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FOSTER WHEELER ENGINEERING STANDARD 01 June 99
A. CLIPSTONE A. CLIPSTONE A. CLIPSTONE
6960-8230-SP-0004 PAGE: 1 OF 32 REV: D1
REVISION DATE ORIG. BY APP. BY SIGNATURE
D1 July 99
A. CLIPSTONE A. CLIPSTONE
Contract: Client’s Name: Project Title: Project Location: Doc. Sequence No: Document Category:
1-14-6960/89 VIETROSS VIETROSS REFINERY PROJECT DUNG QUAT, VIETNAM 760 CLASS 1
CONTENTS SECTION 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 SUBJECT PURPOSE SCOPE REFERENCES OUTLINE EXECUTION ORGANISATION BASIC RESPONSIBILITIES GUIDELINES FOR STRESS ANALYSIS ANALYSIS REQUIREMENTS DETAIL STRESSING CONSIDERATIONS
6960-8230-SP-0004 PAGE: 2 REV: D1
FOSTER WHEELER ENGINEERING STANDARD
PIPE STRESS ANALYSIS
1. EXTENT OF ANALYSIS- Piping Connected to Equipment other than Rotating Machinery Air-coolers and Tanks 2. EXTENT OF ANALYSIS- Piping Connected to Rotating Machinery or Air Fin Coolers 3. EXTENT OF ANALYSIS- Piping Connected to Tanks (No Flexible 4. EXPANSION COEFFICENTS 5. EXPANSION COEFFICENTS 6. NEMA CHECK DATA SHEET 7. STRESS LOOP SIZING FOR PIPERACKS 8. LOOP FORCES AND STRESSES
PURPOSE To define the working practices and responsibilities that relate to the stress analysis for the designed piping systems. To define the actions to be performed in order to satisfy these requirements together with the actions necessary to prove functional integrity of the piping systems in accordance with the relevant codes and standards.
SCOPE The scope of this standard is to establish the base level of stress analysis to be undertaken, by Contractor, for all process and utility piping systems. It outlines the primary working methods, design considerations, documentation, and guidelines associated with the required analysis in order to form the standard for adoption by Contractor. The stress analysis of piping systems shall include all necessary supports, ancillaries, loads, pre-applied forces and the like needed to examine and resolve the loads in accordance with those stated as acceptable by the listed codes and standards
PIPE STRESS ANALYSIS
FOSTER WHEELER ENGINEERING STANDARD REFERENCES National Codes and Standards ASME B31.1 ASME B31.3 ASME B31.4 Hydrocarbons, ASME B16.5 API 610 API 618 Nema SM-23/ API 611 API 661 WRC 107 API 620/ API 650
6960-8230-SP-0004 PAGE: 3 REV: D1
Power Piping Chemical Plant and Petroleum Refinery Code Liquid Transportation Systems for LPG, Anhydrous Ammonia, and Alcohols Steel Pipe Flanges and Flanged Fittings Centrifugal Pumps Reciprocating Compressors Steam Turbines Air Fin Coolers Welding Research Council Bulletin Storage Tanks
VietRoss Standards 6960-8300-SP-0001 Wind, Earthquake and Snow and Ice Loading 6960-8230-SP-0001 Piping Material Specification 6960-8230-SP-0002 Piping Layout and Design 6960-8411-SP-0001 Centrifugal Pumps for Heavy Duty Services 6960-8411-SP-0002 Positive Displacement Reciprocating Pumps 6960-8411-SP-0003 Positive Displacement Pumps - Controlled Volume 6960-8411-SP-0004 Special Purpose Centrifugal Compressors 6960-8411-SP-0005 Special Purpose Reciprocating Compressors 6960-8411-SP-0008 General Purpose Steam Turbines 6960-8411-SP-0009 Special Purpose Steam Turbines 6960-8411-SP-0021 Centrifugal Pumps for General Duty Services 6960-8480-SP-0001 General Requirements for Shell & Tube Heat Exchangers 6960-8480-SP-0002 General Requirements for Air Cooled Heat Exchangers 6960-8480-SP-0003 General Requirements for Double Pipe & Multi-Tube Heat Exchangers 6960-8480-SP-0004 General Requirements for Plate & Frame Heat Exchangers
supplemented and amended where necessary to include all related design considerations.4 Equipment Specification /opt/scribd/conversion/tmp/scratch6257/84191069. Contractor shall prepare and complete a Line Stress Approval Index in order to establish that all the above lines and stress related components (including elements such as support springs) have been examined.2 Review of Project Engineering Data Contractor shall review the Piping and instrument Diagrams. Particular care shall be taken in the review of the Line Classification List. Contractor shall prepare and provide the Stress Critical Line List.doc . checked and approved by Contractor’s Stress Engineer. which forms the basic design document for all piping systems stress analysis. Contractor shall demonstrate the above by under taking and providing the following requirements: 4. This is a summary and status document of all the lines requiring formal analysis. OUTLINE EXECUTION Contractor is responsible for the mechanical integrity of all the designed piping systems.1 Specific Stress Analysis Procedure Contractor shall prepare and issue a Stress Analysis Procedure. RD1 The document should be based on the requirements of this standard. Line Classification List and the Basic Engineering Data Sheets for potential piping design problems and inconsistencies.3 Stress Critical Line List and Approval Index. This will take due account of the project. 4. 6960-8430-SP-0003 API Storage Tanks 4. It shall be submitted to VietRoss for approval prior to the commencement of any stress analysis. whether by computer or other means. national and VietRoss standards as defined herein. RD1 4. 4.6960-8230-SP-0004 PAGE: 4 REV: D1 FOSTER WHEELER ENGINEERING STANDARD PIPE STRESS ANALYSIS 6960-8430-SP-0001 General Requirements for Welded. Unfired Pressure Vessels.
