STYLISTICS AND ITS OBJECTIVES Units of language on different levels are studied by traditional branches of linguistics such as phonetics, grammar, lexicology, whose subject-matter and the material under study are more or less clear-cut. It gets more complicated when we talk about the object of research and the material of studies of stylistics. The term itself – stylistics - came into existence not too long ago. However, the scope of problems and the object of stylistic study go as far back as ancient schools of rhetoric and poetics. It is in rhetoric that we find most of the notions and terms contemporary stylistics generally employs. The most complete and well developed antique system, that came down to us is the Hellenistic Roman rhetoric system. All expressive means (the object of its research) were divided into 3 large groups: a. Tropes, b. Rhythm (Figures of Speech), and c. Types of Speech. Stylistics, unlike other linguistic subjects, does not study or describe separate linguistic units as such. Roughly speaking, stylistics is a branch of linguistics, which studies the principles, and the effect of choice and usage of different language elements in rendering thought and emotion under different conditions of communication. I.R.Galperin asserts that stуlistiсs, sometimes called l i n g u o s t y l i s t i c s, is a branch of general linguistics that mainly deals with two interdependent objectives: a. the investigation of the special language media which secure the desirable effect of the utterance b. the investigation of certain types of texts which (due to the choice and arrangement of language means) are distinguished by the pragmatic aspect of communication. These two tasks of stylistics are clearly discernible as separate fields of its investigation. The special media are called stylistic devices and expressive means (SD’s and EM’s); the types of texts are called functional styles (FS’s). The first field of investigation, i.e. SD’s and EM’s, touches upon such general language problems as: a. the aesthetic function of language, b. synonymous ways of rendering one and the same idea, c. emotional colouring in language, d. the interrelation between language and thought, e. the individual manner of an author in making use of language, etc. The second field, i.e. FS’s, brings forth the discussion of such issues as: a. oral and written varieties of language, b. the notion of the literary (standard) language, c. the constituents of texts larger than the sentence, d. the classification of the types of texts, e. the generative aspect of literary texts, etc. Stylistics as a branch of linguistics overlaps with such adjacent disciplines as theory of information, theory of communication, literature studies, psychology, sociology, logic and some others. VARIOUS DEFINITIONS OF STYLE IN LANGUAGE Stylistics, as the term implies, deals with styles. The word style is derived from the Latin word ‘stilus’ (‘stylus’) or Greek ‘stylos’ which meant a short stick sharp at one end and flat at the other used by the Romans for writing on wax tablets. Later it was associated with the manner of writing. Today it can be applied in any activity which can be performed in more than one way (manner), verbal communication including. Hence style presupposes choice. 1) In linguistics the word ‘style’ has acquired so many interpretations that it gives ground for ambiguity. 2) Style is frequently regarded as something that belongs exclusively to the plane of expression and not to the plane of content because one and the same idea can be expressed in different ways.

