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Review

**Finite elements in the analysis of pressure vessels and piping, an addendum: A bibliography (2001–2004)
**

Jaroslav Mackerle*

¨ ¨ Linkoping Institute of Technology, Department of Mechanical Engineering, S-581 83 Linkoping, Sweden Received 30 November 2004; revised 13 December 2004; accepted 31 December 2004

Abstract The paper gives a bibliographical review of ﬁnite element methods(FEMs) applied for the analysis of pressure vessel structures/components and piping from the theoretical as well as practical points of view. This bibliography is a new addendum to the Finite elements in the analysis of pressure vessels and piping—a bibliography [1–3]. The listings at the end of the paper contain 856 references to papers and conference proceedings on the subject that were published in 2001–2004. These are classiﬁed in the following categories: linear and nonlinear, static and dynamic, stress and deﬂection analyses; stability problems; thermal problems; fracture mechanics problems; contact problems; ﬂuid–structure interaction problems; manufacturing of pipes and tubes; welded pipes and pressure vessel components; development of special ﬁnite elements for pressure vessels and pipes; ﬁnite element software; and other topics. q 2005 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Keywords: Finite element; Bibliography; Pressure vessels; pipes; Linear and nonlinear static and dynamic analysis; Fracture mechanics; Contact problems; Thermal problems; Fluid–structure interaction; Welding

1. Introduction Pressure vessels and piping are widely used in reactor technology, the chemical industry, marine and space engineering. They often operate under extremes of high and low temperatures and high pressures, are becoming highly sophisticated and therefore also need advanced methods for their analyses. Advances are also made with materials applied for their fabrication. Concrete and composite materials are used more frequently in pressure vessels and their components to replace, in some cases, conventional steels. During the last three decades considerable advances have been made in the applications of numerical techniques to analyze pressure vessel and piping problems. Among the numerical procedures, ﬁnite element methods are the most frequently used. Pressure vessel and piping analyses may have a variety of phases such as: elastic stress and deformation analysis

* Corresponding author. Tel.: C46 13 281 111; fax: C46 13 282 717. E-mail address: jarma@ikp.liu.se

where both mechanical and thermal loads may be applied; heat transfer analysis; dynamic analysis; plastic and creep analysis; etc. There is in existence a large number of general purpose and special purpose ﬁnite element programs available to cope with each phase of the analysis. This review on the subject is divided into the following parts and it concerns: † linear and nonlinear, static and dynamic, stress and deﬂection analyses (STR) † stability problems (STA) † thermal problems (THE) † fracture mechanics problems (FRA) † contact problems (CON) † ﬂuid–structure interaction problems (FLU) † manufacturing of pipes and tubes (MAN) † welded pipes and pressure vessel components (WEL) † development of special ﬁnite elements for pressure vessels and pipes (ELE) † ﬁnite element software (SOF) † other topics (OTH) The status of ﬁnite element literature published between 1976 and 2004, and divided into the categories described above, is illustrated in Fig. 1. Data presented in this ﬁgure

0308-0161/$ - see front matter q 2005 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved. doi:10.1016/j.ijpvp.2004.12.004

572

J. Mackerle / International Journal of Pressure Vessels and Piping 82 (2005) 571–592

Materials under consideration: steels; stainless steels; aluminium; composites; polymers; ﬁlament wound composites; ﬁbre-reinforced composites; polymer matrix composites; titanium; foam ﬁlled aluminum tubes; steel reinforced plastics; structural foams. 2.2. Stability problems(STA)

Fig. 1. Finite elements and various topics in pressure vessels and piping (1976–2004).

include published technical papers in the primary literature; this means papers appearing in the various general and specialized journals, conference proceedings as well as theses and dissertations. If we take the number of published papers as a measure of research activity in these various subjects, we can see the priority trend in research. This paper is organized into two parts. In the ﬁrst, each subject listed above is brieﬂy described by keywords where current trends in application of ﬁnite element techniques are mentioned. The second part, Appendix A, is a listing of references on papers published in the open literature for the period 2001–2004, retrieved from the author’s database MAKEBASE [4,5]. Readers interested in the ﬁnite element literature in general are referred to [6] or to the author’s Internet Finite Element Book Bibliography(http://www. solid.ikp.liu.se/fe/index.html). The presented bibliography is an addendum to the author’s earlier bibliographies [1–3]. Also the bibliography on creep and creep fracture/damage ﬁnite element modelling [7] may be of interest.

