. Rainfall Information Required the following addition- To calculate delay times following rainfall. Depth of water be applied irrigation ___hQL irrig~ted inches (from for ~fnches of soil Step 3) and ~allowable 5.. and each 3.i. for of water/ft to of soil at 4. fnChes depth to for of water water storage in soil depth solI water depletion. To sol ve this. Irrigation time per appl fcat fan hours". If very frequent Irrigations do not permit water depletions (based on field observations) between Irrigations. in step Comments: Note that this system should be operated twice per day (every 0. (a) depth: last 2. for ~ and ~ a _~ gallons of water per emftter per application (from Step 5 or as adjusted 6) and 1. at ft each Irrigation wetted per be applied 3. for ~ average gallons/tree dai ly ET rate to be (from (4.0 by each emitter diameter irrigation and ~ ~ emitter 4). Volume of water ~ gallons.3.0 ft 2. *This aSSumes an 80% application effiCiency. depth.6 gallons gallons/tree/day from Step 5 multfpl1ed by 4 emit- Adjust to even fncrement of days • ~ days for 17. Irrigation applied ters/t reel Step 2).0 gal/hr emitter flow rate. frequency per Irrigation and 35 E 0.

12.0_ trees ft2 per 10.. whereas irrigations were required twice daily because of the limIted fraction of the tree root zone irrigated by only 4 l-gal/hr drip emitters..68 • for _2_7_0_ 8) and _.. from ~ 0.05 i nche s . *From 4 emftters per tree and 7 sq..!. Effective rainfall" 1. in the 5011 depth irrigated soil water content correction 14.71 fnches schedul e = g days. Non-irrigated \ root zone correction factor" 0.ft.05 inches.00 inches of rainfall and 1. Days to delay irrigation following rainfall: 5..::2. for _1_5_ canopy width..05 inches sol1 (from Step 4) and 1..68 relative area 16.0.5 inches/day average dally ET rate (from Step 1) and readily available effective rainfall (from Step 15). irrfgated zone correction factor (from Step 10) and 0..QQ. Potential rainfall storage for 1.90 'nonirrigated root zone correction factor (from Step 11). Read11y available effective rainfall: 0.. ! 11..:. R ft tree spacing along 9. Adjust to even multiple of normal irrigation days... per emftter for this example.5 days because the entire area under the tree canopy was wet by the rain.for 1.00 for. in sol1 depth water storage antecedent irrigated" 1. for .71 inches effecthe rainfall (from Step 14) and occupied by the tree canopy (from Step 9). area occupied by tree canopy canopy area per tree (from Step 0....00 ..1. 40 . 15. '.00 factor (from Step 12). inches. 13. Antecedent sol1 water content correction factor" 1...J!:..8.for 270 ft2 average canopy area per tree (from Step 8) and _. Irrigated zone correction factor· 1.05 inches of potent i al 5011 water stor~ge in the soil riepth irrigated (from Step 13). (b) Tree canopy area > 270 row and _1_8_ ft average ft2... Relative average acre.90 . for 2.8_*_ ft2 emitter wetted area per tree (from Table 8a' multiplied by the number of emitters per tree)... Comments: Note that irrigation can be delayed for 5..ll 0..0 days irrigation frequency (from Step 6) and __!&_ days after irrigation until rainfall occurred.

0 50 ft .7 inches ___l!_ ft of water/ft of soil System Information: 12. Inclles/day (from Step 1) and . 2.!_ 2. for Step inChes of water/ft to be applied 4.Example 2._l_C!Q__ trees/acre.10 irrigated inches. Calculation bulletin.:.!L f nelles/day.0 System 11anagement Information: Root Depth to be Irrigated: Allowable Soil Water Depletion: 3. Scheduling this 1. 41 . Soil for~ water storage In soli depth or Soil irrigated.D gal/hI' ft Emitter Wetted Diameter: Number of Emitters/Tree: Emitter Flow Rate: 15. = _O. ~ irrigated inches. and _~ ft for ET rate =~ 3. step Calculations to Table and Figure numbers in and numbers correspond Average da l1y ET rate location ~ _~. depth. Depth of water at each irrigation depth . Average dally ET rate = -li __ " gallons/tree/day. Spray-Jet Irrigation Irrigation Scheduling Scheduling Worksheet Information Cl fmatfc Information: April location Required Honth of Year: Geographical Tree Information: Tree density: (Ridge or FlatwoOds Areas): Ridge 100 Tree Canopy Diameter: ___ trees/acre Tree Spacing Along Row: ~ ft ft or Average Canopy Width: Soils Information: Soil Irrigation Water-Holding Capacity: 0.. for (month) ~J. (from bl tncnes of sOfl water storage In sofl 3) and 50 % allowable sol1 water depletion..