(E. 4.9 Civil and Structural Loading Contractor shall ensure the suitability and co-ordination of the design and structural loading for pipe support foundations required by all relevant civil and structural works. Lines on this list should have specific stress input during routing. with particular attention being given to those lines contained within the project Critical Line List. This includes piping. heavy duty base plates on pumps. ORGANISATION Contractor shall perform all stress calculation work employing highly competent stress engineers experienced in similar work and projects. packaged unit limits and at VietRoss interfaces. 4. compressor nozzle loading 1. 5.85 x NEMA as a minimum).PIPE STRESS ANALYSIS FOSTER WHEELER ENGINEERING STANDARD 6960-8230-SP-0004 PAGE: 5 REV: D1 Contractor shall review and (as necessary) comment on equipment standards/specification where these form part of the piping system analysis. all heat exchanger nozzles to have reinforcing pads. 4.5 Initial Flexibility Checks The initial flexibility checks may be carried out by Contractor using recognised graphical means as nomographs and/or related charts. formal flexibility analysis shall be undertaken on lines (including terminations) as defined in the Critical Line List.doc . 4.10 Interface Piping Contractor shall liase. In general.7 Equipment Nozzle Loading Contractor shall ensure the suitability of piping loads at the equipment nozzles (or equipment skid interfaces) and the support locations for inclusion in their overall design. agree and formalise design basis at other contractor battery limits. the personnel shall be in a group (task force) environment with the piping design team. /opt/scribd/conversion/tmp/scratch6257/84191069.6 Formal Analysis As a minimum. 4.g. services and ductwork designed by others.
and as such. or directly to VietRoss. Contractor shall report progress and other prescribed administrative matters to representatives of. /opt/scribd/conversion/tmp/scratch6257/84191069. BASIC RESPONSIBILITIES Stress analysis forms an integral part of piping engineering.6960-8230-SP-0004 PAGE: 6 REV: D1 FOSTER WHEELER ENGINEERING STANDARD PIPE STRESS ANALYSIS 6.doc .
3 7.1.doc . These guidelines are concerned with the piping flexibility aspect of this function.2. the results should be clearly identified and documented for subsequent audit by either VietRoss or by a third party.2 /opt/scribd/conversion/tmp/scratch6257/84191069. Generally most piping movements are due to thermal expansion.1. as identified in Contractor’s approved procedure. by emphasising the need for demonstrating engineering integrity. would be more costly in terms of time or resources.1. Computer usage should be resorted to where accurate assessment of loading and stresses are essential for line approval or where an alternative (recognised) method of calculation. settlement. other related activities include piping design for pressure containment. solar/frost temperature effects and thermal expansion and contraction are significant in the stress analysis of piping systems. General Piping systems may be subjected to many diverse load conditions. Piping systems shall be designed to be adequately flexible and wherever possible this should be achieved by the natural flexibility of the pipework. seismic loads. consideration shall be given to the form of input data. equipment vibration. Whatever the method used for reviewing piping flexibility and stress calculation.2 7.1 7. fittings and fluids.2 7. If necessary the route of the piping should be modified (or expansion loops incorporated) in order to obtain sufficient flexibility. which must give verifiable results within the completed calculation report. Where computer calculation is used.1 7.PIPE STRESS ANALYSIS FOSTER WHEELER ENGINEERING STANDARD 6960-8230-SP-0004 PAGE: 7 REV: D1 7.1 GUIDELINES FOR STRESS ANALYSIS Introduction The Contractor shall ensure that piping systems are safe for all specified design conditions. 7. Stresses induced by pressure. Only in exceptional cases where it is impractical to increase the system flexibility (to reduce the stress range to an acceptable level or to reduce equipment loading) should an expansion joint or similar be considered as for a design solution.2. does not seek to restrict the use of sound engineering judgement based on Contractor’s experience. This standard. but all the above criteria shall be taken into consideration during stress analysis. weight of pipe. external loadings such as wind loads. The use of expansion joints shall require the prior written approval of VietRoss RD1 7.
4.2.2. See also paragraph 4. Strain sensitive equipment (vessels. reactors. including steam-out. This should include.1. Process conditions which give rise to impulse loading such as pressure surge.4.2. Flange leakage calculations shall be performed as required by the relevant Code 7.2. tanks. the nozzle loads shall be referred to Contractor’s Specialist Vessel Engineer for review. In the case of tanks. 2 and 3.2.2. the movements.4. 7. relief discharge reaction or two phase flow shall also be taken into account. These out-line the methods of examination required for all piping systems covered by this standard and diagrammatically represent the potential need for computer or 8. Practical engineering judgement shall be used to decide the worst load case scenario and consideration must be given to running the worst load case.4.3 In all cases Contractor shall be responsible for the structural integrity of piping flanges. Piping connected to machinery shall be flexible to ensure that the piping loads transmitted to the machine are acceptable under all design conditions. forces and pipe support provisions at boundaries.doc . 7.4. The acceptance or approval of nozzle loads shall be the responsibility of Contractor’s Specialist Equipment Engineer. The loads shall be calculated at the vessel nozzle/shell interface for all classes of equipment with the exception of rotating machines.2. but is not limited to.3 When carrying out a flexibility analysis.1 /opt/scribd/conversion/tmp/scratch6257/84191069. where the nozzle is recommended for inclusion within the pipework analysis and treated as rigid. ANALYSIS REQUIREMENTS General All Systems shall be analysed in accordance with Attachments 1. 7. 7.5 Boundary conditions at other Contractor or VietRoss interfaces must be clearly defined before detail commencement of design work. pumps and compressors) at which pipe systems terminate shall be considered rigid for pipe stress analysis. Design shall follow the requirements of API 650 unless otherwise stated within the listed documents. RD1 8. heat exchangers.4 7.6960-8230-SP-0004 PAGE: 8 REV: D1 FOSTER WHEELER ENGINEERING STANDARD PIPE STRESS ANALYSIS RD1 7. the worst process design conditions shall be considered.2.10.
