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Anesthesia or PROJECT

Anesthesia or PROJECT

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Published by Reden Ocampo

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Published by: Reden Ocampo on Feb 15, 2012
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06/22/2015

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Created By: JACKIE LOU V.

BOADO BSN 3Y1-4

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. Anesthesia also reduces many of your body's normal stress reactions to surgery.ANESTHESIA Involves the use of medicines to block pain sensations (analgesia) during surgery and other medical procedures.

.Types of Anesthesia ‡ GENERAL ± is given into a vein (intravenously) or is inhaled. It affects the brain as well as the entire body. general anesthesia often causes forgetfulness (amnesia) right after surgery (postoperative period). You are completely unaware and do not feel pain during the surgery. Also.

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It is used only for minor procedures on a limited part of the body. .‡ LOCAL ± involves injection of a local anesthetic (numbing agent) directly into the surgical area to block pain sensations. You may remain awake. though you will likely receive medicine to help you relax or sleep during the surgery.

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‡ REGIONAL ± involves injection of a local anesthetic (numbing agent) around major nerves or the spinal cord to block pain from a larger but still limited part of the body. Major types of regional anesthesia include: ± PERIPHERAL NERVE BLOCKS ± EPIDURAL AND SPINAL ANESTHESIA . You will likely receive medicine to help you relax or sleep during surgery.

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Nerve blocks are most commonly used for procedures on the hands. such as the belly. feet. hips.± Peripheral Nerve Blocks ‡ A local anesthetic is injected near a specific nerve or group of nerves to block pain from the area of the body supplied by the nerve. ± Epidural and Spinal Anesthesia ‡ A local anesthetic is injected near the spinal cord and nerves that connect to the spinal cord to block pain from an entire region of the body. arms. or legs. legs. . or face.

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alfentanil. desflurane. Anesthesia medicines include: ‡ Local anesthetics ± such as bupivacaine or lidocaine. midazolam. or sodium thiopental. oxygen. remifentanil. diazepam. sevoflurane. that are given through a vein. tetracaine. that you breathe through a mask. induce sleepiness or forgetfulness. fentanyl. propofol. or make you unconscious. isoflurane.Medicines used for Anesthesia Medicines used for anesthesia help you relax. suffentanil. ‡ Inhalation anesthetics ± such as halothane. or procaine that are injected directly into the body area involved in the surgery. . ketamine. ‡ Intravenous (IV) anesthetics ± such as morphine sulfate. or nitrous oxide. enflurane. help relieve pain.

They are used during anesthesia to temporarily relax muscle tone as needed.Other medicines that are often used during anesthesia include: ‡ Muscle Relaxants ± which block transmission of nerve impulses to the muscles. Reversal agents may be used to reduce the time it takes to recover from anesthesia . ‡ Reversal Agents ± which are given to counteract or reverse the effects of other medicines such as muscle relaxants or sedatives given during anesthesia.

‡ EXCITEMENT/DELIRIUM ± extends from the time of loss of consciousness to time of lid reflex. . It may be characterized by shouting.The 4 Stages of Anesthesia ‡ ONSET/INDUCTION ± extends from the administration of anesthesia to the time of loss of consciousness. struggling of the patient.

. Surgical procedure is started. ‡ MEDULLARY/ STAGE OF DANGER ± respiratory/ cardiac depression or arrest.‡ SURGICAL ± extends from the loss of the lid reflex to the loss of most of the reflexes. It is due to anesthesia overdose. CPR must be done.

Complications of Anesthesia ‡ Local Anesthesia ± allergic sensitivity to the local anesthetic agent ± Local infection or malignancy ± Septicemia ± Extreme nervousness. excitability or inability to cooperate because of mental state or age . apprehension.

‡ Spinal Anesthesia ± spinal headache ± Auditory and other ocular disturbances ± Tinnitus and diplopia ‡ General Anesthesia ± potentially toxic to the liver ± depresses the respiration ± Limited relaxation of the abdominal muscles ± May lower the blood pressure .

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