Skinput : Appropriating the human body as an input surface

Guided By Dhasharath Ramaiah G.Rajkumar XXXXXXXX

INTRODUCTION

‡ Assess the robustness and limitations of this system through a user study. ‡ An analysis approach that enables the system to resolve the location of finger taps on the body.Contributions are: ‡ Design of a novel. . ‡ The broader space of bio-acoustic input through prototype applications and additional experimentation. wearable sensor for bio-acoustic signal acquisition.

RELATED WORK .

uncomfortable. but taking this approach to alwaysavailable input necessitates embedding technology in all clothing. and disruptive to tactile sensation. which would be prohibitively complex and expensive. A smart fabric system that embeds sensors and conductors into fabric. but are cumbersome.Always-Available Input glove-based input systems allow users to retain most of their natural hand movements. ‡ Speech input . ‡ Computer vision.

Bio-Sensing Brain sensing technologies such as electroencephalography (EEG) and functional nearinfrared spectroscopy (fNIR) have been used by HCI researchers to assess cognitive and emotional state this work also primarily looked at involuntary signals .

but found to be insufficiently robust on the human body. leading to the fingerprinting approach. use a similar approach to localize a ball hitting a table. which we explored. Both of these systems use acoustic time-of-flight for localization. for computer augmentation of a real-world game. .Acoustic Input The arrival time of a sound at multiple sensors to locate hand taps on a glass window.

we introduce Skinput.SKINPUT To expand the range of sensing modalities for always available input systems. we choose to focus on the arm. including a contiguous and flat area for projection . This is an attractive area to appropriate as it provides considerable surface area for interaction. a novel input technique that allows the skin to be used as a finger input surface. In our prototype system.

‡ longitudinal (compressive) waves travel through the soft tissues of the arm. several distinct forms of acoustic energy are produced. . these appear as ripples. ‡ When shot with a high-speed camera. which is much less deformable then the soft tissue but can respond to mechanical excitation by rotating and translating as a rigid body. exciting the bone. which propagate outward from the point of contact.Bio-Acoustics ‡ When a finger taps the skin.

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The decision to have two sensor packages was motivated by the arm for input.Armband Prototype ‡ features two arrays of five sensing elements. incorporated into an armband form factor. .

Processing ‡ a Mackie Onyx 1200F audio interface to digitally capture data from the ten sensors. . This was connected via Firewire to a conventional desktop computer. where a thin client written in C interfaced with the device using the Audio Stream Input/Output (ASIO) protocol.

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EXPERIMENT Participants Experiment Conditions Fingers (Five Locations) Whole Arm (Five Locations) Forearm (Ten Locations) .

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Results .

SUPPLEMENTAL EXPERIMENTS ‡ Walking and Jogging ‡ Single-Handed Gestures .

Our sensing armband augmented with a picoprojector. . this allows interactive elements to be rendered on the skin.

and 3) an LCD screen.1% (SD=8. . Using a similar setup to the main experiment. chance=33%) accuracy. we asked participants to tap their index finger against 1) a finger on their other hand. it became apparent that our system had some ability to identify the type of material on which the user was operating.Surface and Object Recognition During piloting. Results show 87. 2) a paper pad approximately 80 pages thick.3%.

. while a padtap activates an options menu. Perhaps the most notable is the ability for interactive touch surfaces to distinguish different types of finger contacts. One example interaction could be that double-knocking on an item opens it.Identification of Finger Tap Type This ability has several potential uses.

Thus.Segmenting Finger Input A pragmatic concern regarding the appropriation of finger tips for input was that other routine tasks would generate false positives. finger-to-finger input sounded sufficiently distinct such that other actions could be disregarded. . For example. typing on a keyboard strikes the finger tips in a very similar manner to the finger-tipinput we proposed previously.

. taps with different parts of the finger. and differentiating between materials and objects.CONCLUSION Appropriating the human body as an input surface. even when the body is in motion. These include single-handed gestures. We have described a novel. we have presented initial results demonstrating other potential uses of this approach. Additionally. wearable bio-acoustic sensing array that we built into an armband in order to detect and localize finger taps on the forearm and hand. We conclude with descriptions of several prototype applications that demonstrate the rich design space we believe Skinput enables. Results from experiments have shown that system performs very well for a series of gestures.

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