2 Visual inspection or approximate calculation methods may be applied only if they are used in the range of configuration for which their adequacy has been demonstrated. stress nomograph. Where items of equipment are particularly strain-sensitive.3.g. e.doc . 8. However this restraint/anchor should not be more than 1 metre from the fixed point of the pump casing and should be designed such that adjustment can be made when bolting the pipe flange to the pump nozzle.3. /opt/scribd/conversion/tmp/scratch6257/84191069.2 8.g.2. which include stress intensification and flexibility factors for all components other than pipe.g. Piping loads on equipment shall be avoided by adding suitable guides. At pumps having end suction nozzles it may be possible to restrain/anchor the piping close to the pump. Visual.1 8.3.2. Acceptable comprehensive methods of analyses include computer and analytical methods. differential settlement of foundations. Computer analysis may be necessary in the following cases: 8. or analogy. Approximate calculations may include the use of approved charts.3.2. diameters greater than 24” NPS.2 8.2.3 8. Loadings on structures can be estimated by approximate methods. Where movements are large.g. 8. For large pipes. This design option should be used with care as poor support specification and installation can generate large forces. particularly when due to extraneous causes e. overhead lines rising with tower expansion. nomographs and simplified formulae. 8. Loads on the restraint/anchor must be minimised by the location of guides further upstream e. Contractor shall develop these for all cases of pipe schedules and conditions within the detailed design. restraints and/or anchors.1.PIPE STRESS ANALYSIS FOSTER WHEELER ENGINEERING STANDARD 6960-8230-SP-0004 PAGE: 9 REV: D1 other analysis. expansion loop charts. compressors and very thin walled vessels.2.1. The objective of using these methods is to demonstrate that recourse to more precise methods is not required. Chart or Informal Checking Methods Piping flexibility can be checked by visual inspection and the use of approved reference charts e. and provide an evaluation of the forces moments and stresses caused by piping displacement.1.2. Piping which connects the tube bundles of air cooler exchangers can be checked and the terminal loads evaluated usually by basic hand calculations. in the piperack.2.3 8.
1.2.3. Thin walled vessels (e.1. All piping with a wall thickness greater than standard weight.1. Heat exchangers with a design temperature of 80 °C and above. 8.6960-8230-SP-0004 PAGE: 10 REV: D1 FOSTER WHEELER ENGINEERING STANDARD PIPE STRESS ANALYSIS 8. In general. etc. 8. 8. however and experienced.3. corroded thickness less than 5mm) with a design temperature of 80 °C and above. engineering judgement shall prevail. 8.1. computer analysis will be required for that listed below. considered on it’s individual case. Piping systems operating at temperatures minus 40 °C and below 8.g.3. If the stress in the pipe itself is the only criterion. and also lines with design conditions for ferrous and alloy piping above 350 °C and for Stainless Steel above 270 °C.3.g. 8. Engineering judgement shall be used to decide as to which equipment should be treated as strain sensitive.3. but care must be taken.7.4. 8. The listing is not intended to be exhaustive and address every eventuality.5. Lines connected to strain sensitive equipment to evaluate the magnitude of the terminal loads with sufficient accuracy for final review by the specialist Engineers.3.1. Where movements are large due to extraneous causes. Rotating equipment with nozzles 2” NPS and above with a design temperature of 80 °C and above. e.1. /opt/scribd/conversion/tmp/scratch6257/84191069. Large diameter (24” NPS and above) or heavy wall pipes.8. and reduced size piping may cause stresses in excess of those suggested by the nomograph.3.1. 8.doc .3 8. differential settlement of foundation.3.3.1. as the presence of components subject to intensified local stresses such as branches.6. further calculation may be unnecessary.1.3. check that the proposed piping configuration is approximately correct by visual appraisal and by reference to an approximate method.1 Comprehensive Methods of Analysis Before resorting to formal calculations and computer analysis.
1 /opt/scribd/conversion/tmp/scratch6257/84191069. and Contractor must make a distinction between loadings which are sustained over a large range of movement and can cause gross distortion. However.2. 8.3.11. Piping which connects together the tube bundles of air-cooled exchangers.1 9. in practice.1.Jacketed pipework. 8.4. The interpretation of computed forces and moments must take account of the movements from which they originate.Normally. Stress analysis shall be carried out on the basis of the design temperature. Rate of expansion.4 9.doc .126.96.36.199.g.1. including fixed supports. even though they may be below the limits recommended 8. Terminal movements.2.2 Computer Analysis . Lines subject to large displacements imposed on them by the movements of other lines or equipment to which they are connected.3. will disappear with very small rotations.3.1.2. and secondary loading which cause only minor strains. 8. and thermal expansion).3.1.PIPE STRESS ANALYSIS FOSTER WHEELER ENGINEERING STANDARD 6960-8230-SP-0004 PAGE: 11 REV: D1 8.3. which will significantly affect vertical movement of the pipe. 9.3. which are likely to impose significant loads on equipment. weight. are to include all relevant effects (e. Details of restraints.3. In instances where the design temperature is exceptionally high 8. 8.10.3. DETAIL STRESSING CONSIDERATIONS Temperature Conditions The Line Classification List indicates for each line a design temperature and an operating temperature. Contractor is cautioned that the computer analysis normally treats nozzle connections as rigid anchors so that very small deflections of pipe between supports may cause indicated bending moments at the nozzle which.3. the computer input should include the following information: Physical characteristics of the piping and fluid 8.3. 8. contained. pressure.3 Computer analysis for lines.1. 8.
2.Tracing can cause the temperature of the line to rise above normal. However.4 9.1.Pipework at two-pump sets shall be analysed with both pumps in operation first. 9.Lines in hydrocarbon service may occasionally be steamed out and pipe stressing must take into account the resulting rise in temperature.2 9. one pump on standby shall be run after consideration has been given to which of the pumps operating will produce the worst case. 9. Piping design must take this into account when calculating movements. especially off-site pipelines may be subject to significant movements as a result of solar radiation. Ambient Temperature .doc . 9.2 Steam Tracing .3 does not permit an increase in allowable stresses in the piping for short-term variations above the normal design temperature.188.8.131.52.2. during periods when the line is empty or when no flow occurs. which is to be used as the basis for expansion and analysis purposes. Solar Radiation . Equipment Considerations Piping connected to pumps .6960-8230-SP-0004 PAGE: 12 REV: D1 FOSTER WHEELER ENGINEERING STANDARD PIPE STRESS ANALYSIS when compared with the operating temperature. one pump in operation.5 9. it may be possible to allow higher loads on equipment especially if that equipment is not itself subject to the higher temperature.1.3 9.1 /opt/scribd/conversion/tmp/scratch6257/84191069.1. 9. Steam Out . Due allowance shall be made for this. Note: The ASME Code B31.2. This is the temperature.1. A further oneoff case.1. The temperature of the line to the standby pump shall be considered as either: 9. which may remain at ambient temperature.Long straight uninsulated pipe runs. Contractor should establish the mode of operation at the higher temperature and the extent to which the system is affected.The minimum ambient design temperature will be given in the Project Basic Engineering Design Data (BEDD). the resulting vertical expansion may cause large movements in the connected piping. 75% operating temperature where check valve bypass is specified.2. Note that the equipment is also steamed out and in the case of columns. Minimum ambient temperature. Minimum maintained temperature where specified in line list.2.
