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The Machine Shop is a place, where various types of machines are installed, such as Lathes, Shapers, Drills, Millings, Power Hacksaw, and Grinders etc. And there is also availability of various kinds of tools and equipments. These machines are mostly used in machining work, for cutting the metals and manufacturing different kinds of work pieces and jobs according to the dimensions as given in their drawings.
Safety Precautions in Machine Shop
For safe practice in machine shop, we must follow the following necessary instructions: 1. Do not start any machine, if you don't know about that machine. 2. Wear shoes, aprons and safety glasses when working on the machine. 3. Do not wear loose clothes, long sleeves or any thing that might get caught in the moving part of the machine. 4. Remove chuck key from the chuck of the lathe machine before starting the machine. 5. Make it sure that all the cutting tools and work pieces (jobs) are clamped properly and securely on the machine, before starting the machine. 6. Keep your fingers away from rotating work piece and moving parts of the machine. 7. Do not rest your foot on the machine, it can cause accident. 8. Always allow the moving parts and cutting tools of machine to stop by itself, do not try to stop them with your hand, because it can cause injury. 9. Chips should not be removed from the machine by hand. Use brush for that purpose. 10. Never leave the machine, while it is in operation, as a great deal of damage can be done to the machine. 11. Care must be taken, when you are working on the machine, otherwise it causes serious accident. 12. Do not joke are run in machine shop.
In Millimeters: Least Count is 0.02mm Each Vernier Scale Division is 0.02mm In Inches: y 1" is divided in 40 divisions. 05 divisions on main scale are 1/8". Machine Shop (Workshop Technology) Waqas Ali Tunio (07ME34), QUEST, Nawabshah.
The spindle speed can be changed by shifting the driving belt to a pulley of larger or smaller diameter. Nawabshah. cutting.1" Eight Divisions = 0. It has ways "V" is formed upon them. The removing of material from a piece of revolving work is the main purpose of a lathe. drilling etc.Machine Shop (Workshop Technology) Waqas Ali Tunio (07ME34).001" On Main Scale: Each Division = 0. It is the foundation on which the lathe is built. Types of Chucks: Machine Shop (Workshop Technology) Waqas Ali Tunio (07ME34). Henry Maudsley. Bed: The lathe bed is manufactured in foundry by the process of casting. The bed is supported by cross strips. The spindle that rotates the work piece is also fitted in the headstock. Parts of Lathe: It is most important to learn the parts of a lathe machine and their functions. threading. The lathe is one of the most important machines in any workshop.001" Each Vernier Scale Division is 0. Maudsley made both wood working and metal working machines. Chuck: The chuck is mounted on the spindle. . thus producing a cylindrical shape. Least Count is 0. Nawabshah. It is used for holding and revolving the job. turning. But the modern engine lathe is credited to the English mechanic. such as facing. Variation in spindle speed is easily accomplished by the adjustment of speed control lever. It has been in use for many centuries and has been greatly improved in design.2" The Lathe Machine: The lathe is the most ancient machine. QUEST. Headstock: The headstock is also manufactured by the process of casting and is fastened to the ways of on the left end of the bed. QUEST. The spindle is hollow in the centre.025" Four Divisions = 0. Firstly it was used to remove material from the outside of logs of wood while they were revolving. It is also used for different operations. The speed of lathe is given in rpm (Revolution per minute). At present it is mostly used for metal cutting.
