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INTRODUCTION: CB CT CVT LA WAVE TRAP ISOLATORS

400kV CURRENT TRANSFORMER

CURRENT TRANSFORMER

I2 I1

Current Transformer :

I1

Primary

n1 .I 1 ! n 2 .I 2
K: Transformation ratio

n1

I1 n 2 ! !K I 2 n1
Ampere-Turns Conservation Law

n2
Secondary I2

TYPES OF CT


LIVE TANK CT In 400kV : CGL make DEAD TANK CT In 400kV : ABB,BHEL,AREVA make TYPE OF DEAD TANK CT: Hair pin design. Eye bolt design.

DEAD TANK & LIVE TANK CT

LIVE TANK CT
1. Diaphragm bellows 2. CT cores 3. HT primary terminal 4. Primary conductor assembly 5. Head housing 6. Core housing 7. Porcelain shell 8. Bushing tube 9. Capacitive grading layer 10. Secondary terminal blocks 12. Ground pad 13. Secondary terminal box 14. Base assembly 15. Sealing plate

EYE BOLT DESIGN : Up to 245kV

1. Oil filling plug 2. Dome 3. Nitrogen filling valve 4. Collar 5. Primary terminal 6. Porcelain insulator 7. Insulated primary 8. Cover plate for tank 9. Tank 10. Secondary cores

Eye bolt design

HAIR PIN DESIGN


1. Dome 2. Nitrogen filling valve 3. Primary terminal 4. Collar 5. Porcelain insulator 6. Primary conductor with insulation 7. Adaptor cylinder 8. Secondary cores
IT 400 Cross section

9. Base 10. Oil drain plug

Hair-Pin design

Metallic bellows : **CT is hermetically sealed by the bellows. Oil filled metallic bellows compensates for the oil volume variation due to ambient temperature changes  Nitrogen gas filled dome. **The space above the oil is filled with nitrogen which acts as a cushion for changes in oil volume due to temperature and load current variations. **The positive pressure of nitrogen inside prevents contamination from outside atmosphere, thereby provide effective hermetical sealing.


HERMETIC SEALING:

FUNCTION OF CT :


Converts primary current in to low magnitude secondary current for application of metering & protection purposes.

Five Cores are present in CT i) Core 1 & 2 for bus bar protection. ii) Core 3 for metering purpose. iii) Core 4 & 5 for distance protection.


CURRENT TRANSFORMERS RATINGS


    

RATED CURRENT WITH EXTENDED CURRENT LIMITS RATED SHORT TIME CURRENT INSULATION LEVEL. NO. OF SECONDARIES. BURDEN & ACCURACY CLASS

CT ACCURACIES
As per IEC-60044(1) Metering Core 0.2 or 0.5%at rated Currents Protection Cores 1% at rated current

METERING CORE
Class 5% of rated I 0.75 1.5 20% of 100% 120% rated I of rated of rated I I 0.35 0.75 0.2 0.5 0.2 0.5

0.2 0.5

PROTECTION CORES
Class Current Error at Composite Error at rated Primary rated accuracy limit Current Primary Current 1% 3% 5% 10%

5P 10P

RATIO & PHASE ERROR


Ratio Error = (KnIs- Ip)*100/ Ip Kn = Rated transformation ratio Ip = Actual primary current Is = Actual secondary current The difference in Phase between the Primary and Secondary current vectors is phase angle error.

Knee Point Voltage


10% increase in Voltage will lead to 50% or more increase in Current.