PIPE STRESS ANALYSIS FOSTER WHEELER ENGINEERING STANDARD 6960-8230-SP-0004 PAGE: 13 REV: D1 RD1 9. the calculated loads resulting from the desired piping arrangement should be sent to the manufacturer for approval.2. Note: Higher allowable loads for turbines and compressors may be obtained from the vendor. This is a pump manufacturer’s standard. For turbines.4.Nozzle displacements for turbine and compressor nozzles should be obtained from the supplier.8. In situations where space restrictions make it especially difficult to achieve satisfactory nozzle loadings the following measures can be considered: A bleed to maintain temperature in the stand-by pump piping thus reducing the differential expansion in the piping legs to the two (or three) pumps. For large pumps that are outside the scope of API 610.1. /opt/scribd/conversion/tmp/scratch6257/84191069. Refer to Attachment 6 .2. Where applicable the maximum piping load allowed at the operating pump nozzle shall conform to API 610. refer to NEMA Std SM23 (Mechanical Drive Steam Turbines) and the allowable nozzle loads have to be increased by at least a factor of 1. This option may be noted in Engineering Std.NEMA Check Data Sheet for calculation requirements. 8411-SP-0001– ‘Centrifugal Pumps for Heavy Duty Services’ and Contractor shall ensure that compliance with this standard is being observed.2 Turbine and Centrifugal Compressor Piping . 9. 8411-SP–0021 ‘Centrifugal Pumps for General Duty Services’. minimum nozzle loads may be obtained from NEMA SM-23. Eliminating or reducing any difference in size between the pipe and the pump nozzle. Allowable loadings must be requested at an early date from the pump manufacturer. may not conform to API 610. Pumps which are purchased in accordance with Engineering Std. which allows double the permitted piping loads (in accordance with Appendix F of that standard).doc . When in doubt about allowable piping loads on pump nozzles. (Note this factor may be able to be increased on negotiation with the Vendor). Either case must be approved by VietRoss.85 may be applied to obtain minimum nozzle loads for centrifugal compressors. whilst a factor of 1.
The vendor should be asked to include this feature in their design.For piping loads at air-coolers the Contractor should refer to API 661 and for equipment requisitions twice the load given by API 661 should be used.2. This device can only be used where distance between adjacent header boxes is minimal and expansion across both piping manifold and header boxes is identical.1. the following alternative solutions may be considered: 9.3. 25-mm).3 Air-Cooler Piping . the Contractor shall liase directly with the vendor and submit the calculated loads for further consideration by the vendor. If these cannot be achieved.3.doc . Request the vendor to provide mechanical links between the tube bundles at the inlet header boxes so that expansion across the entire air-cooler matches that of the inlet-piping manifold.6960-8230-SP-0004 PAGE: 14 REV: D1 FOSTER WHEELER ENGINEERING STANDARD PIPE STRESS ANALYSIS 9. The exchanger manufacturer should be required to provide low friction pads under tube bundles as a matter of routine for all multi-bundle air-fin coolers. With multi-bundles it is generally advantageous to connect the piping inlet manifold as close as possible to the exchanger nozzles and allow thermal expansion to shift the tube bundles laterally. Lateral movement of the connecting piping can.These require special attention and a computer analysis should be considered as routine practice. to some extent.2.2. Support the inlet manifold on a separate structure and connect it to the air-cooler inlet nozzles by pipe loops of adequate flexibility. Vertical movement of piping connections to horizontal tubes can be similarly /opt/scribd/conversion/tmp/scratch6257/84191069. 9. Should the force required to shift the tube bundles exceed the maximum allowed on the nozzles. be absorbed by allowing the terminal tubes to shift a small amount (approx.2. To limit the vertical pipe loads on the inlet nozzles it may be necessary to extend the air-cooler support steelwork upwards between the bundles in order to carry the weight of the manifold for both hydrostatic test and for operating (normally vapour) conditions.4 Transfer Lines from Heaters . At ‘odd-pass’ units the outlet piping must allow for a possible failure of a single fan thus causing a differential temperature along adjacent tube bundles. The vendor usually specifies allowable loads conservatively on heater nozzles. At ‘even-pass’ units the flexibility of the outlet piping must allow for this movement. 9.2.
2. Check also the location of the fixed ends of the tubes to determine the movement of the heater terminals and whether a change in the heater design would reduce the problems resulting from overall expansion of the pipe and tubes. Transfer lines carrying a mixed phase fluid can be subjected to severe vibrations.2. Any restraint to this rotation by the stiffness of the connected piping will cause a stress in the tank shell. i.2. The Contractor shall check for this possibility and. lifting it off the nearest supports.5. Depending upon the type and function of the heater.Amount of settlement and recovery following construction and hydrotest.doc . Piping at Storage Tanks – Differential settlement at tanks is particularly important and data must be obtained prior to the design of piping on the following: 9. but liquid during start-up or shutdown when the operating temperature is less than normal.2. It is imperative for design to proceed that the values of tank bulge and nozzle rotation and the methods of calculation to be used are agreed early in the project.2.5. add restraints to prevent movement from this source.e.5. which must be limited to values defined by the Specialist Vessel Engineer. that occurs When large storage tanks are filled.3.PIPE STRESS ANALYSIS FOSTER WHEELER ENGINEERING STANDARD 6960-8230-SP-0004 PAGE: 15 REV: D1 incorporated in the heater design by pre-setting the tube upwards. If this should occur the supporting springs may impose an /opt/scribd/conversion/tmp/scratch6257/84191069. before pursuing this course a check should be made on the possibility of the line becoming drained during a normal operation cycle. Information with regard to the weight of liquid and the temperature/pressure characteristics of transition to vapour phase shall be obtained from the process design 9.1. The period of time over which settlement occurs. The design and location of supports to meet the two weight conditions must be taken into account when designing and analysing the transfer line. the contents of the transfer line may be vapour during operation. Amount of settlement. The combined effects of settlement and nozzle rotation may suggest supporting the piping on springs.5. However. 9. the walls bulge and nozzles located in the lower course are rotated downwards. if necessary. 9. The definition of these values is the responsibility of the Specialist Vessel Engineer.
