260296 Ed.

3/eD e IEC





1) The IEC (International Electrotechnical Commission) is a worldwide organization for standardization comprising all national electrotechnical committees (IEC National Committees). The object of the IEC is to promote international co-operation on all questions concerning standardization in the electrical and electronio fields. To this end and in addition to other activities, the IEC publishes International Standards. Their preparation is entrusted to technical committees; any IEC National Committee interested in the SUbject dealt with may participate in this preparatory work. International, governmental and non-governmental organizations liaising with the IEC also participate in this preparation. The IEC collaborates closely with the International Organization for Standardization (ISO) in accordance with conditions determined by agreement between the two organizations. The formal decisions or agreements of the IEC on technical matters express, as nearly as possible, an international consensus of opinion on the relevant SUbjects since each technical committee has representation from all interested National Committees. The documents produced have the form of recommendations for international use and are published in the form of standards, technical speCifications, technical reports or guides and they are accepted by the National Committees in that sense. In order .to promote international unification, IEC National Committees undertake to apply IEC International Standards transparently to the maximum extent possible in their national and regional standards. Any divergence between the IEC Standard and the corresponding national or regional standard shall be clearly indicated in the latter. The lEe provides for any equipment no marking prooedure to indicate its approval and cannot be rendered declared to be in conformity with one of its standards. responsible




5) 6)

Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this International Standard may be the subject of patent rights. The lEG shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent rights.

International Standard IEC 60296 has been prepared by IEC technical committee 10: Fluids for electrotechnica1 applications. The text of this standard is based on the following documents:
FDIS 10lXXlFDIS Report on voting

Full information on the voting for the approval of this standard can be found in the report on voting indicated in the above table. This publication has been drafted in accordance with the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 3. The committee has decided that the contents of this unchanged until. At this date, the publication will be reconfirmed; withdrawn; replaced by a revised edition, or amended. publication will remain

.. In the case of eye contact irrigation with copious quantities of clean running water should be carried out and medical advice sought. It is the responsibility of the user of the standard to establish appropriate health and safety practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use. " .. _ ......f'..' _" '.. Lll \ .•••. ~. ~. health..' .. Every precaution should be taken to prevent release of mineral insulating oil into the environment.r....--- I ..260296 Ed... safety and environmental protection This International Standard does not purport to address all the safety problems associated with its use..~ ... chemicals and used sample containers. The disposal of these items shall be carried out according to the local regulations with regard to the impact on the environment." . Some of the tests specified in this standard involve the use of processes that could lead to a hazardous situation. Direct contact with the eyes may cause irritation..""' ... .. This standard concerns to mineral insulating oils. -.3/CD © IEC -3- INTRODUCTION General Caution.._.. The mineral insulating oils which are the subject of this standard should be handled with due regard to personal hygiene. l L ..' '. Attention is drawn to the relevant standard for guidance.

a check is recommended to be made to ensure that the mixture meets the requirements of this standard. This standard capacitors.Part 2: Temperature rise lEe 60156: Insulating liquids frequency . .Test method . guide for insulating mineral insulating oifs In lEe 60475: Method of sampling liquid dielectrics IEC 60628: Gassing of insulating liquids under electrical stress and ionization lEe 60666: Detection insulating oils and determination of specified anti-oxidant additives in '.4) are considered to be compatible with one another and can be mixed in any proportion.'-" 'L ._ . constitute provisions of this International Standard. Where the user wishes to mix such oils. only to unused oils.260296 Ed.:. intended for use in transformers. This does not apply to oils containing additives. These oils are obtained by distillation and refining of crude petroleum.3/eD e rae -4- SPECIFICATION FOR UNUSED MINERAL INSULATING TRANSFORMERS AND SWITCHGEAR OILS FOR 1 Scope This International Standard covers specifications and test methods for unused mineral insulating oils.. ••• _ co·· .. resistivity of insulating liquids IEC 60422: Supervision and maintenance electrical equipment dielectric dissipation factor and d. any of these publications do not apply. For dated references. of the same class and containing no additives (see 3. This standard Is applicable of this standard. switchgear and similar electrical equipment in which oil is required as an insulant and for heat transfer. It applies to oil delivered to the agreed point and time of delivery. the latest edition of the normative document referred to applies. or revisions of. Oils with and without additives are both within the scope of this standard. " .Determination of the breakdown voltage at power lEe 60247: Measurement of relative permittivity. Members of lEe and ISO maintain registers of currently valid International Standards. For undated references. 2 Normative references The following normative documents contain provrsrcns which. Reclaimed oils are beyond the scope does not apply to mineral oils used as impregnants in cables or NOTE Oils complying with the requirements of this standard. parties to agreements based on this International Standard are encouraged to investigate the possibility of applying -the most recent editions of the normative documents indicated below. through reference in this text._... lEe 60076-2: Power transformers .c. However. subsequent amendments to.