Stability problems are the main subject of this section Other topics included are: static and dynamic buckling; thermal buckling; inelastic buckling pressure; inelastic local buckling; buckling response to seismic loading; creepinduced buckling; critical, buckling strains; buckling of cracked components; post-buckling analysis; buckle propagation; bending instabilities; stability for cone–cylinder intersections. Applications to: pipes; tubes; pipelines; linepipes; reeled pipe-in-pipe; pressure vessel components. Materials: steels; low-alloy steels; aluminium; composites; titanium. 2.3. Thermal problems (THE) Heat transfer problems and thermomechanical ﬁnite element analyses are the main subjects of this section. The following topics are also included: thermal loading and temperature cycling; temperature attenuation; thermal shock; pressurized thermal shock; heat transfer analysis; convective heat and mass transfer; turbulent forced convection and thermal radiation; thermal stratiﬁcation; thermal striping; freezing problems; creep; local creep; high-temperature structural integrity procedures; design for elevated temperature service; thermal fatigue; ﬁre performance; thermal management studies; parametric studies. Applications to: pipes; tubes; pipelines; boiler tubes; banks of tubes; tube coolant piping systems; tube condenser; pressure vessels; reactor pressure vessels; cryogenic pressure vessels; heat exchanger components; heated sterilizers; tube–ﬁn exchangers; bellows; tanks; valves; subsea ﬂowlines. Materials: steels; concrete; composites; polymers; ceramics; thermal insulations. 2.4. Fracture mechanics problems(FRA) In this section fracture mechanics and fatigue problems are handled. The listing of references in the Appendix includes: linear and nonlinear 2D and 3D static and dynamic fracture mechanics problems; mechanical and thermal loading; macromechanical and micromechanical modelling; global/local analysis; crack tip opening; crack growth and propagation; delamination growth; crack arrest behaviour; stress corrosion cracks; multiple cracks; microcracking; fracture toughness; strength; shear strength; cleavage fracture; burst pressure prediction; predicting the failure pressure; prediction of crack coalescence; progressive

2. Finite elements in the analysis of pressure vessels and piping 2.1. Linear and nonlinear, static and dynamic, stress and deﬂection analyses (STR) The main topics included deal with the static and dynamic ﬁnite element analyses of pressure vessels, their components and piping, namely: stress and deformation analysis; 2D and 3D linear elastic static and dynamic analysis; material and geometrical nonlinear static and dynamic analysis; seismic response analysis; impact analysis; response to detonation loading; damping characteristics; analysis of residual stresses; shakedown analysis; vibroacoustical analysis; mechanical behaviour studies; local mechanical behaviour studies; determining plastic and limit loads; stress concentration factors; stiffness evaluation; wrinkling; probabilistic studies. Applications to: pipes; tubes; pipelines; tubesheets; piping elbows; pressure vessel components; containment vessels; pressure vessel heads; reactor vessel heads; nozzle models; thick-walled cylinders; reinforcing pads; tubular structures; saddle supports; anchorage.