The following are conditions that should be considered for slug flow: 9.3.3. 9. Slug build-up in condensate lines. Surge/Slug Flow Check the possibility of surge occurring in off-site lines as a result of valve closure. there is a change in momentum.e.3.6960-8230-SP-0004 PAGE: 16 REV: D1 FOSTER WHEELER ENGINEERING STANDARD PIPE STRESS ANALYSIS excessive upward force on the tank nozzle. 9.2. Slug development due to start-up/shutdown.1. 9. 9.1. /opt/scribd/conversion/tmp/scratch6257/84191069.doc . Where the line can only be drained when the tank is out of service. and if it travels around a sharp bend or elbow.3. The following formula may be applied to calculate the force acting on elbows: [ =pav5 (1) where: p = density of fluid a = internal cross sectional area v = velocity of which slug is travelling [ = Resultant force as slug strikes elbow 2 It should be remembered that this force generated is an impact force and it is suggested that formula (1) should be factored by a dynamic load factor i.1. being driven along a piping system has a momentum. instructions shall be issued for the springs to be locked before draining.184.108.40.206. Slug development in relief flare systems (liquid relief).1. Install line stops at changes of direction to withstand surge forces and consequent movement of the pipe. A slug of liquid. with a mass (kg) and velocity (m/s).2. 9.
1. or the Uniform Building Code.doc . A dynamic analysis may be necessary on sensitive lines subject to earthquake design. including pipes. states ‘The effect of wind loading shall be taken into account in the design of exposed piping.4. as it is generally an iterative process. The piping code ASME B31.’ Therefore.2. Earthquake Forces Piping in earthquake zones must be designed on the basis that spring supports should be avoided. 9.PIPE STRESS ANALYSIS FOSTER WHEELER ENGINEERING STANDARD 6960-8230-SP-0004 PAGE: 17 REV: D1 [ =2 x pav5 9.3 paragraph 301. are designed for. Lateral movement of the ground requires restraints to be added along the pipe. 220.127.116.11.4.5. ‘Wind.1. an attempt should be made to increase the first mode of vibration (natural frequency) to a value above 5Hz.5.5 9. The method of analysis may be as described in ASCE 7-88.1. Lines that are routed down towers. columns or vertical drums.1. Inlet lines to Air-coolers. Earthquake and Snow and Ice Loading’ is aimed at the structural integrity of buildings and structures to ensure that surface areas that are exposed to wind.1 /opt/scribd/conversion/tmp/scratch6257/84191069. Wind Loading VietRoss Engineering Standard 6960-8300-SP-001. wind loading should be considered on the following pipelines to ensure structural integrity of pipe support structures and vessel shells when the pipe outside diameter (including insulation thickness) is 400 mm and over: 9. 9.2. A full dynamic analysis should not be attempted if a system is acting close to slug flow condition due to the complexity of predicting the ‘time period’ of slug generation.4.5. This technique should be carefully used. Minimum Design Loads for Building and Other Structures. 9. 9. To calculate the horizontal force on these restraints multiply the dead weight by a factor dependent on the earthquake severity zone. 9. ‘Wind’. However.3.2.3.
The total change in length of the pipeline is dependent on the soil fiction and the passive resistance. ‘Flare’ or ‘Run Down’ or similar lines when routed in exposed areas between process units and the flare stack. Rack Deflection It is recommended that piperack deflections concur to the above criteria for modular design and a maximum of 5 mm should be adopted for the lateral deflection of piperacks.6. Lines that are routed over and around exposed platforms such as top platforms on columns or high structures at elevations 10 m and above.7.2 Where it is necessary to design for greater settlements.6.5.9 9. Control Valve Piping Control or let down valves cause vibrations in connecting pipework and may sometimes reach dangerous amplitudes or destructive frequencies. This movement will occur regardless of the burial depth or the soil type. In such cases it should be clearly noted that piping connections must be made after hydrostatic testing. RD1 9.1 Foundation Settlement Differential settlement must be taken into account in piping stress analysis when the following values are exceeded: Pumps to piperacks Pumps to drums and storage tanks Pumps to shell and tube exchangers Pumps to columns Turbines to piperacks Shell and tube exchangers to piperacks Shell and tube exchangers to drums Shell and tube exchangers to columns Columns to piperacks Columns to air-cooler exchangers 5 mm 10 mm 10 mm 5 mm 5 mm 10 mm 10 mm 10 mm 15 mm 15 mm 9. 9.8 9.1 9.doc .1 /opt/scribd/conversion/tmp/scratch6257/84191069.6 9. In general the connecting pipelines should be guided whenever possible to eliminate such large amplitude vibrations.8.9. Buried Piping Buried piping will expand or contract with temperature changes in the flowing medium or the surrounding soil.5. 9.4.6960-8230-SP-0004 PAGE: 18 REV: D1 FOSTER WHEELER ENGINEERING STANDARD PIPE STRESS ANALYSIS 9.3.1. the initial amount occurring during construction and testing may be ignored.1.1 9.7 9.
9.1 9. partially fills the pipelines or the sun’s radiation heats the top of large empty pipelines which lay close to frozen ground. Pipelines are subjected to sonic vibrations with highenergy input. Stress Loops Stress loops within piperacks can be sized using nomograph methodology. 9. Branch Reinforcement 9.2 9. Refer to Attachment 7 – Stress Loop Sizing for Piperacks Refer to Attachment 8 – Loop Forces and Stresses for calculation requirements. Wave patterns develop circumferentially.10.2. 9.10.doc . Contractor shall provide for design of support trunnions (including reinforcement as required) in accordance with the requirements of the codes and documents listed.12 18.104.22.168. Loads on piperack bents should be transmitted to the Civil Engineers to enable them to complete the piperack design. The requirement to include bowing in the analysis should be considered if the differential temperature across the pipe wall is 50 °C or greater. which may be hot or cold.1.11 9. Where the pipe wall tends to oval. Bowing may occur when the flowing medium.1 9. 9. Trunnion diameters shall normally be one pipe size down on line size. This shall use stress loads calculated and integrate them fully with design range of the piping systems and the requirements of this standard.13 /opt/scribd/conversion/tmp/scratch6257/84191069.9.10 9.1.1 Bowing of Pipe Due to pipelines being subjected to unequal heating across the pipe wall along its length the pipe will bow.12.11.2 9.3.1.PIPE STRESS ANALYSIS FOSTER WHEELER ENGINEERING STANDARD Rigid attachments should be avoided if: 6960-8230-SP-0004 PAGE: 19 REV: D1 9.3 9.12. Support Design Contractor shall provide a comprehensive pipe support standard.2.11. This type of bowing is unrelated to column instability resulting from compressive axial loads.1.