1 Transformer 011 ~PlWWhii::h1'Vecn.3/CD@ IEC -5- lEe 60814: Insulating of wat"r by automatic liquids ..Methods for the determination of 2-~1 and IEC 61619: Insulating liquids .Oil-impregnated paper and pressboard cou/ometric Karl Fischer titration . ISO 6295: Petroleum products . Qi. .Transparent kinematic viscosity and calculation of dynamic and opaque viscosity liquids . .Determination of interfacial tension of ISO 14596: Petroleum products . tllld::Pagfi: 7.Determination IEC 61125: Unused hydrocarbon evaluating the oxidation stability lEe 61198: Mineral insulating related compounds based insulating liquids - Test methods for oils .Determination of kinematic viscosity factor by at very low lEe 62021: insulating oils Mineral insulating oils - Detennination of acidity - Part 1: Mineral ISO 2119: Petroleum Martens ISO 3016: Petroleum only) products and lubricants . .260296 Ed. .Ring method oils . .Determination of dielectric dissipation measurement of the conductance and capacitance .Determination of sulfur content 3 P_~~I1It14?_~_~ .. r··'~·" ··. ...Determination of fll!ISh point .youn!ftclbelonglDl1e· lhefeiSstill~ ~theyli1ltJhtl1l1 reecti·plIbIiCation) . .orti.cortamination by polychlorinated Method of determination by capillary column gas chromatography biphenyR (PCBs) - lEe 61620: Insulating liquids .Mineral products . . fte:· .tedatihe ~QfthedoOOmentBi~{Jtlies ·~ ooritain al. ASIIliS.Determination of ISO 3675: Crude petroleum and liquid petroleum of density .lIIl=C.. _ For the purpose of this International Standard. l: . dOCunientls not yet at II"Ie . ! ~ ...~th8t are. . MO'f'8d 111) bIIIIIogrlIphy Insulating oil for transformers and Similar electrical equipment where normal oxidation resistance is required. the following definitions apply: 3. are"bJo.·"_·_····_··_--··_·1 1 i .Hydrometer method .Laboratory detennintJljon 011 against water .Test method lEe 61868: Mineral insulating temperatures oils .CfJ>/lFlbIge !tbSklngS in a .Pensky- products - Determination of pour point (available in English ISO 3104: Petroleum products .tererencesthat ~letenl!i1Ce51l1auS$ .