(b.. al information is required about each raInfall: Rainfall depth: Days after days 2. -. time emitter This is 2Q_ gal/emitter..-_.5. .' ET rate. canopy width.. Irrigation applied (emi tters/ per frequency· irrigation tree) 2. Volume of water 74 4) • to be applied 12. or for ft canopy diameter 8.68 8) and for 100 270 trees ft2 per area occupied by tree canopy" canopy area per trel! (from Step 42 'i'.-:--~-. ---·~·:-~-·-----7-·---· ----~~ . gallons. hours".. . .2Q_ gallons 15. Relative average acre. ~.(a) Tree canopy area" ft2. 270 ft average ft2. Step for 74 gallons/tree by the to be 5 multiplied number of and _lL gallons/tree/day average da 11y ET rate (from Step 2).0 water applied ft at each emitter Irrigation wetted per by each emitter diameter Irrigation and ~ . for Inches dept h of per emitter (from Step 6. Step 5) and gal/hr flow rate..--.00 last inches irrigation until rain occur-red: 1 a.. assumes an 80~applicatIon Comments: Note that the irrigation freq'Jency factor of 4 for spray-jet emitters (every other twice-per-day frequency required for the drip This results because the 1 spray-jet emitter per tree root zone as compared to the 4 drip emItters has been reduced by a day) as compared to the e"1ltters In Example 1..1 (from days. for . for 15 ft tree spacing along row and _1_8 9. Irrigation water emitter "This per per appl teat ion • ~ per application (from efficiency. .0 of 7.~:c.) Tree canopy area . 0..... Adjust to even number of days b_Q_ for 70 gal/tree and 35 2 gal/tree/day ·.-_-~ . Rainfall Information Required the following addition- To calculate delay times following rainfall. tree covers 4 tlm~s the in Example 1.

11.. '.45 14) and inches. Readily Inches available effective effective rainfall in the soil rainfall: (from Step 0.10. 0. Non-irrigated average root and -L factor days irrigation Zone correctfon per tree (from = 0. Days to delay canopy (from Step 9). {~ches.Q_ ft2 113 by the wetted area per tree emitters per tree).58 non- zone correction factor (from Step 10) and root zone correction factor (from Step II).00 storage inches of raInfall depth and 0.Q. for _i7. 0. of normal irrigation schedule or whole Comments: Note that the next irrigation WOuld be Scheduled in 4 d~ys (3 from step 16 plus the 1 day remaining in the normal Irrigation schedule..83 depth storage water factor 14. .50 .83 Inches.for after -L days irrfga_ until tlon frequency (from rainfall Occurred. from step 10). Effective antecedent 0. 12.. 43 .83 Inches of potentia) irrigated (from Step 13).68 from ~ area OCCupied by the tree 16. soil for water 2. 0..05 inches soil (from Step 4) and 0.45 for 0. in the soil depth Irrigated soil water content correction Irrigated.13 inches inCheS/day average dafly ET rate (from Step 1) and readily available effective raInfall (from Step 15).. ln soil ra Infall storage 1. 15. Potential for soil water ft2 emitter number of content correction factor =~ for _Q2..58 canopy area (from Step 8) and TiSble 8a multiplied ." • _ •~ •• 10 c .79 (from Step 12). Irrigated zone correction Step factor 6) = 0. rainfall· 0. Antecedent irrigated Irrigated 13. following rainfall =~ relatlve irrigation days. *Adjust to even multiple number of days • 1& days.