Cross Slide: The cross slide is mounted on the saddle. reamers etc. which slides between the head stock and tail stock. and the gears that are necessary for the operation of the carriage by hand and power feeds. Machine Shop (Workshop Technology) Waqas Ali Tunio (07ME34). Combination Chuck A combination chuck is normally a four chuck. Chucks come in different types. It has a handle to move the slide transversally. each jaw is operated independently by a chuck key. it may be used to hold taper shacked drills. Three-jaw chucks are used to hold job's circular and hexagonal cross sections. . the following are the most common ones. They are manufactured in different sizes ranging from 4 to 16 inches. The Saddle: It is a casting that slides over the ways of the bed to carry cross slide. apron that slides. The carriage consisting of the saddle. Carriage: The carriage is attached to the bed. Nawabshah. Tail Stock: The tail stock is a moveable casting and supports an adjustable spindle. The tail stock can be moved longitudinally or can be clamped tightly by tightening the clamping lever. One end of tail stock spindle is bored to a standard taper to hold the dead centre. The spindle can be moved back and forth by turning the hand wheel. But setting the job with an independent jaw chuck requires higher skills. The split nut which engages with the lead screw in cutting threads Hand wheels on the apron allows the carriage to be moved longitudinally. The tail stock is constructed in two parts so that the upper part can be moved either toward or away from the operator to offset the work piece for taper turning. QUEST. the feed change lever. This moves the tail stock out of alignment. The Apron: It contains the clutch knob. The tail stock movement makes it possible to hold work pieces of different lengths between centers. Nawabshah. In this type of chuck the jaws are either moved independently or together. located opposite the head stock on the ways of the bed. y Three-jaw Universal Chuck y Four-jaw Independent Chuck y Combination Chuck Three-jaw Universal Chuck In this type of chuck the jaws move "In and Out" together. the split nut lever. The tail stock spindle does not rotate.Machine Shop (Workshop Technology) Waqas Ali Tunio (07ME34). and this chuck is used to hold jobs of round. All the three jaws move simultaneously if anyone of the jaw is operated with the chuck key. The dead centre may be removed by reversing the hand wheel. square and rectangular cross-section. A screw running through the hollow spindle strikes the end of the dead centre and loosens it. QUEST. Four-jaw Independent Chuck It contains four jaws. compound rest and tool post.
These are ground in a variety of shapers and different names of grinding angles. QUEST. The most important cutting tools are common tool bits. boring milling lathe. . It can be swiveled in a 360 degree circle to cut my desired angle. The slide can also be moved automatically. such as engine lathe. automatic lathe etc. Different types of lathes are available in various industries. an alloy of carbon. Thread Cutting Mechanism: The thread cutting mechanism includes any gear or mechanism which transmits motion from the main spindle (Head Stock) to the lead screw. Some of these are: y Left hand turning tool y Round nose turning tool y Right hand turning tool y Left hand corner tool y Threading tool y Right hand corner tool y Left hand side tool y Square nose tool y Right hand side tool y Brass tool Machine Shop (Workshop Technology) Waqas Ali Tunio (07ME34). which are attached to the gear box. The lead screw is used only for the thread cutting. turret lathe. Tool Post: It is used for holding the cutting tools. Hand Wheel: The hand wheel which is on apron is used to give feed to the cutting tool during working time. according to the type of operation to be performed. tungsten. QUEST. For adjusting the gears to the required number of threads per inch (T. Cutting Tools of Lathe: The tools used for cutting on the lathe are generally made of high speed steel.I) and the correct position of tumbler's lever is determined by charts. The size of a lathe is designated by the swing over the bed and by the length of the bed. vanadium or molybdenum. Nawabshah. Compound Rest: The compound rest is mounted on top of the cross slide.P.Machine Shop (Workshop Technology) Waqas Ali Tunio (07ME34). The carriage movement is adjusted by the split nut on the lead screw. Nawabshah. Types of Lathes: Lathes come in different types and sizes. Tungsten-carbide tipped tools are used for manufacturing requiring maximum cutting speeds. using the lever on the out side of the apron to move the split nut.