8 Trace-lnhlblted 011 Mineral insulating oil containing up to 0. anti-foam agents. containing no antioxidant additives.08% antioxidant additive are considered as 3.40 % antioxidant Mineral-insulating additive NOTE In some countries there is a limit of max. reclaimed or dechlorinated oil or other contaminants. refining process improvers. oU in any proportion shall be regarded as being . 3. 0. electrostatic charging tendency depressants such as benzotriazole (BTA).7 Inhibited all oil containing minimum 0. uninhibited oils. Such oil has not been used in.5 Uninhibited all Mineral-insulating oil. 3.4 Antioxidant additive in an insulating oil to increase oxidation stability.260296 Ed. For this standard these are limited Additive incorporated Note: A large number of antioxidant detectable by I EC 60666.3/CD @ IEC -6- 3. 3.4.4.B Unused Insulating all An insulating oil as delivered by the supplier. etc. pour point depressants. additives are available. but which may contain other additives as mentioned in chapter 3.order to improve certain characteristics NOTE Examples include antioxidants. The manufacturer and supplier of unused oil will have taken all reasonable precautions to ensure that there is no contamination with Polychlorinated Biphenyls Of Terphenyls (PCB. NOTE In some countries. 3.08 % and maximum 0. oils containing up to 0. PCT).30 % antioxidant chapter 3.3 Additive Suitable chemical substance which is d~liberately added to an insulating oil in. used. storage or transport. NOTE A blend of unused and reclaimed reclaimed.08% antioxidant aditive. additives as mentioned in 3.2 Low temperabJre switchgear 011 Oil for oil-filled switchgear for outdoor application in very cold climatic conditions 3.9 Reclaimed all A mineral insulating oil used in electrical equipment which has been subjected to chemical and/or physical processing to eliminate soluble and insoluble contaminants. nor been in contact with electrical equipment or other equipment not required for manufacture.

have impact on its function as insulating and cooling fluid NOTE: Functional properties include viscosity. pour point. PCA (polycyclic 5 5.3/CD e IEC -7- 4 Properties related to table 1 and 2 and clause 7 Characteristics 4. sulfur.2 Refining and stability Properties of oil that are influenced by quality and type of refining and additives interfacial tension.1. 4. water content. 2-furfural content. oxidation stability. protection aromatics). PCB/PCT Note: Examples can include flash (polychlorinated biphenylslterphenyls) point. general delivery requirements and 5. Examples include tendency (ECT). 4.1 Classification. breakdown Yoltage and dielectric dissipation factor. behaviour of oil in service or its reaction charging gassing tendency and electrostatic 4. insulating oils are classified in two classes: low-temperature . acidity. density.1 Functional properties Properties of oil which . corrosive NOTE: This can include appearance. sampling Classification identification. safety and environment (HSE)-propertles Oil properties related to safe handling and environment density. switchgear oil.4 Health.3 Performance Properties that are related to the long-term under high electric stress and temperature NOTE.260296 Ed.1 Classes For the purpose of this standard • • transformer oils. sutfur content.

' ! . These shall be clean and suitable for this purpose to avoid any contamination..3.3 5..... Standard-LCSET of this standard is -30 C.1. the LCSET is to be indicated. Oil drums and sample containers shall carry at least the following markings: 5.2 • supplier's designation. transformer oil U O°C General requirements of this standard are given in table 2.4 Specific requirements transformer oil T -30°C. following to their content of antioxidant Uninhibited transformer oils: marked with U Trace inhibited transformer oils: marked with T Inhibited transformer oils: marked with I 5.3 Lowest cold start energizing temperature (LCSEn After the inhibitor marking. Q optionally other LCSET can be selected Example: Transformer oil I -40aC.3/CD © IEC -8- 5. 5. according to table 1. the same group and the same LCSET are considered to be miscible and compatible with each other (see as weiliEC 60422)..' \ lH .1 Identification and general delivery' requirements Oil is normally delivered in bulk or rail tank cars and tank containers or packed in drums or IBC (Intermediate Bulk Containers). ~___... Each oil delivery shall be accompanied by a document from the supplier specifying at least suppliers designation.1. ~ I . Sampling shall be carried out in accordance with the procedure described in IEC 5.3.\ ...2 Antioxidant Transformer additive: additive (Inhibitor) content oils are classified in three groups.260296 Ed. oil classification and compliance certificate. __..3. ---_-_.2 Miscibility Unused insulating oils of the same class.3.. 5.4 Sampling 60475.." ..3 5.1. r:=~--_'-_. Specific requirements are defined under clause 7. classification • oil quantity. 5.