for Inches/day (from Step 1) and trees/acre. .. " . Irrigation System Information: Emitter Wetted Diameter: Number of Emitters/Tree: Emitter Flow Rate: ____ System Management Information: . step Calculations to Table and Figure for (month) numbers in .'!:----- . of water/ft of 5011 and ft 44 '. and numbers correspond ET rate" _ inches/day. ' .APPENDIXC Irrt9~tion Scheduling Worksheet [nform~tion Required Climat Ic Information: Month of Year: Geographical Areas) : Location _ (Ridge or FlatWOOds ) Tree Information: Tree density: Tree Spacing Tree Canopy Diameter: Average Canopy Width: Soils Informatiori: Soil Water-Holding trees/acre Along Row: ___ ft ft or ft Capac1ty: ' ____ gal/hr ft inches of water/ft of soil :I j I' I. 1. Root Depth to be Irrigated: Allowable son Water Depletion: ft I Scheduling Calcuhtion th+s bulletin.'. daily ET rate • gallons/tree/day.. Irrigated depth. water inches. . Average daily location 2.. Average ____ 5011 for ..~-. storage inches in soil depth Irrigated c ET rate 3.

aT information Is required about each rainfall: Rainfall Days after days. gal/hr *Thfs assumes an BO% application Rainfall Informatton Required the following addjtion~ To calculate delay times following rainfall. for __ gaTlons of water per emitter emitter flow rate. This Is __ " ga I/t ree and time per application per applfcatfon hours*. ------. Adjust to numbar gall ons/tree/day ET rate even number of days . canopy = (from Step B) and ft tree spacing along OCcupied by tree per tree .. B. for ft2 trees per canopy area i· . (from Step S) and efficiency. S. for or ---. Irrigation water of 5011 water storage in soil depth allowable solT water depletion. irrigated Inches.. Step 5 for _ multiplied gallons/tree by the dally average to be of appl1ed per irrfgation emitters/tree) and (from Step 2). for canopy width. days gal/emitter. for ft emitter wetted diameter and of water appl fed per emitter per irrigation (from Step frequency" (from days. and area ft2. lrrigation ET rate.4.Ca) Tree canopy area. Relative average acre. Depth of water to be app! ied at each frrigation . (b) Tree canopy area row 9.ft ~ ft average 2.. for inches Step 3) and~. to be appl fed at each Irrigation (from by each emitter depth gallons. depth: last irrigation inches until rain OCCurred: B. Volume of inches 4) • 6. for gal/tree/day 7.ft canopy diameter.

available _ effective relative area in the soil rainfall effective occupied rainfall (from by the tree inches inches. soil for water storage inches of rainfall depth inches of potential (from Step 13).. Antecedent irrigated irrigated 13. irrigated" in the soil soil water depth content inches. Non-irrigated average root zone correction per tree (from factor = . 11. . irrigated correction rainfall in soil water depth storage for inches (from Step 4) and factor (from Step 12). for inches • Step 1) and ____ (from Step 15). Days to delay irrigation inches/day readily average daily effective available following ET rate rainfall rainfall (from = __ days. Effective and irrigated 15.~ . Comments. from step 10). . Readily from and 9) • rainfall· antecedent inches. days sche- 46 '.10.. 14.. Irrigated zone correction factor . 6) and . This is __ days total. Potential !I soil root water content factor correct (from factor i on Step factor • zone correction 10) and for non- zone correction storage sol1 (from Step 11). 12. irrigation schedule or nearest Adjust to even multiple of normal whol e number of days • __ days. Step 14) canopy (from Step 16. Note that the next irrigation would be scheduled in __ (from step 16 plus the __ days remaining in the normal irrigation dule. for ft2 ft2 emitter number of canopy area (from Step 8) and Table Ba multipl fed by the wetted area per tree emitters per tree). for days after days irrigation irrigation frequency (from Step until rainfall occurred.