Induction B [T]

Current Transformers Saturation curve


18500 gauss Protection CT

8000 gauss Metering CT

Primary current Ip/In


20 30 40

10

INSULATION LEVEL
For Windings having Um greater than 300kV, the rated insulation level is determined by rated switching and lightning impulse withstand voltage For voltages < 300kV, insulation levels are decided by lightning impulse and power-frequency withstand voltages

INSULATION LEVEL
System Voltage 1 min Power Freq. Voltage 395kV 460kV 630kV Switching Impulse withstand Voltage Lightning Impulse withstand Voltage 950kV 1050kV 1425kV

220kV

400kV

1050kV

     

Check for any transit damage Check the nitrogen pressure on the top chamber before commissioning. Check oil level in CT. Attend leakages on bushings immediately. Examine the porcelain for dirt deposits & clean periodically. Prior to erection confirm the position of P1 & P2 terminal of primary.

Checks on CT

Checks on CT
      

.(Contd)

Ensure that the terminals of unloaded secondary are shorted Check that tank is earthed positively and permanently. Use the lifting lugs provided on the bottom tank for lifting the CT by slings Check the level of bellow. Check earthing of star point of secondary at relay panel before commissioning of CT. Check earthing of Tan delta point. Secondary box cover is closed tightly.

Checks on CT Contd..
     

Testing of oil after one month of Charging. All the CT s secondary TB s must be properly tighten at CT s JB,MB & at relay panel. Do not allow dirt and deposits on bushings. Clean periodically Do not leave terminals of unloaded secondary open Do not lift the CT by primary terminals or by porcelain housing. Carry out thermovision scanning after commissioning of CT.

CURRENT TRANSFORMERS
PRECOMMISSIONING TESTS

       

INSULATION RESISTANCE MEASUREMENT CONTINUITY TEST SECONDARY WINDING RESISTANCE POLARITY TEST TAN DELTA AND CAPACITANCE MEASUREMENT CURRENT RATIO TESTS MAGENTISING CURVES PERFORMANCE CONTACT RESISTANCE MEASUREMENT

CURRENT TRANSFORMERS MAINTENANCE MONTHLY




CHECK OIL LEAKAGE FROM CT CHECKING BELLOW FOR EXPANSION CHECK OIL LEAKAGE FROM SECONDARY TERMINALS CHECKING HEALTHINESS OF GASKETS

CURRENT TRANSFORMERS MAINTENANCE YEARLY




CLEANING TIGHTENING OF TERMINAL CONNECTORS AND SECONDARY TERMINALS THERMOVISION SCANNING

CURRENT TRANSFORMERS
MAINTENANCE 1 YEARLY

1. TAN DELTA & CAPACITANCE MEASUREMENT ACCEPTABLE LIMIT FOR TAN DELTA 0.007  INCREASE IN PRE-COMM VALUE AT 0.001 PER PREYEAR UPTO 0.007  IF VALUE IS BETWEEN 0.007 TO 0.01 THEN HALF YEARLY MONITORING  ABOVE 0.01 REPLACE THE CT


NITROGEN PRESSURE CHECKING (3 Yearly )

CAPACITIVE VOLTAGE TRANSFORMER

CVT
(Measurement of HV)


Capacitor Voltage Transformers  Line protection  HF transmission CVT are used to convert higher primary voltage to lower secondary voltage for the protection & metering purpose. CVT provide least resistance path to higher frequency signals for PLCC functions.

CAPACITOR VOLTAGE TRANSFORMER

Capacitance potential divider connected between phase and ground of power circuit.

CAPACITOR VOLATGE TRANSFORMER

HV Power line Capacitor STACK (or stack) Assembly of elements to reach higher voltage levels : 800 kV In general, the term CAPACITOR stands for a capacitor element as well as a capacitor stack. Ground

HV Power line

Capacitor Voltage Divider ( or CVT ) Connecting an MV inductive voltage transformer to a tap.