15.14. If this still fails to meet the acceptable loads.15. the Specialist Stress Engineer may specify the use of bellows or expansion joints as a design solution.4 9.3.16 Other Considerations /opt/scribd/conversion/tmp/scratch6257/84191069.) If it is found that an expansion joint is required then the technical requirements shall be identified and listed.3 9.2 9. Spring Supports Spring supports shall be avoided as an easy solution for piping which is affected by vertical thermal expansions or mechanical movements.2. the piping will require re-routing.6960-8230-SP-0004 PAGE: 20 REV: D1 FOSTER WHEELER ENGINEERING STANDARD PIPE STRESS ANALYSIS To be in accordance with ASME 31. Prior to start-up this reaction could be applied to an empty piping system. Contractor shall to obtain written approval for the use of expansion joints or flexible hoses from VietRoss prior to proceeding with the requisitions.2. Spring supports are ideal for situations where vertical expansions or mechanical movements are restricted by solid supports. 9. the pre-set reaction force is set to the value required when the system is filled with liquid.14. VietRoss approval is required for the use of spring supports. which results in unacceptable reactions or stresses. 9.15.3 9. turbines and compressors when solid supports prove to be unsatisfactory.1 Expansion Joints In cases where it is impractical to increase the flexibility of a pipeline to reduce the stress range and/or termination loads to an acceptable level.1 9.doc . (See also paragraph 7.14 9.15. Spring supports must be used on hot piping systems adjacent to pumps.2 If spring supports are necessary in a pump system. An alternative is to reposition supports or re-route the piping. If the pump or piping is unable to accept such loading the spring must be pre-set at a value between the piping system being full and empty.15 9. 9. Care should be taken that springs are accessible for the release of ‘gags’ during commissioning.14.
however.1 The following considerations have been included as an aide memoir to cover other specific areas of detailed analysis requirements.22.214.171.124. Unless process requirements dictate otherwise the following stress intensification factors should be applied:- 3 Where: % 90 60 45 30 Degrees Degrees Degrees Degrees SIF SIF SIF SIF x x x x 1 1. Branch connections. Relief valve piping.5 /opt/scribd/conversion/tmp/scratch6257/84191069. 9.1. Flare systems must be reviewed with consideration given to the full temperature range. Firewater systems.25 2. and the possibility of slugging and shock loading criteria.4. Note: For relief valve discharges relieving into a closed vent or flare header. impulse loadings can be ignored.3 Thin walled piping is to be considered for shortened spans. The pipework must therefore. tie-ins.16. still needs restraint but in this case analysis is not required.16. include adequate restraint. Impulse loading to relief valve discharges venting to atmosphere.PIPE STRESS ANALYSIS FOSTER WHEELER ENGINEERING STANDARD 6960-8230-SP-0004 PAGE: 21 REV: D1 9. whereas these are not subject to high thermal loads they are often subject to large surge loads.25 3. The Specialist Instrument Engineer normally determines relief valve forces after valve throat sizing.1. RD1 9. 9. 9.16.doc .2. for flare systems should be at 90 degrees for maximum strength for stress analysis.16.
6960-8230-SP-0004 PAGE: 22 REV: D1 FOSTER WHEELER ENGINEERING STANDARD PIPE STRESS ANALYSIS /opt/scribd/conversion/tmp/scratch6257/84191069.doc .
PIPE STRESS ANALYSIS FOSTER WHEELER ENGINEERING STANDARD 6960-8230-SP-0004 PAGE: 23 REV: D1 ATTACHMENT 1 – EXTENT OF ANALYSIS Piping Connected to Equipment other than Rotating Machinery. Air-coolers and Tanks Note: Chart is based on Standard Wall Thickness ∆T °C 400 ∆T ≥ 330 °C ∆T < 330 °C ∆T ≥ 230 °C ∆T < 230 °C 2 1 300 200 ∆T ≥ 180 °C ∆T < 180 °C ∆T ≥ 80 °C ∆T ≥ 80 °C 100 3 2 22 24 ∆T ≥ 230 °C ∆T ≥ 40 °C ∆T < 40 °C 0 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 18 20 3 Nominal Pipe Size (Inches) ∆T ≥ 230 °C LEGEND: 1 Indicates computer analysis required 2 Indicates chart/nomograph analysis is adequate Indicates visual inspection is probably adequate 3 /opt/scribd/conversion/tmp/scratch6257/84191069.doc .
6960-8230-SP-0004 PAGE: 24 REV: D1 FOSTER WHEELER ENGINEERING STANDARD PIPE STRESS ANALYSIS ATTACHMENT 2 – EXTENT OF ANALYSIS Piping Connected to Rotating Machinery or Air Fin Coolers Note: Chart is based on Standard Wall Thickness ∆T °C 400 2 300 1 ∆T ≥ 180 °C ∆T < 180 °C 200 100 2 3 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 2 14 16 18 20 22 24 ∆T ≥ 80 °C ∆T < 80 °C 0 Nominal Pipe Size (Inches) LEGEND: 1 Indicates computer analysis required Indicates chart/nomograph analysis is adequate Indicates visual inspection is adequate 2 3 /opt/scribd/conversion/tmp/scratch6257/84191069.doc .