fracture behaviour of welds. tubular hydroforming. 2. temperature distribution. cold drawing. stainless steels. fatigue problems. polymers. submerged pipes. stress intensity factors.6. concrete. drainage systems. pipelines. benchmark experiments. elbows. stainless steels. creep induced contact and stress evolution. semi-solid extrusion. The main topics listed are: material characteristics and formability. study of forming parameters. steel reinforced plastics. life assessment. tubes. butt welds. pressure vessels. Applications to: pipes. waveguide scattering by cracks. 2. heat transfer analysis. composites. ultrasonic welding. leak-beforebreak analysis. dynamic analysis of ﬂuid-ﬁlled pipes. modal vibration suppression. boltup and disassembly process. stainless steels. elbows. hot roll sizing milling. dual hydroforming. bending problems. moment resistance. rubber. external ﬂange loads. Mackerle / International Journal of Pressure Vessels and Piping 82 (2005) 571–592 573 crushing.8. local failure modes. study of gaps between components. ﬂexibility analysis. determination of the coefﬁcient of friction. 3D elements for saddle support pressure vessels. lubrication mechanisms.7. gasketed and non-gasketed ﬂanged pipes. special element for the study of . ﬂow induced vibration failure. Applications to manufacturing of: pipes. polymers. Welded pipes and pressure vessel components(WEL) The subjects in the simulation of welding processes included here are: 2D and 3D thermomechanical analysis. multi-pass welding. planetary rolling. load capacity of corroded pipes. stainless steels. titanium. Materials: steels. residual stresses caused by welding. power plant components. sandwich composites. pipe inspection. pipe ﬂange connections. 2. tube–gusset plate connections. limit load solutions. T-shape tubes. defect assessment at elevated temperature. damage tolerance. tube-to-tubesheet joints. tubesheetto-channel connections. elements for generalized in-plane pipe loading. polymers. aluminium. Materials: steels. lapped shear joints. electromagnetic bulging. pipelines. stick-slip and stick-slipseparation. foam ﬁllings. creep rupture. structural integrity assessment. 2. ﬂaw detection. reliability analysis. Applications to: pipes. contact pressure due to thermal loading. aluminium. progressive damage. determination of welding pressure. toroidal shells. material fracture testing. linepipes. microalloyed steels. heat exchangers. The element types included are: modelling experiences with various types of elements. pipe and tube elements. determination of forming limit. lateral contact stiffness. ferrule strap connections. tearing failure. cold pilgering. piping branch junctions. tubes. bellows. instability analysis in shells conveying ﬂuid. elbow elements. pressure vessels. thermal fatigue. friction welding. bulge forming. Applications to: pipes. linepipes. shell elements. ﬂuids. estimation of sealing performance. tubes. drawing. tube bundles. integrity evaluation methods. failure models for puncture. tubes. Fluid–structure interaction problems (FLU) The main topics include: coupled ﬂuid–structure response analyses. sleeve repair welding. critical fracture energy. bolted ﬂanged joints. tube ﬂaring. composites. tubesheet assembly. ﬁxtures design. pressurized cylinders.J. laser tube bending. dynamic and thermal loading. NDT. roller levelling. aluminium. fracture mechanics in welding. hydrostatic tube bulging. bonded connections. Manufacturing of pipes and tubes(MAN) The ﬁnite element simulation of manufacturing processes is the subject of this section. braided composites. nozzle– sphere connections. nozzle–shell junctions. prediction of welding parameters.5. life prediction. junctions under pressure and bending. reactor pressure vessels. analysis of pipes conveying ﬂuids. long seam welds. weld fatigue. tube-nosing process. rotationally molding. tube-to-tubesheets. dents. references dealing with development as well as applications of special ﬁnite elements used for analyses of pressure vessels and piping systems are given. stub–ﬂange joints. damage. stress concentration factor. perforated plates. pressure vessels. Development of special ﬁnite elements for pressure vessels and pipes(ELE) In this section. J-integral. fracture mechanics in material processing. fracture mechanics parameters. pipe bends. Other subjects under consideration are: behaviour of joints to static. ﬂuid induced vibration problems. radial–axial deformations of pipes conveying ﬂuid. pressure vessels. Materials: steels. Contact problems(CON) 2D and 3D ﬁnite element studies of static and dynamic contact problems dealing with pipes and pressure vessels are included in this section. necking and bursting. creep behaviour of welds. cladding materials. gas pipelines. bend-stretching forming. composites. extrusion. cold bending. austenitic steels. polymers. shell elements for collapse load analysis. composites. pressure vessel components. shear joining. ﬂanged connections for high-temperature applications. contact elements. zircaloy. pipelines. joining by curing. local stress effect. casting. fold formation. weld testing. prepregs welding. outward curling. seamless tubes. ﬂow stress determination. deep-water pipelines. 2. tubes. titanium. Materials: steels. Welding of: pipes. wave–seabed–pipe interaction.9. Materials: steels. pressure vessels. branch junctions. interlaminar and intralaminar damage. girth welds.