400 mm2/s. If a pour point depressant additive is used. Viscosity shall be measured according temperatures according to lEe 61868. the better the oil circulates and therefore improves heat transfer.Maximum viscosity and pour point of transformer 011 at lowest cold energizing temperature (LCSET) LCSET O'C •20·C -30·C -40·C Maximum viscosity 1800 mm2/s 1800 mm2/s start Maximum pour point -10·C • -30·C • -40'C . onload tap changer mechanisms.50"C • 1800 mm2ts 2500 mm2/s * = optional Note: There is no lower viscos~ limit set in"this standard. The viscoSi~ at the lowest cold start energizing temperature (LCSET) shall not exceed 1 800 mm Is (resp. Low temperature switchgear oil should have a lower viscosity at LCSET: max. to ISO 3104.260296 Ed. Pour point shall be measured in accordance with ISO 3016.40aC but other LCSET may be agreed between supplier and purchaser. pumps and regulators. switchgear. Where requested by the purchaser. humidity and dissolved air by a vacuum procedure (see . 2500 mm2/s at -40°C. Before filling the electrical equipment the oil should be treated to meet the requirements of IEC 60422. 6. such as in power circuit breakers. NOTE: For more details concerning ON cooling (natural oil circulation without pump) refer to clauses 15 and 16 of IEC 60076-2.2 Pour point Pour point of mineral insulating oil is the lowest temperature at which the oil will just flow. It is recommended that the pour point should be minimum 10 K below the Lowest Cold Start Energizing Temperature (LCSET). Other LCSET (see table 1) can be agreed between supplier and purchaser. Table 1 . viscosity at very low 6. their significance and test methods VIscosity Viscosity influences the heat transfer and therefore the temperature rise of unit. The lower the viscosity.1 Properties. To avoid separation of free water. This lowest cold start energizing temperature (LCSET) for transformer oils is defined in this standard as being -30°C (this is 5K lower than indicated in IEC 60076). Standard LCSET of low temperature switchgear oil is defined with . the supplier of oil shall demonstrate that after treatment to remove solid particles. but under certain conditions oils with a Viscosity less than 7 mm Is 140· C can be considered to be a potential hazard for aspiration. see table 2).3/CD e IEC -9- 6 6. At low temperatures the resulting higher viscosity of oil is a critical factor for the cold start of transformers with ON cooling (no circulation and therefore 'possible overheating at the hot spots) and negatively influences the speed of moving parts.3 Water content A low water content of mineral insulating oil is necessary to achieve adequate electrical strength and low dissipation losses. this should be mentioned by the supplier to the user. unused insulating oil should have a limited water content.

5 kPa) through a sintered glass filter (porosity 4). 6.7 Acidity Unused mineral insulating oil should be neutral and free from any acidic compound. be measured in accordance with ISO 6295. 6.8 Interfacial tension (1FT) 1FT shall Low 1FT sometimes indicates the presence of undesirable contaminants. particles or soluble polar contaminants or poor refining quality. 6. 6. mercaptans are very corrosive to metal surfaces.g.e. Note: By agreement between parties. Sulfur content is to be measured following IP 373 or ISO 14596.6 Appearance A visual inspection of insulating oil (oil sample in transmitted light under a thickness of approximately 10 cm and at ambient temperature) indicates the presence of visible contaminants. dependent on the crude oil origin and the degree and type of refining. steel.5 Dielectric dissipation factor (ODF) DDF is a measure for dielectric losses caused by the oil.4 Breakdown voltage Breakdown voltage of transformer oil indicates its ability to resist electrical stress in electrical apparatus. the oil shall have a high dielectric strength of minimum 70 kV breakdown voltage.260296 Ed. In case of dispute lEe 60247 at 90°C should be used. As some sulfur compounds have an affinity to metals. Corrosive sulfur is to be measured following DIN 51353. Breakdown voltage shall be measured in accordance with lEe 60156. 6. copper and silver (switchgear contacts) and must not be present in new oil.10 Corrosive sulfur Some sulfur compounds. Refining treats sulfur and aromatic hydrocarbons.9 Sulfur content Different organo-sulfur compounds are present in transformer oils. other than 6. DOF may be measured at temperatures 90·C. Increased DDF can indicate contamination of the oil by moisture. free water or suspended matter. In such cases the temperature of measurement shall be stated in the report. e. i. 6. . Water content shall be measured in accordance with IEC 60814. Acidity should be measured following IEC 62021. they may act as copper passivators or they may promote corrosion. NOTE: This laboratory treatment referred to consists of filtration of the oil at 60· C by vacuum (pressure below 2. DDF shall be measured in accordance with lEe 60247 or lEe 61620 at 90~C.3/CD © iec -10- note).