Machine Shop (Workshop Technology) Waqas Ali Tunio (07ME34). QUEST. which rests upon the base. Table: The table is a casting of rectangular shape. The 60 degree included angle to which a V-type threading tool is ground must be checked for accuracy with a centre gauge. It comes in various types and sizes according to the work. a vertical. of box like construction with openings at the front and bottom. Nawabshah. Some other tools are: y Inside threading tool y Cut off or Parting tool y Boring tool Vernier Caliper: The vernier caliper is used to take accurate measurement. The zero mark on the vernier scale indicated the measurement to be read on the main scale. or an angular plane. The vernier caliper which is used in our machine shop has a 0. Ram: The ram of shapers has forward and return strokes during the cutting process. The following are the main parts of a shaper machine: Base: The base is a hollow casting upon which the other parts of the shaper are mounted. The size of the shaper is determined by the maximum length of its stroke. hydraulic shaper and vertical shaper. slider. The V-type threading tool is mostly used in cutting of threads. Types of Shapers: Shapers come in different types and sizes. Nawabshah. Tool Head: It is used to hold the cutting tool and may be swiveled to a required angle to the left or right according to the work.05mm least count. Different types of shapers are available in various industries such as crank shapers. which may be in a horizontal. out-side jaws and inside jaws. main scale. It consists vernier scale. Column: The column is a hollow rectangular casting. It is also a reservoir for the supply of oil which is circulated to the moving parts of the machine. It has "T" slots on the top and sides. . clamp screw. which are used for holding work piece or a vice to the table. depth bar. The Drilling Machine: The drilling machines are mostly used for the purpose of drilling holes in all kinds of Machine Shop (Workshop Technology) Waqas Ali Tunio (07ME34). The Shaper Machine: The shaper is used for the production of the surfaces. QUEST.
Sensitive drilling machine. It consist entire working mechanism. Knurling Operation: Knurling is an operation or process of roughening the surface of a piece of work by making a series of indentations on it with knurling tool held in the tool post and work piece is being revolved in a lathe. Force the knurling tool slowing into the work to a depth of approximately 1/64". Heavy duty drill press. Table: The table is supported by the column. Machining Operations: Turning Operation: Turning is the operation of removing stock from the outside of a piece of material while it is being revolved in a lathe. Nawabshah. The stock is removed by a suitable cutting tool. Set the feed so that the tool will feed Machine Shop (Workshop Technology) Waqas Ali Tunio (07ME34). QUEST. material. Spindle: The central part of the head is called spindle. Head: The head is attached to the upper end of the column. The vertical spindle drilling machine is available in three types 1. Column: It is made of cylindrical type and supports the head ad the table of drilling machine. Facing Operation: Facing is the operation of removing stock from the end of a bar of material as it is being revolved in a lathe. Parts of Drilling Machine: Base: The base is a heavy casting with holes for mounting the machine to the floor. The table may also be swung horizontally. It may be moved up and down to hold different heights of work piece. Turning produces a piece of work that is cylindrical in shape. Drill Chuck: The drill chucks are made in various sizes to hold drills ranging form 1/32" to 3/4" in diameter. . Plain vertical spindle drilling machine. Nawabshah. A slow speed should be used to knurl a piece of work.Machine Shop (Workshop Technology) Waqas Ali Tunio (07ME34). QUEST. 2. 3. Types of Drilling Machine: So many types of drilling machine are available in various industries.
Nawabshah.P. . The knurls should be lubricated while cutting. Machine Shop (Workshop Technology) Waqas Ali Tunio (07ME34). across the surface of the work.Machine Shop (Workshop Technology) Waqas Ali Tunio (07ME34). Thread Gauge: The thread gauge is a tool used for measuring the number of threads per inch (T. Reverse the feed of the carriage at the end of the cut. QUEST. To test a thread to determine the number of threads per inch. one the blade at a time is placed on the threads until one is found that is a perfect match. Thread gauge is also called screw-pitch gauge. and repeat the operation until the knurling has been completed. It is a series of blades which are accurately notched and numbered. QUEST.I) of external and internal threads. Nawabshah.
When completed. Tools and Equipments: Bench Vice. if its 46 * 46* 5. Odd Leg Caliper and Flat File. then start the filing the vertical side. Then start filing the piece. QUEST. draw a line by chalk at opposite side of flat surface. Drawing: Machine Shop (Workshop Technology) Waqas Ali Tunio (07ME34). QUEST. Nawabshah. Check with try-square. Nawabshah. then its completed. Job # 1 Object: To make a square piece by filing. Try Square. Start filing one layer with flat file then check the flat surface of the given piece with try square. Note: All dimensions are in millimeters. Safety Precautions: Keep proper discipline in shop Always wear the apron and closed shoes All files should be fitted with the suitable handle at the right end of file. Then take odd leg caliper on one of the plane surface. open the caliper to the required size and make up side down with the help of pointing. Filing.Machine Shop (Workshop Technology) Waqas Ali Tunio (07ME34). Material: Mild steel strip of size 50 * 50 * 5. Process: Lay outing. Procedure: First we take the given piece and adjust in the bench vice. .