Stylistically neutral words taken separately only denote without connoting. derogatory). i. M. Such stylistic connotation is called occasional. The old man is dead (normal literary. He defines style ‘as a system of interrelated language means which serves a definite aim in communication. Enkvist). Thus. M. characteristics) of what is evaluated (Y. (Cf. Language and style as embellishment are regarded as separate bodies when style is imposed on language for artistic effect. Stylistic colouring of linguistic units is also the result of their distributional capacities. Stylistically coloured words preserve their ‘label’ or ‘trade-mark’ even in isolation. a kind of ‘trade-mark’ showing where the unit was ‘manufactured’ and where it generally belongs. practically neutral). Here arises the problem of norm. i. Skrebnev). a specific distribution may also add some unexpected colouring to a generally neutral word. Riffaterre. 8) Style may also be defined as deviations from the lingual norm (M. It studies their stylistic function.g. 5) 6) The generic term ‘style’ is often identified with the individual style of an author. vulgar. STYLISTIC FUNCTION Stylistic information. the notion of norm implies a recognized or received standard. stylistics does not study or describe separate linguistic units as such. I.) c. Skrebnev. E. dialectal.e. II.On the other.R.e. correctly and in a manner calculated to interest the reader. In the following examples we shall observe the opposition of three sublanguages (styles): a. traditional and conventionally accepted parameters (i. acknowledging the split of a language into sublanguages.) Besides. official. The gentleman well advanced in years attained the termination of his terrestrial existence (high-flown. Thus it brings to the forefront the notion of a stylistic norm that indicates in what collocations and speech variety certain lingual units are proper or improper. Our verbal experience helps us to identify the appurtenance of words to a certain sphere. Galperin believes that the individual style of an author is only one of the applications of the term ‘style’. M. (Cf. Besides occasionally a certain context. stylistically coloured is a departure from the norm of the given national language. E. colloquial. it is interested in the expressive potential or expressive properties of linguistic units and their interaction in conveying ideas and emotions in a certain context. pompous). 9) Y. stylistically relevant. etc. STYLISTIC INFORMATION. the requirements of the uncultivated part of the English-speaking population do not coincide with those of the cultivated one: they merely have their own conception of norm. or the authorial style. in what particular type of communication.2 3) S. There should be mentioned the following integral peculiarities of a stylistic function: . believes that style is specificity of sublanguage. or stylistic colouring of a lingual unit. the ability to write clearly. exquisite. the unit is current. an ‘inscription’. I. or so-called pre-established. STYLISTIC NORM. The individual style – as a deliberate choice of an author – he distinguishes from a habitual idiosyncrasy in the use of language units by any individual or an idiolect.’ 4) Style is often understood as a technique of expression. Stylistically coloured words (e. Chatman defines style ‘as a product of individual choices and patterns of choices among linguistic possibilities.) have each a kind of ‘label’ on them. The ole (low colloquial for old) bean he kicked the bucket (low colloquial.e. There never has been one single norm for all. Saporta. Halliday. Старец скончался. The majority of the words are stylistically neutral. Старый хрыч подох (сыграл в ящик). poetic. Старик умер. what is stylistically conspicuous. is the knowledge where.) b. bookish. solemn. rustic. Style in this sense deals with the normalized forms of the language. In the case it should be applied to the sphere of linguistic and literary science which deals with the peculiarities of a writer's individual manner of using language means to achieve the effect he desires. The term distribution implies the possibilities of combining the given unit with its immediate environment. On the one hand. (Cf. 7) Style is frequently treated as the embellishment of language.

e. While linguostylistics studies: a. the literary language from the point of view of its variability. The subdivisions of linguostylistics The subdivision of linguostylistics is based on the level-forming approach: sounds. social and aesthetic views of the author. or stylistic function. Shcherba. It can be traced back to the works of L. the writer's outlook. The role and purpose of this trend was summed up by I. its ‘chameleon’ quality . sentence arrangement. language units from the point of view of their capacity to render evaluations and evoke emotions. the recipient). But if the same text is treated from the reader’s (decoding) angle the maximum information is excavated from the text itself: its vocabulary. b. its accumulative character – a certain mood or feeling is usually rendered by a group of various means. literary stylistics inevitably overlaps with areas of literary studies such as the theories of artistic imagery and literary criticism. B.V.g.A. R. b. expressive means and stylistic devices are treated here only in their interaction and distribution within the text as the carriers of the author’s purpose and signs of his vision of the world. its implicit character . and their interaction in rendering the author’s message (the analysis of the linguistic context) . literary genres. This phenomenon is also termed convergence of devices. It studies the semantic structure of the word and the interplay of the connotative and denotative meanings of the word. b. the individual manner of a writer. or functional styles and their specificity.V. the basic difference between linguostylistics and decoding stylistics is that the latter studies means provided by each level not as isolated devices that demonstrate some stylistic function but as a part of the general system that discloses the overall concept of the author.’ It is common knowledge that each work of verbal art can be viewed from the point of view of its encoder (the author) and decoder (the reader.a certain device does not necessarily perform the same function. d. as well as the interrelation of the stylistic connotations of the word and the context.3 a. non-stylistic) lexicology is the study of the stylistic differentiation of the vocabulary.. etc.is secured by the connotative meanings of words c. the historical situation. STYLISTICS AND ITS MAJOR TRENDS According to the type of stylistic research they distinguish linguostylistics (founded by a French linguist Ch. Stylistics of decoding harmoniously combines these two methods of stylistic research and enables the reader to interpret a work with a minimum loss of its purport and message. Riffaterre. etc. Jackobson and many other scholars (mainly of the Prague linguistic circle). the personal political. The points of difference proceed from different points of analysis. styles of sublanguages. words.few or even one lingual unit with an outstanding stylistic function may attach a peculiar sounding to the whole speech unit.e. etc. They have some meeting points or links which lie in the study of: a. The first approach manifests the prevalence of the literary analysis. development and current state. Thus. are considered (the analysis of the extralinguistic context). the peculiarities of a certain trend or epoch. Larin. Нere belong:  Lexical stylistics (stylistic lexicology). composition. If the literary text is analyzed from the author's (encoding) point of view such background facts as the epoch. . the art of composition. The second is based almost exclusively on the linguistic analysis. Arnold in her book on decoding stylistics: ‘Modern stylistics in not so much interested in the identification of separate devices as in discovering the common mechanism of tropes and their effect. phrases and sentences. In other terms. Another distinguished trend of stylistics is stylistics of decoding. c. poetic speech that has its own specific laws. it may vary from context to context. Bally) and literary stylistics. What unites it with general (i. M. Special attention is also paid to the functioning of different set expressions. paragraphs and texts are studied from the point of view of their expressive capacities. its irradiating character . a hyperbole may be used for creating a humorous or dramatic atmosphere.

from the paragraph upwards. It can be understood as a completed product of speech. Special attention is also paid to the expressive potential of phonetic means as well as the prosodic features of prose and poetry. . NB! In written texts phonetic means are often substituted by graphical devices (the domain of study of graphical stylistics). Stylistic phonetics pays attention to the style-forming phonetic features of sublanguages: it describes variants of pronunciation occurring in different types of speech. explicitly or implicitly comparing them with the neutral ones common to all the sublanguages. Besides. grammatically connected and semantically coherent. Text stylistics is one more branch of stylistic research. Syntactical stylistics is one of the oldest branches of stylistic studies that grew out of classical rhetoric. Non-stylistic syntax treats word combinations and sentences.  Functional stylistics (the theory of functional styles). 1) Morphological stylistics (stylistic morphology) 2) Syntactical stylistics (stylistic syntax) Non-stylistic morphology treats morphemes and their grammatical meanings in general. syntactical stylistics very often operates on longer units. sphere of communication and compliance with the norm.  Grammatical stylistics. substyles and genres.4  Phonostylistics (stylistic phonetics). It investigates the expressive potential and the influential power of the deviations from a normative word order. representing a sequence of words. without regard to the sphere of their application. Text Stylistics aims at investigating the most effective ways and means of producing texts belonging to different styles. analysing their structures and stating what is permissible and what is not in constructing correct utterances in the given language. General phonetics investigates the whole articulatory-audial system of language. Morphological stylistics is interested in the expressive potential of grammatical meanings. There exist various definitions of the term ‘text’. forms and categories as well as the deviations from a normative word formation that are peculiar to particular sublanguages. what syntactical structures are specific in the sublanguage in question. and having a certain communicative goal. It also studies the lingual means through which different types of information and presentational manners are conveyed as well as the verbal manifestation of text categories. of types of sentence and of syntactical connection. It also shows what particular constructions are met with (or should be employed) in various types of speech. Functional stylistics is a branch of linguostylistics that investigates the totality of media typical of varieties of the national language distinguished by the communicative function.

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