. . This charge can result in energy discharge causing transformer failure. the gas absorbing property of an oil under electrical stress. If co-stabilizers are 'used during the refining process their presence shall be agreed between the supplier and the purchaser. metal corrosion. Gas absorption properties are related to oil aromaticity which is subject to indirect control by the oil's oxidation requirements. "' . A method to measure ECT is proposed by CIGRE SC12. The type and quantity of each anti-oxidant present in the oil shall be stated in the quality certificate. Density shall be measured in accordance with ISO 3675 (reference method) but ISO 12185 as well is accepted... Gassing tendency is a specific requirement. There is an option for stricter limits for special applications. Detection and measurement of defined anti-oxidants shall be determined in accordance with IEC 60666. electrical losses.16 Density Density of oil shall be low enough to avotd..-"---' \ \. It is important to know whether and in what proportion inhibitor has been added in order to monitor additive depletion during service...13 Gassing Gassing tendency of mineral insulating oil Le... electrical faults and maximizing insulation life. 6. r 'l \ \. 6. Gassing tendency is measured by IEC 60628 A.15 Flash point The safe operation of electrical equipment requires an adequately high flash point that is measured in accordance with ISO 2719 (Pensky-Martens closed cup procedure). Technical Brochure 17012000 (see Bibliography). ' 6. ECT is a specific requirement. -. that ice resulting from the freezing of free water is floating on the oil surface and possibly leading to fault conditions developing in flashover of conductors.14 Electrostatic charging tendency (ECT) ECT of oil is an important property for certain designs of HV and EHV transformers which have oil pumping rates that can give rise to the build-Up of electrostatic charge.. '~"t.. in cold climates..11 Antioxidant additive content Antioxidant additive (inhibitor) slows down the oxidation of oil and therefore the formation of oil sludge and acidity.3/CD @ IEC -11- 6. but others are also used. ..6-di-tert-butyl-p-cresol (DBPC) is the most commonly used antioxidant.. is only necessary and important for special transformers like HV (High Voltage) transformers and is a measure of the rate of absorption or evolution of hydrogen into oil under prescribed laboratory conditions.... "----J.260296 Ed. 6. ~._. 6.. 2. \. r. Oxidation stability is measured in accordance with method C of IEC 61125 C.12 Oxidation stability Oxidation of oil gives rise to acidity and sludge formation and can be minimized as a result of high oxidation stability leading to longer service life time by minimizing sludge deposition. In some countries more stringent limits and/or additional requirements and tests may be requested.." \ i. ..

The detection limit for a single peak is 0. . measurement is to be done according to lEe 61198 '.19 2-Furfural and related compounds (2-FAL) 2-FAL and related compounds in unused mineral insulating oils can result or from improper redistillation after solvent extraction during refining or from contamination with used oil. The reference method is IEC 61619.18 Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB) Unused mineral insulating oil shall be free from PCB.3/CD © IEC -12- 6.1 mglkg.. 8.260296 Ed. Unused insulating oils should have a low level of 2-FAL and related compounds. 6. Note: The total limits are given by national regulations. PCAs are defined so as to be detectable by extraction with DMSO (dimethylsulfoxid) under the conditions of IP 346.17 Polycyclic aromatics (peA) Some PCAs are classified to be carcinogens and therefore need to be controlled to an acceptable level in mineral insulating oil.

020 after 2 hours of oxidation (lEe 61125 C) is considered as acceptable for application in EHV instrument transformers and bushings. 7.1 Specific requirements for special applications Higher oxidation stability and low sulphur content For transformers with higher operating temperatures or longer service life. 0.05 %.or OD-cooled power transformers speed.3 mg KOH/g.2 Electrostatic charging tendency (ECn (lEG 60076-2) with high oil circulation For OF.050. Gassing tendency lEG 60626A: max +5 mm3/min.4.150.3 Gassing For special equipment with high electrical field stress. as e. maximum 0. there may exist restricted limits after oxidation test (lEG 61125G). NOTE 2: In some countries a OOF of max. • total sulphur content: maximum 0. A limit may be agreed between purchaser and manufacturer.260296 Ed. HV/DC transformers. • total acidity: sludge: maximum 0. maximum 0.g. . 7.3/CD e lEG -2- 7 7.Mostly such oil is inhibited (I). more stringent limits and/or additional requirements may be NOTE 1: In some countries requested.