Ground

P1 C1

Intermediate Voltage : 10 to 20 kV/3

S1

C2

P2

S2

CVT CIRCUIT

Oil expansion device Capacitor elements Capacitor column Insulating oil Insulator flange

Secondary terminal box


Inductance MV Transformer Damping circuit

CVT SECONDARY VOLATGE


CVT Secondary Voltage v = k * V * C1/ (C1+C2) V Primary Voltage k Secondary Transformation ratio There are 280 300 elements in C1 & C2 C1 will be about 260 to 280 elements C2 will be 15 to 20 elements NOTE: Puncturing of C1 Secondary Voltage will increase Puncturing of C2 Secondary Voltage will decrease

SECONDARY VOLATGE
Periodic measurement to be carried out. In case of doubt, simultaneous measurement to be carried out with another feeder/ Bus CVT. For 400kV CVTs puncturing of one Capacitor element in C1 side is likely to increase Secondary Voltage by about 0.35 0.45% (0.22 0.28V) Failure of one Capacitor element in C2 side is likely to decrease Secondary Voltage by 5 6% (3.2 3.8V)

CVT RATING


RATED PRIMARY VOLTAGE RATED SECONDARY VOLTAGE RATED BURDEN OF CORES CAPACITANCE IN pF (FOR CVT ONLY) CLASS OF ACCURACY

CVT
REQUIRMENTS

3 SECONDARIES (2 FOR PROTECTION AND ONE FOR METERING)  OUTPUT BURDEN 50 VA MINIMUM FOR EACH SECONDARY  3P ACCURACY CLASS FOR PROTECTION CORES  0.2 ACCURACY CLASS FOR METERING CORE


CVT
PRECOMMISSIONING TESTS

    

INSULATION RESISTANCE MEASUREMENT CONTINUITY OF WINDING SECONDARY WINDING RESISTANCE VOLTAGE RATIO TEST TAN DELTA AND CAPACITANCE MEASUREMENT

CVT MAINTENANCE
MONTHLY:  LEAKAGE OF OIL. QUARTERLY:  SECONDARY VOLTAGE YEARLY:  CHECKING OF EARTHING OF HF POINT
 

DAMAGE TO BUSHING OF HF POINT CLEANING OF PORCELAIN INSULATOR STACKS AND TIGHTNESS OF TERMINAL CONNECTOR THERMOVISION SCANNING

 

CHECKING OF NEUTRAL EARTHING 3 YEARLY TAN DELTA MEASUREMENT

CHECKS FOR CVT


for any transit damage.  Check oil level in EMU Unit.  Check leakages on CVT .  Examine the capacitor porcelain for dirt deposits and clean periodically on dedeenergized and safely earthed CVT.  Check that the primary and secondary terminal box covers are in position and sealed properly. I
 Check

CHECKS FOR CVT


 Check

NHF point is earth when not used for PLCC.  Check all the secondary wiring connections are tightly secured at the terminal box.  Units must be short circuited with a bare wire between head & bottom flange until erection and connections are completed.  The Tank of CVT should be earthed properly.  Regularly monitor secondary voltage of CVT s w.r.t each other to identify any discrepancy in CVT secondary voltage.

CAUTIONS FOR CVT


 Never

keep the units horizontally.  Do not energized CVT from the secondary side.  Discharge CVT prior to climbing.  While removing connector from the CVT ensure local earthing on conductor as well as on CVT.

SURGE ARRESTOR

SURGE ARRESTORS


PROTECTS SUBSTATION EQUIPMENTS FROM TRANSIENT OVERVOLTAGES CONNECTED BETWEEN PHASE AND EARTH PROVIDES LOW RESISTANCE PATH TO EXCESSIVE HIGH VOLTAGE. RATING IN PHASE TO EARTH VOLTAGE

SURGE ARRESTORS
 

GAPPED SILICON CARBIDE SURGE ARRESTORS GAPLESS ZINC OXIDE ARRESTORS (PREFERRED THESE DAYS DUE TO HIGHER ENERGY ABSORPTION CAPABILITIES) MADE OF SMALL DISCS OF NON-LINEAR NONRESISTANCE MATERIAL ZnO WHICH PROVIDES LEAST RESISTANCE PATH DURING SWITCHING SURGES OR LIGHTENING STROKE