Safety Precautions: Not touch any tool until the Instructor guides you about it Always wear the apron and closed shoes All files should be filled with forward stroke Drawing: Machine Shop (Workshop Technology) Waqas Ali Tunio (07ME34). Tools and Equipments: Bench Vice. When completed. Nawabshah. Odd Leg Caliper. Flat File. open the caliper to the required size and make up side down with the help of pointing. draw a line by chalk at opposite side of flat surface. Square File and Triangular File. Material: Mild steel strip of size 50 * 50 * 5. Process: Lay outing. Then take odd leg caliper on one of the plane surface. Note: All dimensions are in millimeters. Check with try-square. if its 46 * 46* 5.S and filing until you get your required shape. Grooving. Cutting Procedure: First we take the given piece and adjust in the bench vice. Job # 2 Object: To make a "V" and "U" groove by filing. . then start the filing the vertical side. Filing.Machine Shop (Workshop Technology) Waqas Ali Tunio (07ME34). Now take a triangular file and file on it gently until and unless "V" groove appears in a M. When "U" grooving only an square file will be used instead of a triangular one. then its completed. Start filing one layer with flat file then check the flat surface of the given piece with try square. Then start filing the piece. QUEST. QUEST. Nawabshah. Try Square.
With the help of try-square and scriber draw a diagonal on strip. Safety Precautions: Not touch any tool until the Instructor guides you about it Always wear the apron and closed shoes and goggles at the time of drilling All files should be filled with forward stroke Drawing: Machine Shop (Workshop Technology) Waqas Ali Tunio (07ME34). Open divider with suitable angle and draw a circle. Now cut all the suitable lines with hack saw. Flat File. . Drill 5/16". drill at the center. Drilling and Tapping. Again with center punch point the diagonal and circle. Procedure: Fix the job in the bench vice and take safety precautions. Center Punch. QUEST. Process: Lay outing. Use the divider and center punch and make a hexagonal. Tap 3/8" with stock oil cane and Hammer. Note: All dimensions are in millimeters. join all points and wit the help of drilling machine. Scriber. QUEST. Then use diameter 3/8" and make threads inside the hole. With center punch mark the center by diagonals. Steel Rule. Use try-square. Tools and Equipments: Bench Vice. Divider. Job # 3 Object: To make a Hexagonal Nut Material: Mild steel strip of size 50 * 50 * 5. Hack Saw. Nawabshah. Center making.Machine Shop (Workshop Technology) Waqas Ali Tunio (07ME34). Nawabshah.
Material: Mild Round 3" * 3/8 diameter. QUEST. Nawabshah. The length of face is 1/2" and length of threading approximately 1 1/2". . File diameter 3/8" with stock oil cane. Tools and Equipments: Hack Saw. Job # 4 Object: To make a Bolt. Nawabshah.S round 3"*3/8" rod and cut with hack saw a 3" rod.Machine Shop (Workshop Technology) Waqas Ali Tunio (07ME34). Safety Precautions: Not touch any tool until the Instructor guides you about it Always wear the apron and closed shoes and goggles at the time of drilling All files should be filled with forward stroke Drawing: Machine Shop (Workshop Technology) Waqas Ali Tunio (07ME34). Steel Rule. If you find it a touch difficult to thread. QUEST. Then we make a face for holding in bench vice with filing and other side we make a taper for some filing to adjust the diameter in the rod. After this process. Cutting. Process: Lay outing. we are able to start diameter on rod threading. Filing Procedure: First of all we give a M. oil cane may be used to make the job a bit too easy.
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