. ~ tHaI:) Min. 12 mm2Js Max.: f'age:14 ISO 6295 IP 373 or ISO 14596 No general No general requirement. 0._ requirement limits andlor and a limit of min. Pour point should be minimum 10K below lCSET. . -40· C Max. -60· • C Breakdown voltage Density I 20· C Min. • • For delivery in drum$..5 mm2 Is 1-30· C • mm 2 Js Max.. 0. O. correct.~.. to national depending ISO 2719 IP346 tEc 61619 regulations) on the climatic This is the standard LCSET for transformer oil (see 5. 0. 30mglkg "I 40 mglkg Max.500· (U) Uninhibited oil : 164 h (T) Trace-inhibited oil: 332 h' (I) Inhibited oils: 500 h I No general requirement I . 30 kV I 70 kV • Max. . standard LCSET for low temperature $WItch gear oil.Total acidity .Sludge ODFJ90OC .General speclftclll:lons Limits Test method Transformer 011 Low temperatura switchgear 011 1 Fu.895 ghnl Max. Ith.B % IEC60247 Max. _rrro r .1 mglkg oU : not detectable oil: max. free from sediment and suspended ~~~ • matter ~~ __ - lEe l~?~~ r __ orr ~ __ QL9~ _ _~_9_1:1{~t. 135· C Min.indicate . reference. 0.08 ..m.3).-ctlon Viscoslty I 40° C Viscosity ISO 3104 ISO 3104 IEC 61868 ISO 3016 IEC 60814 IEC60156 ISO 3675 or ISO 12185 IEC 60247 or IEC 61620 Max... to 164 h to 332 h I In some countries In some countries In some countries ~ demanding requirements requirements test test can be reduced oan be reduced with less demanding . For bulk supply...{eon. 0.·. . 100· C (according to less than 3 % DMSO Extract national regulations) Not detectable (ace.. requirement r [PIea.se. safety and environment FillS'! point PCA PCB • . 3.. 40 mNim Is used. !~ll [ .08 % 0. lEe Total sulphur Corrosive Antioxidant sulphur additNe DIN 51353 IEC60666 Not corrosive (U) unInhibited (T) trace-inhibited (I) inhibited oils: 2-FurfiJral content IEC 6119B Max.0.1) and can be modified condition of each country.I I I .2 mg KOH/g • Max..Test duration Gassing . additional requirements duration duration may be requested. . Alter laboratory In some countries treatment (see 6. this Is II general more stringent with . 1 BOO Max. 1.bllity Appearance Acidity Interfacial tension Clear.005 ODF190OC 2 Reftnlaglst. 400 mm2/s Viscosity 1-40· C' Pf)ur Point • Water content Max.260296 Ed3/CD e IEC -2w Table 2 ...40 % a Perfonnanc::e Oxidation stability' IEC 61125 C Max.

. .Dimethylsulfoxide refractive IP 373: Determination of the sulfur content of light and middle distillates Oxidative microcoulometry - CIGRE SC12: Static electrification in power transformers (CIGRE SC12 ._J '-~' • ~ .. ..... Product Id 170..Technical Brochure. Aromatics in Lubricant Base Oil and fractions . Publishing O8te:2000) r---_. J.. . .(". __ .3/eD @ rae -3- Bibliography lEe 60590: Determination insulating oils of the aromatic hydrocarbon content of new mineral DIN 51353: IP 346: Detection of Corrosive SplfurDetermination of Polycyclic Asphaltene free petroleum method Silver strip.260296 Ed.~ ! ~~ -\ li I 1 L..:: ' J \.- _ ...1 I . t: \! r.

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