ARRESTER FUNDAMENTAL
 Need for High Resistance to limit Discharge Current  Need Low Resistance during flow of lightning current to limit Surge Voltage

A non-linear resistance material required

EQUIVALENT CIRCUIT OF SURGE ARRESTER

Concept of Leakage Current


Resistive Current Capacitive Current

In phase with voltage In 90 Deg phase with voltage Increase with temperature Increase with aging Insignificant change with temperature and voltage does not affect due to aging

SURGE ARRESTORS PREPRE-COMMISSIONING TESTS




INSULATION RESISTANCE MEASUREMENT LEAKAGE CURRENT MEASUREMENT SURGE COUNTER CHECK

SURGE ARRESTORS
MAINTENANCE YEARLY


CLEANING LEAKAGE CURRENT MEASUREMENT SURGE COUNTER CHECKS

WAVE TRAP

LINE TRAP
LINE TRAP OFFER HIGH RESISTANCE TO HIGH FREQUENCY PLCC SIGNAL AND LOW RESISTANCE TO POWER FREQUENCY SIGNAL.  BLOCKING FREQUENCY RANGE WITH COMBINATION OF INDUCTANCE AND CAPACITANCE : 50Khz TO 500Khz.  COMPRISES OF INDUCTOR,TUNNING CIRCUIT,LA.


LINE TRAPS
RATINGS

INDUCTANCE IN Mh RATED CURRENT BLOCKING BANDWIDTH

Checks for Wave trap.


Tuning circuit and arrestor are properly tightened.  Connectors are properly tightened.  Bird Guards are properly fixed.  Check for any physical damage.


LINE TRAPS
PREPRE-COMMISSIONING TESTS


INSULATION RESISTANCE MEASUREMENT CONTACT RESISTANCE MEASUREMENT

LINE TRAPS MAINTENANCE


YEARLY CHECKS


TIGHTNESS & CLEANLINESS OF LINE TRAP INCLUDING TUNING UNIT TIGHTNESS OF TERMINAL CONNECTOR

ISOLATORS
Operate under no load condition.  Isolate the zone which is under maintenance.  Three types of Isolators : A) Pantograph. B) Horizontal center break. C) Double Break.


TYPE OF ISOLATORS BASED ON LOCATION OF USE


 Line

Isolator  Bus Isolator  Reactor Isolator  Transformer Isolator

TYPE OF ISOLATORS BASED ON E/S


 Without

Earthswitch (Used where earthing is not required)  With one Earthswitch (Commonly used for earthing the equipment for which Isolator has been provided)  With two earth switch (Generally used for Bus earthing)

Checks on Isolators
Proper alignment.  Proper fixing of limit switch.  Proper closing of Isolators to avoid hot spot.  Check mechanical/electrical interlock.  Ensure twin earthing of Isolator MB.  Proper closing of Isolators MB.


HCB ISOLATORS

HCB ISOLATORS MAIN CONTACTS

DOUBLE BREAK ISOLATORS

DB ISOLATOR---CENTRAL ROTATING ISOLATOR---CENTRAL STACK

DB ISOLATOR--CONTACTS ISOLATOR--CONTACTS

PANTOGRAPH ISOLATOR

PANTOGRAPH ISOLATOR-ISOLATOR-CONTACTS

Checks on Isolators
Ensure proper position of NO/NC contact in closed & open condition of Isolators.  Apply grease regularly in Gear box.  Check pole discrepancy function is working properly.


ISOLATORS AND E/S


PRECOMMISSIONING TESTS


INSULATION RESISTANCE MEASUREMENT INTERLOCKS CHECKING OPERATING TIME AUXILIARY CONTACT CHECKING CONTACT RESISTANCE MEASUREMENT

ISOLATORS AND E/S


MAINTENANCE

CLEANING & LUBRICATION TIGHTENING ALIGNMENT CONTACT RESISTANCE MESUREMENT (ONCE IN A 4 YEARS)

THANK YOU