if a speciﬁc paper is relevant to several subject categories. 8. soil–structure interaction. ASME Press Vess Piping Conf. Also COMPENDEX has been checked. No. 14. integrated systems to small. and are sorted alphabetically according to the ﬁrst author’s name. Mode conversion of longitudinal and torsional guided modes due to pipe bends. Borvik T. Mackerle / International Journal of Pressure Vessels and Piping 82 (2005) 571–592 drag chains.212(1/3):133–44. PVP 2002. the same reference is listed under the respective section headings.458:309–12. A bibliography (2001–2004) This bibliography provides a list of literature references on ﬁnite element analysis of pressure vessel structures/ . Mechanical behavior of a branch pipe subjected to out-of-plane bending load. PVP 2002. 11. De Sousa JRM. software for lifetime assessment. thousands of ﬁnite element software packages exist and new programs are under development. buried structures. Predicting the creep lives of thin-walled cylindrical polymeric pipe linings subject to external pressure. in-plane moment and torque loadings on piping elbows. microtunneling applications. deployment dynamics of inﬂatable tubes. Linear elastic response of tubes to internal detonation loading. PVP 2002. 2. et al. Linear and nonlinear.40(26):7299–314. buried pipes under vehicle loads. components and pipes/tubes. Dixon RD. 6. They are concerned with: code for prestressed concrete containment vessels. PhD Thesis.26(3):241–69.219–27. servovalves. perforated stiffening tubes.436:31–6. special purpose programs for PCs. MAKEBASE. Beltman WM. code for thermal-hydraulics pressurized thermal shock analysis. 17.574 J. 10. Vibration modes of spherical shells and containment vessels. Wayne State Univ.33–41. Ayob AB. ASME Press Vess Piping Conf. et al. Nuclear Engng Des 2002. et al. Rio de Janeiro.124(1): 7–13. Duffey TA. J Press Vess Tech. inﬂated fabrics. static and dynamic. distributed computation. perforated drainage pipes.8]. AMD 2002. Caillaud S. et al. Romero C. Rio de Janeiro.252(4):617–55. They deal with: static and dynamic geomechanical analyses of pressure vessels and pipes in 2D and 3D. The listings presented contain papers published in scientiﬁc journals and conference proceedings retrospectively to 2001. Applications to: pipes.172–9. et al. The author wishes to apologize for the unintentional exclusions of missing references and would appreciate receiving comments and pointers to other relevant literature for a future update. cyclone effects. tubes. et al. Titanium pipes subjected to bending moment and external pressure. 4. Blyukher B. anchorage. Int J Press Vess Piping 2003. sophisticated. Stress concentration factors of cross-bores in thick walled cylinders and square blocks. 15. References are grouped into the same sections described in the ﬁrst part of this paper. pipes in sediment pocket. pipelines with elbows. 16. Abdel-Haq MM. seismic analysis. The existing software can vary from large. Veriﬁcation of alternative criteria for shakedown evaluation using 2-dimensional and 3-dimensional nozzle models. tunnel face reinforced with pipes. Chattopadhyay J. et al. AIP Conf. Titanium pipes subjected to bending moment and external pressure. 18. 3. 2002. Chapuliot S. relaxed hanger spans. Veriﬁcation of alternative criteria for shakedown evaluation using ﬂat head vessel. 80(12):861–9.439:23–30. Bjorset A. Asada S.10. ASME Press Vess Piping Conf. Asada S.440: 177–84. 