PIPE STRESS ANALYSIS FOSTER WHEELER ENGINEERING STANDARD 6960-8230-SP-0004 PAGE: 25 REV: D1 ATTACHMENT 3 – EXTENT OF ANALYSIS Piping Connected to Tanks (No Flexible Joints) Note: Chart is based on Standard Wall Thickness ∆T °C 400 300 ∆T ≥ 230 °C ∆T < 230 °C 1 200 ∆T ≥ 180 °C ∆T < 180 °C 100 2 3 ∆T ≥ 80 °C ∆T < 80 °C 0 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 18 20 22 24 Nominal Pipe Size (Inches) LEGEND: 1 Indicates computer analysis required Indicates chart/nomograph analysis is adequate Indicates visual inspection is adequate 2 3 /opt/scribd/conversion/tmp/scratch6257/84191069.doc .
45 0.81 720 -0.32 510 6.9 665 9.8 270 3.05 135 1.04 0.89 350 4.54 395 5.9 545 7.07 555 7.61 255 2.8 0.61 400 5.3 630 8.73 715 -0.22 110 1.89 605 8.45 170 1.49 700 -0.57 525 7.96 355 4.57 705 -0.06 675 9.92 485 6.54 10.72 655 9.23 685 9.68 190 2.07 290 3.27 305 3.56 180 1.97 730 0.15 560 7.EXPANSION COEFFICIENTS FOR CARBON STEEL Note: Material will be subject to temperature and stress limitations DEG C -10 -5 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 45 50 55 60 65 70 75 80 85 90 95 mm/M DEG C mm/M DEG C mm/M DEG C mm/M DEG C mm/M DEG C mm/M DEG C mm/M DEG C -0.38 10.32 100 0.65 710 -0.74 265 3.99 550 7.98 205 2.6 465 6.65 530 7.73 595 8.75 340 4.62 0.39 385 4.28 155 1.84 415 5.55 645 9.04 210 2.57 585 8.63 10.32 380 4.23 225 2.98 670 9.03 360 4.04 735 0.37 0.54 325 3.11 120 1.87 275 3.06 615 8.79 0.96 0.35 235 2.8 10.47 640 9.49 520 7.27 105 0.4 515 7.14 435 5.67 260 3.48 245 2.doc .46 10.88 0.42 240 2.55 250 2.98 610 8.21 745 0.54 0.81 660 9.34 310 3.6960-8230-SP-0004 PAGE: 26 REV: D1 FOSTER WHEELER ENGINEERING STANDARD PIPE STRESS ANALYSIS RD1 ATTACHMENT 4 .31 570 7.38 635 9.92 200 2.25 375 4.17 145 1.11 140 1.74 195 2.08 495 6.86 mm/M 10.99 425 5.11 215 2.22 150 1.23 565 7.65 590 8.48 320 3.37 450 5.05 125 1.76 475 6.21 10.06 430 5.97 /opt/scribd/conversion/tmp/scratch6257/84191069.39 165 1.16 115 1.91 420 5.1 365 4.82 345 4.82 540 7.29 230 2.52 460 6.76 410 5.68 470 6.81 600 8.68 335 4.32 690 9.33 160 1.14 295 3.24 505 6.4 575 8.13 740 0.71 10.61 330 4.41 315 3.2 300 3.89 725 0 130 1.94 280 3.22 625 8.48 580 8.62 185 2 285 3.17 220 2.29 445 5.41 695 10.88 10.64 650 9.45 455 6.14 620 8.18 370 4.84 480 6.29 750 0.51 175 1.29 10.16 500 6.15 680 9.74 535 7.69 405 5.22 440 5.13 10.71 0.46 390 5 490 6.
19 765 12.55 685 10.33 110 1.02 14.87 450 7.39 260 4.78 445 7.37 370 6.84 395 6.13 245 3.35 675 10.93 mm/M 15.61 215 3.92 555 0.59 435 7.7 14.02 610 9.68 440 7.23 520 -0.48 265 4.37 315 5.31 13.81 600 8.14 665 10.09 760 12.53 635 9.66 690 10.03 510 -0.32 525 0 130 1.12 410 7.3 255 4.93 400 6.59 785 12.33 150 2.52 535 0.74 495 8.25 470 8.52 210 3.04 660 10.41 155 2.13 515 -0.28 365 6.95 235 3.65 385 6.29 15.41 105 1.06 460 8.83 500 -0.93 505 -0.87 230 3.1 810 13.92 185 2.65 330 5.62 540 0.28 310 5.57 270 4.44 480 8.EXPANSION COEFFICIENTS FOR A312 TP321 STAINLESS STEEL Note: Material will be subject to temperature and stress limitations DEG C -10 -5 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 45 50 55 60 65 70 75 80 85 90 95 mm/M DEG C mm/M DEG C mm/M DEG C mm/M DEG C mm/M DEG C -0.76 695 mm/M DEG C 10.1 355 5.74 335 5.71 595 1.8 795 mm/M DEG C 12.26 mm/M DEG C 8.15 465 8.64 640 9.49 100 1.92 290 4.12 615 9.23 14.04 15.56 380 6.84 650 9.92 345 5.19 305 5.43 205 3.39 775 12.29 770 12.21 415 7.41 13.19 360 6.08 125 1.68 740 11.75 175 2.51 585 1 190 2.9 800 13 805 13.75 390 6.23 620 9.82 550 0.48 730 11.46 320 5.81 14.64 490 8.16 120 1.61 13.78 225 3.83 340 5.27 720 11.49 780 12.01 295 4.PIPE STRESS ANALYSIS FOSTER WHEELER ENGINEERING STANDARD 6960-8230-SP-0004 PAGE: 27 REV: D1 RD1 ATTACHMENT 5 .47 375 6.92 605 9.66 170 2.4 425 7.99 755 12.82 13.38 725 11.58 165 2.66 275 4.92 14.12 14.25 670 10.5 430 7.86 700 10.01 560 0.7 790 12.35 14.5 160 2.54 485 8.45 680 10.42 530 0.71 13.83 180 2.75 280 4.78 745 11.34 475 8.16 15.41 /opt/scribd/conversion/tmp/scratch6257/84191069.06 710 11.31 575 0.24 115 1.11 565 0.09 195 3.25 145 2.72 545 0.84 285 4.03 405 6.43 630 9.51 13.46 14.doc .01 350 5.35 200 3.21 570 0.41 580 0.97 455 7.17 715 11.18 1.04 240 3.58 735 11.94 655 10.56 325 5.74 645 9.22 250 4.16 140 2.31 420 7.33 625 9.08 135 1.2 815 13.96 705 11.61 590 1.89 750 11.1 300 4.58 14.69 220 3.
