This action might not be possible to undo. Are you sure you want to continue?
1. Places emphasis on the learners and how they organize their knowledge. Instead of repetition and drills, cognitivists propose teaching learners how to analyse problems and how to think for themselves. 2. In the area of language learning, the strongest criticsm against behaviorurism came from Noam Chomsky, who maintained that language is not a form of behavior but an intricate rule-based system. If language is learnt behavior, how do we account for the production of certain utterances by young learner, for example, Lina cutted my paper. 3. These utterances suggest that learners appear to realize that the existence of a rule µadd ±ed to the base form to denote the simple past¶. Chomsky states that a language has a finite number of rules, and with a knowledge of these rules, it is possible to produce an infinite number of sentences. Chomsky calls that knowledge of these rules competence and the actual production of sentences using these rules performance. 4. Cognitivists view language learning as an active process in which learners are constantly required to think make sense of new information they receive, to seek to discover the underlying rule and apply them to make original sentences. During this process, learners often misinterpret the rules or apply them incorrectly. This result in errors in their language use. Cognitivists view errors as a sign of learning and experimentation and learners do not need to be corrected immedietly and directly. They see error as an integral part of learning. 5. Classroom practice based on the cognitivist theory is learner-centred and focuses on discovery learning via deductive as well as inductive approaches. In the inductive approach, the teacher guides learners through a number of specific examples and asks them to find out the rule of generalization through a process of guided discovery. 6. In the deductive approach, the teacher presents a rule or generalization and guided learners to test it using a number of specific examples. The focus of the cognitivist theory is constantly on learning as an active, mental process. 7. The role of the teacher is to arrange and present new information in such a way that learners can relate the new information to their own existing mental structure and previous knowledge. In the language teaching, the teacher should encourage learners to consciously think and talk about the language to increase their competence and performance.