5. Most of these programs have been mentioned and described in [1. et al. stainless steels. et al.439:17–22. The interaction of pressure. Demma A. Shepherd JE. New York: ASME 2001. pipelines subject to settlement. Int Conf Offshore Mech Arctic Engng. geotextile. et al. Bjorset A.253: 843–50. stress and deﬂection analyses 1. Empty foam-ﬁlled aluminium tubes subjected to axial and oblique quasistatic loading. surface impact.1. Materials: steels. ASME Press Vess Piping Conf. Boot JC. thermoplastics. Finite element software (SOF) At present. Int J Solids Struct 2003. J Sound Vib 2002. 13. Bjorset A. In the respective section of the Appendix some new references dealing with development/applications of FE software are listed. Aeroacoustical coupling and its structural effects on a PWR steam line Part 2-Vibroacoustical analysis of pipe shell deformations. ASME Int Mech Engng Cong Expo. PVP 2002. Struct Safety 2004. ﬁnite element parallel processing. 12. pipe-in-pipe. Local mechanical behaviour of ﬂexible pipes subjected to installation loads. et al. general purpose. ASME 2002. Computer simulation of pipeline deformations on the basis of data from an intelligent caliper inspection tool. ASME Press Vess Piping Conf. Constraint effects on energy absorption in unidirectional polymeric composite PMC tubes. 7. new pressure vessel code for ASME. concrete. et al. In some cases. 2. submarine pipelines.8(5): 481–94. software for offshore pipelines. deﬂection analysis. side and deep excavations. polymers. et al. New York: ASME 2001. et al. A. Probabilistic analysis of bending moment capacity of titanium pipes. check valves. composites. Comput Struct 2003. 557A 2001. Acknowledgements The bibliography presented in the Appendix is by no means complete but it gives a comprehensive representation of different ﬁnite element applications on the subject. Int Conf Offshore Mech Arctic Engng. 9. sandwich pipes. noise transmission. laying operations. nuclear fuel channels. 2. pumping well pipes. water piping systems. special tube element for thermomechanical analysis. catenary risers. Appendix A. The effect of internal pressure on in-plane collapse moment of elbows. Other topics(OTH) In this last section subjects not treated earlier are included. Int J Crashworth 2003. pipe culverts. exact Timoshenko pipe element. References have been retrieved from the author’s database.81(30):2691–704.11. PVP 2003.

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Limit loads for knuckle-encroaching nozzles in torispherical heads: experimental veriﬁcation of ﬁnite element predictions. Famiyesin OOR. Fukuda N. Finite element modeling of a PE pipe heap leachate collection system. Kalnins A.440:197–204.81(3):243–9. Analysis of loads for nozzles in API 650 tanks. Robinson M. et al. Estrada H. Effect of changes in tensile properties due to cold bending on large deformation behavior of high-grade cold bend pipe. et al. Axisymmetric analysis of a laminated cylindrical shell with variable thickness. Maher A. Int J Press Vess Piping 2004. Int J Press Vess Piping 2004. Melo FQ. 4th Int Conf Offshore Mech Arctic Engng. et al.124(2):177–86. et al. Hsieh MF. ASME Press Vess Piping Conf. Guidelines for sizing of vessels by limit analysis. ASME Press Vess Piping Conf. Hart JD.125(2): 209–20. Florizone DJ. Int SAMPE Tech Conf. et al. et al.80(16):1369–82.42(2):294–9. Leila K.419:9–16. Shakedown check for pressure vessels using plastic FEA. Long Beach 2004. 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