FORCES AND MOMENTS AT NOZZLE FLANGE FACES Node Nozzl Nozzle Dia.Dia ≤ 8" 16 + Nom . e No. Note: Moments and Forces to be in Foot Pounds and Pounds F= M = Fx + F y + Fz 2 2 2 2 2 Mx + My + Mz 2 D = Nom.Dia > 8" 3 π 2 Area = × ( Nozzle bore Dia ) 4 FWEL * * * * / 1 g:\piping\form\2101a6 /opt/scribd/conversion/tmp/scratch6257/84191069.6960-8230-SP-0004 PAGE: 28 REV: D1 FOSTER WHEELER ENGINEERING STANDARD PIPE STRESS ANALYSIS ATTACHMENT 6 – NEMA CHECK DATA SHEET TYPICAL DATA SHEET FOSTER WHEELER ENERGY LIMITED PIPING ENGINEERING NEMA CHECK DATA SHEET VIETROSS Fy Fz Mz My + ve system Fx Parallel to Turbine Shaft Fz Perpendicular to Turbine Shaft Fx Mx 1. No.Dia if Nom . (inch ) D Area 2 Fx Fy Fz Mx My Mz F 0 0 0 0 0 M 3F+M <=500 0 D OK 0 0 0 0 OK OK OK OK K Tota l (inch (inch) ) 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Stres s Calc No.doc .Dia D= if Nom.
doc . Dia Dc = 3 Fc = Mc = Σ Fx + Σ F y + Σ Fz 2 2 2 2 2 over 9" ΣM x + ΣM y + ΣM z Mc 2 2 Actual = Fc + Allowable = 125 D c Factor ' K ' = Actual Allowable Additional Moment Due to Transposed Forces: M x = + ( F y × Z ) − ( Fz × Y ) M y = − ( F x × Z ) + ( Fz × X ) M z = + ( Fx × Y ) − ( F y × X ) FWEL * * * * / 2 g:\piping\form\2101a6 /opt/scribd/conversion/tmp/scratch6257/84191069. Nozzle No. Area Dia (inch) Sum 0 0 0 0 0 0 Allowable 50 D c 125 D c 100 D c 250 D c 125 D c 125 D c = 0 0 0 0 0 0 Dc Fc Mc Actual Allowable Factor 'K' 0 0 0 0 0 # DIV/0! Note: Moments and Forces to be in Foot Pounds and Pounds Dc = Total Area π 4 up to 9" 18 + Equiv .PIPE STRESS ANALYSIS FOSTER WHEELER ENGINEERING STANDARD 6960-8230-SP-0004 PAGE: 29 REV: D1 ATTACHMENT 6 – NEMA CHECK DATA SHEET (CONTINUED) TYPICAL DATA SHEET FOSTER WHEELER ENERGY LIMITED PIPING ENGINEERING NEMA CHECK DATA SHEET VIETROSS 2. Fx Fy Fz M x M y M z Line No. FORCES AND MOMENTS AT CENTRELINE OF EXHAUST FLANGE FACE CONNECTION Node No.
doc .6960-8230-SP-0004 PAGE: 30 REV: D1 FOSTER WHEELER ENGINEERING STANDARD PIPE STRESS ANALYSIS ATTACHMENT 7 – STRESS LOOP SIZING FOR PIPERACKS TYPICAL NOMOGRAPH /opt/scribd/conversion/tmp/scratch6257/84191069.
CC −Y L Where: 2 ( 2W + H − 6 R ) H 2 2 ( H −2 R) 3 BB = 6 AA = CC =[( H 2 +3R 2 − 2 HR ) EC I ∆S 10 5 I X E FX ( HOT ) = H FX EC FX = π 4 + HR − 2 R 2 ]4 RK σMAX A B = [( H −Y ) FX ]β / Z if G ≥ 2W = Y FX β / Z if G < 2W σMAX FWEL ****/ 1 g:\piping\form \2101a8 /opt/scribd/conversion/tmp/scratch6257/84191069. BB .doc .9 2 h3 L = 2π RK + 2 H + G − 8R Y = (π RK +W + H − 4 R ) H / L I X = ΣAA .PIPE STRESS ANALYSIS FOSTER WHEELER ENGINEERING STANDARD 6960-8230-SP-0004 PAGE: 31 REV: D1 ATTACHMENT 8 – LOOP FORCES AND STRESSES TYPICAL DATA SHEET FOSTER WHEELER ENERGY LIMITED P ING EN IP GIN EER G IN LOOP FOR CES AN STR D ESSES VIETR OSS Page 1 of 1 G= W= FX R B 6m (min ) ½G S= A H= FX CL 6m (min) h= tR r2 k= β( SIF Inplane ) = 1.65 h 0.
6960-8230-SP-0004 PAGE: 32 REV: D1 FOSTER WHEELER ENGINEERING STANDARD PIPE STRESS ANALYSIS ATTACHMENT 8 – LOOP FORCES AND STRESSES (CONTINUED) TYPICAL DATA SHEET FOSTER WHEELER ENERGY LIMITED P ING ENGINEERING IP LOOP FORCES AND STRESSES VIETROSS Page 2 of 2 Line No: Input Nominal Size Wall thickness I Z Material Temperature ∆ S Ec Eh/Ec Relbow rad H G W Allowable Force Allowable Stress m m m m N MN/m 2 Fill in this section only inches inches inches inches degC mm/m m MN/m 2 4 3 Calculation I Z h K β (SIF in) ∆s L Y Y *L AA BB CC Ix #DIV/0! #DIV/0! 2 0 cm 4 0 cm 3 #DIV/0! #DIV/0! #DIV/0! 0 mm #DIV/0! #DIV/0! #DIV/0! m m m 3 0 m3 0 m3 m m 3 3 Result Fx Fx HOT σ MAX #DIV/0! #DIV/0! #DIV/0! N N MN/m 2 #DIV/0! #DIV/0! #DIV/0! FWEL ****/ 1 g:\piping\form \2101a8 /opt/scribd/conversion/tmp/scratch6257/84191069.doc .